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Sample records for acipenser transmontanus enhancement

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A comparative gene index for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Lazzari, Barbara; Mariani, Valentina; Malinverni, Roberto; Caprera, Andrea; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Sturgeons are archaic fishes phylogenetically distinct from Teleosts. They represent an important niche for aquaculture, particularly for the production of caviar and high quality fillets, while many natural populations in various world areas are today threatened by extinction. Knowledge of the sturgeon genome is limited, as it is the case of many other species of interest for fishery, aquaculture and conservation. Sequences from non-normalized libraries of skin and spleen of the American sturgeon (A. transmontanus) produced in our laboratories were analysed via a bioinformatic procedure, and compared to similar resources available for three Teleost species. Data collected during the analyses were stored in a database - the Sturgeon database (db) - that can be queried via a web interface. The Sturgeon db contains a total of 16,404 sequences from Acipenser transmontanus, Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar and Takifugu rubripes, each specie being represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from skin and spleen. Data contained in the database are the results of a number of analyses that mostly focus on sequence annotation and intra- and inter-species comparison. Putative SNP sites, tandem repeats, and sequences matching known protein patterns and motifs were also identified. The Sturgeon db is by now the only online resource dedicated to the analysis of A. transmontanus EST sequences, and represents a starting point for the investigation of the genome of sturgeons from a physiological perspective; it will be used to identify polymorphic markers to study, for example, fish pathologies or to survey fish disease resistance, and to produce gene expression arrays. Introduction of sequences from other species in the analysis pipeline allowed inter-species comparisons of transcripts distribution in Gene Ontology categories, as well as orthologs identification, despite the high sturgeon phylogenetic distance from other fish species. As a result of the EST analysis procedure

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Length Variation and Heteroplasmy in Populations of White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus)

    Brown, J R; Beckenbach, A. T.; Smith, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Southern blot analysis was used to quantify the extent of mtDNA D-loop length variation in two populations of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus. Over 42% of individuals were heteroplasmic for up to six different mtDNA length variants attributable to varying copy numbers of an 82-bp repeat sequence. Chi-square analyses revealed that the frequencies of length genotypes and the incidence of heteroplasmy were significantly different between Fraser and Columbia River sturgeon populations but...

  4. Quality attributes and microbial storage stability of caviar from cultivated white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Shin, Joong-Han; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Rasco, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    Caviar was prepared from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) roe by adjusting the water phase salt (WPS) to 4.0% to 6.3% by adding food grade NaCl. Fish were obtained from 2 different farms from the Inland Northwest (N = 5). Salt was absorbed at a different rate and to a different extent by roe from different fish. The lipid content in the fish roe varied from 10.2% to 14.4% (w/w), with palmitic acid and oleic acid being the most abundant saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids present, respectively. The caviar contained high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (35% to 37%) with docosahexanoic acid being the most abundant omega-3 long chain fatty acid. There were no significant differences in microbial storage stability for caviars from different fish stored at 3 degrees C. However, for caviar stored at 7 degrees C, there was less growth of Listeria monocytogenes (using a cocktail of ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113 strains) in 2 samples (2B46 and 0F05) until day 20. In 2 other samples (453F and 2519), which had lower initial microbial loads, less overall microbial growth was observed, indicating that culture and harvest practices result in compositional differences between fish, which may impact both product composition and storage stability. PMID:20492148

  5. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  6. Destruction of Listeria monocytogenes in sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) caviar by a combination of nisin with chemical antimicrobials or moderate heat.

    Al-Holy, M; Lin, M; Rasco, B

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nisin in combination with heat or antimicrobial chemical treatments (such as lactic acid, chlorous acid, and sodium hypochlorite) on the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and total mesophiles in sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) caviar. The effects of nisin (250, 500, 750, and 1,000 IU/ml), lactic acid (1, 2, and 3%), chlorous acid (134 and 268 ppm), sodium hypochlorite (150 and 300 ppm), and heat at 60 degrees C for 3 min were evaluated for a five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and total mesophiles in sturgeon caviar containing 3.5% salt. Selected combinations of these antimicrobial treatments were also tested. Injured and viable L. monocytogenes cells were recovered using an overlay method. Treating caviar with > or =500 IU/ml nisin initially reduced L. monocytogenes by 2 to 2.5 log units. Chlorous acid (268 ppm) reduced L. monocytogenes from 7.7 log units to undetectable (caviar treated with heat and nisin (750 IU/ml) after a storage period of 28 days at 4 degrees C. PMID:15771175

  7. Inactivation of Listeria innocua in nisin-treated salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) caviar heated by radio frequency.

    Al-Holy, M; Ruiter, J; Lin, M; Kang, D H; Rasco, B

    2004-09-01

    Recent regulatory concerns about the presence of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat aquatic foods such as caviar has prompted the development of postpackaging pasteurization processes. However, caviar is heat labile, and conventional pasteurization processes affect the texture, color, and flavor of these foods negatively. In this study, chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta, 2.5% total salt) caviar or ikura and sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus, 3.5% total salt) caviar were inoculated with three strains of Listeria innocua in stationary phase at a level of more than 10(7) CFU/g. L innocua strains were used because they exhibit an equivalent response to L monocytogenes for many physicochemical processing treatments, including heat treatment. The products were treated by immersion in 500 IU/ml nisin solution and heat processed (an 8-D process without nisin or a 4-D process with 500 IU/ml nisin) in a newly developed radio frequency (RF; 27 MHz) heating method at 60, 63, and 65 degrees C. RF heating along with nisin acted synergistically to inactivate L. innocua cells and total mesophilic microorganisms. In the RF-nisin treatment at 65 degrees C, no surviving L. innocua microbes were recovered in sturgeon caviar or ikura. The come-up times in the RF-heated product were significantly lower compared with the water bath-heated caviar at all treatment temperatures. The visual quality of the caviar products treated by RF with or without nisin was comparable to the untreated control. PMID:15453574

  8. Monitoring the effects of storage in caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus using chemical, SEM, and NMR methods.

    Gussoni, Maristella; Greco, Fulvia; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Beretta, Giuseppe; Caprino, Fabio; Lanza, Barbara; Zetta, Lucia

    2006-09-01

    The effects of storage at 4 degrees C on the quantity and quality of chemical components in the caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus have been analyzed by SEM, chemical methods, and NMR and MRI techniques. Particular attention has been focused on the lipid components, the distribution and mobility of which were strongly affected by the storage time. MRI and relaxation data indicated that lipids are endowed with two different mobility regimes, one slow (short T1) and one fast (long T1), both lengthening with the storage time. Chemical analysis assessed a total fat content that remained practically unchanged and a constant fatty acid composition during the total storage time. The combination of the two methods allowed one (a) to suppose that a mechanism of lipid hydrolysis (faster in unsalted than in salted eggs) is still occurring during storage of caviar at 4 degrees C for up to approximately 4 months and (b) to exclude that an intensive oxidative process is active in the same storage period. PMID:16939332

  9. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  10. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  11. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  12. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  13. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  14. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  15. Length Variation, Heteroplasmy and Sequence Divergence in the Mitochondrial DNA of Four Species of Sturgeon (Acipenser)

    Brown, J R; Beckenbach, K.; Beckenbach, A. T.; Smith, M.J

    1996-01-01

    The extent of mtDNA length variation and heteroplasmy as well as DNA sequences of the control region and two tRNA genes were determined for four North American sturgeon species: Acipenser transmontanus, A. medirostris, A. fulvescens and A. oxyrhnychus. Across the Continental Divide, a division in the occurrence of length variation and heteroplasmy was observed that was concordant with species biogeography as well as with phylogenies inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFL...

  16. Dietary Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Enhanced Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response of Siberian Sturgeon, Acipenser baerii.

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum used as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and innate immune response in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Juvenile fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Growth performance indices were increased in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups. There was an increased innate immune response in fish fed the experimental diets. The highest levels of lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin (IgM) and complement component 3 (C3) were observed in fish fed the diet containing L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1), but there was no significant difference in the level of complement component 4 (C4) in fish fed the experimental diets or the control diet. The present study underlying some positive effects (growth performance and immune indices) of dietary administration of L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) in the Siberian sturgeon. PMID:26686864

  17. Confirmation of ovarian homogeneity in post-vitellogenic cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Talbott, Mariah J; Servid, Sarah A; Cavinato, Anna G; Van Eenennaam, Joel P; Doroshov, Serge I; Struffenegger, Peter; Webb, Molly A H

    2014-02-01

    Assessing stage of oocyte maturity in female sturgeon by calculating oocyte polarization index (PI) is a necessary tool for both conservation propagation managers and caviar producers to know when to hormonally induce spawning. We tested the assumption that sampling ovarian follicles from one section of one ovary is sufficient for calculating an oocyte PI representative of oocyte maturity for an individual animal. Short-wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy (SW-NIR) scans were performed on three positions per ovary for five fish prior to caviar harvest. Samples of ovarian follicles were subsequently taken from the exact location of the SW-NIR scans for calculation of oocyte PI and follicle diameter. Oocyte PI was statistically different though not biologically relevant within an ovary and between ovaries in four of five fish. Follicle diameter was statistically different but not biologically relevant within an ovary in three of five fish. There were no differences in follicle diameter between ovaries. No statistical differences were observed between SW-NIR spectra collected at different locations within an ovary or between ovaries. These results emphasize the importance of utilizing both oocyte PI measurement and progesterone-induced oocyte maturation assays while deciding when to hormonally induce spawning in sturgeon females. PMID:24174166

  18. Desarrollo Embrionario de Acipenser naccarii_video

    Cabrera, Remedios

    2016-01-01

    Este video en inglés se encuentra como material adicional del artículo: "Embryonic Development of Adriatic Sturgeon, Acipenser naccarii (Bonaparte 1836) in farming conditions: a guide". Acta Zoologica, 2015.

  19. The effects of commercial diets on performance, muscle proximate composition and waste loads of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus

    S. Garavello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rearing of sturgeons has shown a considerable increase in recent years, also in Italy (Ronyai and Varadi,1995, both for the caviar and for the meat, under increasing demand (Williot and Bourguignon,1991. There is still little information on the nutrient requirements and optimal feeding rates of white sturgeon (Hung, 1991, even if specific diets for this species are now available on market...

  20. Análisis molecular de Acipenser sturio L., 1758 y Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815: una revisión

    Birstein, V. J.; Doukakis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny based on the analysis of partial sequences of mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (cyt b), 12S, and 16S genes supports a close relationship between the European Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio L., 1758, and the American Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815. These sister species form a separate clade within the genus Acipenser and appear to be the most basal clade with respect to all other species of the genus. Intraspecifically, at least two different gene...

  1. Anatomical, hormonal and histological descriptions of captive Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) with intersex gonads.

    Jackson, Karen; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Din, Svetlana Yom; Goldberg, Doron; Pearlson, Oren; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2006-09-15

    Sturgeons are known throughout the world as the source of black caviar. Their declining populations in their native habitats, mainly the Caspian Sea, due to over-fishing for meat and caviar production, destruction of their spawning grounds and water pollution, have led to their introduction into aquaculture in areas with suitable conditions, including Israel. Recently, we noticed an unusual phenomenon in these normally gonochoristic species. Several 5-year-old female sturgeons were found to have one or more testicular sections in each of their two gonads, forming an intersexual gender. Further examination of other fish from the same age group revealed 14% fish with intersex gonads among a population of 5000 fish that had been pre-selected as females. This phenomenon has not been found however in other age groups of Russian sturgeons, cultured at the same facility. Sturgeons are a generally gonochoristic species, and hermaphroditism is only very infrequently observed under natural or normal breeding conditions. Moreover, these rare cases have all been from polluted habitats. The present work is the first description of fish containing intersex gonads in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii). We describe the phenomenon anatomically and histologically, and examine plasma steroid levels and pituitary gonadotropin gene expression by comparing fish with intersex gonads with normal females and males of the same age group. Intersex gonads were typical female ovaries with one or more white testicular components embedded in each. The testis components were not uniform in size or location among the two gonads of each fish or among different fish, and they showed marked differences in distribution. The ovarian component of the intersex gonad was at the pre-vitellogenic stage as in normal females, and the testis component contained spermatids and mature spermatozoa as in normal males of the same age. However, in terms of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone plasma levels

  2. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (Pcaviar origin. PMID:23683918

  3. Distinguishing ovarian maturity of farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a potential tool for caviar production management.

    Lu, Xiaonan; Webb, Molly; Talbott, Mariah; Van Eenennaam, Joel; Palumbo, Amanda; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge; Struffenegger, Peter; Rasco, Barbara

    2010-04-14

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 4000-400 cm(-1)) was applied to blood plasma of farmed white sturgeon (N = 40) to differentiate and predict the stages of ovarian maturity. Spectral features of sex steroids (approximately 3000 cm(-1)) and vitellogenin (approximately 1080 cm(-1)) were identified. Clear segregation of maturity stages (previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, postvitellogenesis, and follicular atresia) was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA). Progression of oocyte development in the late phase of vitellogenesis was also monitored using PCA based on changes in plasma concentrations of sex steroid and lipid content. The observed oocyte polarization index (PI, a measure of nuclear migration) was correlated with changes in plasma sex steroid levels revealed by FT-IR PCA results. A partial least squares (PLS) model predicted PI values within the range 0.12-0.40 (R = 0.95, SEP = 2.18%) from differences in spectral features. These results suggest that FT-IR may be a good tool for assessing ovarian maturity in farmed sturgeon and will reduce the need for the invasive ovarian biopsy required for PI determination. PMID:20170152

  4. Microsatellite variation in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii from aquaculture

    Sergiu Emil Georgescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Most sturgeon species today are on the brink of extinction because of anthropogenic influences, but in the same time, the economical interest regarding these species was constantly increasing, especially because the great value of the roe. In order to satisfy the increasingly high-demand sturgeon farms began developing in the last decades and are nowadays the main producers of caviar and other sturgeon products. Due their characteristics (high polymorphism, high power of discrimination, codominant Mendelian inheritance, microsatellites prove themselves very usefull in population genetics studies. In our study we analyzed the cross-amplification and the polymorphism of seven microsatellite loci (LS-19, LS-54, LS-57, LS-68, Aox9, Aox23, and Aox45 in Acipenser gueldenstaedtii population from aquaculture. The microsatellite markers were originally designed for the American lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens and Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We successfully amplified all microsatellite loci obtaining allele peaks of different sizes which were analyzed by capilary electrophoresis. The number of allele ranged beetwen 4 (Aox23 and 12 (LS-54. This technology has great potential for investigating the genetic diversity of the wild sturgeons’ population and, also, might be extended to aquaculture studies aiming the monitoring of genetic variation in comercial breeding programs. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  5. Characterization of serum immunoglobulins in a chondrostean fish, Acipenser baeri.

    Partula, S; Charlemagne, J

    1993-01-01

    The euglobulin fraction of sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) serum was analyzed using electrophoretic and immunoblotting techniques. The major protein of this fraction is an IgM-like molecule composed of equimolar 70-kDa glycosylated H chains and 26-30 kDa L chains. In the absence of a reducing agent, the L and H polypeptides may form (mu 2L2)n high molecular weight polymers, mu 2L2 170-kDa units or L2 dimers. These different bonding patterns suggest some structural heterogeneity in the distribution of cysteine residues along the sturgeon Ig chains. The H chain N-terminal sequence indicates significant homologies with the conserved VHIII subgroup. Heavy chains antigenically different from the 70-kDa H chain were not detected, suggesting that IgM is the only Ig class synthesized by this sturgeon species. PMID:8299850

  6. EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION AND THEOPHYLLINE ON MOTILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE STURGEON (ACIPENSER FULVESCENS) SPERMATOZOA

    Computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and theophylline treatment on sperm motility of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).Motility was recorded at 0 and 5 min postactivation.The effect of cryopreservation on sperm acrosin-...

  7. Fine structure and morphology of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L. 1758) spermatozoa and acrosin localization

    Pšenička, M.; Vančová, M.; Koubek, Pavek; Těšitel, J.; Linhart, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2009), s. 3-16. ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0817 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Acipenser ruthenus * Acrosome * Acrosin * Morphometric analysis * SEM * TEM Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.563, year: 2009

  8. Determination of cutting point of oviduct in minimally invasive surgical technique in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and Starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus)

    Milad Kabir; Ali Bani

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other Chondrostean fish, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897) andStarry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771) have got Gymnovarian ovaries, and structure form oftheir reproduction system is such that eggs cannot readily leave it. In minimally invasive surgicaltechnique, a small incision is made in the wall of oviduct so that the eggs can easily leave it with theminimal manipulation and also the broodstock can survive. The aim of this work is to determine thedist...

  9. Comparative analysis of morphometric characters of juvenile sterlet Acipenser ruthenus L. from natural population and aquaculture

    Lenhardt, M.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Jaric, I. Z.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Kolarevic, J.; Krupka, I.; Cvijanovic, G.; Cakic, Z.; Gacic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.A (2004), s. 320. ISSN 0022-1112. [Nature and culture: comparative biology and interactions of wild and farmed fish. London, 19.07.2004-23.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Acipenser ruthenus * morphometric characters Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2004

  10. Artificial reproduction and larval rearing of captive endangered Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio

    WILLIOT P.; Rouault, T; Pelard, M.; Mercier, D.; Jacobs, L

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1990s a functional ex situ brood stock of the European Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio was initiated in France as the only means of saving the species from extinction. In late spring 2007, partial and complete oogenesis and complete spermatogenesis were recorded in fish which were born in the wild in 1994 and entered the hatchery in 1995. Here, we report on the 2007 artificial reproduction attempts, which represent a breakthrough in terms of conservation of A. sturio, and poss...

  11. Programa de recuperación para Acipenser sturio L., 1758: la propuesta alemana

    Kirschbaum, F.; Gessner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Acipenser sturio L., 1758 was a prevalent species of the fish communities in all major German rivers' waters until the end of the 19th century. Since then, the population sizes decreased rapidly due to overfishing, pollution, and hydro-construction, and the last remaining population was observed in the Eider River until the 1960s. Recently, specimens have been observed in German waters only rarely. Until the end of the 1980s, neither politicians nor ecologists considered reestablishment measu...

  12. Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth and Fatty Acid Composition in Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) Juveniles

    ŞENER, Erdal; Yildiz, Mustafa; SAVAŞ, Esra

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) fed feeds including fish oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil were researched and the effects of the feeds on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the fish were studied. In the Sapanca Inland Waters Research and Experiment Department of İstanbul University's Faculty of Fisheries, sturgeon juveniles having an approximate initial weight of 27.23 ± 0.98 g were fed experimental feeds containing different kinds of oil for 63 ...

  13. Assessement of Growth Performances of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS)

    Mărioara Nicula; Zoltan-Tibor Szelei; Nicolae Pacala; Marian Bura; Eliza Simiz; Silvia Erina; Marian Hotea; Adela Marcu

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon rearing in Herneacova village, Timis County, on a population of juvenile sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) aged between 346-431 days. Specimens were housed in five round tanks (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h=100 cm) and fed with commercial extruded pellets (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE). Fish from each tank were individually weighed and measured once every two weeks. Bioproductive indices such body weight gain (BW), specifi...

  14. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector. PMID:27374904

  15. Growth and Survival Rate of Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) Larvae from Fertilized Eggs to Artificial Feeding

    Memiş, D.; Ercan, E.; Çelikkale, M.S.; Timur, M.; Zarkua, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) were brought from the Krasnodar Research Institute of Fisheries in 12.01.2001 to the University of Istanbul, Fisheries Faculty, Sapanca Inland Water Fish Culture Research and Applied Station on January 13 th. 5 kg fertilized eggs were put on 13 plates (size of each plate; 65 x 40 x 15 cm). Fertilized eggs were incubated in waving system (model designed according to modified Yushenko apparatus) at 14-15°C by means of water paddles...

  16. Assessement of Growth Performances of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS

    Mărioara Nicula

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon rearing in Herneacova village, Timis County, on a population of juvenile sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus aged between 346-431 days. Specimens were housed in five round tanks (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h=100 cm and fed with commercial extruded pellets (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE. Fish from each tank were individually weighed and measured once every two weeks. Bioproductive indices such body weight gain (BW, specific growth rate (SGR, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated at the end of an 85 days experimental period. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPPS IBM 22 and Minitab 16 software. Data were reported as Mean±Sx at a significant level of p<0.05. Testing differences between means was realized by ANOVA completed with post-hoc Tukey test. The results obtained indicate that the growth performance of juvenile Acipenser ruthenus seems to be similar and even better than that of other sturgeons species reared in recirculating aquaculture system.

  17. Selected heavy metals analysis of Persian sturgeon's (Acipenser persicus) caviar from Southern Caspian Sea.

    Hosseini, S V; Sobhanardakani, S; Tahergorabi, R; Delfieh, P

    2013-09-01

    The present research reports the heavy metal (Fe, Cr, Pb, As, and Co) contamination in caviar of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught from Southern Caspian Sea sampling site using ICP-OES. Heavy metal concentrations (microgram per gram, wet weight; means ± S.D.) in caviar samples were: Fe, 71.33 ± 0. 37; Cr, 0.27 ± 0.019; Pb, <0.01 ± 0.002; As, <0.01 ± 0.002; and Co, <0.01 ± 0.001, respectively. Comparative evaluation of these metals in different samples showed that except Fe, the average concentrations of Cr, Pb, As, and Co are significantly lower than adverse level for the species themselves and for human consumption when compared with FAO/WHO permissible limits. Therefore, their contribution to adverse health effects on human body can be considered as negligibly small. PMID:23824563

  18. Fatty acid composition in tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Nieminen, Petteri; Westenius, Eini; Halonen, Toivo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2014-09-15

    The fatty acid (FA) compositions of the diet and diverse tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were analyzed in detail to assess their nutritional quality. Twelve male fish were sampled for muscle, fat, liver, brain, gill, kidney and gonad and the tissue FA measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The FA profile of the diet diverged from the FA signatures of the tissues, where the sturgeons accumulated particular highly-unsaturated FA (HUFA). They were probably derived from the diet but, as previous studies have shown that fish can also have desaturase enzymes, endogenous synthesis of these FA cannot be excluded. The sturgeon muscle tissue contained HUFA in proportions comparable to those of other fish species that are considered good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity were also within the values considered to be health-promoting. PMID:24767029

  19. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  20. Ultrastructure and morphology of spermatozoa in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray 1835) using scanning and transmission elektron microscopy

    Wei, Q.; Li, P.; Pšenička, M.; Hadi Alavi, S.M.; Shen, L.; Liu, J.; Pěknicová, Jana; Linhart, O.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2007), s. 1269-1278. ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0817; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk 1P05ME742 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Acipenser sinensis * spermatozoon * acrosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  1. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  2. Penicillin improves the milt quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during short-term storage

    Mostafa Halimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of antibiotic (5000 units of penicillin on sperm quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during 9 days in vitro storage of milt. For this purpose, the milt samples were stored in the presence and absence of 5000 units of penicillin. Freshwater was used as sperm activator. The milt samples were stored at 4°C and the motility indices were measured 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after storage. The sperm duration and percentage of sperm motility decreased after 6 days of storage both in the presence and absence of antibiotic, although this decrease was more significant in the absence of antibiotic. After 9 days of storage, the lowest values of sperm motility indices was recorded for antibiotic receiving milt samples while no motile spermatozoa observed for antibiotic-free milt samples. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that 5000 units of penicillin improve the Persian sturgeon milt quality during short-term storage.

  3. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE EMBRYONARY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS

    CRISTINA MUSCALU-NAGY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studying and presenting the embryo stages of sterlet has the main purpose of widening the knowledge horizon in this direction. Although all sterlet embryos originated from one female and from the same incubator (15°C, 9.6 mg/l of dissolved oxygen and a water flow of 2.7 l/min, they are in different stages of development at a certain time. Because the asynchronous development of embryos from one incubator is maintained throughout the incubation period, it is explained why not all embryos hatch at the same time. The first hatchings appear at the age of 145 hours from fecundation, the larvae have a very large yolk sack and are moving very fast, especially in obliquely upward direction. At one hour from hatching, the larvae presents clear opercularly movements. The last hatching occurs 193 hours from fecundation. The larval stage for Acipenser ruthenus lasts for 7-8 days, probably the larvae that hatched sooner have also a quicker absorption of yolk sack.

  4. Research regarding bioproductive indicators achieved by the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii juvenile in recirculated system

    Zoltan T. Szelei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available For this research we used a population of 2799 Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii between11.04.2009 and 23.05.2009. The age of juveniles was between 316 days and 360 days and they weremaintained in 4 tanks with a volume of 12.56 m3/tank. Average water temperature in the breeding tankswas 17.3 0C in the first study period, 18 0C in the second period and 19.8 0C in the third period. In thisperiod the average value of dissolved oxygen level in the tanks was 5.1 mg/L. The Siberian sturgeonjuveniles were fed with Agua Bio Sturion (Ø=3 mm; 45% Protein and 20% Fat. At every 2 weeks, theaverage body weight and the average body length of 30 individuals from each tank were registered. At theage of 316 days the juveniles reached an average body weight between 164.43±7.63 g and 325.80±15.20g and an average body length between 35.78±0.48 cm and 45.31±0.66 cm. During the 44 experimentaldays, the 2799 Siberian sturgeons have achieved an real weight gain of 310.67 kg, with a specificconsumption of 0.67 kg feed/kg body weight gain and an index of feed conversion of 1.48 kg body weightgain/kg of consumed feed.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of testes and ovaries for the discovery of novel genes from Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Jin, S B; Zhang, Y; Dong, X L; Xi, Q K; Song, D; Fu, H T; Sun, D J

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons (Acipenser schrenckii) are of high evolutionary, economic, and conservation value, and caviar isone of the most valuable animal food products in the world. The Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing platform was used to construct testicular and ovarian transcriptomes to identify genes involved in reproduction and sex determination in A. schrenckii. A total of 122,381 and 114,527 unigenes were obtained in the testicular and ovarian transcriptomes, respectively, with average lengths of 748 and 697 bp. A total of 46,179 genes were matched to the non-redundant nr database. GO (31,266), KEGG (39,712), and COG analyses (20,126) were performed to identify potential genes and their functions. Twenty-six gene families involved in reproduction and sex determination were identified from the A. schrenckii testicular and ovarian transcriptomes based on functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, 1309 unigenes showed significant differences between the testes and ovaries, including 782 genes that were up-regulated in the testes and 527 that were up-regulated in the ovaries. Eleven genes were involved in reproduction and sex determination mechanisms. Furthermore, 19,065 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in the expressed sequence tagged dataset, and 190,863 and 193,258 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained from the testicular and ovarian transcriptomic databases, respectively. This study provides new sequence information about A. schrenckii, which will provide a basis for the further study of reproduction and sex determination mechanisms in Acipenser species. The potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed light on the evolution and molecular ecology of Acipenser species. PMID:26782541

  6. Stress and its relation to endocrine function in captive female Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri).

    Hamlin, Heather J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C; Main, Kevan L; Guillette, Louis J

    2007-01-01

    Stress responses to numerous environmental conditions have been studied in a wide range of fish species. Defining the relationship between stress and endocrine function is particularly critical to long-lived species such as sturgeons, whose economic viability relies heavily on proper endocrine function for the production of caviar. In this study, we examined the induced stress response, defined by plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, and its relationship to plasma 17beta-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone concentrations in cultured female Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Fish were acutely stressed using capture and confinement for a period of 4 h, and blood samples were drawn according to four treatment regimens: treatment 1, fish were bled at 0 h; treatment 2, fish were serially bled at 0 h, 1 h and 4 h; treatment 3, fish were bled at 1 h and 4 h; treatment 4, fish were bled at 4 h only. Fish were surgically sexed immediately after drawing blood at 0 h. After 1 h of acute stress, fish demonstrated a marked increase in plasma cortisol concentration, which remained elevated throughout the 4-h sampling period. The plasma concentration of sex steroids did not exhibit an inverse relationship with plasma cortisol concentration. Plasma testosterone concentration was significantly elevated during the periods of greatest stress. Plasma estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) concentrations were not affected by the acute stressors in this experiment. Serial bleedings, however, affected the associated stress response, which is an important consideration for future studies with this species. This is the first study to define the relationship between stress and possible changes in sex steroid concentration in this threatened and commercially important species. PMID:17622217

  7. Microsatellites variation in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus from the Lower Danube

    Andreea Dudu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons represent an ancient group of fish with an important scientific and commercial value. The economical significance of these species is due to their meat and roes that are considered to be a gastronomic delicacy. Unfortunately, precisely due to their economical value the sturgeons have been overexploited by fishing and poaching and nowadays are facing extinction. Currently, in the Ponto-Caspian region is found the greatest diversity of acipenserid species and the Lower Danube is the last refuge for the sturgeons from the Black Sea. Acipenser ruthenus (sterlet is a fresh water sturgeon species which has undergone a large population decline, but local populations are still surviving in most parts of the rivers draining to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. In order to have successful conservation programs of this species is essential to evaluate its genetic diversity. Microsatellites represent valuable markers for genetic analyses aiming the assessment of genetic variability of population. In our study we analyzed the cross-amplification and the polymorphism in A. ruthenus population from the Lower Danube of seven microsatellite loci (LS-19, LS-34, LS-54, LS-57, LS-68, Aox23 and Aox45, originally isolated in North-American sturgeon species. Among the seven loci, three (LS57, Aox23 and Aox45 have showed a tetrasomic profile. The most polymorphic loci were LS-57 with 12 alleles in population, followed by Aox23 and Aox45 with 11 alleles and LS-68 with 10 alleles. Four loci (LS-19, LS-34 and LS-54 presented a lower level of polymorphism, only three alleles being identified for the analyzed individuals.

  8. Transcriptome analysis and de novo annotation of the critically endangered Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Zhang, X J; Jiang, H Y; Li, L M; Yuan, L H; Chen, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive insights into the genetic background of sturgeon by transcriptome study. We performed a de novo assembly of the Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii transcriptome using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 148,817 non-redundant unigenes with base length of approximately 121,698,536 bp and ranges from 201 to 26,789 bp were obtained. All the unigenes were classified into 3368 distinct categories and 145,449 singletons by homologous transcript cluster analysis. In all, 46,865 (31.49%) unigenes showed homologous matches with Nr database and 32,214 (21.65%) unigenes were matched to Nt database. In total, 24,862 unigenes were categorized into significantly enriched 52 function groups by GO analysis, and 38,436 unigenes were classified into 25 groups by KOG prediction, as well as 128 enriched KEGG pathways were identified by 45,598 unigenes (P < 0.05). Subsequently, a total of 19,860 SSRs markers were identified with the abundant di-nucleotide type (10,658; 53.67%) and the most AT/TA motif repeats (2689; 13.54%). A total of 1341 conserved lncRNAs were identified by a customized pipeline. Our study provides new sequence and function information for A. schrenckii, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on sturgeon species. The huge number of potential SSRs and putatively conserved lncRNAs isolated by the transcriptome also shed light on research in many fields, including the evolution, conservation management, and biological processes in sturgeon. PMID:27420941

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing, De Novo Assembly and Differential Gene Expression Analysis of the Early Development of Acipenser baeri.

    Wei Song

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms that drive the development of the endangered fossil fish species Acipenser baeri are difficult to study due to the lack of genomic data. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and the reducing cost of sequencing offer exclusive opportunities for exploring important molecular mechanisms underlying specific biological processes. This manuscript describes the large scale sequencing and analyses of mRNA from Acipenser baeri collected at five development time points using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. The sequencing reads were de novo assembled and clustered into 278167 unigenes, of which 57346 (20.62% had 45837 known homologues proteins in Uniprot protein databases while 11509 proteins matched with at least one sequence of assembled unigenes. The remaining 79.38% of unigenes could stand for non-coding unigenes or unigenes specific to A. baeri. A number of 43062 unigenes were annotated into functional categories via Gene Ontology (GO annotation whereas 29526 unigenes were associated with 329 pathways by mapping to KEGG database. Subsequently, 3479 differentially expressed genes were scanned within developmental stages and clustered into 50 gene expression profiles. Genes preferentially expressed at each stage were also identified. Through GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, relevant physiological variations during the early development of A. baeri could be better cognized. Accordingly, the present study gives insights into the transcriptome profile of the early development of A. baeri, and the information contained in this large scale transcriptome will provide substantial references for A. baeri developmental biology and promote its aquaculture research.

  10. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin

    Weiwei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid-liquid ratio on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid-liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4% of the RSM (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

  11. Sterilization of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by using knockdown agent, antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, against dead end gene.

    Linhartová, Zuzana; Saito, Taiju; Kašpar, Vojtěch; Rodina, Marek; Prášková, Eva; Hagihara, Seishi; Pšenička, Martin

    2015-10-15

    Sturgeons (chondrostean, acipenseridae) are ancient fish species, widely known for their caviar. Nowadays, most of them are critically endangered. The sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) is a common Eurasian sturgeon species with a small body size and the fastest reproductive cycle among sturgeons. Such species can be used as a host for surrogate production; application is of value for recovery of critically endangered and huge sturgeon species with an extremely long reproductive cycle. One prerequisite for production of the donor's gametes only is to have a sterile host. Commonly used sterilization techniques in fishes such as triploidization or hybridization do not guarantee sterility in sturgeon. Alternatively, sterilization can be achieved by using a temporary germ cell exclusion-specific gene by a knockdown agent, the antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO). The targeted gene for the MO is the dead end gene (dnd) which is a vertebrate-specific gene encoding a RNA-binding protein which is crucial for migration and survival of primordial germ cells (PGCs). For this purpose, a dnd homologue of Russian sturgeon (Agdnd), resulting in the same sequence in the start codon region with isolated fragments of sterlet dnd (Ardnd), was used. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed tissue-specific expression of Ardnd only in the gonads of both sexes. Dnd-MO for depletion of PGCs together with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-biotin-dextran for PGCs labeling was injected into the vegetal region of one- to four-cell-stage sterlet embryos. In the control groups, only FITC was injected to validate the injection method and labeling of PGCs. After optimization of MO concentration together with volume injection, 250-μM MO was applied for sterilization of sturgeon embryos. Primordial germ cells were detected under a fluorescent stereomicroscope in the genital ridge of the FITC-labeled control group only, whereas no PGCs were present in the body cavities of morphants

  12. Competition between selenomethionine and methionine absorption in the intestinal tract of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris)

    L-Selenomethionine (SeMet) is a dominant form of selenium (Se) found in organisms at all levels of aquatic food chains and a key source of Se bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity. In mammals, intestinal absorption of SeMet is at least partly via the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The mechanism of SeMet absorption and competitive effects of other dietary components on SeMet absorption in fish are unknown. Thus the in vitro uptake rates of L-methionine (Met) and the competitive effect of SeMet on Met absorption, an indicator that SeMet uses the same nutrient transporter(s) for absorption, in the various regions of the green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) intestine were investigated using intact tissues (a modified everted sleeve method). Intestinal tissue was incubated in Ringer's solution containing 0-10 mmol L-1 Met or SeMet (n = 5 for each substrate's concentration and intestinal region), respectively, as well as constant tracer levels of isotope-labeled Met. The data indicate that SeMet uptake was mediated by the same transporter(s) as Met and that the absorption kinetics were similar for both substrates. When there were differences in absorption they appeared to be mostly due to higher permeability (passive uptake) of the tissue for Met than for SeMet, particularly in the pyloric caeca (PC) and distal intestine (DI). Maximum rates of absorption, on the other hand, tended to be higher for SeMet than Met in the mid intestine and DI, whereas differences in affinity for the transporters varied between these tissues but were very similar in the PC. These differences may be due to differences in regional intestinal characteristics such as amount of mucus secreted and degree of tissue contraction, and/or substrate differences regarding solubility in and movement through the mucus, influence on tissue contraction, permeability through membranes or between cells, intracellular metabolism, as well as basolateral transport. Interestingly, an increasing proximal

  13. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    DiVincenti, Louis, Jr.; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  14. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    R. C. DIMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  15. Habitat used by juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the North Channel of the St. Clair River (Michigan, USA)

    Boase, James C.; Manny, Bruce A.; Donald, Katherine A.L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Diana, James S.; Thomas, Michael V.; Chiotti, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occupy the St. Clair River, part of a channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the North Channel of the St. Clair River, juvenile lake sturgeon (3–7 years old and 582–793 mm in length) were studied to determine movement patterns and habitat usage. Fourteen juveniles were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked June–August of 2004, 2005 and 2006. Telemetry data, Geographic Information System software, side-scan sonar, video images of the river bottom, scuba diving, and benthic substrate samples were used to determine the extent and composition of habitats they occupied. Juvenile lake sturgeon habitat selection was strongly related to water depth. No fish were found in 700 mm in length selected sand and gravel areas mixed with zebra mussels and areas dominated by zebra mussels, while fish < 700 mm used these habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  16. Lateralisation of rotational swimming but not fast escape response in the juvenile sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus (Chondrostei: Acipenseridae).

    Izvekov, Evgeny I; Kuternitskaya, Elena A; Pankova, Natalya A; Malashichev, Yegor B; Nepomnyashchikh, Valentin A

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, behavioural lateralisation was shown in a chondrostean fish (sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus). A significant directional bias was found in young A. ruthenus swimming along a circular swimway. This laterality manifested itself as an individual preference for a certain movement direction (either clockwise or counterclockwise) which was consistent at the retest 10 days later. On the other hand, no significant rotational bias was observed at the population level. The same sterlet individuals displayed the C-start (the first stage of escape response) elicited by sudden low-frequency sound vibrations (50 Hz). However, the experiments failed to reveal either individual or population laterality of this response: the frequencies of leftward and rightward bends in startled fish were virtually equal. These results demonstrate that the two types of laterality can be independent in fish. PMID:23758344

  17. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  18. De novo annotation of the immune-enriched transcriptome provides insights into immune system genes of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    Zhu, Rong; Du, He-Jun; Li, Shun-Yi; Li, Ya-Dong; Ni, Hong; Yu, Xue-Jing; Yang, Yan-Yan; Fan, Yu-Ding; Jiang, Nan; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Wang, Xing-Guo

    2016-08-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), one of the oldest extant actinopterygian fishes with very high evolutionary, economical and conservation interest, is considered to be one of the critically endangered aquatic animals in China. Up to date, the immune system of this species remains largely undetermined with little sequence information publicly available. Herein, the first comprehensive transcriptome of immune tissues for Chinese sturgeon was characterized using Illumina deep sequencing. Over 67 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into the final set of 91,739 unique sequences. The annotation pipeline revealed that 25,871 unigenes were successfully annotated in the public databases, of which only 2002 had significant match to the existing sequences for the genus Acipenser. Overall 22,827 unigenes were categorized into 52 GO terms, 12,742 were classified into 26 KOG categories, and 4968 were assigned to 339 KEGG pathways. A more detailed annotation search showed the presence of a notable representation of immune-related genes, which suggests that this non-teleost actinopterygian fish harbors the same intermediates as in the well known immune pathways from mammals and teleosts, such as pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, complement and coagulation pathway, T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways. Additional genetic marker discovery led to the retrieval of 20,056 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 327,140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This immune-enriched transcriptome of Chinese sturgeon represents a rich resource that adds to the currently nascent field of chondrostean fish immunogenetics and furthers the conservation and management of this valuable fish. PMID:27368537

  19. Effects of Lampricide on Olfaction and Behavior in Young-of-the-Year Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    Sakamoto, Kathrine; Dew, William A; Hecnar, Stephen J; Pyle, Gregory G

    2016-04-01

    The lampricide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), is a primary component to sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Though the lethal effects of TFM are well-known, the sublethal effects on fishes are virtually unknown. Here we studied the effects of TFM on the olfactory capabilities and behavior of young-of-the-year (YOY) lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). At ecologically relevant concentrations of TFM there was reduced olfactory response to all three cues (l-alanine, taurocholic acid, food cue) tested, suggesting that TFM inhibits both olfactory sensory neurons tested. Sturgeon exposed to TFM also showed a reduced attraction to the scent of food and reduced consumption of food relative to unexposed fish. Exposed fish were more active than control fish, but with slower acceleration. Fish were able to detect the scent of TFM, but failed to avoid it in behavioral trials. The connection between neurophysiological and behavioral changes, and the commonality of habitats between sturgeon and lamprey ammocoetes, suggests that there may be effects at the ecosystem level in streams that undergo lamprey control treatments. PMID:27015540

  20. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    King, Timothy L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population.

  2. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  3. Effects of Pediococcus pentosaceus as a probiotic on intestinal microbiota and body composition of Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869

    Fateme Moslehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An eight-week experiment was carried out to determine the effects of dietary Pediococcus pentosaceus as probiotic on the body composition and gut microbiota of Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii. A total of 180 fish with mean body weight of 143±0.01g were randomly distributed into 12 200L fiberglass tanks as four treatments with three replicates, including groups fed with diet containing 2×107, 2×108 and 2×109 CFU g-1 of P. pentosaceus and probiotic-free as control group. Body composition of treatment groups was not influenced by P. pentosaceus except for fat and moisture. The bacteria had a significant colonization in the intestine of fish fed with supplemented diet with P. pentosaceus. High level of acid lactic bacterial load was found in the treatment fed with highest amount of the probiotic i.e. 2×109 CFU g-1. The results showed that application of P. pentosaceus has positive effect on the body composition and intestinal microflora of the A. baerii.

  4. Preliminary Results about Growth Performance and Food Conversion Ratio of Acipenser stellatus juvenils, Fed with Different Dietary Protein Levels

    Maria Desimira Dicu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different dietary protein levels on Acipenser stellatus growth performance. Researches were conducted between 4 th November-3rd December 2011, in the recirculating system of Aquaculture, Environmental Science and Cadastre Department, University of Galati. A number of 60 fish with an average weight of 11.5±0.58 g were randomly stocked into four rearing units, with same stocking densities. Two experimental variants with different dietary protein levels, 64% (V1 respectively 41% (V2, were applied in duplicate. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as mean value of both repetitions for each variant, was 4,64%/day at V1 and 4,63%/day at V2. Protein efficiency ratio PER (g/g registered a better value at V2 (2.55 g/g, comparing to V1 (1.62 g/g. Regarding feed conversion ratio, almost identical values were observed in case of both experimental variants: 0,96 at V1 and 0.97 at V2. The final results of the experiment showed that while PER was significantly influenced by dietary protein levels, the rest of growing indicators had a very limited variation scale.

  5. Metric Characters and Body Indices of Juvenile Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Raised in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS

    Mărioara Nicula

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our research was performed on juvenile sterlets (Acipenser ruthenus, aged between 346-431 days, maintained in five round pools (Ø=3 m, V=6 m3, h-100 cm and fed with a commercial extruded pellet (3 mm granulation, 48% CP, and 10% EE. Body weight and total body length on 30 individuals from each tank were determined every two weeks. Weighing and somatic measurements achieved at the end of experimental period (standard length-l, body weight-G, maximum body high–H, maximum body perimeter (Pmax, head length–lh,, caudal peduncle length-lp allowed us to calculate the following body indices: profile index, thickness index, Fulton index, Kiselev index, meat index. Statistical analysis was performed by using the SPPS IBM 22 and Minitab 16 software. Data were reported as Mean±Sx at a significant level of p<0.05. Testing differences between means was realized by ANOVA completed with post-hoc Tukey test. Results obtained led to conclude that specimens analyzed had a good maintenance and feeding, an adequate development, a high proportion of meat, an elongated body and a straight back, and they are eligible for selection.

  6. Effect of Vegetable Protein and Oil Supplementation on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt, 1833) at Low temperatures

    , Erdal Şener; Mustafa Yıldız; (1), Esra Savaş

    2006-01-01

    Effect of different feed compositions on growth performance and body composition of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) juveniles was studied. One control and three experimental diets were prepared with different ratios of soybean meal (20%, 10.5%, 33%, and 27%) sunflower meal (7%, 8.5%, 14.5%, and 10.5%) and corn meal (10%, 20.5%, 15% and 7.5%) substitute fish meal (40%, 35%, 25%, and 30%) as a protein source. Corn oil (2.5% in Group I and 10% in Group II) and sunflower oil (2.5% in...

  7. The inner ear morphology and hearing abilities of the Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and the Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    Lovell, J M; Findlay, M M; Moate, R M; Nedwell, J R; Pegg, M A

    2005-11-01

    Concern regarding the spread of silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthysc nobilis) through the Illinois River has prompted the development of an Acoustic Fish Deterrent (AFD) system. The application of this technology has resulted in a need to understand the auditory physiology of fish other than the target species, in order to minimise the effect of the AFD barrier on the ecology of indigenous fish populations. To this end, both the structures involved in sound reception and the hearing abilities of the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are studied here using a combination of morphological and physiological approaches, revealing that both fish are responsive to sounds ranging in frequency from 100 to 500 Hz. The lowest hearing thresholds from both species were acquired from frequencies in a bandwidth of between 200 and 300 Hz, with higher thresholds at 100 and 500 Hz. The rationale for studying hearing in P. spathula and A. fulvescens in particular, is the value placed on them by both the commercial caviar producing industry and by the recreational fisheries sector. The hearing abilities of twelve P. spathula and twelve A. fulvescens were tested in sound fields dominated by either sound pressure or particle motion, with the results showing that acipenseriform fish are responsive to the motion of water particles in a sound field, rather than the sound pressure component. In this study, we measure the intensity of the sound field required to evoke threshold responses using a pressure sensitive hydrophone, as pressure dominated sound fields are the most audible acoustic condition for specialists like H. molitrix and A. nobilis (the target species). The results of the auditory examination clearly show that P. spathula and A. fulvescens are not sensitive to sound pressure, and will therefore have a significantly higher deterrent threshold than H. molitrix and A. nobilis in a pressure dominated

  8. Managing polyploidy in ex situ conservation genetics: the case of the critically endangered Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii).

    Congiu, Leonardo; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Forlani, Anna; Cenadelli, Silvia; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Barbisan, Federica; Galli, Andrea; Fontana, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    While the current expansion of conservation genetics enables to address more efficiently the management of threatened species, alternative methods for genetic relatedness data analysis in polyploid species are necessary. Within this framework, we present a standardized and simple protocol specifically designed for polyploid species that can facilitate management of genetic diversity, as exemplified by the ex situ conservation program for the tetraploid Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A critically endangered endemic species of the Adriatic Sea tributaries, its persistence is strictly linked to the ex situ conservation of a single captive broodstock currently decimated to about 25 individuals, which represents the last remaining population of Adriatic sturgeon of certain wild origin. The genetic variability of three F1 broodstocks available as future breeders was estimated based on mitochondrial and microsatellite information and compared with the variability of the parental generation. Genetic data showed that the F1 stocks have only retained part of the genetic variation present in the original stock due to the few parent pairs used as founders. This prompts for the urgent improvement of the current F1 stocks by incorporating new founders that better represent the genetic diversity available. Following parental allocation based on band sharing values, we set up a user-friendly tool for selection of candidate breeders according to relatedness between all possible parent-pairs that secures the use of non-related individuals. The approach developed here could also be applied to other endangered tetraploid sturgeon species overexploited for caviar production, particularly in regions lacking proper infrastructure and/or expertise. PMID:21483472

  9. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  10. Novel technique for visualizing primordial germ cells in sturgeons (Acipenser ruthenus, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. baerii, and Huso huso).

    Saito, Taiju; Psenicka, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the origin of all germ cells in developing embryos. In the sturgeon embryo, PGCs develop from the vegetal hemisphere, which mainly acts as an extraembryonic source of nutrition. Current methods for studying sturgeon PGCs require either killing the fish or using costly and time-consuming histological procedures. Here, we demonstrate that visualization of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus>) PGCs in vivo is feasible by simply labeling the vegetal hemisphere with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. We injected FITC-dextrans, with molecular weights varying between 10 000 and 2 000 000, into the vegetal pole of 1- to 4-cell stage embryos. At the neurula to tail-bud developmental stages, FITC-positive PGC-like cells appeared ventrally around the developing tail bud in the experimental group that received a high-molecular-weight FITC-dextran. The highest average number of FITC-positive PGC-like cells was observed in embryos injected with FITC-dextran having a molecular weight of 500 000 (FD-500). The pattern of migration of the labeled cells was identical to that of PGCs, clearly indicating that the FITC-positive PGC-like cells were PGCs. Labeled vegetal cells, except for the PGCs, were digested and excreted before the embryos starting feeding. FITC-labeled PGCs were observed in the developing gonads of fish for at least 3 mo after injection. We also found that FD-500 could be used to visualize PGCs in other sturgeon species. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate in any animal species that PGCs can be visualized in vivo for a long period by the injection of a simple reagent. PMID:26134864

  11. Research regarding the evolution of corporal masses and feed conversion on sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus juvenile raised in recirculating system

    Marian Bura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on 3375 specimens of sterlet juveniles (Acipenser ruthenus maintained in five square pools (1.5 x 1.5 x 0.7 m; V=1.125 m3 and in a round pool (Ø=3 m; H=1 m; V=5.63 m3. Water temperature varied between 14-16°C. Sterlet juvenile was fed with Dana Feed forage granulation 1.5 mm (52% raw protein and 13% raw fat. Body weight and body length on 30 individuals from each tank were determined every two weeks. Based on weighings of body mass and quantity of  feed given calculations, it had been established bioproductive indicators at juvenile sterlets aged between 135-178 days. At the age of 178 days, the sterlet juvenile reached an average body mass that ranged between 56.60±2.19 g and 78.50±2.07 g, and an average body length that ranged between 23.83±0.29 cm and 27.22±0.23 cm. Individual values of minimum and maximum body mass were located between 30 g and 104 g and body length between 19 and 30 cm. During the 43 experimental days, the 3375 juvenile sterlets have acquired a real weight gain of 142.91 kg, with a specific consumption of feed of 0.79 kg feed/kg spore and an index of feed conversion of 1.27 kg spore/kg feed consumed.

  12. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Zn, Cu and Mn in the caviar and muscle of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) from the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Mn were examined in caviar and muscle of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) collected from coastal waters of south Caspian Sea during March and April, 2011. Mean Zn, Cu and Mn concentrations in caviar samples were 21.48, 2.05 and 1.66 μg g(-1) wet weight basis, respectively. The mean Zn, Cu and Mn concentrations in muscle tissues were 7.49, 1.00 and 0.34 μg g(-1) wet weight basis, respectively. The mean concentrations of Zn and Cu in caviar and muscle samples were under the permissible limits proposed by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (2000). PMID:23080537

  14. Effect of dietary macronutrient proportion on intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparative study.

    Furné, M; García-Gallego, M; Hidalgo, M C; Sanz, A

    2016-08-01

    Three isoenergetic diets varying the proportion of dietary energy supplied by each of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) were delivered, to farmed sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to test the possible effects on the intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in liver, white muscle, and heart. In trout, there is an adaptive metabolic response to an increase in lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. However, this does not happen in the sturgeon. These differences may be due to different dietary habits of both species. In terms of oxidative status, only the liver displayed oxidative stress in both species, showing an increase in the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities after feeding with the high-lipid and high-protein diet. PMID:26970754

  15. Růstové vlastnosti a problematika chovu jesetera sibiřského (Acipenser baerii) v podmínkách České republiky

    Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Peňáz, Milan; Baránek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2003), s. 99-103. ISSN 0007-389X. [Nové technologie a nové druhy v akvakultuře.. Vodňany, 24.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093104; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Acipenser baerii * growth rate Subject RIV: GL - Fishing

  16. Experimentelle Untersuchungen an großen Juvenilen des Europäischen Störs, Acipenser sturio Linnaeus, 1758 unter Berücksichtigung ernährungs- und wachstumsspezifischer Aspekte.

    Hensel, Emanuel Clemens Konrad

    2010-01-01

    The European sturgeon Acipenser sturio L., 1758 has nearly approached extinction in its original and overall distribution areas from the White and the Baltic Seas, to the Black Sea, including the North and Mediterranean Seas as well as the Eastern North Atlantic (HOLCIK et al., 1989). The species occurs regularly only in a recent population in the Gironde basin in France (ROCHARD et al., 1990; WILLIOT et al., 1997, KIRSCHBAUM et al., 2000). This population has still decreased dramatically sin...

  17. Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae fed Artemia nauplii enriched with poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB): effect on growth performance, body composition, digestive enzymes, gut microbial community, gut histology and stress tests

    Najdegerami, H; K. Baruah; Shiri, A.; Rekecki, A.; Van Den Broeck, W.; Sorgeloos, P.; Boon, N.; P. Bossier; De Schryver, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of feeding Artemia nauplii enriched with or without poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and/or highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae were investigated. Feeding larvae with PHB-enriched nauplii (PHB, PHB + HUFA) decreased the growth performance of the larvae. PHB affected the body composition by increasing the lipid content of the whole body and decreasing total saturated, monoenoic, n3, n6 and decosahexanoeic acid (DHA) in the larvae, indica...

  18. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  19. Adaptive alterations on gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and mitochondrion-rich cells of juvenile Acipenser sinensis acclimated to brackish water.

    Zhao, Feng; Wu, Beibei; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the physiological changes and osmoregulatory strategy is critical for anadromous species to adapt to large changes between freshwater and marine environments. In this study, juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) were acclimated for 2 months to freshwater (FW, c. 0 ‰) and brackish water (BW, 15 ‰). Blood was assessed for changes in osmolality and ions. Gill tissue was assayed for Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and immunohistochemical analysis on mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). Serum osmolality and ions concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) examined, except K(+), increased significantly in those specimens adapted to BW. However, the variations were within the range of effective hyperosmotic adaptation. The specific activity of gill NKA of juveniles adapted to BW was significantly higher (c. 1.6 times) than that of fish adapted to FW. MRCs were mainly presented in the interlamellar region of the filament and at the base of the lamella in either FW- or BW-acclimated individuals. In BW, the number and size of MRCs on filaments greatly increased. However, there was no significant difference in the number and size of the MRCs at the lamella region. Results show that juvenile Chinese sturgeon keep osmotic homeostasis in hyperosmotic environments by increasing gill NKA activity and MRCs' size and number, which is similar to other sturgeons and euryhaline teleosts. PMID:26614501

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth performance, survival, lactobacillus bacterial population and hemato-immunological parameters of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) juvenile.

    Akrami, Reza; Iri, Yousef; Rostami, Hosseinali Khoshbavar; Razeghi Mansour, Majid

    2013-10-01

    The dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in stellate sturgeon juvenile, Acipenser stellatus (with mean initial body weight of 30.16 ± 0.14 g) was evaluated for the effect on growth, autochthonous intestinal microbiata and hemato-immunological parameters for 11 weeks. FOS was added at a level of 0, 1% and 2% to the commercial pellet diet (BioMar). At the end of the experiment, growth parameters, survival rate, lactobacillus bacterial population, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. The fish fed on 1% FOS significantly showed higher final weight, WG%, SGR and PER and lower FCR compared to those of the control group (P  0.05). However, FOS administration resulted in lower survival. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly affected by dietary 1% FOS (P  0.05). In fish fed on the diet with 1% FOS showed a significant increase of total heterotrophic autochthonous bacterial and presumptive LAB levels (P prebiotics. In addition to increase in WBC, RBC, MCV, hematocrit, hemoglobin and lymphocyte levels were observed in this group. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of FOS at a dose of 1% improved growth performance, beneficial intestinal microbiata and stimulate immune response of stellate sturgeon juvenile. PMID:23973846

  1. Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Russian Sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt&Ratzeburg, 1833 in Grow-out Phase Cultured in the Black Sea

    Mehmet Kocabaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the growth performance of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii throughout 5 years and to investigate problems encountered in grow-out phase. Fish samples (2750.88±351.18 g, 80.18±6.49 cm mean±SD were equally stocked into fiberglass tanks, three replicate per treatment and fed for 5 years. Gain of weight and length, Specific Growth Rate (SGR, Condition Factor (CF and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were determined. Our results indicated that mean final length and weight were 106.34±2.79 (cm and 6651.16±3.16 (g. The mean condition factor (CF at year 5 was 0.51. FCR values fluctuated and the highest value of food conversion rate (FCR was determined in 4th year. During the rearing period of Russian sturgeon, SGR values decreased dramatically from 2.88 to 1.83. In conclusion, slow growth was determined in Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii. Therefore, there is need for extensive evaluation and comparison of data obtained from field studies and those obtained from laboratory studies.

  2. Růst jesetera malého (Acipenser ruthenus) v podmínkách rybníkářství Pohořelice

    Baránek, V.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Peňáz, Milan; Mareš, J.; Spurný, P.; Němec, R.

    Brno : Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita, 2004 - (Spurný, P.), s. 119-127 ISBN 80-7157-810-X. [55 let výuky rybářské specializace na MZLU v Brně. Brno (CZ), 30.11.2004-01.12.2004] R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3028; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Acipenser ruthenus Subject RIV: GL - Fishing

  3. Researches considering the effect of the gradual insertion of fodder in alimentation for the growth rhythm of Siberian sturgeon larvae (Acipenser baerii – Brandt, 1869) reared in superintensive system

    Daniel OPREA; Lucian OPREA

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was made inside of private sturgeon rearing farm S.C. “Beluga Farm Group” S.R.L. from Calarasi County. The rearing system is flow-through and is emplaced into an enclosure as halltype. Sturgeon larvae were reared in spun glass troughs of a 0.167 m3 capacity. Experiment duration was 20 days. Biological material, Siberian sturgeon larvae (Acipenser baerii – Brandt, 1869), was gained by artificial breeding of breeders imported from Germany. The experiment was going off with two va...

  4. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  5. Neomycin damage and regeneration of hair cells in both mechanoreceptor and electroreceptor lateral line organs of the larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Fan, Chunxin; Zou, Sha; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Song, Jiakun

    2016-05-01

    The lateral line found in some amphibians and fishes has two distinctive classes of sensory organs: mechanoreceptors (neuromasts) and electroreceptors (ampullary organs). Hair cells in neuromasts can be damaged by aminoglycoside antibiotics and they will regenerate rapidly afterward. Aminoglycoside sensitivity and the capacity for regeneration have not been investigated in ampullary organs. We treated Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae with neomycin and observed loss and regeneration of sensory hair cells in both organs by labeling with DASPEI and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The numbers of sensory hair cells in both organs were reduced to the lowest levels at 6 hours posttreatment (hpt). New sensory hair cells began to appear at 12 hpt and were regenerated completely in 7 days. To reveal the possible mechanism for ampullary hair cell regeneration, we analyzed cell proliferation and the expression of neural placodal gene eya1 during regeneration. Both cell proliferation and eya1 expression were concentrated in peripheral mantle cells and both increased to the highest level at 12 hpt, which is consistent with the time course for regeneration of the ampullary hair cells. Furthermore, we used Texas Red-conjugated gentamicin in an uptake assay following pretreatment with a cation channel blocker (amiloride) and found that entry of the antibiotic was suppressed in both organs. Together, our results indicate that ampullary hair cells in Siberian sturgeon larvae can be damaged by neomycin exposure and they can regenerate rapidly. We suggest that the mechanisms for aminoglycoside uptake and hair cell regeneration are conserved for mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1443-1456, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26502298

  6. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  7. Molecular cloning of cDNA of gonadotropin-releasing hormones in the Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) and the effect of 17β-estradiol on gene expression.

    Yue, Huamei; Ye, Huan; Chen, Xihua; Cao, Hong; Li, Chuangju

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, is a rare and large-sized anadromous bony fish and understanding of its reproductive regulation is a precondition for controlled reproduction. In this study, two gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) precursor cDNAs, AsGnRH1 (mammalian type) and AsGnRH2 (chicken type 2), were sequenced in A. sinensis. The precursor cDNAs of the AsGnRH1 and AsGnRH2 are 381 and 649 base pairs (bp), encoding signal peptide plus precursors of 92 and 86 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignment suggests that AsGnRH1 and AsGnRH2 decapeptides are highly conserved among vertebrates. Besides, AsGnRH1 had closer evolutionary relationship with tetrapods, while AsGnRH2 was conservatively grouped with teleosts in the phylogenetic analysis. Tissue distribution analysis shows that AsGnRH2 is exclusively transcribed in the brain, whereas AsGnRH1 exhibits more extensive tissue distribution including brain, liver, spleen and gonad. Furthermore, Chinese sturgeons were subcutaneously implanted with 17β-estradiol (E2) and the effect of E2 on brain GnRH mRNA levels was evaluated by real-time PCR. A significant increase in AsGnRH1 and AsGnRH2 mRNA levels is detected in fish receiving E2 implantation compared to controls after one month (P<0.05). These results indicate that E2 exerts positive feedback effects on the transcription of the two GnRHs in immature Chinese sturgeon. PMID:23994573

  8. RESEARCH REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF CORPORAL WEIGHTES AND FOOD CONVERSSION ON JUVENILE OF SIBERIAN STURGEON (Acipenser baeri RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    M. BURA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon growth, in Banat's Universsity of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, on 2851 juveniles of Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baeri, aged between 132-175 days. Juveniles were maintained in 4 tanks with volume of 5.63 m3, fed with granulated feed of 2 mm (44 & 22% PB and GB. Every 2 weeks the weight and body length was determinate on an effective of 30 individuals from each tank. Based on the obtained body weight, it has been established the food quantity used and bioproductive indicators. Having the weight differences between the individuals of a Siberian sturgeon population, it is needed at certain time intervals to practice assortment by body development. At the age of 175 days, Siberian sturgeons reached an average body weight between 90.13 ± 4.56 g and 197.63 ± 7.22 g and average body length between 28.73 ± 0.43 cm and 37.55 ± 0.38 cm. Individual values of minimum and maximum body weight varied between 32 g and 307 g and body length between 24.5 cm and 42 cm. For the entire population of Siberian sturgeons, there is a middle and high variability for the average body weight and a small variability for the average body length. During the 43 experimental days, the 2851 Siberian sturgeons have acquired a real weight gain of 184.66 kg, with a conversion factor of 0.84 kilograms of feed / kg growth and an index of feed conversion of 1.19 kilograms spore / kg feed consumed.

  9. Effect of Water Velocity on Behavior,Antioxidant Enzyme and Residues of Enrofloxacin-HCl in Siberian Sturgeon(Acipenser baerii)%流速对西伯利亚鲟(Acipenser baerii)行为特性,抗氧化酶及体内盐酸恩诺沙星残留的影响

    宋波澜; 许忠能; 王占全

    2014-01-01

    以西伯利亚鲟幼鱼[体质量(82.1±4.9)g]为实验材料,设置0 BL/s对照组,1.0和2.0 BL/s (体长/秒)3种流速条件,于处理后1 d,15 d和30 d 取样,进行鱼类行为学指标和抗氧化酶的测定。在此基础上,以50 mg/kg剂量,连续7 d混饲给药,研究了流速对停药后西伯利亚鲟肌肉组织中盐酸恩诺沙星残留的影响。结果表明:和静水对照组相比,实验期间各时段2个流速组西伯利亚鲟摆尾频率和趋流率均显著上升( P<0.05)。1.0 BL/s组流速下有最高的趋流率,2.0 BL/s组流速下有最高的摆尾频率;同一流速下西伯利亚鲟摆尾频率和趋流率随养殖时间的延长没有明显差异。 CAT、SOD和MDA 活力随着流速的增加而显著增强,两流速组均显著大于静水组( P<0.05),2.0 BL/s组流速下活力最高;3种抗氧化酶活力随养殖时间的延长差异均不显著。与静水对照组相比,停药后各时间点2.0 BL/s流速组鱼肌肉盐酸恩诺沙星含量均显著减少( P<0.05),在停药第8天已低于检出限,1.0 BL/s流速组鱼在停药第12天已低于检出限,而静水对照组则在停药20 d才低于检出限。研究结果说明适当的水流刺激可以诱导鱼类进行逆流运动,促进鱼体抗氧化酶活力的激活和加速药物残留的排除。%The influence of water velocity (0,1.0 and 2.0 BL/s),on behavior,antioxidant enzyme and residues of enrofloxacin in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii[weight (82.1±4.9)g] was studied.The experiments were divided into 1 d,15 d and 30 d in three stages.On this basis experiments were conducted to study the res-idues and depletion of enrofloxacin-HCl of Acipenser baerii after different water velocity treatments ( 0,1.0 and 2.0 BL/s) .Muscle was sampled after oral administration at the dose of 50 mg/kg for seven consecutive days.It was found that the rheotaxis frequency ( RF) and the tail beat

  10. Prediction of Secondary Structure and B Cell Epitope of GH Protein from Acipenser sinensis%中华鲟GH蛋白二级结构和B细胞抗原表位的预测

    刘红艳; 杨东; 张繁荣; 余来宁

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to predict the secondary structure and B cell epitope of growth hormone (GH) protein from Acipenser sinensis. [Method] With the amino acid sequence of GH protein from A.sinensis as the base, the secondary structure of GH protein from A.sinensis was predicted by the method of Garnier-Robson, Chou-Fasman and Karplus-Schulz, and its cell epitope was predicted by the method of Kyte-Doolittle, Emini and Jameson-Wolf. [Result] The sections of 18-23, 55-56, 67-73, 83-86, 112-114, 151-157 and 209-211 in the N terminal of GH protein molecule had softer structure and these sections could sway or fold to produce more complex tertiary structure. The sections of 19-23, 51-71, 84-95, 128-139, 164-176 and 189-196 in the N terminal of GH protein could be the epitope of B cell and there were flexible regions in these sections or near these sections of GH protein molecule. So the dominant regions could be in these sections or near these sections. [Conclusion] The research provided the basis for the preparation of monoclonal antibody of GH protein from A.sinensis and provided the reference for the discussion for the molecular regulation mechanism of A.sinensis.

  11. Researches considering the effect of the gradual insertion of fodder in alimentation for the growth rhythm of Siberian sturgeon larvae (Acipenser baerii – Brandt, 1869 reared in superintensive system

    Daniel OPREA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was made inside of private sturgeon rearing farm S.C. “Beluga Farm Group” S.R.L. from Calarasi County. The rearing system is flow-through and is emplaced into an enclosure as halltype. Sturgeon larvae were reared in spun glass troughs of a 0.167 m3 capacity. Experiment duration was 20 days. Biological material, Siberian sturgeon larvae (Acipenser baerii – Brandt, 1869, was gained by artificial breeding of breeders imported from Germany. The experiment was going off with two variants and three replications each. The rearing density was the same in both experimental variants, 500 ex/tank respectively. The diet of larvae from each variant was different as follows: in variant I, the larvae were fed exclusively on live diet represented by Tubifex species; in variant II, the larvae were gradually carried over from a diet consisting of Tubifex species to a diet represented only by Perla Larva fodder with a protean content of 62.0 %. On both experimental variants, fed delivery was achieved in the same way, namely the same number of daily intakes, dispensed at the same time. At the end of theexperiment, the results were as follows: in variant I, the survival rate was 75 % and the final average body mass of larvae 2.69 g/ex, in variant II, the survival rate was 66 % and the final average body mass2.38 g/ex.

  12. LES FRAYÈRES POTENTIELLES DE L’ESTURGEON EUROPÉEN ACIPENSER STURIO L. 1758 DANS LE BASSIN GARONNE-DORDOGNE. MÉTHODES D’INVESTIGATION, ÉTAT ACTUEL ET PERSPECTIVES.

    JEGO S.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre du programme de restauration de l’esturgeon européen Acipenser sturio L. 1758, nous avons recensé et caractérisé l’ensemble des frayères potentielles de cette espèce sur les fleuves Garonne et Dordogne. L’objectif de ce travail était de réaliser un premier bilan sur l’état actuel de ces zones et d’évaluer leur possible utilisation comme frayère. Avant ce travail, les seules données disponibles étaient constituées par une liste de frayères et de zones de pêche de géniteurs répertoriées en 1952 et 1980 par enquêtes auprès des pêcheurs. Une analyse des données publiées sur les autres espèces d’esturgeons a permis de cerner les principales caractéristiques physiques d’une frayère d’esturgeons. En croisant les informations issues de ces 2 sources, historique et bibliographique, nous avons retenu une liste de sites qui ont ensuite été caractérisés lors de campagnes sur le terrain. Cette caractérisation a porté sur la bathymétrie, le courant, la nature du substrat, la position dans le paysage et les impacts anthropiques immédiats. Les résultats de cette étude ont montré que la majorité des 28 sites étudiés répondait aux caractéristiques d’une frayère d’esturgeon en terme de courant, profondeur et substrat. Ils pouvaient donc être considérés comme frayères potentielles et leur capacité d’accueil était suffisante à moyen terme. Néanmoins il apparaît nécessaire de protéger réglementairement l’ensemble de ces sites afin de les soustraire aux impacts négatifs d’activité anthropiques.

  13. Acquisition of glial cells missing 2 enhancers contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish.

    Takanori Shono

    Full Text Available Glial cells missing 2 (gcm2 encoding a GCM-motif transcription factor is expressed in the parathyroid in amniotes. In contrast, gcm2 is expressed in pharyngeal pouches (a homologous site of the parathyroid, gills, and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, a subset of ionocytes on the skin surface of the teleost fish zebrafish. Ionocytes are specialized cells that are involved in osmotic homeostasis in aquatic vertebrates. Here, we showed that gcm2 is essential for the development of HRCs and Na(+-Cl(- co-transporter-rich cells (NCCCs, another subset of ionocytes in zebrafish. We also identified gcm2 enhancer regions that control gcm2 expression in ionocytes of zebrafish. Comparisons of the gcm2 locus with its neighboring regions revealed no conserved elements between zebrafish and tetrapods. Furthermore, We observed gcm2 expression patterns in embryos of the teleost fishes Medaka (Oryzias latipes and fugu (Fugu niphobles, the extant primitive ray-finned fishes Polypterus (Polypterus senegalus and sturgeon (a hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruhenus, and the amphibian Xenopus (Xenopus laevis. Although gcm2-expressing cells were observed on the skin surface of Medaka and fugu, they were not found in Polypterus, sturgeon, or Xenopus. Our results suggest that an acquisition of enhancers for the expression of gcm2 contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish during evolution.

  14. 中华鲟神经内分泌多肽7B2基因克隆及组织特异性表达%Cloning and expression analysis of a neuroendocrine secretory protein 7B2 in Acipenser sinensis

    刘婷; 章龙珍; 张涛; 庄平; 冯广朋; 赵峰; 马境

    2011-01-01

    In order to clone full-length 7B2 gene and characterize its' tissue expression profile in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis ), RT-PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were adopted to obtain full-length cDNA. A full-length 986 bp cDNA sequence in A. sinensis was cloned, including a 711 bp complete ORF encoding a 236 amino acids peptide, a 14 bp long 5′-untranslate region and a 261 bp long 3′-untranslate region. The first 43 of the 236 amino acids were 7B2 signal peptide. The 7B2 in A. sinens showed high similarity to that of Danio rerio. The protein analysis showed that the A. sinensis 7B2 had the closest relationship with the D. redo. Futhermore, 7B2 mRNA tissue expressed profile was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. In the nine examined tissues, the 7B2 gene was expressed strongly in brain, weakly in heart, gonad and pancreas, and little in kidney, bowel and skin, but hardly expressed in gill and liver.%以中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)脑垂体总RNA为模板,采用RT-PCR和RACE方法,获得中华鲟神经内分泌多肽(782)基因的3个重叠片段,测序后拼接得到986 bp全长基因序列,其中包括5端非翻译区(5'-UTR)14 bp、3'端非翻译区(3'-UTR)261 bp和开放阅读框711 bp.翻译编码236个氨基酸.其中前43个氨基酸为782的信号肽.经BLAST比对发现中华鲟782蛋白的同源性与斑马鱼(Danio rerio)的相似性最高为82%.系统发育分析表明,中华鲟与斑马鱼亲缘关系最近.半定量RT-PCR分析表明:在脑中782 mRNA表达量最高,心脏、性腺、胰等组织中表达次之,肠、肾、皮肤等组织中少量表达,肝和鳃几乎不表达.

  15. Cloning and expression of Tbx3 gene in Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii%西伯利亚鲟Tbx3基因的克隆和表达分析

    张昊; 范纯新; 宋佳坤

    2012-01-01

    Tbx3, a member of the TBX2 subfamily of T-box gene family, encodes a transcription factor with a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, which called T-domain. Tbx3 is involved in morphogenesis and organogenesis in vertebrates, such as limb development, heart remodeling, and neural placode differentiation. In the present study, a full-length 2 908 bp Tbx3 cDNA from Acipenser baerii (AbTbx3) was obtained using RT-PCR and RACE technique, which includes a 2 166 bp complete open reading frame encoding a putative peptide of 721 amino acids. AbTbx3 shares 73.5% identity with its human homolog. Particularly, the DNA-binding domain of AbTbx3 shared 95.2% identity with human Tbx3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AbTbx3 was grouped with Tbx3s in other vertebrates, which were clustered with Tbx2s and separated from Tbx4/5s. The predicted secondary and three-dimensional structures of the T-domain of AbTbx3 were remarkably similar to human Tbx3. Through semi-quantity RT-PCR, the expression of AbTbx3 was first detected at blastula stage during Siberian sturgeon embryonic development, increased gradually, reached its peak at early tail-bud stage and then decreased slightly. In adult sturgeon, AbTbx3 was strongly expressed in eye, brain, gill, intestines, pectoral fin and pelvic fin, but not in liver, blood, heart, kidney and muscle. The whole mount in situ hybridization showed that AbTbx3 was mainly expressed in the otic vesicle, hindbrain, dorsal notochord, pineal organ and dorsal fin bud in the larvae of stage 37 and 43.%Tbx3基因是一类重要的转录因子,在形态发生和器官形成中发挥着重要作用.该文克隆了西伯利亚鲟Tbx3基因(AbTbx3)cDNA的全长序列,该cDNA全长2 908 bp,包含一个2 166 bp的开放阅读框,编码721个氨基酸的多肽.分析表明:AbTbx3和人Tbx3的T-box结构域蛋白序列同源性达到95.2%,三维结构也具有高度的相似性.系统进化分析表明:AbTbx3与其他物种的Tbx3聚为一支,并在一个大的

  16. 中华鲟初次全人工繁殖的特性研究%THE REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF FIRST FILIAL GENERATION OF ACIPENSER SINENSIS GROWING UP IN THE FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

    郭柏福; 常剑波; 肖慧; 朱滨; 万建义; 田家元; 舒德斌

    2011-01-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gary) is an endangered anadromous species in the IUCN Red List. It was characterized as the national level key protected animal of China in 1988 and under the protection of CITES Appendix II in 1998. In order to realize the artificial propagation, mature Chinese sturgeons were captured below the Gezhouba Dam in the Yangtze River every year since 1982. And the induction of wild Chinese sturgeon succeeded in 1984. From then on, the artificially reproduced larvae of Chinese sturgeon were released every year. With the declining of the population, capture of wild Chinese sturgeon was prohibited by the government from 2008, so induction of cultured sturgeons was necessary to increase the quantity of larvae in the Yangtze River. From 1987 to 1997, many progenies of induced Chinese sturgeons captured from the Yangtze River were tried to culture in complete freshwater environment in Chinese sturgeon Institute. Twenty four growing-up individuals were selected for the attempts of the artificial propagation study in 2006. We successfully made the gonads of these individuals develop into mature in freshwater environment via controlling culture environment temperature, lowering temperature to induce and supplying particular nutrient in 2009. The gonads were monitored by the combination of ultrasound detection and manual puncture detection. Primary biological data of egg, such as egg diameter and egg weight, the migration of the egg polar nucleus, were checked to confirm whether the female were mature and the microscope was used to check whether the male were mature. There were totally eight individuals whose gonads reached Phase III in 2008 and 2009. We found two mature brood fish (No. 6B7A and 391D) suitable to conduct artificial propagation via checking gonads in September 2009, and then we tried to conduct the first artificial induction in 29 September 2009, and part of the semen were Cryopreservation. In 22 November 2009, we confirmed

  17. Tip enhancement

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue profiles of a HSP70 cDNA in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii%西伯利亚鲟热休克蛋白HSP70 cDNA的克隆、序列分析和组织分布

    田照辉; 徐绍刚; 王巍; 胡红霞; 董颖; 宋超

    2012-01-01

    A full length cDNA encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was cloned from liver RNA in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) ,and was found to contain 2 343 bp, including 5'untranslated region of 140 bp, 3'un-translated region of 256 bp and an open reading frame of 1 947 bp. The deduced 648 amino acids sequence with estimated molecular of 71 000 and theoretical isoelectric point of 5. 21 had high similarity with other vertebrate HSP70 genes in NCBI. Sequence analysis indicated that the HSP70 cDNA was consisted of three signature sequences IDL-GTTYS, IFDLGGGTFDVSrL and IVLVGGSTRIPKIQK belonging to HSP70 family. Phylogenetic tree revealed that Alligator mississippiensis, Xenopus laevis ,Ambystoma mexicanum and Sebrian Sturgeon showed a close genetic relationship. Using fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR.the HSP70 was expressed in the liver, gill, spleen, heart, intestine, muscle, gonad and brain of Siberian sturgeon, with the peak in the spleen and the minimum in the liver (P<0.05) , indicating that the HSP70 cDNA could be used in understanding of anti-stress mechanism in Siberian sturgeon and in genetic breeding improvement.%采用普通PCR和RACE技术克隆了西伯利亚鲟Acipenser baerii热休克蛋白HSP70 cDNA的全序列,该序列全长为2343 bp,其中5'非编码区为140 bp,3'非编码区为256 bp,可读编码框(ORF)为1947bp,编码为648个氨基酸.该氨基酸序列中含有HSP70家族的3个特征序列——IDLGTTYS、IFDLGGGTFDVSIL和ⅣLVGGSTRIPKIQK,细胞质特征性保守序列为EEVD,C端重复序列为GGMP.该cDNA序列与其它生物的HSP70 cDNA序列一样具有很高的相似性.系统发育树显示,西伯利亚鲟与非洲爪蛙蟾Xenopus laevis、密西西比短吻鳄Alligator mississippiensis、美西螈Ambystoma mexicanum的亲缘关系较近.实时定量分析结果表明,水温为17.5℃时,西伯利亚鲟肝脏、鳃、脾脏、心脏、肌肉、中肠、性腺、脑8种组织中均有HSP70表达,其中HSP70在脾脏中的表达

  19. Postoperative enhancement

    The use of contrast agents in MR imaging and CT was compared in the postoperative state in a clinical series and an animal model and was found to vary in two ways. First, gadolinium appeared to be more sensitive than iodinated contrast agent in CT. Specifically, enhancement was noted earlier within the 1st week and later after several months than enhancement with CT. Second, because of the evolution of hemoglobin breakdown products, MR images became increasingly more difficult to interpret after a few days due to residual blood at the operative site. With CT, the visualization of blood diminished with time. In conclusion, the temporal evolution of contrast enhancement in MR imaging and CT is roughly parallel, although it may be even more important in MR to image as early as clinically possible in the postoperative state. Conversely, in the long-term postoperative state, residual normal postoperative enhancement can be seen with contrast-enhanced MR imaging when these changes will no longer be visible with contrast-enhanced CT

  20. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  1. Speech enhancement

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  2. LASIK enhancements.

    Durrie, D S; Vande Garde, T L

    2000-01-01

    As the field of refractive surgery continues to evolve, an increasing number of surgical options are available for LASIK enhancements. Nonetheless, older methods such as AK continue to play an important role in enhancement procedures. Improvements in instruments and techniques allow for previously made LASIK flaps to be safely lifted for additional myopic or hyperopic ablations. Newer methods such as Intacs placement provide an effective option for patients who are not good candidates for further ablative procedures. These advancements allow refractive surgeons to treat a wider range of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism effectively in eyes with a history of LASIK surgery. PMID:10941651

  3. Speech Enhancement

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    and their performance bounded and assessed in terms of noise reduction and speech distortion. The book shows how various filter designs can be obtained in this framework, including the maximum SNR, Wiener, LCMV, and MVDR filters, and how these can be applied in various contexts, like in single......Speech enhancement is a classical problem in signal processing, yet still largely unsolved. Two of the conventional approaches for solving this problem are linear filtering, like the classical Wiener filter, and subspace methods. These approaches have traditionally been treated as different classes...

  4. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  5. Tissue profiles and expression of immunoglobulin M heavy chain mRNA in normal and bacterial infected Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii%西伯利亚鲟免疫球蛋白M重链区mRNA的组织分布和细菌感染后的表达

    田照辉; 徐绍刚; 胡红霞; 朱华

    2014-01-01

    根据GenBank登录的西伯利亚鲟Acipernser baerii免疫球蛋白M重链区mRNA ( IgHM mRNA)设计引物,进行SYBR green实时定量。结果表明:鲟的脑、鳃、性腺、心脏、后肠、肝脏、肌肉、脾脏8种组织中, IgHM mRNA在脾脏中表达最高,在肝脏和心脏中表达较少,在脑、鳃、性腺、后肠、肌肉5种组织中几乎不表达;在水温22.6~24.5℃时,按100 g体质量注射0.1 mL菌液,给体质量为(260.2±37.8) g的西伯利亚鲟注射浓度为2.0×107 CFU/mL的维氏气单胞菌Aeromonas veronii,注射后40 h鱼开始死亡,62 h后停止死亡,注射后直至62 h时,处理组脾脏IgHM mRNA表达量一直处于对照组水平,93 h时处理组脾脏IgHM mRNA显著升高(P<0.05),为93 h对照组含量的3.7倍,说明机体已经开始特异性免疫应答。%Tissue profiles and expression of immunoglobulin M heavy chain mRNA ( IgHM mRNA ) in normal and bacterial challenging Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii with body weight of (260. 2±37. 8) g were investigated by a primer designed based on Siberian sturgeon in GenBank,and by Sybrgreen real time PCR. The results showed that IgHM mRNA was expressed in abundance in spleen,a little amount of IgHM mRNA expression in liver and heart, and almost no IgHM mRNA expression in gill, hindgut, muscle, gonad and brain. The mortality was observed in the Siberian sturgeon with muscular injection of pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas veronii with density of 2. 0 ×107 CFU/mL at a dose of 0. 1 mL/100 g body weight at water temperature of 22. 6-24. 5℃ 40 h after injection. Sixty-two h after injection, however, no mortality was found in the Siberian sturgeon with IgHM mRNA expression in spleen at a level as that in the fish in the control group. The Siberian sturgeon challenged for 93 h showed as higher 3. 7 times IgHM mRNA expression in spleen as that in the fish in the control group, indicating that the challenged Siberian sturgeon had activated specific immune response.

  6. Proteome analysis of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) ova.

    Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2008-12-01

    The Persian sturgeon ova are a key material both for inevitable artificial propagation and for caviar production. In this study, the proteome profile of Persian sturgeon ova was analyzed using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF in order to determine its protein composition. Out of 192 spots analyzed with MALDI-TOF/TOF, 107 spots corresponding to 73 different proteins were identified. The identified proteins were classified into 11 groups with regard to their main known function involving cell structure (24.65%), translation and transcription (12.32%), metabolism and energy production (12.32%), protein synthesis (9.60%), membrane protein receptors or cell signaling (8.21%), cell defense (5.47%), transport (5.47%), cell division (8.21%), vitellogenin (2.73%), unclassified (6.84%) and unknown function (4.10%). The results of this study provide a valuable resource for molecular analysis of normal and abnormal conditions affecting female reproduction. Moreover, it may help to better understand factors affecting caviar quality during refrigerated storage. PMID:18054827

  7. Fertility of a spontaneous hexaploid male Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii

    Havelka, M.; Hulák, M.; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Lieckfeldt, D.; Ludwig, A.; Rodina, M.; Gela, D.; Pšenička, M.; Bytyutskyy, D.; Flajšhans, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2014). ISSN 1471-2156 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0049; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/01.0024; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/08/0824 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Acipenseridae * polyploidy determination * sperm quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2014

  8. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  9. Use of multidimensional modeling to evaluate a channel restoration design for the Kootenai River, Idaho

    Logan, B.L.; McDonald, R.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Kinzel, P.J.; Barton, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    River channel construction projects aimed at restoring or improving degraded waterways have become common but have been variously successful. In this report a methodology is proposed to evaluate channel designs before channels are built by using multidimensional modeling and analysis. This approach allows detailed analysis of water-surface profiles, sediment transport, and aquatic habitat that may result if the design is implemented. The method presented here addresses the need to model a range of potential stream-discharge and channel-roughness conditions to best assess the function of the design channel for a suite of possible conditions. This methodology is demonstrated by using a preliminary channel-restoration design proposed for a part of the Kootenai River in northern Idaho designated as critical habitat for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and evaluating the design on the basis of simulations with the Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model. This evaluation indicated substantial problems with the preliminary design because boundary conditions used in the design were inconsistent with best estimates of future conditions. As a result, simulated water-surface levels did not meet target levels that corresponded to the designed bankfull surfaces; therefore, the flood plain would not function as intended. Sediment-transport analyses indicated that both the current channel of the Kootenai River and the design channel are largely unable to move the bed material through the reach at bankfull discharge. Therefore, sediment delivered to the design channel would likely be deposited within the reach instead of passing through it as planned. Consequently, the design channel geometry would adjust through time. Despite these issues, the design channel would provide more aquatic habitat suitable for spawning white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) at lower discharges than is currently available in the

  10. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. II. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa.

    Steckler, Natalie K; Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Sutton, Deanna A; Lindner, Jonathan R; Wickes, Brian L; Frasca, Salvatore; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-10-16

    A series of fungal cases in hatchery-reared juvenile and young adult Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii and white sturgeon A. transmontanus occurred at production facilities in Florida and California, USA, respectively. Affected fish exhibited abnormal orientation and/or buoyancy, emaciation, coelomic distension, exophthalmos, cutaneous erythema, and ulcerative skin and eye lesions. Necropsies revealed haemorrhage throughout the coelom, serosanguinous coelomic effusion and organomegaly with nodular or cystic lesions in multiple organs. Fungal hyphae were observed in 27 fish (24 A. baerii and 3 A. transmontanus) via microscopic examination of tissue wet mounts and on slides prepared from colonies grown on culture media. Histopathological examination of these infected tissues revealed extensive infiltration by melanised fungal hyphae that were recovered in culture. Phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the fungal isolates with the use of the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S rRNA gene confirmed the aetiological agent as Veronaea botryosa. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of V. botryosa infection in fish, although melanised fungi of the closely related genus Exophiala are well-known pathogens of freshwater and marine fishes. PMID:25320035

  11. EFFECTS OF ACUTE THERMAL STRESS ON HSP70 MRNA, PHYSIOLOGY AND NONSPECIFIC IMMUNITY IN SIBERIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER BAERII)%急性热应激对西伯利亚鲟HSP70mRNA表达、血清皮质醇和非特异性免疫的影响

    田照辉; 徐绍刚; 王巍; 胡红霞; 马国庆

    2013-01-01

    The effect of acute thermal stress on HSP1Q mRNA expression, physiology and nonspecific immunity were investigated in Siberian sturgeon. In the experiment, ten fish were transferred froml7.5℃ to 27.5℃ water, then data were measured at lh and 3h. Fish in 17.5℃ water were taken as Oh group. Respiratory rate increased from 80-90 breaths/min to 210 breaths/min, then decreased to 180 breaths/min after 0.5h. Among the three tissues including gill, spleen and brain, the HSP70 mRNA expression in gill rose most quickly after lh stress, and was about 1.63 fold compared with the Oh group (P<0.05), then remained this level to 3h; The HSP10 mRNA expression in spleen and brain had nearly no change in lh thermal stress, then rose quickly from lh to 3h in the two tissues, especially in brain at 3h rose most quickly to about 1.77 fold compared with the lh group (P<0.05). Compared with the Oh group, serum cortisol increased quickly and was 5.14 fold (PO.05) at lh, then decreased quickly to 2.1 fold at 3h. Spleen macrophage respiratory burst achieved the maximum (P<0.05) at lh, then reduced to the Oh group level. Serum complement C3 increased at lh and decreased significantly at 3h (P<0.05). Serum lysozyme activity firstly elevated then decreased but had no significant differences. Serum SOD activity decreased when thermal stress time prolonged, and achieved the minimum at 3h (P<0.05). Serum MDA content decreased when thermal stress time prolonged and had no significant difference. The results showed that lh acute thermal stress promoted the nonspecific immunity and tolerance, but 3h acute thermal stress decreased it.%为研究西伯利亚鲟(Acipenser baerii)对急性热应激的抗逆机理,将体质量为(155.47±19.50) g的鱼从17.5 ℃迅速转至27.5 ℃水中,在1h和3h取样测定HSP70 mRNA表达变化、血清皮质醇和非特异性免疫指标.结果显示:急性热应激时鳃、脾和脑的HSP70 mRNA表达量升高,具有组织特异性,热应激1h时

  12. Current enhancement update

    Net current enhancement to levels in excess of the beam current has been observed in gases at pressures excess of 50 torr. We delineate the regimes where enhancement is observed. The experimental results fall into two very distinct classes; current enhancement at injection where the beam is only slightly displaced and current enhancement clearly associated with the high amplitude hose instability. A careful theoretical and experimental study of the diagnostics revealed no fundamental flaws although there are several complex and unlikely scenarios which could introduce fictitious current enhancement. Theoretical efforts indicate several mechanisms for generating enhancement but none of the theories can account for the detailed observations. 4 references, 4 figures

  13. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  14. Smart Image Enhancement Process

    Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Contrast and lightness measures are used to first classify the image as being one of non-turbid and turbid. If turbid, the original image is enhanced to generate a first enhanced image. If non-turbid, the original image is classified in terms of a merged contrast/lightness score based on the contrast and lightness measures. The non-turbid image is enhanced to generate a second enhanced image when a poor contrast/lightness score is associated therewith. When the second enhanced image has a poor contrast/lightness score associated therewith, this image is enhanced to generate a third enhanced image. A sharpness measure is computed for one image that is selected from (i) the non-turbid image, (ii) the first enhanced image, (iii) the second enhanced image when a good contrast/lightness score is associated therewith, and (iv) the third enhanced image. If the selected image is not-sharp, it is sharpened to generate a sharpened image. The final image is selected from the selected image and the sharpened image.

  15. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  16. [Medical image enhancement: Sharpening].

    Kats, L; Vered, M

    2015-04-01

    Most digital imaging systems provide opportunities for image enhancement operations. These are applied to improve the original image and to make the image more appealing visually. One possible means of enhancing digital radiographic image is sharpening. The purpose of sharpening filters is to improve image quality by removing noise or edge enhancement. Sharpening filters may make the radiographic images subjectively more appealing. But during this process, important radiographic features may disappear while artifacts that simulate pathological process might be generated. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for dentists to be familiar with and aware of the use of image enhancement operations, provided by medical digital imaging programs. PMID:26255429

  17. Enhancing human capacities

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  18. EDITORIAL: Nano-enhanced! Nano-enhanced!

    Demming, Anna

    2010-08-01

    In the early 19th century, a series of engineering and scientific breakthroughs by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, James Watt and many others led to the foundations of thermodynamics and a new pedigree of mechanical designs that reset the standards of engineering efficiency. The result was the industrial revolution. In optical- and electronics- based nanotechnology research, a similarly subtle bargain is being made; we cannot alter the fact that systems have a finite response to external excitations, but what we can do is enhance that response. The promising attributes of ZnO have long been recognised; its large band gap and high exciton binding energy lend it to a number of applications from laser diodes, LEDs, optical waveguides and switches, and acousto-optic applications to sun cream. When this material is grown into nanowires and nanorods, the material gains a whole new dimension, as quantum confinement effects come into play. Discovery of the enhanced radiative recombination, which has potential for exploitation in many optical and opto-electronic applications, drove intensive research into investigating these structures and into finding methods to synthesise them with optimised properties. This research revealed further subtleties in the properties of these materials. One example is the work by researchers in the US reporting synthesis procedures that produced a yield—defined as the weight ratio of ZnO nanowires to the original graphite flakes—of 200%, and which also demonstrated, through photoluminescence analysis of nanowires grown on graphite flakes and substrates, that graphite induces oxygen vacancies during annealing, which enhances the deep-level to near-band-edge emission ratio [1]. Other one-dimensional materials that provide field emission enhancements include carbon nanotubes, and work has been performed to find ways of optimising the emission efficiency from these structures, such as through control of the emitter density [2]. One of the

  19. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  20. Hierarchical image enhancement

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is an important technique in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical image enhancement approach based on the structure layer and texture layer. In the structure layer, we propose a structure-based method based on GMM, which better exploits structure details with fewer noise. In the texture layer, we present a structure-filtering method to filter unwanted texture with keeping completeness of detected salient structure. Next, we introduce a structure constraint prior to integrate them, leading to an improved enhancement result. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves higher quality results than previous approaches.

  1. Ogallala Bedrock Data Enhancement

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set provides an enhanced estimate of the bedrock elevation of the Ogallala Aquifer in Kansas based on lithologic logs from a variety of sources. The data...

  2. ENHANCED DBSCAN ALGORITHM

    Priyamvada Paliwal#1, Meghna Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The DBSCAN algorithm can identify clusters in large spatial data sets by looking at the local density of database elements, using only one input parameter. This paper presents a comprehensive study of DBSCAN algorithm and the enhanced version of DBSCAN algorithm The salient of this paper to present enhanced DBSCAN algorithm with its implementation with the complexity and the difference between the older version of DBSCAN algorithm. And there are also additional features described with this al...

  3. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  4. Enhanced metabolite generation

    Chidambaram, Devicharan

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to the enhanced production of metabolites by a process whereby a carbon source is oxidized with a fermentative microbe in a compartment having a portal. An electron acceptor is added to the compartment to assist the microbe in the removal of excess electrons. The electron acceptor accepts electrons from the microbe after oxidation of the carbon source. Other transfers of electrons can take place to enhance the production of the metabolite, such as acids, biofuels or brewed beverages.

  5. Resonance Enhanced Tunneling

    Matsumoto, S; Matsumoto, Sh.

    2000-01-01

    Time evolution of tunneling in thermal medium is examined using the real-time semiclassical formalism previously developed. Effect of anharmonic terms in the potential well is shown to give a new mechanism of resonance enhanced tunneling. If the friction from environment is small enough, this mechanism may give a very large enhancement for the tunneling rate. The case of the asymmetric wine bottle potential is worked out in detail.

  6. Defining Human Enhancement

    Nordberg, Ana

    2016-01-01

    on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject-matter...... definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...... legal fields and jurisdictions may warrant different understandings of such concept. It reviews a number of different and often divergent concepts and taxonomies of human enhancement and concludes with the proposal and analysis of a definition: Use of technological means with the intention to improve...

  7. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. PMID:24117708

  8. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  9. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  10. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  11. Teaching to Enhance Research

    Harland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a conceptual argument for "teaching-led research" in which university lecturers construct courses that directly and positively influence their research, while at the same time, safeguard and enhance the student experience. A research-pedagogy for higher education considers the link between teaching and research,…

  12. Electrostatically Enhanced Vortex Separator

    Collins, Earl R.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed device removes fine particles from high-pressure exhaust gas of chemical reactor. Negatively charged sectors on rotating disks in vortex generator attracts positively charged particles from main stream of exhaust gas. Electrostatic charge enhances particle-separating action of vortex. Gas without particles released to atmosphere.

  13. Enhancement v neurofyziologii

    Syka, Josef

    Praha: Ústav státu a práva AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015, s. 92-102. ISBN 978-80-87439-18-0 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : bioethics * enhancement * cognitive abilities Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  14. Digital Mammogram Enhancement

    Haindl, Michal; Remeš, Václav

    Zagreb: InTech Education and Publishing, 2015 - (Fernandes, F.; Brasil, L.; da Veiga Guadagnin, R.), s. 63-78 ISBN 978-953-51-2138-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : mammogram enhancement * Markov random field * texture model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0445250.pdf

  15. Technology Enhanced Learning Spaces

    Specht, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Today’s tools and learning environments are often not designed for supporting situated, social, and mobile learning experiences and linking them to real world experiences. The talk will discuss some of the approaches for linking information space and real world space with new technology. By linking instruction, information and context in formal and informal learning spaces research on the effects of such technology enhanced learning spaces will be presented and it’s adoption and effects will ...

  16. An enhanced communication model

    Flensburg, Per

    2010-01-01

    The concept of information is often taken for more or less granted in research about information systems. This paper introduces a model starting with Shannon and Weaver data transmission model and ends with knowledge transfer between individual persons. The model is in fact an enhanced communication model giving a framework for discussing problems in the communication process. A specific feature of the model is the aim for providing design guidelines in designing the communication process. Th...

  17. Sleep enhances category learning

    Djonlagic, Ina; Rosenfeld, Andrew; Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, Mark; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The ability to categorize objects and events in the world around us is a fundamental and critical aspect of human learning. We trained healthy adults on a probabilistic category-learning task in two different training modes. The aim of this study was to see whether either form of probabilistic category learning (feedback or observational) undergoes subsequent enhancement during sleep. Our results suggest that after training, a good night of sleep can lead to improved performance the following...

  18. Surface plasmon enhanced LED

    Vučković, Jelena; Lončar, Marko; Painter, Oskar; Scherer, Axel

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. We designed and fabricated an LED based on a thin semiconductor membrane (λ/2) with silver mirrors. A large spontaneous emission enhancement and a high modulation speed are obtainable due to the strong localization of the electromagnetic field in the microcavity. The coupling to surface plasmon modes which are subsequently scattered out by means of a grating is used to improve the extraction efficiency of the LED. The bottom mirror is thick and unpatterned. The top mi...

  19. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagree...... that a "new, clearly defined standard of what "recovery" actually is", demands "a look beyond enhanced recovery"(1) for several reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  1. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Susanne Diekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  2. PENETRATION ENHANCERS: A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

    Singla Vikas; Saini Seema; Singh Gurpreet; Rana A.C.; Joshi Baibhav

    2011-01-01

    Skin penetration enhancers have been used to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs to be administered by topical and transdermal route. Enhancement in skin penetration via modification of the stratum corneum by hydration, or via use of chemical enhancers acting on the structure of the stratum corneum lipids and keratin, partitioning and solubility effects. The mechanism of action of penetration enhancers are used as an aid in potential clinical applications. Synthetic chemic...

  3. Enhanced CANDU 6 Reactor

    Full text: The CANDU 6 power reactor is visionary in its approach, remarkable for its on-power refuelling capability and proven over years of safe, economical and reliable power production. Developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, the CANDU 6 design offers excellent performance utilizing state-of-the-art technology. The first CANDU 6 plants went into service in the early 1980's as leading edge technology and the design has been continuously advanced to maintain superior performance with an outstanding safety record. The first CANDU 6 plants- Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau in Canada, Embalse in Argentina and Wolsong- Unit 1 in Korea have been in service for more than 21 years and are still producing electricity at peak performance and to the end of 2004, their average lifetime Capacity Factor was 83.2%. The newer CANDU 6 units in Romania (Cernavoda 1), Korea (Wolsong-Units 2, 3 and 4) and Qinshan (Phase III- Units 1 and 2) have also been performing at outstanding levels. The average lifetime Capacity Factor of the 10 CANDU 6 operating units around the world has been 87% to the end of 2004. Building on these successes, AECL is committed to the further development of this highly successful design, now focussing on meeting customer's needs for reduced costs, further improvements to plant operation and performance, enhanced safety and incorporating up-to-date technology as warranted. This has resulted in AECL embarking on improving the CANDU 6 design through an upgraded product termed as the 'Enhanced CANDU 6' (EC6)- which incorporates several attractive but proven features that will make the CANDU 6 reactor even more economical, safer and easier to operate. Some of the key features that will be incorporated in the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, decreasing the capital cost, dealing with obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the

  4. Enhancing LAN performance

    Held, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Enhancing LAN Performance, Fourth Edition explains how to connect geographically separated LANs with appropriate bandwidth, the issues to consider when weighing the use of multiport or dualport devices, how to estimate traffic for new networks, the effects of configuration changes on the performance of Ethernet and Token Ring networks, the design of switch-based networks that prevent traffic bottlenecks, and other critical topics. It provides the tools to address these issues in relation to specific network requirements. This volume develops mathematical models of various LAN performance issue

  5. The microwave enhanced bolometer

    The microwave enhanced bolometer is a proposed cryogenic detector with an amplification mechanism. It consists of a crystal covered with a superconducting film exposed to a microwave flux. Incident particles will create nonthermal phonons in the crystal which then produce excess quasiparticles in the film. Those quasiparticles lead to microwave absorption in the film and a subsequent heating of the entire bolometer. In this way the energy deposited by a particle in the crystal could be amplified linearly by gains of up to 104. This would make possible bolometers of several kilograms with an excellent energy resolution which could be used for dark matter search or double beta decay experiments. (orig.)

  6. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  7. Telemetry-Enhancing Scripts

    Maimone, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Scripts Providing a Cool Kit of Telemetry Enhancing Tools (SPACKLE) is a set of software tools that fill gaps in capabilities of other software used in processing downlinked data in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) flight and test-bed operations. SPACKLE tools have helped to accelerate the automatic processing and interpretation of MER mission data, enabling non-experts to understand and/or use MER query and data product command simulation software tools more effectively. SPACKLE has greatly accelerated some operations and provides new capabilities. The tools of SPACKLE are written, variously, in Perl or the C or C++ language. They perform a variety of search and shortcut functions that include the following: Generating text-only, Event Report-annotated, and Web-enhanced views of command sequences; Labeling integer enumerations with their symbolic meanings in text messages and engineering channels; Systematic detecting of corruption within data products; Generating text-only displays of data-product catalogs including downlink status; Validating and labeling of commands related to data products; Performing of convenient searches of detailed engineering data spanning multiple Martian solar days; Generating tables of initial conditions pertaining to engineering, health, and accountability data; Simplified construction and simulation of command sequences; and Fast time format conversions and sorting.

  8. Computer enhanced digital angiography

    A new computer image enhancement technique was employed on cardiac images of 10 dogs and 7 patients to demonstrate the feasibility of an on-line automatic delineation of the left ventricular endocardial silhouette with a peripheral venous injection of contrast material while simultaneously reducing the x-ray dosage. This technique employs a very fast analog-to-digital conversion system capable of digitizing on-line video frames. By storing and continuously updating the first 30 video frames and then subtracting each incoming frame from this memory, most of the background is eliminated leaving only the contrast filled ventricle. Using calibrated densitometric measurements, we found that iodine concentrations in the human left ventricle following venous injection of 40 ml Renografin-76 (25 ml/s), peaked at 4.3 +/- 0.3 mg/ml (mean +/- SD) compared to 14.8 +/- 0.8 mg/ml following direct injection of 40 ml at 13 ml/s (p less than 0.001). The computer enhanced venous-injected images had an optical contrast 14 times greater than that of the unenhanced direct left ventriculogram. This increase in optical contrast provided unambiguous subjective definition of the endocardial borders. This technique is applicable to both central and peripheral contrast injection whereby high quality images can be obtained at approximately 98% reduction in radiation (5 mA, 65-85 kV), allowing performance of serial studies

  9. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO2, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case with

  10. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement. PMID:26412738

  11. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune;

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due to...... excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two...... representation are superior to wavelet representations at high dimensionality-reduction rates. At low reduction rates an edge enhanced wavelet representation provides better segmentation accuracy than the full standard AAM model....

  12. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille;

    2004-01-01

    Statistical region-based segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images based on learning the variation in shape and pixel intensities in a training set. For low resolution 2D images correspondences can be recovered reliably...... in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due to excessive storage and computational requirements. In this paper we propose to reduce the textural components by modelling the coefficients of a wedgelet based regression tree instead of the original pixel intensities. The...... wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  13. Noise Enhanced Stability

    The noise can stabilize a fluctuating or a periodically driven metastable state in such a way that the system remains in this state for a longer time than in the absence of white noise. This is the noise enhanced stability phenomenon, observed experimentally and numerically in different physical systems. After shortly reviewing all the physical systems where the phenomenon was observed, the theoretical approaches used to explain the effect are presented. Specifically the conditions to observe the effect in systems: (a) with periodical driving force, and (b) with random dichotomous driving force, are discussed. In case (b) we review the analytical results concerning the mean first passage time and the nonlinear relaxation time as a function of the white noise intensity, the parameters of the potential barrier, and of the dichotomous noise. (author)

  14. Attention enhances feature integration.

    Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-08-01

    Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

  15. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  16. Plant performance enhancement program

    The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P2EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI's Nuclear Power Division, P2EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P2EP office headquartered at EPRI's facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU's strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P2EP's mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour

  17. Plant performance enhancement program

    Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P{sup 2}EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI`s Nuclear Power Division, P{sup 2}EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P{sup 2}EP office headquartered at EPRI`s facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU`s strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P{sup 2}EP`s mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour.

  18. Teacher Enhancement Institute

    Marshall-Bradley, Tina

    1994-01-01

    During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science

  19. Enhancing visual acuity.

    Stalmans, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Enhancing Visual Acuity (EVA) System (Dutch Ophthalmic Research Centre International B.V.) features a unique fluid control system - VacuFlow Valve Timing Intelligence (VTi®) - and represents the next-generation evolution of pump machines. VacuFlow VTi® overcomes the limitations of existing Venturi and peristaltic pumps and provides the potential to enable safer, faster, and more precise techniques. Alongside many other innovative and functional features, such as a light-emitting diode light source, integrated laser, high cutting speed with twin duty cycle cutting, automated infusion compensation, wireless foot pedal, phaco module with thresholding, and viscous fluid module, EVA could make a major contribution to advancing ophthalmology. PMID:25196748

  20. Enhancing the network synchronizability

    ZHAO Ming; ZHOU Tao; CHEN Guan-rong; WANG Bing-hong

    2007-01-01

    The structural and dynamical properties, partic-ularly the small-world effect and scale-free feature, of com-plex networks have attracted tremendous interest and atten-tion in recent years. This article offers a brief review of one focal issue concerning the structural and dynamical behav-iors of complex network synchronization. In the presenta-tion, the notions of synchronization of dynamical systems on networks, stability of dynamical networks, and relationships between network structure and synchronizability, will be first introduced. Then, various technical methods for enhancing the network synchronizability will be discussed, which are roughly divided into two classes: Structural Modification and Coupling-Pattern Regulation, where the former includes three typical methods-dividing hub nodes, shortening average dis-tances, and deleting overload edges, while the latter mainly is a method of strengthening the hub-nodes' influence on the network.

  1. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  2. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  3. Digitally Enhanced Heterodyne Interferometry

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent; Lay, Oliver; Dubovitsky, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Spurious interference limits the performance of many interferometric measurements. Digitally enhanced interferometry (DEI) improves measurement sensitivity by augmenting conventional heterodyne interferometry with pseudo-random noise (PRN) code phase modulation. DEI effectively changes the measurement problem from one of hardware (optics, electronics), which may deteriorate over time, to one of software (modulation, digital signal processing), which does not. DEI isolates interferometric signals based on their delay. Interferometric signals are effectively time-tagged by phase-modulating the laser source with a PRN code. DEI improves measurement sensitivity by exploiting the autocorrelation properties of the PRN to isolate only the signal of interest and reject spurious interference. The properties of the PRN code determine the degree of isolation.

  4. Overview of the artificial enhancement and release of endemic freshwater fish in China%中国淡水鱼类人工增殖放流现状

    杨君兴; 潘晓赋; 陈小勇; 王晓爱; 赵亚鹏; 李建友; 李再云

    2013-01-01

    Due to declining fishery resources and the growing development of conservation aquaculture,artificial freshwater fish enhancement and releasing have begun to replace traditional means of recovering endemic and rare fish populations.Artificial proliferation can be beneficial both to endemic fish conservation and technical bottleneck breakthroughs.This overview presents a review of the latest research and the underlying principles behind the conservation implementation processes,as well as the research status of artificial enhancement and release of endangered freshwater fish species in China,such as Mylopharyngodon piceus,Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,H.nobilis,Acipenser sinensis,Myxocyprinus asiaticus,and Sinocyclocheilus grahami.The overview also presents evolutionarily significant units,sperm and egg quality,and cryopreservation technologies and cell cultures used in artificial enhancement and release,which help standardize genetic management and minimize the genetic differences between hatched and wild populations.Monitoring fish from cultivation to release is essential to evaluating wild population recovery and adjusting recovery plans.Moreover,the remaining problems of artificial releases are discussed in-depth,touching on issues such as the limitations of domestic hatching,the base number of wild populations necessary to the environment,the proper size at which to release juveniles' into the environment,the geographic confusion of populations,the contradictions in commercial fish selection and fish conservation,and "exotic species" invasion.%随着鱼类资源的持续衰退以及保护水产学的兴起,鱼类人工增殖放流已由传统渔业增殖发展成为特有珍稀鱼类种群恢复的主要技术手段.近年来,我国淡水鱼类人工增殖放流涉及水系多、规模大且种类丰富,取得了显著效果并积累了大量基础资料和经验.为深入开展人工增殖放流基础研究,规范技术并提升生态

  5. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  6. Application of molecular and cytogenetic markers in sturgeon aquaculture: a case on sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) and Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) with odd ploidy levels

    Havelka, M.; Hulák, M.; Bytyutskyy, D.; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Rodina, M.; Gela, D.; Flajšhans, M.

    Alabama : AUBURN University, 2012. s. 65-65. [International Symposium on Genetics in Aquaculture /11./. 25.06.2012-29.06.2012, Alabama] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/0824 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sturgeon aquaculture Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Color image and video enhancement

    Lecca, Michela; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This text covers state-of-the-art color image and video enhancement techniques. The book examines the multivariate nature of color image/video data as it pertains to contrast enhancement, color correction (equalization, harmonization, normalization, balancing, constancy, etc.), noise removal and smoothing. This book also discusses color and contrast enhancement in vision sensors and applications of image and video enhancement.   ·         Focuses on enhancement of color images/video ·         Addresses algorithms for enhancing color images and video ·         Presents coverage on super resolution, restoration, in painting, and colorization.

  8. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  9. Enhanced Input in LCTL Pedagogy

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language materials for the more-commonly-taught languages (MCTLs often include visual input enhancement (Sharwood Smith 1991, 1993 which makes use of typographical cues like bolding and underlining to enhance the saliency of targeted forms. For a variety of reasons, this paper argues that the use of enhanced input, both visual and oral, is especially important as a tool for the lesscommonly-taught languages (LCTLs. As there continues to be a scarcity of teaching resources for the LCTLs, individual teachers must take it upon themselves to incorporate enhanced input into their own self-made materials. Specific examples of how to incorporate both visual and oral enhanced input into language teaching are drawn from the author’s own experiences teaching Cuzco Quechua. Additionally, survey results are presented from the author’s Fall 2010 semester Cuzco Quechua language students, supporting the use of both visual and oral enhanced input.

  10. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma}-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after γ-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  13. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I. [and others

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma} -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs.

  14. Enhanced Micellar Catalysis LDRD.

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark David; Taggart, Gretchen; Kinnan, Mark K.; Glen, Crystal Chanea; Rivera, Danielle; Sanchez, Andres; Alam, Todd Michael

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of the Enhanced Micellar Catalysis project were to gain an understanding of the micellar environment of DF-200, or similar liquid CBW surfactant-based decontaminants, as well as characterize the aerosolized DF-200 droplet distribution and droplet chemistry under baseline ITW rotary atomization conditions. Micellar characterization of limited surfactant solutions was performed externally through the collection and measurement of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) images and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) images. Micellar characterization was performed externally at the University of Minnesota's Characterization Facility Center, and at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source facility. A micellar diffusion study was conducted internally at Sandia to measure diffusion constants of surfactants over a concentration range, to estimate the effective micelle diameter, to determine the impact of individual components to the micellar environment in solution, and the impact of combined components to surfactant phase behavior. Aerosolized DF-200 sprays were characterized for particle size and distribution and limited chemical composition. Evaporation rates of aerosolized DF-200 sprays were estimated under a set of baseline ITW nozzle test system parameters.

  15. Enhancing young people's awareness.

    Doan Thi Tien

    1995-01-01

    The role of the Vietnam Youth Union (21 million members) is to educate the youth aged 14-28 years about the movement at the grassroots level. Since 1995, it has been entrusted with information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (implemented through the Educational Center for Population, Health, and Development) concerning family planning, the environment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mass media, direct communication, Youth Union leading staff, Youth Union cultural and arts activities, and advertisement have been used. 16 newspapers and magazines, a radio program, and a TV program disseminate information for the group. 1000 motivators' groups, 1370 Youth Clubs, and Youth Villages at the commune level work to enhance awareness and to change biased attitudes and habits. Leading staff speak at conferences and seminars that are attended by target groups. Art troupes perform at special local events; plays are organized and videos are shown. The HIV/AIDS information and prevention campaign is of great importance because research findings indicate that many young people believe that only prostitutes and drug addicts can be infected, and that condoms are bad and only for use with prostitutes. There are about 2300 persons infected with HIV in 14 provinces, mostly in the south and central regions. 131 are reported to have developed AIDS. PMID:12320323

  16. Enhancing a Universe Below

    Berge, Gunnar

    1998-12-31

    By understanding the past and by means of modern technology the petroleum resources can be exploited in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way. Since the future of the oil and gas industry depends on the size and availability of the remaining resources and on the demand for the products, this presentation aims to overview these resources, globally and on the Norwegian Shelf. It also considers the uncertainty in the future demand for oil and gas. A key challenge for the industry is to enhance the value of these resources without compromising environmental values. The industry will also have to face issues such as deregulation of the energy markets, hydrocarbon taxation, etc. These challenges also provide possibilities for a proactive industry; how can we make the industry more competitive? New oil and gas fields are now being developed in deeper water, in harsh climate conditions and in vulnerable environments. These challenges call for technological development and strong focus on safety and environmental issues. Long-term commercial commitment and cooperation of the industry is essential for new technologies and for training. 2 figs.

  17. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after γ -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs

  18. Enhanced safeguards training

    The transition to a strengthened safeguards system engendered new skill demands for the International Atomic Energy Agency Inspectorate and information requirements for State Systems of Accountancy and Control (SSAC). In response to these demands, the Section for Safeguards Training (TTR) developed courses to ensure that inspectors have the capability to better detect undeclared nuclear activities in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements, to better detect the misuse of declared nuclear facilities and installations, and to more efficiently and effectively manage the inspection process that allows such detection. The resulting extended training curriculum for inspectors and the activities undertaken to convey relevant information to SSAC's personnel placed even a greater emphasis on a modernisation of the techniques used to impart knowledge and skills to the trainees and on the implementation of a systematic approach to training methodology. This methodology reflects a logical progression from the identification of the new competencies required under the strengthened safeguards regime to the development and implementation of training to achieve these competencies, and to the subsequent evaluation of how effective the training has been. This paper addresses the resulting expanded training curriculum and enhanced training approach implemented by TTR. (author)

  19. PENETRATION ENHANCERS: A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

    Singla Vikas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin penetration enhancers have been used to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs to be administered by topical and transdermal route. Enhancement in skin penetration via modification of the stratum corneum by hydration, or via use of chemical enhancers acting on the structure of the stratum corneum lipids and keratin, partitioning and solubility effects. The mechanism of action of penetration enhancers are used as an aid in potential clinical applications. Synthetic chemicals generally used for this purposes are rapidly losing their value in transdermal patches due to reports of their absorption into the systemic circulation and subsequent possible toxic effect upon long term application. Terpenes are included in the list of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS substances and have low irritancy potential. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration as well as natural penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  20. Enhancing operational nuclear safety

    's safety standards and program which provides the safety objective following the 10 fundamental safety principles. The safety requirements defines the functional conditions required for safety and the safety guides provides user-friendly and up-to-date practical guidance representing good/best practices to fulfill the requirements. The IAEA provides safety review services and fields safety review teams upon request of member states for the regulatory, the International Regulatory Review Team (IRRT) and Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) and Peer Review of the Operational and Safety Performance Experience Review (PROSPER). The OSART programme's purpose is to assist member states in enhancing the operational safety of individual nuclear power plants and to promote the continuous development of operational safety within all member states by the dissemination of information on good practice. The OSART Mission Results (OSMIR) database contains the results from 73 OSART missions and 54 follow up visits from 1991 and its continually updated. The Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN) was established to pool and share existing and new technical knowledge and practical experience to further improve the safety of nuclear installation in Asia. In summary, the enhancement of the GNSR is anchored in the recognition that all the states are in the same boat and the increasing importance of sharing and mutual learning, sharing knowledge and experience through regional and global networking. It requires joint and coordinated strategy by all states. The IAEA is willing and ready to support the GNSR through the establishment and application of safety standards, and safety review and advisory services and international instruments. (Author)

  1. Plasmon Enhanced Photoemission

    Polyakov, Aleksandr [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    this work, the structure consisted of rectangular nano-grooves (NGs) arranged in a subwavelength grating on a metal surface is presented that provides a dramatic increase in the metal’s absorption, field localization, and field enhancement. When light is polarized perpendicular to the orientation of the grooves a standing SPP wave is excited along the vertical walls in the NGs, that act as Fabry-Perot resonators. By adjusting the geometry of the NGs and the period of the subwavelength grating the resonance can be fine tuned to a desired position, for example, the laser fundamental wavelength, anywhere from the UV to the near infrared (NIR). Two types of gratings are presented: (a) a gold grating with period of 600 nm, and (b) an aluminum-gold grating with a period of 100 nm; both with resonance at 720 nm. In each case, strong on-resonance absorption was observed, with over 98% for grating (b). Unlike the grating-coupled SPP waves, where the angle is well defined by the momentum matching condition, the resonant NGs allow coupling to the standing modes at a range of angles of incidence, referred to as the angular bandwidth. A new model for the on-resonance absorption based on the ensamble action of the NGs is presented that serves as the basis for a design of an NG grating with an ultrawide spectral as well as angular bandwidth. For sample (b), the angular bandwidth is 80 degrees, corresponding to an opening angle of 160 degrees. The photoemission enhancement for such a grating was measured to be seven orders of magnitude for a four-photon photoemission. This is an incredible result demonstrating the power of the plasmonic grating presented, which is an efficient light trapper and field enhancer for a non-linear processes. These results demonstrate that the metal photocathode prepared with a NG grating on the metal surface will provide sufficient pulse charge driven by a 1 μJ 15fs pulsed laser at 800 nm for the optimum FEL operation.

  2. Abnormal enhancement after contrast injection

    Two factors are involved in the enhancement of pathological processes at CT: the vascular pool and extra-vascular diffusion ot the contrast agent. Enhancement is of considerable use in visualising and delineating these pathologies but is of only limited interest as regards their characterisation. (orig./VJ)

  3. Image Enhancement with Statistical Estimation

    Soumen Kanrar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhancement is an important area of research for the image analysis. Over the decade, the researcher worked on this domain to develop an efficient and adequate algorithm. The proposed method will enhance the contrast of image using Binarization method with the help of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE. The paper aims to enhance the image contrast of bimodal and multi-modal images. The proposed methodology use to collect mathematical information retrieves from the image. In this paper, we are using binarization method that generates the desired histogram by separating image nodes. It generates the enhanced image using histogram specification with binarization method. The proposed method has showed an improvement in the image contrast enhancement compare with the other image.

  4. Metaheuristic applications to speech enhancement

    Kunche, Prajna

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a basic reference for those interested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. The major goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methods and their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists, practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. The authors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers to develop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibility of degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speech enhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers will be able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as the optimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implemented by utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop new algorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature survey regarding the topic.

  5. Environmental engineering education enhancement

    Caporali, E.

    2012-04-01

    Since higher education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies, enhancing social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth, environment respectful, the European Commission promotes a wide range of programmes. Among the EC programmes, the TEMPUS - Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies, with the support of the DG EAC of the European Commission, has contributed to many aspects of general interest for higher education. Curricula harmonization, LifeLong Learning Programme development, ICT use, quality assessment, accreditation, innovation learning methods, growth of networks of institutions trusting each other, are the focused aspects. Such a solid cooperation framework is surely among the main outcomes of the TEMPUS Projects leaded by the University of Firenze UNIFI (Italy), DEREC - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008), and its spin-off DEREL - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), and VICES - Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012). DEREC and DEREL TEMPUS projects, through the co-operation of Universities in Italy, Austria, Germany, Greece, Macedonia, Albania and Serbia, are aimed at the development of first and second level curricula in "Environment and Resources Engineering" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University - UKIM Skopje (MK). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between UNIFI and UKIM Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second level curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at UKIM Skopje, University of Novi Sad (RS) and Polytechnic University of Tirana (AL). following

  6. Trypsin enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: mechanism of enhancement.

    Clark, S M; Roth, J R; Clark, M L; Barnett, B B; Spendlove, R S

    1981-01-01

    The infectivity of most rotaviruses is enhanced by treatment with trypsin. We studied the mechanism of enhancement of examining the effect of trypsin on rotavirus infectivity, aggregation, early interactions with host cells, and structure. The results indicated that trypsin does not increase levels of infectious virus by dispersion of aggregates or affect the efficiency or rate of attachment of virus to cells. A fraction of virus that was not infections without trypsin treatment was found to ...

  7. Speech enhancement theory and practice

    Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile devices and hearing devices, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, there is a growing and pressing need to design algorithms that can improve speech intelligibility without sacrificing quality. Responding to this need, Speech Enhancement: Theory and Practice, Second Edition introduces readers to the basic problems of speech enhancement and the various algorithms proposed to solve these problems. Updated and expanded, this second edition of the bestselling textbook broadens its scope to include evaluation measures and enhancement algorithms aimed at impr

  8. Ultrasound despeckling for contrast enhancement.

    Tay, Peter C; Garson, Christopher D; Acton, Scott T; Hossack, John A

    2010-07-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

  9. Tip enhanced Raman scattering: plasmonic enhancements for nanoscale chemical analysis

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Marr, James M.; Wang, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) is an emerging technique that uses a metalized scanning probe microscope tip to spatially localize electric fields that enhances Raman scattering enabling chemical imaging on nanometer dimensions. Arising from the same principles as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), TERS offers unique advantages associated with controling the size, shape, and location of the enhancing nanostructure. In this article we discuss the correlations between current understanding of SERS and how this relates to TERS, as well as how TERS provides new understanding and insights. The relationship between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements is emphasized as the key to obtaining optimal TERS results. Applications of TERS, including chemical analysis of carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, inorganic crystals, nucleic acids, proteins, cells and organisms, are used to illustrate the information that can be gained. Under ideal conditions TERS is capable of single molecule sensitivity and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The ability to control plasmonic enhancements for chemical analysis suggests new experiments and opportunities to understand molecular composition and interactions on the nanoscale.

  10. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  11. Field enhancement induced laser ablation

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob;

    Sub-diffraction spatially resolved, quantitative mapping of strongly localized field intensity enhancement on gold nanostructures via laser ablation of polymer thin films is reported. Illumination using a femtosecond laser scanning microscope excites surface plasmons in the nanostructures...

  12. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  13. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  14. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a daily compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database,...

  15. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  16. Platelets enhance neutrophil transendothelial migration

    Platelets are increasingly recognized as important mediators of inflammation in addition to thrombosis. While platelets have been shown to promote neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to endothelium in various inflammatory models, it is unclear whether platelets enhance neutrophil transmigration across inflame...

  17. Safety enhancement at Beznau NPP

    The two units of the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant, Switzerland, are presented, and their safety related progress is evaluated. The largest safety enhancement has been the addition of a completely self-contained emergency system. Safety enhancements through backfitting measures in older nuclear power plants, however, have distinctive disadvantages compared to more modern plants. At Beznau NPP, safety has always priority over economics. (N.T.)

  18. Bose enhancement and the ridge

    Tolga Altinoluk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We point out that Bose enhancement in a hadronic wave function generically leads to correlations between produced particles. We show explicitly, by calculating the projectile density matrix in the Color Glass Condensate approach to high-energy hadronic collisions, that the Bose enhancement of gluons in the projectile leads to azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations of the produced particles, the so-called ridge correlations.

  19. Quantum Enhancements and Biquandle Brackets

    Nelson, Sam; Orrison, Michael E.; Rivera, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new class of quantum enhancements we call biquandle brackets, which are customized skein invariants for biquandle colored links.Quantum enhancements of biquandle counting invariants form a class of knot and link invariants that includes biquandle cocycle invariants and skein invariants such as the HOMFLY-PT polynomial as special cases, providing an explicit unification of these apparently unrelated types of invariants. We provide examples demonstrating that the new invariants a...

  20. Ultrasound Despeckling for Contrast Enhancement

    Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known de...

  1. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. An Enhanced Approach for Medical Brain Image Enhancement

    J. Umamaheswari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the most common degradations in medical images is their poor contrast quality and noise. The DICOM image consists of speckle (multiplicative noise. While the image is enhanced, the multiplicative noise present in the image is also enhanced. Approach: This study describes the hybrid method to improve the image quality of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images. The idea of image enhancement technique is to improve the quality of an image for early diagnosis. Then followed by a noise reduction using speckle reduction anisotropic filter. This suggests the use of contrast enhancement methods as an attempt to modify the intensity distribution of the image and to reduce the multiplicative noise. Results: In this research study, a new approach for DICOM image is done by applying contrast stretching and anisotropic diffusion where denoising of multiplicative noise is carried out and the level of contrast is improved. The quality of the image is enhanced and noise free for DICOM image analysis. The effectiveness of hybrid method is proved by quantitative approach. Conclusion and Recommendation: The performance of the proposed study is compared with the existing traditional algorithm and real time medical diagnosis image."

  3. Enhanced video viewing from metadata

    Janevski, Angel; McGee, Thomas; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Dimitrova, Nevenka

    2001-11-01

    Current advanced television concepts envision data broadcasting along with the video stream, which is used by interactive applications at the client end. In this case, these applications do not proactively personalize the experience and may not allow user requests for additional information. We propose content enhancement using automatic retrieval of additional information based on video content and user interests. Our paper describes Video Retriever Genie, a system that enhances content with additional information based on metadata that provides semantics for the content. The system is based on a digital TV (Philips TriMedia) platform. We enhance content through user queries that define information extraction tasks that retrieve information from the Web. We present several examples of content enhancement such as additional movie character/actor information, financial information and weather alerts. Our system builds a bridge between the traditional TV viewing and the domain of personal computing and Internet. The boundaries between these domains are dissolving and this system demonstrates one effective approach for content enhancement. In addition, we illustrate our discussion with examples from two existing standards - MPEG-7 and TV-Anytime.

  4. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  5. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  6. Retinex enhancement of infrared images.

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance. PMID:19163132

  7. Safety enhancement in NPP Bohunice

    The upgrading and safety enhancement of both the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 reactors is described in detail. The total estimated cost of the gradual reconstruction of these two units during 1996 to 1999 is 180 mil. US dollars. For the 1995 to 1997 period, the actions common for both units include a quality assurance programme, a personnel training programme, installation of a multifunction simulator, implementation of symptom-oriented operation procedures, installation of diagnostic systems, of a site security system, and of a teledosimetric system. At present, the main maintenance tasks are: to carry out major repair of units, to remedy service interruptions, to enhance equipment service availability, to enhance the technical level of corrective actions at equipment. Investment into maintenance level upgrade has grown from 7.5 mil. Slovak crowns in 1994 to estimated 32 mil. in 2000. The partners of international cooperation are mentioned. (M.D.)

  8. Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    Mayr, Philipp; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can improve re-trieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain col-lections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between in-formation retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics/scientometrics and to create a common ground for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface.

  9. Sommerfeld Enhancement from Multiple Mediators

    McDonald, Kristian L.

    2012-01-01

    We study the Sommerfeld enhancement experienced by a scattering object that couples to a tower of mediators. This can occur in, e.g., models of secluded dark matter when the mediator scale is generated naturally by hidden-sector confinement. Specializing to the case of a confining CFT, we show that off-resonant values of the enhancement can be increased by ~ 20% for cases of interest when (i) the (strongly-coupled) CFT admits a weakly-coupled dual description and (ii) the conformal symmetry h...

  10. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  11. Acetylcholinesterase: Enhanced Fluctuations and Alternative

    Bui, Jennifer M.; Tai, Kaihsu; Mccammon, J Andrew A.

    2004-05-21

    A 15 ns molecular dynamics simulation is reported for the complex of mouse acetylcholinesterase (mAChE) and the protein neurotoxin fasciculin-2. As compared to a 15 ns simulation of apo-mAChE, the structural fluctuations of the enzyme are substantially increased in magnitude for the enzyme in the complex. Fluctuations of part of the long omega loop (residues 69-96) are particularly enhanced. This loop forms one wall of the active site, and the enhanced fluctuations lead to additional routes of access to the active site.

  12. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

  13. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika, E-mail: yuika@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kawata, Satoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumamoto, Yasuaki [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  14. Environmental contaminants in tissues from an Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) recovered in Wellfleet, Massachusetts

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On February 2, 2007, a family walking along a Cape Cod beach in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, came upon a large dead sturgeon in the sand. Since very little information...

  15. Diet and growth of 1+ Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii in alternative pond culture

    Adámek, Z.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Sukop, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2007), s. 153-160. ISSN 1303-2712 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : feeding * weight condition * length-weight relationship * Acipenseridae Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.trjfas.org/pdf/issue_7_2/153_160.pdf

  16. Résultats sur la reproduction de Acipenser baeri en 1982

    WILLIOT P.

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available La reproduction a eu lieu fin janvier 1982 ; 8 femelles pesant de 4 à 6 kg et 9 mâles ont été sélectionnés. La spermiation et l'ovulation ont été obtenues par injection d'hypophyse de carpe ( 2 mg/kg pour les mâles, 4 mg/kg pour les femelles. Seulement 4 femelles ont donné des ovules et uniquement par pression abdominale. Le traitement anticoagulant des œufs a été réalisé par brassage dans une suspension d'argile. L'incubation a eu lieu en bouteille de Zoug et pour une température d'eau de 12° C . L'éclosion est intervenue pour environ 110°C.jour. Le nombre de larves est égal à 1800 , dont la majeure partie provient d'une seule femelle. Parmi les 4 femelles ayant subi une césarienne en 1981 , 3 d'entre elles sont vivantes.

  17. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE EMBRYONARY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS)

    CRISTINA MUSCALU-NAGY; R. MUSCALU-NAGY

    2013-01-01

    Studying and presenting the embryo stages of sterlet has the main purpose of widening the knowledge horizon in this direction. Although all sterlet embryos originated from one female and from the same incubator (15°C, 9.6 mg/l of dissolved oxygen and a water flow of 2.7 l/min), they are in different stages of development at a certain time. Because the asynchronous development of embryos from one incubator is maintained throughout the incubation period, it is explained why not all embryos hatc...

  18. Natural diet and growth of 1+ siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii in pond culture

    Adámek, Z.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Sukop, I.

    Oostende : European Aquaculture Society, 2001 - (Kjorsvik, E.; Stead, S.). s. 5-6 [ Aquaculture Europe 2001. 04.08.2001-07.08.2001, Trondheim] Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 126100002 Subject RIV: GL - Fishing

  19. Chlorella biomass as feed supplement for freshwater fish: sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus

    Sergejevova, Magda; Masojídek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2012), s. 157-159. ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : carotenoid * colouration * lutein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  20. Determination of the Ovarian Stages in Wild Persian Sturgeon, Acipenser persicus

    Mahboubeh HOSSENZADE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the histological changes in the ovary of 35 female Persian sturgeon. Ovarian samples were taken from the females stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining and sexual maturity was determined by examining the sections under a light microscope. Four developmental stages of ovary including cortical alveoli formation stage (ΙΙ, vitellogenic stage (ΙII, mature stage (IV and ovulation stage (V were recognized during development. The gonadosomatic index (GSI of female Persian sturgeon gradually increased during the development of ovary. The lowest GSI was recorded in stage II (2.57 ± 0.28 and the highest GSI was shown in stage V (23.58 ± 1.08. Therefore, GSI may be useful to determining maturity stages; however histological experiments of ovaries should be considered as the most accurate method for all stages.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.80

  1. Interrelationships among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics in Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Laura Aquiloni

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the correlations among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics of Persian sturgeon. A total of 41 females were used and the variables including fertilization rate, incubation survival rate, larvae survival rate during yolk sac absorption (before feeding), and larvae survival rate after first feeding were determined. As a result, fertilization rate was positively correlated with three variables: incubation survival, larvae survival during yolk sac absorption, a...

  2. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  3. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771) juveniles

    Oana Georgiana Dorojan; Victor Cristea; Mirela Crețu; Lorena Dediu; Iulia Rodica Grecu; Săndița Plăcintă

    2015-01-01

    Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics) in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K), flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopher...

  4. Early development and growth of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) in the Czech Republic

    Rybnikár, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Mareš, J.; Cileček, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 217-225. ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : early ontogeny * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * factor of weight condition Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=82072

  5. Comparison of Protein Fractions in Seminal Plasma from Multiple Sperm Collections in Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus)

    Shaliutina, A.; Hulák, M.; Li, P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Dzyuba, B.; Linhart, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2013), s. 156-159. ISSN 0936-6768 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS * SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS * SPERMATOZOA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.177, year: 2013

  6. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  7. Osmotic and aging effects in caviar oocytes throughout water and lipid changes assessed by 1H NMR T1 and T2 relaxation and MRI.

    Gussoni, Maristella; Greco, Fulvia; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Lanza, Barbara; Zetta, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    By combining NMR relaxation spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, unsalted (us) and salted (s) caviar (Acipenser transmontanus) oocytes were characterized over a storage period of up to 90 days. The aging and the salting effects on the two major cell constituents, water and lipids, were separately assessed. T1 and T2 decays were interpreted by assuming a two-site exchange model. At Day 0, two water compartments that were not in fast exchange were identified by the T1 relaxation measurements on the us oocytes. In the s samples, T1 decay was monoexponential. During the time of storage, an increment of the free water amount was found for the us oocytes, ascribed to an increased metabolism. T1 and T2 of the s oocytes shortened as a consequence of the osmotic stress produced by salting. Selective images showed the presence of water endowed with different regional mobility that severely changed during the storage. Lipid T1 relaxation decays collected on us and s samples were found to be biexponential, and the T1 values lengthened during storage. In us and s oocytes, the increased lipid mobility with the storage was ascribed to lipolysis. Selective images of us samples showed lipids that were confined to the cytoplasm for up to 60 days of storage. PMID:17222723

  8. Practical application of electromyogram radiotelemetry: the suitability of applying laboratory-acquired calibration data to field data

    Geist, David R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Richard S.(UNKNOWN); Lepla, Ken (Idaho Power Company); Chandler, James P.(UNKNOWN)

    2001-12-01

    One of the practical problems with quantifying the amount of energy used by fish implanted with electromyogram (EMG) radio transmitters is that the signals emitted by the transmitter provide only a relative index of activity unless they are calibrated to the swimming speed of the fish. Ideally calibration would be conducted for each fish before it is released, but this is often not possible and calibration curves derived from more than one fish are used to interpret EMG signals from individuals which have not been calibrated. We tested the validity of this approach by comparing EMG data within three groups of three wild juvenile white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus implanted with the same EMG radio transmitter. We also tested an additional six fish which were implanted with separate EMG transmitters. Within each group, a single EMG radio transmitter usually did not produce similar results in different fish. Grouping EMG signals among fish produced less accurate results than having individual EMG-swim speed relationships for each fish. It is unknown whether these differences were a result of different swimming performances among individual fish or inconsistencies in the placement or function of the EMG transmitters. In either case, our results suggest that caution should be used when applying calibration curves from one group of fish to another group of uncalibrated fish.

  9. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  10. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  11. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante. PMID:24299087

  12. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  13. High Conservation in Transcriptomic and Proteomic Response of White Sturgeon to Equipotent Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, PCB 77, and Benzo[a]pyrene.

    Doering, Jon A; Tang, Song; Peng, Hui; Eisner, Bryanna K; Sun, Jianxian; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Adverse effects associated with exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are mediated primarily through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). However, little is known about the cascades of events that link activation of the AHR to apical adverse effects. Therefore, this study used high-throughput, next-generation molecular tools to investigate similarities and differences in whole transcriptome and whole proteome responses to equipotent concentrations of three agonists of the AHR, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, PCB 77, and benzo[a]pyrene, in livers of a nonmodel fish, the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). A total of 926 and 658 unique transcripts were up- and down-regulated, respectively, by one or more of the three chemicals. Of the transcripts shared by responses to all three chemicals, 85% of up-regulated transcripts and 75% of down-regulated transcripts had the same magnitude of response. A total of 290 and 110 unique proteins were up- and down-regulated, respectively, by one or more of the three chemicals. Of the proteins shared by responses to all three chemicals, 70% of up-regulated proteins and 48% of down-regulated proteins had the same magnitude of response. Among treatments there was 68% similarity between the global transcriptome and global proteome. Pathway analysis revealed that perturbed physiological processes were indistinguishable between equipotent concentrations of the three chemicals. The results of this study contribute toward more completely describing adverse outcome pathways associated with activation of the AHR. PMID:27070345

  14. Biotransformation and detoxication of molinate (Ordram) in fish

    Bioconcentration, deputation, and biotransformation of molinate were compared in common carp (cyprinus carpio), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and white sturgeon (acipenser transmontanus) using a flow-through metabolism system. When compared to static conditions, flowing water improved oxygenation, decreased chemical volatilization and remetabolism, and run through a macroreticular resin, improved waste-product collection. Metabolite analysis employed gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Exposure to 100 μg L-1 [ring-14C]molinate for 24 h resulted in bioconcentration factors of 30.5 (carp), 25.3 (bass), and 19.7 (sturgeon); differences were not significant (all, P > 0.05). 14C depuration by common carp was significantly slower than that by either striped bass or white sturgeon (both, P < 0.01). All three species oxidized molinate to a number of products and hydrolyzed, or conjugated with glutathione (GSH), the sulfoxide or sulfone, ultimately producing the mercapturic acid; carp and sturgeon also formed a D-glucuronic acid conjugate. Common carp were significantly less capable of sulfoxidation and GSH conjugation than either striped bass (P < 0.05) or white sturgeon (P < 0.01). Therefore, the selective toxicity of molinate in carp may be due to less efficient depuration and metabolic deactivation

  15. Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade.

    Boscari, E; Barmintseva, A; Pujolar, J M; Doukakis, P; Mugue, N; Congiu, L

    2014-05-01

    Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America. Our test is based on the discovery of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ribosomal protein S7, supplemented with the Vimentin gene and the mitochondrial D-loop. Test validations performed in 702 specimens of target and nontarget sturgeon species demonstrated a 100% identification success for Acipenser naccarii, A. fulvescens, A. stellatus, A. sinensis and A. transmontanus. In addition to species identification, our approach allows the identification of Bester and AL hybrids, two of the most economically important hybrids in the world, with 80% and 100% success, respectively. Moreover, the approach has the potential to identify many other existing sturgeon hybrids. The development of a standardized sturgeon identification tool will directly benefit trade law enforcement, providing the tools to monitor and regulate the legal trade of caviar and protect sturgeon stocks from illicit producers and traders, hence contributing to safeguarding this group of heavily threatened species. PMID:24219811

  16. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  17. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Volume 2: Supplemental papers and data documentation; Final report

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary

  18. Motivation Enhancement Through Work Redesign.

    Oldham, Greg R., Kulik, Carol T.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of redesigning the work experiences of faculty members in an effort to enhance their motivation, productivity, and personal and work satisfactions is examined. One approach to work redesign, job characteristics theory, is described. Several strategies are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  19. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  20. Controlling plasmon-enhanced luminescence

    Mertens, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmons are collective oscillations of the free electrons in a metal or an ionized gas. Plasmons dominate the optical properties of noble-metal nanoparticles, which enables a variety of applications. This thesis focuses on plasmon-enhanced luminescence of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) and optically

  1. Enhancing Literacy Skills through Technology.

    Sistek-Chandler, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to use technology to enhance literacy skills. Highlights include defining literacy, including information literacy; research to support reading and writing instruction; literacy software; thinking skills; organizational strategies for writing and reading; how technology can individualize literacy instruction; and a new genre of…

  2. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  3. Dimensional enhancement of kinetic energies

    Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    Simple thermodynamics considers kinetic energy to be an extensive variable which is proportional to the number, N, of particles. We present a quantum state of N non-interacting particles for which the kinetic energy increases quadratically with N. This enhancement effect is tied to the quantum centrifugal potential whose strength is quadratic in the number of dimensions of configuration space.

  4. CPS Science Laboratory Enhancement Project

    James, Chandra

    2014-12-03

    The lab enhancement initiative was designed to support early implementation efforts of new policy to promote safe learning environments and school labs called the Chemical Safety and Hygiene Plan (CSHP). These efforts included comprehensive inventories and chemical removals at all Chicago Public High Schools, conducted by environmental health and safety consultants, and the development of professional development resources for teachers.

  5. Dimensional enhancement of kinetic energies

    Schleich, W.P.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    Simple thermodynamics considers kinetic energy to be an extensive variable which is proportional to the number N of particles. We present a quantum state of N noninteracting particles for which the kinetic energy increases quadratically with N. This enhancement effect is tied to the quantum centr...... centrifugal potential whose strength is quadratic in the number of dimensions of configuration space....

  6. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  7. Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.

  8. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  9. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  10. Contrast enhancement in computed tomography

    There appears little question that cerebral contrast enhancement by iodinated material is to a great extent a reflection of a loss of integrity of the blood-brain barrier, expect in those instances where large vascular channels contain a sufficiently large pool of iodinated material of sufficient density and size to be visualized directly. (orig./VJ)

  11. Progress in Diffraction Enhanced Imaging

    2004-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with the Topography Station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation under CAS Institute of High Energy Physics, a research group from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has made encouraging progress in the diffraction enhanced imaging technology through phase-contrast microscope by hard X-rays.

  12. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  13. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  14. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  15. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kido, Aki, E-mail: akikido@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Baba, Tsukasa [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Koji; Daido, Sayaka [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  16. Blob-enhanced reconstruction technique

    Castrillo, Giusy; Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    A method to enhance the quality of the tomographic reconstruction and, consequently, the 3D velocity measurement accuracy, is presented. The technique is based on integrating information on the objects to be reconstructed within the algebraic reconstruction process. A first guess intensity distribution is produced with a standard algebraic method, then the distribution is rebuilt as a sum of Gaussian blobs, based on location, intensity and size of agglomerates of light intensity surrounding local maxima. The blobs substitution regularizes the particle shape allowing a reduction of the particles discretization errors and of their elongation in the depth direction. The performances of the blob-enhanced reconstruction technique (BERT) are assessed with a 3D synthetic experiment. The results have been compared with those obtained by applying the standard camera simultaneous multiplicative reconstruction technique (CSMART) to the same volume. Several blob-enhanced reconstruction processes, both substituting the blobs at the end of the CSMART algorithm and during the iterations (i.e. using the blob-enhanced reconstruction as predictor for the following iterations), have been tested. The results confirm the enhancement in the velocity measurements accuracy, demonstrating a reduction of the bias error due to the ghost particles. The improvement is more remarkable at the largest tested seeding densities. Additionally, using the blobs distributions as a predictor enables further improvement of the convergence of the reconstruction algorithm, with the improvement being more considerable when substituting the blobs more than once during the process. The BERT process is also applied to multi resolution (MR) CSMART reconstructions, permitting simultaneously to achieve remarkable improvements in the flow field measurements and to benefit from the reduction in computational time due to the MR approach. Finally, BERT is also tested on experimental data, obtaining an increase of the

  17. Enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Objective: To compare the enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with pathologically proven hilar cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated by both low mechanical index CEUS and CECT. The enhancement feature of the tumor, portal vein infiltration, and lesion conspicuity on them was investigated. Results: In the arterial phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement, were 14 (43.8%), 14 (43.8%), and 4 (12.6%), on CEUS, and 12 (37.5%), 9 (28.1%), and 11 (34.4%), on CECT (P = 0.162). In portal phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hypoenhancement, isoenhancement, and hyperenhancement were 30 (93.8%), 1 (3.1%), and 1 (3.1%), on CEUS, and 23 (71.9%), 8 (25.0%), and 1 (3.1%), on CECT (P = 0.046). The detection rates for portal vein infiltration were 84.2% (16/19) for baseline ultrasound, 89.5% (17/19) for CEUS, and 78.9% (15/19) for CECT (all P > 0.05 between every two groups). CEUS significantly improved the lesion conspicuity in comparison with CECT. CEUS and CECT made correct diagnoses in 30 (93.8%) and 25 (78.1%) lesions prior to pathological examination (P = 0.125). Conclusion: The enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on CEUS was similar with that on CECT in arterial phase, whereas in portal phase hilar cholangiocarcinoma shows hypoenhancement more likely on CEUS. CEUS and CECT lead to similar results in evaluating portal vein infiltration and diagnosis of this entity.

  18. Enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Xu Huixiong, E-mail: xuhuixiong@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen Lida; Xie Xiaoyan; Xie Xiaohua; Xu Zuofeng; Liu Guangjian; Lin Manxia; Wang Zhu [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Lu Mingde, E-mail: lumd@21cn.co [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Objective: To compare the enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with pathologically proven hilar cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated by both low mechanical index CEUS and CECT. The enhancement feature of the tumor, portal vein infiltration, and lesion conspicuity on them was investigated. Results: In the arterial phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement, were 14 (43.8%), 14 (43.8%), and 4 (12.6%), on CEUS, and 12 (37.5%), 9 (28.1%), and 11 (34.4%), on CECT (P = 0.162). In portal phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hypoenhancement, isoenhancement, and hyperenhancement were 30 (93.8%), 1 (3.1%), and 1 (3.1%), on CEUS, and 23 (71.9%), 8 (25.0%), and 1 (3.1%), on CECT (P = 0.046). The detection rates for portal vein infiltration were 84.2% (16/19) for baseline ultrasound, 89.5% (17/19) for CEUS, and 78.9% (15/19) for CECT (all P > 0.05 between every two groups). CEUS significantly improved the lesion conspicuity in comparison with CECT. CEUS and CECT made correct diagnoses in 30 (93.8%) and 25 (78.1%) lesions prior to pathological examination (P = 0.125). Conclusion: The enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on CEUS was similar with that on CECT in arterial phase, whereas in portal phase hilar cholangiocarcinoma shows hypoenhancement more likely on CEUS. CEUS and CECT lead to similar results in evaluating portal vein infiltration and diagnosis of this entity.

  19. Nonhereditary enhancement of progeny growth

    Khan, Amir S.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Hill, Leigh-Anne; Malone, P. Brandon; Cummings, Kathleen K.; Parghi, Deena; Schwartz, Robert J.; Smith, Roy G.; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2002-01-01

    The im electroporated injection of a protease-resistant GH-releasing hormone cDNA into rat dams at 16 d gestation resulted in enhanced long-term growth of the F(1) offspring. The offspring were significantly heavier by 2 wk of age, and the difference was sustained to 10 wk of age. Consistent with their augmented growth, the plasma IGF-I concentration of the F(1) progeny was increased significantly. The pituitary gland of the offspring was significantly heavier and contained an increased number of somatotrophs and PRL-secreting cells, which is indicative of modification of cell lineage differentiation. These unique findings demonstrate that enhanced GH-releasing hormone expression in pregnant dams can result in intergenerational growth promotion by altering development of the pituitary gland in the offspring.

  20. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. PMID:20149719

  1. Enhancing undergraduate students’ communications skills

    Jørgensen, Merete; Witt, Klaus; Fridorff-Jens, Peter Kindt

    2014-01-01

    19729 Abstract Title: Enhancing undergraduate students communications skills Abstract Authors: •Merete Jorgensen, Copenhagen University , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Klaus Witt, Research Unit , Family Medicine , Copenhagen •Peter Kindt Fridorff-Jens, Copenhagen University , IT-unit , Copenhagen...... Hergert,Corinna Kröger,Monika Bullinger,Matthias Rose, Sylke Andreas.Enhancing medical students' communication skills: development and evaluation of an undergraduate training program.Published online 2012 March 24. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-16 2.William T. Branch, Jr, MD; David Kern, MD; Paul Haidet, MD...... the Consultation Logic (CL) and Consultation Analysis (CA), based on the Patient-Centred Consultation. To investigate the effect of various teaching methods in communication skills we have developed a scientific tool (DanSCORE) based on CL and CA to measure the students analysing ability Summary of...

  2. Hadronic resonances enhanced by thresholds

    Caramés, T F

    2016-01-01

    We present a neat example of a meson--baryon system where the vicinity of two different thresholds enhances the binding of a hadronic resonance, a pentaquark. As a consequence the pattern of states may change when moving among different flavor sectors, what poses a warning on naive extrapolations to heavy flavor sectors based on systematic expansions. For this purpose we simultaneously analyze the $N\\bar D$ and $NB$ two-hadron systems looking for possible bound states or resonances. When a resonance is controlled by a coupled-channel effect, going to a different flavor sector may enhance or diminish the binding. This effect may, for example, generate significant differences between the charmonium and bottomonium spectra above open-flavor thresholds or pentaquark states in the open-charm and open-bottom sectors.

  3. Enhancing aquifer cleanup with reinjection

    Injection of water or steam, with or without chemical surfactants, is a common petroleum industry technique to enhance product recovery. In the geothermal industry, reinjection (reinjection is used to mean the injection of ground water that was previously injected) of heat- depleted subsurface fluids is commonly used to maintain reservoir pressure, thus prolonging field productivity. The use reinjection in ground-water remediation projects allows for the application of both traditional production field management and a variety of additional enhancements to the cleanup process. Development of the ideas in this paper was stimulated by an initial suggestion by Dr. Jacob Bear (personal discussions, 1990--1991) that reinjected water might be heated to aid the desorption process

  4. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess......Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...

  5. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  6. Enhancing Soundtracks From Old Movies

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system enhances soundtracks of old movies. Signal on optical soundtrack of film digitized and processed to reduce noise and improve quality; timing signals added, and signal recorded on compact disk. Digital comparator and voltage-controlled oscillator synchronizes speed of film-drive motor and compact disk motor. Frame-coded detector reads binary frame-identifying marks on film. Digital comparator generates error signal if marks on film do not match those on compact disk.

  7. Controlling plasmon-enhanced luminescence

    Mertens, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmons are collective oscillations of the free electrons in a metal or an ionized gas. Plasmons dominate the optical properties of noble-metal nanoparticles, which enables a variety of applications. This thesis focuses on plasmon-enhanced luminescence of silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) and optically active erbium ions. Both these emitters are compatible with silicon processing technology, and are therefore of great technological interest. In part I we describe three fabrication methods of Ag ...

  8. PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT OF MEDICINAL AGENTS

    Sharma Ganesh N.; Sanadya Jyotsana; Kaushik Avinash; Dwivedi Abha

    2012-01-01

    Many current therapeutic agents like antibiotics, ionizable and peptide drugs are impermeable or do not possess the requisite physicochemical properties for efficient transport through outer tissue barrier to attain therapeutic blood level. For this reason the delivery of such drugs through barriers is currently one of the major interests in pharmaceutical research. Penetration enhancers or promoters are agents that have no therapeutic properties of their own but can transport the sorption of...

  9. Human enhancement: The new eugenics

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    Supporters of human enhancement through genetic and other reproductive technologies claim that the new liberal eugenics, based on science and individual consent differs from the old eugenics which was unscientific and coercive. Supporters claim it is the parent's moral obligation to produce the best children possible. At this time, a defective gene that is identified in an unborn child cannot be repaired. To prevent the manifestation of the undesirable trait the unborn child is destroyed. The...

  10. Stimulating curiosity to enhance learning

    Pluck, G; Johnson, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Curiosity is an aspect of intrinsic motivation that has great potential to enhance student learning. Theory and evidence describing curiosity are discussed, focusing on psychological and pedagogical literature relating to adult education. In particular, the concept of ‘information gaps’ as a source of academic curiosity is explored. In addition, the concept of curiosity in two disparate sample disciplines; second language learning and medical education are considered. The role of inquiry base...

  11. Technological enhancements for personal computers

    Fuller, Marvin G.

    1992-01-01

    This research is concerned with the usability and compatibility of many of the aftermarket enhancements commercially available to agencies using microcomputers in their workplace. These devices include biometric access devices, data input devices, storage devices, and data transfer equipment. A limited number of associated software packages will be evaluated along with the hardware involved. This study explores the feasibility of add-on equipment for the Desktop III PC, the Unisys government ...

  12. Technology Education Professional Enhancement Project

    Hughes, Thomas A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The two goals of this project are: the use of integrative field of aerospace technology to enhance the content and instruction delivered by math, science, and technology teachers through the development of a new publication entitled NASA Technology Today, and to develop a rationale and structure for the study of technology, which establishes the foundation for developing technology education standards and programs of the future.

  13. Penetration enhancing effect of phytoceramides

    Veryser, Lieselotte; Boonen, Jente; Guillaume, Joren; Risseeuw, Martijn; Van Calenbergh, Serge; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Ceramides are essential components in the stratum corneum barrier function. Different classes of ceramides are present in human skin, differing in the nature of sphingosine and acyl moieties with respect to chain length, degree of saturation and the presence of an OH group [1]. Ceramides with a saturated sphingosine base containing a hydroxyl function at C4 are known as phytoceramides. A few studies demonstrated the penetration enhancing properties of ceramides [2-5], however, systematic...

  14. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  15. Efficient Anonymizations with Enhanced Utility

    Jacob Goldberger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most well studied models of privacy preservation is k-anonymity. Previous studies of k-anonymization used various utility measures that aim at enhancing the correlation between the original public data and the generalized public data. We, bearing in mind that a primary goal in releasing the anonymized database for datamining is to deducemethods of predicting the private data from the public data, propose a new information-theoretic measure that aims at enhancing the correlation between the generalized public data and the private data. Such a measure significantly enhances the utility of the released anonymized database for data mining. We then proceed to describe a new algorithm that is designed to achieve k-anonymity with high utility, independently of the underlying utility measure. That algorithm is based on a modified version of sequential clustering which is the method of choice in clustering. Experimental comparison with four well known algorithms of k-anonymity show that the sequential clustering algorithm is an efficient algorithm that achieves the best utility results. We also describe a modification of the algorithm that outputs k-anonymizations which respect the additional security measure of l-diversity.

  16. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  17. Proposal for Two Enhanced NTRU

    Ahmed Tariq Sadiq

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound is very widely used in communication. In order to ensure secure communication a cryptographic data scheme is used. Secure sound is needed in many fields such as military, business, banking and electronic commerce. There is also an increasing demand for secured sound in network communication. Several symmetric and asymmetric algorithms are used for sound encryption. In this work, NTRU, the last in line public key cryptosystem is enhanced in two methods and used for encrypting sound files after converting the sound into text. In the proposed methods the message is encrypted one character at a time, since NTRU encrypts only prime numbers, thus 7 bits of each character is encrypted and the eighth bit is left without encryption. In method I NTRU algorithm is enhanced by adding the result obtained from calculating a mathematical equation of one variable to the message and then the resulted encrypted bit is fed-back and added to the next bit of the message in the next step; this procedure is repeated for the subsequent bits of the message. In method II NTRU algorithm is enhanced by adding the subsequent states of LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register to the subsequent bytes of the message. The proposed methods are tested on several sound files; the results show that the proposed methods I and II maintain approximately the same original method encryption and decryption time while generating more complex encryption.

  18. Large-mode enhancement cavities.

    Carstens, Henning; Holzberger, Simon; Kaster, Jan; Weitenberg, Johannes; Pervak, Volodymyr; Apolonski, Alexander; Fill, Ernst; Krausz, Ferenc; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2013-05-01

    In passive enhancement cavities the achievable power level is limited by mirror damage. Here, we address the design of robust optical resonators with large spot sizes on all mirrors, a measure that promises to mitigate this limitation by decreasing both the intensity and the thermal gradient on the mirror surfaces. We introduce a misalignment sensitivity metric to evaluate the robustness of resonator designs. We identify the standard bow-tie resonator operated close to the inner stability edge as the most robust large-mode cavity and implement this cavity with two spherical mirrors with 600 mm radius of curvature, two plane mirrors and a round trip length of 1.2 m, demonstrating a stable power enhancement of near-infrared laser light by a factor of 2000. Beam radii of 5.7 mm × 2.6 mm (sagittal × tangential 1/e(2) intensity radius) on all mirrors are obtained. We propose a simple all-reflective ellipticity compensation scheme. This will enable a significant increase of the attainable power and intensity levels in enhancement cavities. PMID:23670017

  19. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    2013-09-24

    ... construction, and water pollution. The petition is available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/petitions... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  20. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI cel

  1. Separation enhancement in pinched flow fractionation

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A method for enhancing the separation in the microfluidic size separation technique called pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed by numerical calculations. The enhancement is caused by a geometrical modification of the original PFF design. Seven different...

  2. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  3. Micro-bubble enhanced HIFU

    Kajiyama, K.; Yoshinaka, K.; Takagi, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2010-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment that employs microbubbles to provide enhanced heating has been investigated in order to develop a less invasive and more rapid tumor ablation therapy. It has been demonstrated that microbubbles have significant effects on heating enhancement in vitro and in vivo experiments, however ultrasound propagation could be disturbed when there are too many microbubbles between the transducer and the focus. In this study, we develop a method to make a clear pass way for obtaining enhanced heating by using microbubbles just at the focus, thus avoiding heating on the pass way from the transducer to the target region. In this method, microbubbles are destroyed in front of the HIFU focus (on the transducer side) by irradiating a intense burst wave of microsecond order, before irradiating the ultrasound waves for heating the target region. The experiment is conducted in a medium of a polyacrylamide gel containing microbubbles, and a temperature-sensing liquid crystal sheet is set in the focus to observe the temperature distribution. The ultrasound frequency was 2.2 MHz and the intensity was 5000 W/cm2, and 20 burst waves were irradiated at pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz. The number of wave pulses was varied. The continuous-wave frequency, intensity and irradiation time are 2.2 MHz, 1000 W/cm2 and 60 sec, respectively. As the number of pulses increased, the heating region moves from the transducer side to the focus. This is because microbubbles in front of the focus are destroyed and the ultrasound propagates around the target position effectively. These results suggest that the microbubble distribution and the heating position in the developed HIFU system can be controlled.

  4. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  5. Mutual Workshops enhancing Curriculum Integration

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Markvorsen, Steen; Almegaard, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    curriculum. A course in material science was moved from the fourth to the first semester so that the project could be informed by material science. A new course in geometry was prepared and software that could facilitate an integrated design project was introduced (STAAD Pro). The ‘full package’ of the new...... and the design course. This realized the full potential of structural design and firmly highlighted the creative potential in geometry for hesitant students. The joint workshop also showed potential as a general tool that can enhance curriculum integration....

  6. Does Design Rationale Enhance Creativity?

    Jing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Creativity and rationale are often viewed as two contrasting facets in software design. A lack in recognizing the facilitative relationship between creativity and rationale not only underestimates the benefits designers can obtain from rationale practices, but also confines the approaches that support creativity in software design. Our exploratory study provides empirical evidence of the positive correlation between rationale and creativity. Furthermore, we found that the feasibility of design alternatives and the comprehensiveness of tradeoff evaluation are critical to enhancing novelty, persuasiveness, and insightfulness. We also discuss future directions to further understand how these properties, or rationale quality in general, affects design creativity.

  7. Enhanced candu 6 reactor: status

    The CANDU 6 power reactor is visionary in its approach, renowned for its on-power refuelling capability and proven over years of safe, economical and reliable power production. Developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the CANDU 6 design offers excellent performance utilizing state-of-the-art technology. The first CANDU 6 plants went into service in the early 1980s as leading edge technology and the design has been continuously advanced to maintain superior performance with an outstanding safety record. The first set of CANDU 6 plants - Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau in Canada, Embalse in Argentina and Wolsong- Unit 1 in Korea - have been in service for more than 22 years and are still producing electricity at peak performance; to the end of 2004, their average Lifetime Capacity Factor was 83.2%. The newer CANDU 6 units in Romania (Cernavoda 1), Korea (Wolsong-Units 2, 3 and 4) and Qinshan (Phase III- Units 1 and 2) have also been performing at outstanding levels. The average lifetime Capacity Factor of the 10 CANDU 6 operating units around the world has been 87% to the end of 2004. Building on these successes, AECL is committed to the further development of this highly successful design, now focussing on meeting customers' needs for reduced costs, further improvements to plant operation and performance, enhanced safety and incorporating up-to-date technology, as warranted. This has resulted in AECL embarking on improving the CANDU 6 design through an upgraded product termed the ''Enhanced CANDU 6'' (EC6), which incorporates several attractive but proven features that make the CANDU 6 reactor even more economical, safer and easier to operate. Some of the key features that are being incorporated into the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, decreasing the capital cost, dealing with obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the

  8. Privacy-enhanced electronic mail

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-06-01

    The security of electronic mail sent through the Internet may be described in exactly three words: there is none. The Privacy and Security Research Group has recommended implementing mechanisms designed to provide security enhancements. The first set of mechanisms provides a protocol to provide privacy, integrity, and authentication for electronic mail; the second provides a certificate-based key management infrastructure to support key distribution throughout the internet, to support the first set of mechanisms. These mechanisms are described, as well as the reasons behind their selection and how these mechanisms can be used to provide some measure of security in the exchange of electronic mail.

  9. Enhancing professionalism at GPU Nuclear

    Late in 1988, GPU Nuclear embarked on a major program aimed at enhancing professionalism at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island nuclear generating stations. The program was also to include its corporate headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. The overall program was to take several directions, including on-site degree programs, a sabbatical leave-type program for personnel to finish college degrees, advanced technical training for licensed staff, career progression for senior reactor operators, and expanded teamwork and leadership training for control room crew. The largest portion of this initiative was the development and delivery of professionalism training to the nearly 2,000 people at both nuclear generating sites

  10. The Game Enhanced Learning Model

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will introduce the Game Enhanced Learning Model (GEM), which describes a range of game oriented learning activities. The model is intended to give an overview of the possibilities of game based learning in general and specifically production oriented problem based project work....... In this study we will describe the levels of the model, which is based on our experience of using games in our teaching, while relating the levels to other studies and theories. The model attempts to group various game based learning methods, and depict their required planning and expected outcome through seven...

  11. Entanglement Enhanced Multiplayer Quantum Games

    Du, J; Xu, X; Shi, M; Zhou, X; Han, R; Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiaodong; Shi, Mingjun; Zhou, Xianyi; Han, Rongdian

    2002-01-01

    Recently two player quantum games have drawn great interest. However, investigating quantum games in multiqubit system could be more interesting. In this paper, we study the property of quantum games with more than two players. For the particular case of 3-player Prisoner's Dilemma, a novel Nash equilibrium which can remove the original dilemma emerges. Based on this Equilibrium strategy, we found the game is enhanced by the entanglement of the game's state. When all players resort to the Nash equilibrium, the players' payoffs increase monotonously with respect to the amount of entanglement.

  12. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  13. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  14. Gemstone enhancement by radiation treatment

    Since the discovery of radioactivity, investigations on the effects of atomic rays on precious stones began and Crookes established that alpha rays from radium produced green colour in diamonds. Gamma rays, x-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons etc. are effective in producing colour in precious stone like topaz and corundum. Some of these also produce considerable amount of radioactivity which is not acceptable if the radioactivity exceeds permissible limits. Colour enhancement by radiation treatment, different radiations, safety of irradiated gem stones and market related aspects are discussed. (author)

  15. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  16. Do transcriptional enhancers also augment DNA replication?

    O'Connor, D T; Subramani, S

    1988-01-01

    Enhancers are DNA elements that augment transcription in cis, independent of distance and orientation. Evidence such as hormone dependent neoplastic cell growth and the stimulation of viral replication by sequences present in enhancers suggests that enhancers may also directly affect DNA replication. We tested this hypothesis in recombinant plasmids by asking whether sequences that stimulated DNA replication shared the properties of transcriptional enhancers. The homologous simian virus 40 (S...

  17. Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae

    Bakker, R.M.; Yuan, H.-K.; Liu, Z.;

    2008-01-01

    in fluorescence that reaches 100 times enhancement. Near-field excitation shows enhanced fluorescence from a single nanoantenna localized in a subwavelength area of similar to 0.15 mu m(2). The polarization of enhanced emission is along the main antenna axis. These observed experimental results are...

  18. Enhancement of confinement in tokamaks

    A plausible interpretation of the experimental evidence is that energy confinement in tokamaks is governed by two separate considerations: (1) the need for resistive MHD kink-stability, which limits the permissible range of current profiles - and therefore normally also the range of temperature profiles; and (2) the presence of strongly anomalous microscopic energy transport near the plasma edge, which calibrates the amplitude of the global temperature profile, thus determining the energy confinement time tau/sub E/. Correspondingly, there are two main paths towards the enhancement of tokamak confinement: (1) Configurational optimization, to increase the MHD-stable energy content of the plasma core, can evidently be pursued by varying the cross-sectional shape of the plasma and/or finding stable radial profiles with central q-values substantially below unity - but crossing from ''first'' to ''second'' stability within the peak-pressure region would have the greatest ultimate potential. (2) Suppression of edge turbulence, so as to improve the heat insulation in the outer plasma shell, can be pursued by various local stabilizing techniques, such as use of a poloidal divertor. The present confinement model and initial TFTR pellet-injection results suggest that the introduction of a super-high-density region within the plasma core should be particularly valuable for enhancing ntau/subE/. In D-T operation, a centrally peaked plasma pressure profile could possibly lend itself to alpha-particle-driven entry into the second-stability regime

  19. ACR technology for CANDU enhancements

    The ACR-1000 design retains many essential features of the original CANDU plant design. As well as further-enhanced safety, the design also focuses on operability and maintainability, drawing on valuable customer input and OPEX. The engineering development of the ACR-1000 design has been accompanied by a research and confirmatory testing program. This program has extended the database of knowledge on the CANDU design. The ACR-1000 design has been reviewed by the Canadian regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) which concluded that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the ACR-1000 design in Canada after completing three phases of the pre-project design review. The generic PSAR for the ACR-1000 design was completed in September 2009. The PSAR contains the ACR-1000 design details, the safety and design methodology, and the safety analysis that demonstrate the ACR-1000 safety case and compliance with Canadian and international regulatory requirements and expectations. The ACR technology developed during the ACR-1000 Engineering Program and the supporting development testing has had a major impact beyond the ACR program itself: Improved CANDU components and systems; Enhanced engineering processes and engineering tools, which lead to better product quality, and better project efficiency; and Improved operational performance. This paper provides a summary of technology arising from the ACR program that has been incorporated into new CANDU designs such as the EC6, or can be applied for servicing operating CANDU reactors. (author)

  20. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  1. NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS WITH ENHANCED HARDNESS

    J. Musil

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the present state of the art in the magnetron sputtering of hart and superhard nanocomposite coatings. It is shown that there are (1) two groups of hard and superhard nanocomposites: (i) nc-MN/hard phase and (ii) nc-MN/soft phase, (2) three possible origins of the enhanced hardness: (i) dislocation-dominated plastic deformation, (ii) cohesive forces between atoms and (iii) nanostructure of materials, and (3) huge differences in the microstructure of single- and two-phase films. A main attention is devoted to the formation of nanocrystalline and/or X-ray amorphous films. Such films are created in a vicinity of transitions between (i)crystalline and amorphous phases, (ii) two crystalline phases of different chemical composition or (iii) two different preferred orientations of grains of the sane material from which the coating is composed. The existence of the last transition makes it possible to explain the enhanced hardness in single-phase films. The thermal stability and oxidation resistance of hard nanocomposite films is also shortly discussed.

  2. ENPEP model enhancements at ANL

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been involved in energy and electricity planning analyses for almost 20 years. Their activities include the development of analytical tools and methodologies along with their application to a wide variety of national energy planning studies. The methodologies cover all aspects of energy planning. In response to a request by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to integrate existing tools into a package that could be distributed to developing countries for their own use, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) was developed. The USDOE wanted an all purpose tool that would allow the user to do a complete energy analysis, from demand forecast through primary energy resources allocation to electricity generation system expansion plan and environmental analysis. Since its original development, the ENPEP modules have been improved and enhanced to incorporate advancements in computer hardware and software technology, as well as to correct bugs that were identified in the programs. In cooperation with other organizations (e.g. The World Bank - IBRD - and the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA -), the ENPEP package has been used at national, regional and inter-regional training courses, as well as in the conduct of national energy/electricity planning studies. This paper reviews the development of the ENPEP package and the proposed enhancements to the package. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  4. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  5. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Nischita K Reddy; Ana Maria Ioncic(a); Adrian S(a)ftoiu; Peter Vilmann; Manoop S Bhutani

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest,to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures.We review the mechanisms of action of first,second and third generation contrast agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract.Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy,assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal,gastric and gall bladder cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices.In addition,contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions.The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies.The sensitivity of power Doppler sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents.Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion.In the future,these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion,to assess and monitor the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents,to assist targeted drug delivery and allow molecular imaging.

  6. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  7. Enhanced performance PIR security sensors

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2008-04-01

    Previous presentations to this forum have described a new technology initiative for low cost passive IR security sensors based on novel microbolometer FPA design, low cost optics and simplified packaging. The primary objective of this initiative is to develop a smart (intelligent) security sensor having a number of improvements over current pyroelectric PIR sensors, including imaging. However the same core technology can also be employed for an enhanced performance PIR sensor in the form of a upgrade retrofit for current sensors. This paper addresses the latter initiative. The enhanced performance PIR upgrade sensor has two significant advantages over current technology: extended detection range and ability to detect developing fire or equipment failure. It may thus be seen as an IR fire detection device complementing other sensors whilst having an extended range for human detection. It does not have the full capability of the smart security sensor, but has the advantages of simplicity and low cost short term development. Performance is described for a 4 x 4 FPA designed specifically for this application.

  8. Enhanced Video-Oculography System

    Moore, Steven T.; MacDougall, Hamish G.

    2009-01-01

    A previously developed video-oculography system has been enhanced for use in measuring vestibulo-ocular reflexes of a human subject in a centrifuge, motor vehicle, or other setting. The system as previously developed included a lightweight digital video camera mounted on goggles. The left eye was illuminated by an infrared light-emitting diode via a dichroic mirror, and the camera captured images of the left eye in infrared light. To extract eye-movement data, the digitized video images were processed by software running in a laptop computer. Eye movements were calibrated by having the subject view a target pattern, fixed with respect to the subject s head, generated by a goggle-mounted laser with a diffraction grating. The system as enhanced includes a second camera for imaging the scene from the subject s perspective, and two inertial measurement units (IMUs) for measuring linear accelerations and rates of rotation for computing head movements. One IMU is mounted on the goggles, the other on the centrifuge or vehicle frame. All eye-movement and head-motion data are time-stamped. In addition, the subject s point of regard is superimposed on each scene image to enable analysis of patterns of gaze in real time.

  9. Surfactant Enhanced Electroremediation of Phenanthrene

    佘鹏; 杨建刚; 等

    2003-01-01

    Removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants(HOCs) form soil of low permeability by electroremediation was investigated by using phenanthrene and kaolinite as a model system.Tween 80 was added into the purging solution in order to enhance the solubility of phenanthrene.The effects of pH on the adsorption of phenanthrene and Tween 80 on kaolinite and the magnitude of ζ-potential of kaolinite were examined,respectively.The effects of electric field strength indicated by electric current on the electroremediation behavior,including the pH of purging solution,the conductivity,phenanthrene concentration and flow rate of effluent,were experimentally investigated,repectively,In case of an electric field of 25mA applied for 72 hours,over 90% of phenanthrene was removed from 424g(dry mass)of kaolinite at an energy consumption of 0.148kW.h.The experimental results described in present study show that the addition of surfactant into purging solution greatly enhances the removel of HOCs by electroremediation.

  10. Fingerprint Image Enhancement By Develop Mehtre Technique

    Mustafa Salah Khalefa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint identification is one of the most reliable biometrics technologies. There are manyapplications of fingerprint recognition such as voting, ecommerce, bank, virtual banks and military.Fingerprint image enhancement is an essential preprocessing step in extract minutiae from the inputfingerprint images. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement method by developing Mehtermethod for directional image. The enhancement is done by added the Block Filtering, HistogramEqualization and High-Pass Filtering. We have evaluated the performance of the enhancement imagemethod by tested it with 100 fingerprint images. Experimental results show the enhancement methodimproves the recognition more accuracy.

  11. Loudness enhancement and decrement in four paradigms

    Elmasian, R.; Galambos, R.; Bernheim, A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    When one tone burst (the conditioner) preceeds another (the target) by 100 ms, target loudness is enhanced if the conditioner is more intense and decreased if it is less intense. We show here that similar loudness enhancements and decrements occur when the conditioner follows the target. In all instances, monaural loudness enhancements (in which the conditioner and target are delivered to the same ear) are greater than the dichotic enhancements (in which the conditioner is presented contralaterally), but the decrements, which are smaller than the enhancements, are similar in magnitude. Loudness enhancements and decrements are similar to sequential loudness effects and central tendency effects; the major difference is the relatively very large increases in loudness obtainable in loudness enhancement experiments. We outline a mechanism to account for these loudness phenomena and suggest that this mechanism is responsible for similar perceptual effects that occur in other stimulus dimensions and modalities.

  12. Enhanced Segment Compression Steganographic Algorithm

    STRATULAT, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science and art of concealing messages using techniques that allow only the sender and receiver to know of the message?s existence and be able to decipher it. In this article, we would like to present a new steganographic technique for concealing digital images: the Enhanced Segment Compression Steganographic Algorithm (ESCSA. We start by mentioning several desired properties that we have taken into consideration for our algorithm. Next, we define some quality metrics with which we can measure how well / to what extent those properties are achieved. A detailed presentation of the component parts of the algorithm follows, accompanied by quantitative analyses of parameters of interest. Finally, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our algorithm. In addition, we make a few suggestions regarding possible further refinements of the ESCSA.

  13. CANDU 9 enhancements and licensing

    The CANDU 9 design has followed the evolutionary product development approach that has characterized the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. In addition to utilizing proven equipment and systems from operating stations, the CANDU 9 design has looked ahead to incorporate design and safety enhancements necessary to meet evolving utility and licensing requirements. With the requirement that the CANDU 9 design should be licensable for both domestic and foreign potential users, the pre-project Basic Design Engineering program included a two year formal extensive review by the Canadian Regulatory Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board . Documentation submitted for the licensing review included the licensing basis, safety requirements and safety analyses necessary to demonstrate compliance with regulations and to assess system design and performance

  14. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators.

    Correa, Luis A; Palao, José P; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  15. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  16. Maximizing competition with market enhancements

    This session presented highlights from 5 guest speakers who commented on ways to maximize competition with market enhancement. The moderator noted that at the four-month mark, the open electricity market in Ontario is operating reasonably well. The role of energy standards in an open electricity market were discussed with reference to FERC Orders 888, the Oasis 2A Notice of Public Rulemaking, Order 2000, and FERC's Standard Market Design. It was noted that since there is significant electricity trade between Ontario and its neighbours, particularly in the United Sates, many aspects of wholesale electricity market design rules will have to be standardized to ensure compatibility and to ensure that transactions can continue smoothly. It was emphasized that the open market will be driven by supply and demand and that the price of electricity should not be a deterrent for investors. figs

  17. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.;

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... determine the impact of fish presence upon tank hydrodynamics, Rhodamine fluorometry was employed to examine mixing within a recirculating aquaculture system. Two different methods were compared, traditional, outlet-based measurements and a technique that employed in-tank data acquisition. Circular tanks...... were employed during data collection either in the presence or absence of xperimental fish-red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (n =36; 5 kg total wet wt); and at two flow rates. Irrespective of flow rate, the presence of fish dramatically enhanced the mixing process ( P< 0.001), with mixing times in tanks...

  18. Human hearing enhanced by noise.

    Zeng, F G; Fu, Q J; Morse, R

    2000-06-30

    Noise was traditionally regarded as a nuisance, which should be minimized if possible. However, recent research has shown that addition of an appropriate amount of noise can actually improve signal detection in a nonlinear system, an effect called stochastic resonance. While stochastic resonance has been described in a variety of physical and biological systems, its functional significance in human sensory systems remains mostly unexplored. Here we report psychophysical data showing that signal detection and discrimination can be enhanced by noise in human subjects whose hearing is evoked by either normal acoustic stimulation or electric stimulation of the auditory nerve or the brainstem. Our results suggest that noise is an integral part of the normal sensory process and should be added to auditory prostheses. PMID:10865084

  19. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    Correa, Luis A; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step t...

  20. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...

  1. Simulator for enhanced ATAMM multiprocessing

    Andrews, Asa M.; Jones, Robert L.; Hayes, Paul J.; Benz, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    A simulator is introduced which follows the rules of the enhanced Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) multiprocessing strategy. ATAMM is a method for embedding an algorithm into a multiprocessing system in addition to providing system performance prediction capabilities. A discussion of the inner workings of the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) hosted simulator is introduced to illustrate how the simulator follows the ATAMM rule set. A sample 5-node algorithm graph is given as an example to illustrate: (1) entering of a graph into the simulator and how to run the graph using a graph entry tool; (2) how to analyze the data; and (3) a comparison of the simulation results with the predicted results from ATAMM.

  2. Enhanced Li-Ion Battery

    Natasha Ross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au with Pd nanoparticles were synthesized and coated onto the spinel LiMn2O4 via a coprecipitation calcination method with the objective to improve the microstructure, conductivity, and electrochemical activities of pristine LiMn2O4. The novel LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 composite cathode had high phase purity, well crystallized particles, and more regular morphological structures with narrow size distributions. At enlarged cycling potential ranges the LiPdAuxMn2-xO4 sample delivered 90 mAh g−1 discharge capacity compared to LiMn2O4 (45 mAh g−1. It was concluded that even a small amount of the Pd and Au enhanced both the lithium diffusivity and electrochemical conductivity of the host sample due to the beneficial properties of their synergy.

  3. Research for enhancing reactor safety

    Recent research for enhanced reactor safety covers extensive and numerous experiments and computed modelling activities designed to verify and to improve existing design requirements. The lectures presented at the meeting report GRS research results and the current status of reactor safety research in France. The GRS experts present results concerning expert systems and their perspectives in safety engineering, large-scale experiments and their significance in the development and verification of computer codes for thermohydraulic modelling of safety-related incidents, the advanced system code ATHLET for analysis of thermohydraulic processes of incidents, the analysis simulator which is a tool for fast evaluation of accident management measures, and investigations into event sequences and the required preventive emergency measures within the German Risk Study. (DG)

  4. Enhancing the US Power Infrastructure

    Charles Alexander

    2010-05-31

    The primary motivation for this set of research activities was to develop a foundation in several aspects of power in order to position Cleveland State University to lead a multiuniversity effort to secure funding for enhanced power system projects and to be able to eventually secure a NASA Space Power Systems Center status through the competitive bidding process. This was accomplished by focusing on these major project areas, (1) the design of the next generation nuclear-electric power generation system, (2) the design of a distributed, fault-tolerant, and modular power system, and (3) the development of the dynamics and control of active magnetic bearings for flywheel energy storage without using conventional sensors.

  5. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast......-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged...... agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic...

  6. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  7. Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence

    Pothérat, Alban

    2015-01-01

    More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...

  8. Enhancing autonomy in paid surrogacy.

    Damelio, Jennifer; Sorensen, Kelly

    2008-06-01

    The gestational surrogate--and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular--is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the surrogate. In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a 'soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates--education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy. PMID:18447862

  9. Interpersonal leveling, independence, and self-enhancement

    Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim; Fiske, Alan Page

    2007-01-01

    We argue that the relational model that people use for organizing specific social interactions in any culture determines whether people self-enhance. Self-enhancement is not a functional consequence of the (independent or interdependent) cultural model of self. Across three studies, Danes self......-enhanced considerably less than did Americans but were more independent on the Twenty Statements Test, made more individual attributions about social life, made more autonomous scenario choices, and were more independent on the self-construal scale. Public modesty did not account for these Danish-American differences...... in self-enhancement. However, Danes practiced interpersonal leveling, preferring equality of outcome more than did Americans. This leveling strongly and inversely predicted self-enhancement within both cultures and mediated Danish-American differences in self-enhancement. In contrast, no independence...

  10. Sommerfeld Enhancements for Thermal Relic Dark Matter

    Feng, Jonathan L; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2010-01-01

    The annihilation cross section of thermal relic dark matter determines both its relic density and indirect detection signals. We determine how large indirect signals may be in scenarios with Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation, subject to the constraint that the dark matter has the correct relic density. This work refines our previous analysis through detailed treatments of resonant Sommerfeld enhancement and the effect of Sommerfeld enhancement on freeze out. Sommerfeld enhancements raise many interesting issues in the freeze out calculation, and we find that the cutoff of resonant enhancement, force-carrier production and decay rates, the temperature of kinetic decoupling, and the efficiency of self-interactions for preserving thermal velocity distributions all play a role. These effects may have striking consequences; for example, for resonantly-enhanced Sommerfeld annihilation, dark matter freezes out but may then chemically recouple, implying highly suppressed indirect signals, in contrast to naive expectat...

  11. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  12. Gd-enhanced MR imaging of the herniated lumbar disc: patterns of enhancement

    Kwag, Hyon Joo; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyae Young; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Kim, Ah Young; Chung, Eun Chul [College of Medicine, Ewah Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the patterns of enhancement of the herniated lumbar disc with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. Out of 65 patients, 103 lumbar discs diagnosed to be herniated by MR image were retrospectively analyzed. The MR imaging was performed with 1.5 T MR unit, using T1-and T2-weighted sagittal and axial spin echo techniques. Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted sagittal and axial images were performed after intravenous injection of Gadopentetate-dimeglumine(Magnevist, Shering) (0.1 mmol/kg). Contrast enhancement was seen in 66 cases(64%). Thirteen cases of bulging disc were not enhanced. Twenty-eight cases of protruded disc showed intraannular enchantment in 23 cases, peripheral linear and irregular enhancement in each of one case, and nonenhancement in three cases. Fifty-seven cases of extruded disc showed irregular enhancement in 14 cases, peripheral linear enhancement in 12 cases, peripheral ring enhancement in five cases and intraannular enhancement in five cases. All five cases of sequestered disc showed peripheral ring enhancement. Protruded discs show intraannular enhancement frequently and sequestered discs usually show peripheral ring enhancement. Enhanced MR imaging may be helpful to evaluate the type of herniated lumbar disc and relationship among disc material, nerve root and thecal sac.

  13. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  14. Contrast-enhanced sonography in pancreatic diseases

    Rickes, Steffen [Department of Internal Medicine, AMEOS Hospital GmbH, Halberstadt (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany)], E-mail: rickes@medkl.salvator-kh.de; Rauh, Peter; Uhle, Christine; Ensberg, Daniel [Department of Internal Medicine, AMEOS Hospital GmbH, Halberstadt (Germany); Moenkemueller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Contrast-enhanced sonography is a widely available imaging modality for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. With this procedure, pancreatic tumours can be differentiated better. Furthermore, contrast-enhanced sonography produces good results in the staging of acute pancreatitis severity, especially in the detection of pancreatic necrosis. In this review article the value of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases will be described and discussed.

  15. Enhancements in entrepreneurial services : JAMK Generator

    Schepers, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The JAMK Generator assigned this task of enhancing the services of the Generator with the objective to increase the value of the Generator for the students through developing new enhancements. The enhancement is based on five concepts, which were researched in detail among the students of JAMK through a survey. In general, students are interested in entrepreneurship itself during their studies or in anticipation of their future careers. Students have been curious about an entrepreneurial ...

  16. Development of a cavity enhanced aerosol albedometer

    Zhao, W.; Xu, X.; Dong, M.; Chen, W.; X. Gu; Hu, C; Huang, Y.; Gao, X; Huang, W.; Zhang, W

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a cavity enhanced aerosol single scattering albedometer incorporating incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) approach and an integrating sphere (IS) for simultaneous in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients in the exact same sample volume. The cavity enhanced albedometer employed a blue light-emitting diode (LED) based IBBCEAS approach for the measurement of wavelength-resolv...

  17. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  18. Blended learning approaches enhance student academic performance

    Morris, NP

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning, or technology enhanced learning, is increasingly becoming an expectation for higher education students. Blended learning allows for the enhancement of face-to-face interaction between tutors and students, using internet or computer based tools. In this paper, a range of case studies are described which illustrate methods to engage students with technology enhanced learning and improve academic performance and student satisfaction. In the first case study, first year undergra...

  19. Molecular mechanism of the sweet taste enhancers

    Feng ZHANG; Klebansky, Boris; Fine, Richard M.; Liu, Haitian; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy; Zoller, Mark; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor have been developed as a new way of reducing dietary sugar intake. Besides their potential health benefit, the sweet taste enhancers are also valuable tool molecules to study the general mechanism of positive allosteric modulations of T1R taste receptors. Using chimeric receptors, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal how these sweet enhancers work at the molecular level. Our data argue that the sweet enhancers follow a...

  20. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the...

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    for our understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The intrinsic length scale of the electron gas serves to smear out assumed field singularities, leaving the SERS enhancement factor finite, even for geometries with infinitely sharp features. For silver nanogroove structures......, mimicked by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (1010)....

  2. Enhanced potentiometry by metallic nanoparticles.

    Noyhouzer, T; Valdinger, I; Mandler, D

    2013-09-01

    Measuring the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) requires an interface that is not selective toward specific species but exchanges electrons with all redox couples in the solution. Sluggish electron transfer (ET) kinetics with the species will not reflect the "true" Eh of the solution. Here, we present a novel approach by which adsorbed metal nanoparticles (NPs) are used for enhancing ET exchange rates between redox species and electrode surface and therefore affect significantly the measurement of the open circuit potential (OCP) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The OCP and CV of various organic and inorganic species such as l-dopa, dopac, iron(II), and iodide are measured by bare stainless steel and by stainless steel modified by either Pt or Au NPs. We study the effect of the surface coverage of the stainless steel surface by NPs on the electrochemical response. Moreover, the stainless steel electrode was modified simultaneously by Au and Pt nanoparticles. This improved concurrently the stainless steel response (CV and potentiometry) toward two different species; l-dopa, which shows fast electron transfer on Pt, and catechol, which exhibits fast electron transfer on Au. We believe that this approach could be a first step toward developing a superior electrode for measuring the "true" Eh of complex aquatic systems. PMID:23947748

  3. Enhancing professionalism at GPU nuclear

    Late in 1988, GPU Nuclear embarked on a major program aimed at enhancing Professionalism at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Stations. The program was also to include its Corporate Headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. The overall program was to take several directions which included on-site degree programs, a sabbatical leave-type program for personnel to finish college degrees, advanced technical training for licensed staff, career progression for SROs and expanded teamwork and leadership training for control room crews. The largest portion of this initiative was the development and delivery of professionalism training to the nearly two thousand people at both sites. Three primary philosophies guided the development of the program. Employees as Experts: First, GPU Nuclear employees were considered to be the most valuable source of information for designing a Professionalism program because it is these individuals who are sensitive to the issues encountered in the workplace. Realism: The second philosophy guiding this effort was that the program must be grounded in real life challenges that employees face and must address. Active Learning: The third guiding philosophy was that, in order to have any real impact on the way employees think about professionalism, the program must utilize active rather than passive learning techniques

  4. Facebook enhances antidepressant pharmacotherapy effects.

    Mota Pereira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD) is a complex condition, with very low remission rates. In recent years some studies have been conducted on the implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy interventions via the Internet to MDD patients, and results have been promising. However, there have been no studies in patients with TR-MDD nor with the use of Facebook with the psychiatrist as "friend." 60 TR-MDD patients were randomized to one of three groups: Facebook group with psychiatrist as "friend," Facebook group without psychiatrist as "friend," and control group (no Facebook use). Both Facebook groups spent at least 1 hour/day on Facebook, 7 days/week, during the 3 months. All patients maintained their usual pharmacotherapy. All participants were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months for depressive symptoms using HAD17 and BDI-II. Results show that both Facebook groups had a decrease on HADM17 and BDI-II scores as well as higher remission and response rates than the control group, with better results if the psychiatrist was a "friend" on Facebook. Therefore, in TR-MDD, Facebook can be used as an effective enhancement therapy, adjuvant to pharmacological therapy with regular consultations, especially if the psychiatrist is the patient's online "friend." PMID:24574930

  5. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  6. Enhanced Eryptosis Following Gramicidin Exposure

    Abaid Malik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The peptide antibiotic and ionophore gramicidin has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis of nucleated cells. In analogy to apoptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis involves cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, and ceramide. The present study explored, whether gramicidin triggers eryptosis. To this end phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, red blood cell distribution width (RDW from electronic particle counting, reactive oxidant species (ROS from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3- and Fluo4 fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of specific antibodies. As a result, a 24 h exposure of human erythrocytes to gramicidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥1 µg/mL, forward scatter (≥0.5 µg/mL and hemolysis. Gramicidin enhanced ROS activity, [Ca2+]i and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding by gramicidin was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, gramicidin stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least partially due to induction of oxidative stress, increase of [Ca2+]i and up-regulation of ceramide abundance. Despite increase of [Ca2+]i, gramicidin increases cell volume and slightly reduces RWD.

  7. Enhanced eryptosis following gramicidin exposure.

    Malik, Abaid; Bissinger, Rosi; Liu, Guoxing; Liu, Guilai; Lang, Florian

    2015-05-01

    The peptide antibiotic and ionophore gramicidin has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis of nucleated cells. In analogy to apoptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis involves cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), and ceramide. The present study explored, whether gramicidin triggers eryptosis. To this end phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) from electronic particle counting, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3- and Fluo4 fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of specific antibodies. As a result, a 24 h exposure of human erythrocytes to gramicidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥1 µg/mL), forward scatter (≥0.5 µg/mL) and hemolysis. Gramicidin enhanced ROS activity, [Ca2+]i and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding by gramicidin was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, gramicidin stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least partially due to induction of oxidative stress, increase of [Ca2+]i and up-regulation of ceramide abundance. Despite increase of [Ca2+]i, gramicidin increases cell volume and slightly reduces RWD. PMID:25915718

  8. Technologically enhanced radioactivity: an overview

    This review of present-day knowledge suggests that many non-nuclear industries are capable of generating significant critical group or collective exposures or both. Doses can be delivered to workers and to populations living in the vicinity of industrial sites. Notable amongst these types of industry are the phosphate-processing industries (fertilizers, detergents, chemicals), fossil-fuel burning, oil and gas extraction, mining of almost all kinds, ore and heavy mineral processing and the forest industries, such as pulp making and biofuel use. There is a growing awareness of the problem but a two-tier system of radiation protection and discharge control is liable to continue, particularly in developing countries, with an imbalance in the understanding and limitation of radioactivity emissions from non-nuclear versus nuclear industries and also in radiological protection of workers. This review, covering historical and current aspects, suggests that there is a need for further study of technological enhancement of radioactivity and that the first international conference dedicated to the subject is extremely worthwhile and should become the first landmark meeting in a long and important series. (author)

  9. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  10. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and/or anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (approx. 50 Mrad; 0.5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs. (author)

  11. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  12. Entanglement-Enhanced Classical Communication

    Herrera-Martí, David A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis will be focused on the classical capacity of quantum channels, one of the first areas treated by quantum information theorists. The problem is fairly solved since some years. Nevertheless, this work will give me a reason to introduce a consistent formalism of the quantum theory, as well as to review fundamental facts about quantum non-locality and how it can be used to enhance communication. Moreover, this reflects my dwelling in the spirit of classical information theory, and it is intended to be a starting point towards a thorough study of how quantum technologies can help to shape the future of telecommunications. Whenever it was possible, heuristic reasonings were introduced instead of rigorous mathematical proofs. This finds an explanation in that I am a self-taught neophyte in the field, and just about every time I came across a new concept, physical arguments were always more compelling to me than just maths. The technical content of the thesis is twofold. On one hand, a quadratic classific...

  13. SEA: a super-enhancer archive.

    Wei, Yanjun; Zhang, Shumei; Shang, Shipeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Song; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Fang; Su, Jianzhong; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Super-enhancers are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers regarded as having essential roles in driving the expression of genes that control cell identity during development and tumorigenesis. The construction of a genome-wide super-enhancer database is urgently needed to better understand super-enhancer-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology process. Here, we present a specifically designed web-accessible database, Super-Enhancer Archive (SEA, http://sea.edbc.org). SEA focuses on integrating super-enhancers in multiple species and annotating their potential roles in the regulation of cell identity gene expression. The current release of SEA incorporates 83 996 super-enhancers computationally or experimentally identified in 134 cell types/tissues/diseases, including human (75 439, three of which were experimentally identified), mouse (5879, five of which were experimentally identified), Drosophila melanogaster (1774) and Caenorhabditis elegans (904). To facilitate data extraction, SEA supports multiple search options, including species, genome location, gene name, cell type/tissue and super-enhancer name. The response provides detailed (epi)genetic information, incorporating cell type specificity, nearby genes, transcriptional factor binding sites, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, evolutionary conservation, SNPs, H3K27ac, DNA methylation, gene expression and TF ChIP-seq data. Moreover, analytical tools and a genome browser were developed for users to explore super-enhancers and their roles in defining cell identity and disease processes in depth. PMID:26578594

  14. Sunrise enhancement of equatorial vertical plasma drift

    Liu, Libo; Zhang, Ruilong; Le, Huijun

    2016-04-01

    Sunrise enhancement in vertical plasma drift over equatorial regions is not discernible in the statistical picture compared with the significant enhancement during dusk hours. In this report, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag. Moreover, we will report the effects of the sunrise enhancement of vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere as indicated from the observations and model simulations. We thanks National Central University of Taiwan providing the ROCSAT-1 data. The Ap and F107 indices are obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/). This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065), the Chinese Academy of Sciences project (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41321003).

  15. Selection of DNA clones with enhancer sequences.

    Asoh, S; Lee-Kwon, W; Mouradian, M M; Nirenberg, M

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for selection of DNA clones that contain enhancer sequences that activate gene expression. An Escherichia coli-rodent cell shuttle vector, pPyE0, was used that contains polyoma viral DNA without the polyoma enhancer region. Replication of pPyE0 DNA in mouse cells is markedly reduced due to deletion of the polyoma enhancer region. Insertion of mouse genomic DNA fragments that contain putative enhancer sequences into pPyE0 adjacent to the polyoma origin of replication rest...

  16. Patterns of uterine enhancement with helical CT

    Kaur, H.; Loyer, E.M.; Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Box 57, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Minami, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enhancement characteristics of the normal uterine body and cervix using dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT. Methods: Thirty-eight women scheduled for pelvic CT for non-gynecologic malignancies underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT of the pelvis. Data acquisition was during the arterial phase (30-45 s after the start of injection), the parenchymal phase (90-120 s after the start of injection), and delayed phase (3-9 min after the start of injection). The images were evaluated by four radiologists for the pattern of myometrial and cervical enhancement. Correlation was made with the age and menstrual status of the patients. Results: In the uterine body, three types of enhancement were observed. Type 1 enhancement, seen in 16 patients (42%), was characterized by the visualization of a subendometrial zone of enhancement, 30-120 s after the start of injection. Eight of these patients also showed an enhancing zone in the outer myometrium. Both zones were transitory, and in all cases, the uterus became homogeneous in the delayed phase. This pattern was seen predominantly in premenopausal women with a mean age of 34 years. Type 2 enhancement, seen in 17 cases (45%), was defined by the absence of subendometrial enhancement in the early phase. Enhancement was either diffuse from the outset or originated in the outer myometrium. This pattern was seen nearly equally in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with a mean age of 40 years. Type 3 enhancement was seen in five postmenopausal patients (13%) with a mean age of 53 years and was characterized by faint diffuse enhancement. In the cervix, a zonal pattern of enhancement defining inner and outer stroma was seen in 23 patients (61%). Fifteen patients were premenopausal and eight were postmenopausal. Conclusion: In this study, we have shown a transitory zonal distribution of the contrast in the myometrium and cervix using dynamic contrast-enhanced helical CT

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, S.; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences...... for our understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The intrinsic length scale of the electron gas serves to smear out assumed field singularities, leaving the SERS enhancement factor finite, even for geometries with infinitely sharp features. For silver nanogroove structures...

  18. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kazushi Numata, Wen Luo, Manabu Morimoto, Masaaki Kondo, Yosuke Kunishi, Tomohiko Sasaki, Akito Nozaki, Katsuaki Tanaka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonazoid (Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan, a second-generation of a lipid-stabilized suspension of a perfluorobutane gas microbubble contrast agent, has been used clinically in patients with liver tumors and for harmonic gray-scale ultrasonography (US in Japan since January 2007. Sonazoid-enhanced US has two phases of contrast enhancement: vascular and late. In the late phase of Sonazoid-enhanced US, we scanned the whole liver using this modality at a low mechanical index (MI without destroying the microbubbles, and this method allows detection of small viable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC lesions which cannot be detected by conventional US as perfusion defects in the late phase. Re-injection of Sonazoid into an HCC lesion which previously showed a perfusion defect in the late phase is useful for confirming blood flow into the defects. High MI intermittent imaging at 2 frames per second in the late phase is also helpful in differentiation between necrosis and viable hypervascular HCC lesions. Sonazoid-enhanced US by the coded harmonic angio mode at a high MI not only allows clear observation of tumor vessels and tumor enhancement, but also permits automatic scanning with Sonazoid-enhanced three dimensional (3D US. Fusion images combining US with contrast-enhanced CT or contrast-enhanced MRI have made it easy to detect typical or atypical HCC lesions. By these methods, Sonazoid-enhanced US can characterize liver tumors, grade HCC lesions histologically, recognize HCC dedifferentiation, evaluate the efficacy of ablation therapy or transcatheter arterial embolization, and guide ablation therapy for unresectable HCC. This article reviews the current developments and applications of Sonazoid-enhanced US and Sonazoid-enhanced 3D US for diagnosing and treating hepatic lesions, especially HCC.

  19. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and

  20. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  1. ENHANCED PROCESSING OF GREEN SOLVENTS - PHASE I

    Solvents are a valuable processing tool in the chemical and related industries. Solvents are used to enhance mass transfer, heat transfer and in most cases are a processing aid and eventually are not used in the final product but to enhance the fabrication of the final pr...

  2. Self-Enhancing Illusions among Chinese Schoolchildren.

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates that East Asian children (EAC) do engage in some forms of self-enhancing illusions. Responses from 4,000 elementary school students reveal EACs see themselves as possessing more positive attributes than others. Variations in self-enhancing illusions were found for age, gender, and region of residence. Results are discussed in terms of…

  3. Nanoparticle Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Hollars, C W; Jusinski, L; Laurence, T; Lane, S M

    2005-01-03

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a powerful tool for the investigation of biological samples. Following a brief introduction to Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, several examples of biophotonic applications of SERS are discussed. The concept of nanoparticle based sensors using SERS is introduced and the development of these sensors is discussed.

  4. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  5. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers – Current Perspectives

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. ...

  6. Drosophila lifespan enhancement by exogenous bacteria

    Brummel, Ted; Ching, Alisa; Seroude, Laurent; Simon, Anne F.; Benzer, Seymour

    2004-01-01

    We researched the lifespan of Drosophila under axenic conditions compared with customary procedure. The experiments revealed that the presence of bacteria during the first week of adult life can enhance lifespan, despite unchanged food intake. Later in life, the presence of bacteria can reduce lifespan. Certain long-lived mutants react in different ways, indicating an interplay between bacteria and longevity-enhancing genes.

  7. Conceptual and practical problems of moral enhancement.

    Beck, Birgit

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and - to no one's surprise - controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the 'urgent need' of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so far, there is no shared opinion among philosophers (or scientists) about the meaning, prospects, and ethical evaluation of moral enhancement. In this article I will address several conceptual and practical problems of this issue, in order to encourage discussion about the prospects of (thinking about) moral enhancement in the future. My assumption is that (i) for the short term, there is little chance of arriving at an agreement on the proper understanding of morality and the appropriateness of one single (meta-)ethical theory; (ii) apart from this, there are further philosophical puzzles loosely referred to in the debate which add to theoretical confusion; and (iii) even if these conceptual problems could be solved, there are still practical problems to be smoothed out if moral enhancement is ever to gain relevance apart from merely theoretical interest. My tentative conclusion, therefore, will be that moral enhancement is not very likely to be made sense of - let alone realized - in the medium-term future. PMID:24654942

  8. Superconductivity Enhancements in Small Metallic Grains

    Zheng, Renrong; Chen, Zhi Qian; Zhu, Shun Quan

    The reasons for superconductivity enhancement in small metallic grains including hundreds of thousand electrons are investigated by solving the generalized gap equation based on BCS mean field theory. The analysis suggests that the superconductivity enhancement in small metallic grains are the results caused by the pairing correlation and the level statistics in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) and the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE).

  9. Metal plasmon enhanced europium complex luminescence

    Liu Feng [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Aldea, Gabriela [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Iasi, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Nunzi, Jean-Michel, E-mail: nunzijm@queensu.c [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    The plasmon enhanced luminescence of a rare-earth complex Tris(6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8-heptafluoro-2, 2-dimethyl-3, 5-octanedionato) europium (Eu(fod){sub 3}) was investigated. A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film was successfully adopted as a spacer to separate the Eu complex from the silver island film (SIF), and five-fold enhancement of the radiative decay rate of the Eu complex on SIF was demonstrated based on the luminescence intensity and lifetime measurement. Investigation of the distance dependent luminescence indicates that 7 nm is an optimal distance for SIF enhanced Eu luminescence. Plasmon enhanced rare-earth luminescence based on an organic film spacer would find potential applications in plasmon enhanced organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices.

  10. Enhanced radiological detection instrument training

    Full text: Whether ensuring the security and safe use of recorded radioactive materials, or detecting, identifying and responding to radioactive materials out of regulatory control the provision of an ever increasing range of radiological dosimeters, survey meters and spectrometers does not, in itself, enhance nuclear security. These tools are only as good as the ability of deployed personnel to operate them correctly. It is therefore: essential that training in the coordinated use of such instruments be as realistic and comprehensive as possible. However, there is an inherent difficulty in using the real radiological detection instruments for training because such devices require radiological sources to generate response. Systems that simulate radioactive materials using ultrasound, electromagnetic, or fluorescent, powders/liquids are already firmly established within the radiological instrument training community. These simulated radioactive sources/materials create a response in simulation detection instruments, or simulation probes attached to real detection instruments, to enable the opportunity to provide safe instruction in the use of specific devices as well as the correct procedures during their deployment. In order to extend the opportunities for the comprehensive training of multiple personnel using multiple simulation instruments in a wide area field exercise scenario the PlumeSIM system has been developed by Argon Electronics LLP. RAD PlumeSIM is a dedicated element within the broader PlumeSIM product family, enabling instructor management of the response of radiological simulator instruments to fully configurable 'virtual plumes and hot spots', in real time, over a training area defined by user selected mapping. Instructors are provided with the ability to select the parameters for the exercise (including the type of radiation hazard, the release of single sod multiple sources, and a full range of environmental conditions), and record the actions of

  11. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper

  12. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  13. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  14. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Assessment of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of the computed tomography (CT) finding of main pancreatic duct (MPD) wall enhancement, termed the “enhanced duct sign”, for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence or absence of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT in patients with AIP (n = 55), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 50), and chronic pancreatitis (n = 50). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AIP were calculated. In patients demonstrating the enhanced duct sign, additional findings were evaluated by consensus. Results: The enhanced duct sign was more frequently observed in patients with AIP (37/55, 67%) than in patients with pancreatic carcinoma (5/50, 10%) or chronic pancreatitis (0/50, 0%) (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the finding were 0.67, 0.95, 0.85, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively. In AIP, the lumen within the enhanced duct was completely or partially invisible in 29 of 37 (78%) patients, and the enhanced duct was observed within the affected pancreatic parenchyma in 35 of 37 (95%) patients. In pancreatic carcinoma, the lumen within the enhanced duct was visible in all patients (5/5, 100%), and the enhanced duct was observed downstream of the tumor (5/5, 100%). Conclusion: The enhanced duct sign is highly specific of AIP.

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Assessment of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Kawai, Yuichi, E-mail: kawai.yuichi@a.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, Kojiro, E-mail: kojiro@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Itoh, Shigeki, E-mail: shigeito@nagoya-1st.jrc.or.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Japan Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital, 3-35 Michishita-cho, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 453-8511 (Japan); Takada, Akira, E-mail: takadaa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mori, Yoshine, E-mail: yoshine@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naganawa, Shinji, E-mail: naganawa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of the computed tomography (CT) finding of main pancreatic duct (MPD) wall enhancement, termed the 'enhanced duct sign', for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence or absence of the enhanced duct sign on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT in patients with AIP (n = 55), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 50), and chronic pancreatitis (n = 50). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AIP were calculated. In patients demonstrating the enhanced duct sign, additional findings were evaluated by consensus. Results: The enhanced duct sign was more frequently observed in patients with AIP (37/55, 67%) than in patients with pancreatic carcinoma (5/50, 10%) or chronic pancreatitis (0/50, 0%) (P < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the finding were 0.67, 0.95, 0.85, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively. In AIP, the lumen within the enhanced duct was completely or partially invisible in 29 of 37 (78%) patients, and the enhanced duct was observed within the affected pancreatic parenchyma in 35 of 37 (95%) patients. In pancreatic carcinoma, the lumen within the enhanced duct was visible in all patients (5/5, 100%), and the enhanced duct was observed downstream of the tumor (5/5, 100%). Conclusion: The enhanced duct sign is highly specific of AIP.

  16. Enhancer evolution across 20 mammalian species

    Villar, Diego; Berthelot, Camille; Aldridge, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian radiation has corresponded with rapid changes in noncoding regions of the genome, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of regulatory evolution in mammals. Here, we track the evolution of promoters and enhancers active in liver across 20 mammalian species from six diverse orders...... by profiling genomic enrichment of H3K27 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation. We report that rapid evolution of enhancers is a universal feature of mammalian genomes. Most of the recently evolved enhancers arise from ancestral DNA exaptation, rather than lineage-specific expansions of repeat elements...... sequences. These results provide important insight into the functional genetics underpinning mammalian regulatory evolution....

  17. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    Leahy, Brian D.

    2013-05-29

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement

    Lavanya, B N; Venugopal, K R

    2009-01-01

    Human fingerprints are reliable characteristics for personnel identification as it is unique and persistence. A fingerprint pattern consists of ridges, valleys and minutiae. In this paper we propose Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement (FVGFE) algorithm for minutiae feature extraction and post processing based on 9 pixel neighborhood. A global feature extraction and fingerprints enhancement are based on Hong enhancement method which is simultaneously able to extract local ridge orientation and ridge frequency. It is observed that the Sensitivity and Specificity values are better compared to the existing algorithms.

  19. Voltage-gated metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    Zhang, Yongxia; Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the influence of electrical current on the ability of surface plasmons to amplify fluorescence signatures. An applied direct current across Silver Island Films (SIFs) of low electrical resistance perturbs the fluorescence enhancement. For a given applied current, surface plasmons in just-continuous films are sparsely available for fluorophore dipole-coupling and hence the enhanced fluorescence is gated as a function of the applied current. For thicker, low resistance films, sufficient charge carriers are now present in the metal that metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is perturbed to a lesser extent, induced surface plasmons readily formed on the surface by the close-proximity dipole. PMID:19214719

  20. Production-enhancement partnerships: Successful business arrangements

    Production-enhancement projects are creating changes in business relationships between oil and gas and service companies. The most successful projects are building partnerships. Service companies are being asked to share the risk while supplying services to enhance well performance. Risk sharing creates common project objectives and requires the service company's involvement in initial project planning, job design, and reservoir understanding. Service-work compensation is based on well- or field-performance improvement resulting from the treatment(s). This paper presents an integrated approach to the selection and prioritization of well candidates for production-enhancement jobs or treatments. Processes are illustrated, and data requirements and techniques necessary to select well candidates that provide the highest return on investment are discussed. Field examples demonstrate the techniques, critical factors, and appropriate software used by geoscience and field-operations teams to maximize benefits from production-enhancement projects

  1. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  2. Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS)...

  3. Enhance End-of-Life Care

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... lead in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. Photo: Corbis ...

  4. Color Image Enhancement Techniques: A Critical Review

    Anish Kumar Vishwakarma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement is one of the key issues in high quality pictures such as digital camera and HDTV. Since Image clarity is very easily affected by lighting, weather, or equipment that has been used to capture the image. These conditions lead to image may suffer from loss of information. As a result, many techniques have developed known as image Enhancement techniques to recover the information in an image. This paper presents a literature review on some of the image Enhancement techniques for color image enhancement like, Contrast Stretching, Histogram Equalization and its improvement versions, Homomorphic Filtering, Retinex, and Wavelet Multiscale Transform. Comparison of all the techniques concludes the better approach for its future research.

  5. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft...

  6. Scientific Research Enjoys Enhanced Support in China

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientific research in China is receiving enhanced support from both the government and the public, as science and technology are playing an increasingly constructive role in the country's social progress and economic growth, states CAS President Lu Yongxiang.

  7. Technology-enhanced learning in the workplace

    Van der Klink, Marcel; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Van der Klink, M., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2013). Technology-enhanced learning in the workplace. In D. Derks, & A. B. Bakker (Eds.), The psychology of ditigal media @ work (pp. 145-165). London, UK: Psychology Press.

  8. Quantum-enhanced micromechanical displacement sensitivity

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Harris, Glen I.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard;

    2013-01-01

    We report on a hitherto unexplored application of squeezed light: for quantum-enhancement of mechanical transduction sensitivity in microcavity optomechanics. Using a toroidal silica microcavity, we experimentally demonstrate measurement of the transduced phase modulation signal in the frequency...

  9. Entanglement Enhancement in an XY Spin Chain

    SU Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel. The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore, we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.%@@ We study evolution of entanglement in an XY-type spin channel and find that the entanglement can be enhanced by the spin channel.The parameter regions of the initial states for different numbers of sites are obtained.Furthermore,we consider a common spin environment coupling to the spin chains and find that the entanglement enhancement can also be implemented only for the chains with the odd numbers of sites.

  10. Recent Enhancements to the ORBIT Code

    At an age of twelve years, the collective beam dynamics particle tracking code, ORBIT, is considered mature. Even so, we continue to enhance ORBIT's capabilities. Two such enhancements are reported here. The first enhancement allows for the use of time-dependent waveforms for the field strengths of all magnetic elements, a capability that previously was limited to kickers and to RF cavities. This capability should prove very useful for applications to synchrotrons, in which tunes are often manipulated during acceleration. The second enhancement provides an internal calculation of the lattice functions. Previously, it was necessary to read them from an external file, but given the capability of dynamically programming the lattice magnet strengths, it is extremely useful to be able to calculate the lattice functions on demand. Examples illustrating these new ORBIT capabilities are presented.

  11. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  12. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung;

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  13. Large Purcell enhancement without strong field localization

    Krasnok, Alexander; Petrov, Mihail; Makarov, Sergey; Savelev, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Simovski, Constantin; Kivshar, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The Purcell effect is defined as the modification of spontaneous decay in the presence of a resonator, and in plasmonics it is usually associated with the large local-field enhancement in "hot spots" due to surface plasmon polaritons. Here we propose a novel strategy for enhancing the Purcell effect through engineering the radiation directivity without a strict requirement of the local field enhancement. Employing this approach, we demonstrate how to enhance the Purcell effect by two orders of magnitude in all-dielectric nanostructures recently suggested as building blocks of low-loss nanophotonics and metamaterials. We support our concept by proof-of-principle microwave experiments with arrays of high-index dielectric resonators.

  14. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties

    Ν. Gopalswamy; Κ. Shibasaki; Μ. Salem

    2000-09-01

    We report on the statistical properties of the microwave enhancement (brightness temperature, area, fine structure, life time and magnetic field strength) in coronal holes observed over a period of several solar rotations.

  15. Mammogram enhancement using alpha weighted quadratic filter.

    Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2009-01-01

    Mammograms are widely used to detect breast cancer in women. The quality of the image may suffer from poor resolution or low contrast due to the limitations of the X-ray hardware systems. Image enhancement is a powerful tool to improve the visual quality of mammograms. This paper introduces a new powerful nonlinear filter called the alpha weighted quadratic filter for mammogram enhancement. The user has the flexibility to design the filter by selecting all of the parameters manually or using an existing quantitative measure to select the optimal enhancement parameters. Computer simulations show that excellent enhancement results can be obtained with no apriori knowledge of the mammogram contents. The filter can also be used for automatic segmentation. PMID:19965002

  16. Optical limiting by chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin films

    Song, Q. Wang; Zhang, Chungping; Gross, Richard; Birge, Robert

    1993-05-01

    Measurements of effective nonlinearity of a chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin film are presented, using 2-scan method. Optical limiting properties and the film's nonlinear transmission properties of the film are also studied.

  17. Collective enhancement in nuclear level densities

    Empirical estimations of the rotational and vibrational enhancement in the nuclear level density obtained from the analysis of the fragmentation cross sections for 238U projectile are discussed. (author)

  18. Curved Gabor Filters for Fingerprint Image Enhancement

    Gottschlich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Gabor filters play an important role in many application areas for the enhancement of various types of images and the extraction of Gabor features. For the purpose of enhancing curved structures in noisy images, we introduce curved Gabor filters which locally adapt their shape to the direction of flow. These curved Gabor filters enable the choice of filter parameters which increase the smoothing power without creating artifacts in the enhanced image. In this paper, curved Gabor filters are applied to the curved ridge and valley structure of low-quality fingerprint images. First, we combine two orientation field estimation methods in order to obtain a more robust estimation for very noisy images. Next, curved regions are constructed by following the respective local orientation and they are used for estimating the local ridge frequency. Lastly, curved Gabor filters are defined based on curved regions and they are applied for the enhancement of low-quality fingerprint images. Experimental results on the FVC2004...

  19. Does (in)formal learning enhance employability?

    Van der Heijden, Beate; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Meys, E. (2008). Does (in)formal learning enhance employability? Paper presented at the AHRD Conference. February, 2008, Panama Florida, USA.

  20. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  1. Reflections on the ethics of genetic enhancement.

    Murray, Thomas H

    2002-01-01

    The technologies made available by new research in genetics and genomics have been and will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human traits and capacities. A broad definition of genetic-enhancement technologies, not merely gene manipulation, but also indirect genetic technologies, such as biosynthetic drugs, is needed to capture the full range of possible applications. It is difficult, but often possible, to anticipate the enhancement temptations of new therapies. Such anticipation may help us in shaping the marketing, availability, or other aspects of those technologies. Appropriate public and professional policies are needed, and work on them should begin immediately. Most important, we must stimulate public education and dialogue to encourage personal ethical reflection on the appropriate uses and limits of genetic-enhancement technologies. PMID:12544484

  2. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  3. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft(trademark) Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process this well data and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway

  4. Gd enhanced MRI in sensorineural hearing loss

    The enhanced MRI hearing findings of the inner ear in 124 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were evaluated. MR images were obtained before and after the intravenous administration of gadolinium (0.1 mmol/kg). In three out of seventy-nine patients with unilateral healing loss, cochlear and/or the vestibular enhancement was noted on the symptomatic side. The positive cases included those with Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, mumps and so-called sudden deafness. Forty-five patients with bilateral hearing loss showed no enhancement within the inner ear. Although positive gadolinium enhancement of the inner ear may detect inflammatory lesions due to a viral infection, its incidence in sensorineural hearing loss, including cases of sudden deafness. seems to be extremely rare. (author)

  5. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created, and...... subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  6. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  7. Collaborating to enhance patient education and recovery*

    Klein-Fedyshin, Michele; Burda, Michelle L.; Epstein, Barbara A.; Lawrence, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The paper describes a collaborative project between librarians and health care staff to enhance patient recovery by distributing educational videos and evaluating the acceptability of this “information intervention.”

  8. A human hepatitis B viral enhancer element.

    Shaul, Y; Rutter, W J; Laub, O

    1985-01-01

    Fragments of the cloned hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome were assayed in vivo for the presence of a transcriptional enhancer element. We demonstrate that sequences positioned approximately 450 bp upstream from the HBcAg gene promoter are required for its efficient activity. These HBV stimulatory sequences activate transcription when inserted upstream to a heterologous SV40 early promoter. Like other known enhancer elements, this HBV sequence acts in an orientation-independent manner. Furthermor...

  9. Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology

    SLIWINSKI, JIM; Elkins, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming...

  10. Enhancements for Visualizing Temporal and Geospatial Datasets

    Janetzko, Halldór

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we will discuss enhancements for the analysis and visualization of temporal and geospatial data. Techniques for both research domains have a long history and wide applicability, but at the same time suffer from basic issues as overplotting or hidden patterns. In combination, space and time are even more challenging with respect to the Visual Analytics design however enable new perspectives. The main idea of all enhancements presented in this thesis is focusing on interesting a...

  11. Sensitivity Enhancement in the TROSY Experiment

    Czisch, M.; Boelens, R.

    1998-09-01

    A modification of the TROSY experiment which allows for sensitivity enhancement without introduction of additional delays is presented. The method relies on the combination of two orthogonal pathways and results in a signal-to-noise gain of2independent of the size of the molecule. The sensitivity enhanced TROSY scheme can be combined with gradient coherence selection. The method has been applied to the 269 residue serine protease PB92.

  12. Enhancing Biological Wastewater Treatment with Chitosan

    陈亮; 陈东辉; 朱珺

    2003-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan have been applied to biological wastewater treatment.From a number of parallel comparison experiments,it can be concluded that the application of chitin and chitosan can both enhance the biological treatment,besides which chitosan is more efficient than chitin.The study on the enhancement mechanism reveals the difference between the two additives:chitosan improves the sludge structure and settlibility,while chitin acts as a kind of carrier for microorganism in the biological treatment system.

  13. Recent Progress on Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence

    Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optically generated collective electron density waves on metal–dielectric boundaries known as surface plasmons have been of great scientific interest since their discovery. Being electromagnetic waves on gold or silver nanoparticle’s surface, localised surface plasmons (LSP can strongly enhance the electromagnetic field. These strong electromagnetic fields near the metal surfaces have been used in various applications like surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES, plasmonic lithography, plasmonic trapping of particles, and plasmonic catalysis. Resonant coupling of LSPs to fluorophore can strongly enhance the emission intensity, the angular distribution, and the polarisation of the emitted radiation and even the speed of radiative decay, which is so-called plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF. As a result, more and more reports on surface-enhanced fluorescence have appeared, such as SPASER-s, plasmon assisted lasing, single molecule fluorescence measurements, surface plasmoncoupled emission (SPCE in biological sensing, optical orbit designs etc. In this review, we focus on recent advanced reports on plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF. First, the mechanism of PEF and early results of enhanced fluorescence observed by metal nanostructure will be introduced. Then, the enhanced substrates, including periodical and nonperiodical nanostructure, will be discussed and the most important factor of the spacer between molecule and surface and wavelength dependence on PEF is demonstrated. Finally, the recent progress of tipenhanced fluorescence and PEF from the rare-earth doped up-conversion (UC and down-conversion (DC nanoparticles (NPs are also commented upon. This review provides an introduction to fundamentals of PEF, illustrates the current progress in the design of metallic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence signal amplification that utilises propagating and localised surface plasmons.

  14. Recent Progress on Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Zhenglong; Zheng, Hairong; Sun, Mentao

    2015-12-01

    The optically generated collective electron density waves on metal-dielectric boundaries known as surface plasmons have been of great scientific interest since their discovery. Being electromagnetic waves on gold or silver nanoparticle's surface, localised surface plasmons (LSP) can strongly enhance the electromagnetic field. These strong electromagnetic fields near the metal surfaces have been used in various applications like surface enhanced spectroscopy (SES), plasmonic lithography, plasmonic trapping of particles, and plasmonic catalysis. Resonant coupling of LSPs to fluorophore can strongly enhance the emission intensity, the angular distribution, and the polarisation of the emitted radiation and even the speed of radiative decay, which is so-called plasmon enhanced fluorescence (PEF). As a result, more and more reports on surface-enhanced fluorescence have appeared, such as SPASER-s, plasmon assisted lasing, single molecule fluorescence measurements, surface plasmoncoupled emission (SPCE) in biological sensing, optical orbit designs etc. In this review, we focus on recent advanced reports on plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). First, the mechanism of PEF and early results of enhanced fluorescence observed by metal nanostructure will be introduced. Then, the enhanced substrates, including periodical and nonperiodical nanostructure, will be discussed and the most important factor of the spacer between molecule and surface and wavelength dependence on PEF is demonstrated. Finally, the recent progress of tipenhanced fluorescence and PEF from the rare-earth doped up-conversion (UC) and down-conversion (DC) nanoparticles (NPs) are also commented upon. This review provides an introduction to fundamentals of PEF, illustrates the current progress in the design of metallic nanostructures for efficient fluorescence signal amplification that utilises propagating and localised surface plasmons.

  15. An Efficient Algorithm for Image Enhancement

    Manglesh Khandelwal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the digital image processing field enhancement and removing the noise in the image is a critical issue. We have proposed a new algorithmto enhance color Image corrupted by Gaussian noise using fuzzy logic which describes uncertain features of images with modification of median filter. . The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated and compared to the existing mean and median filter.

  16. Perceptual Contrast Enhancement with Dynamic Range Adjustment

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Yuecheng; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement prob...

  17. Solvent enhanced bioremediation of weathered oil contamination

    This paper describes a novel bioremediation process for the treatment of oil spills on land. The method was developed specifically to deal with long term oil contamination where the volatile fractions have evaporated leaving the more recalcitrant fractions. A model system of sand and Kuwaiti crude oil was used to test the system. A combined treatment which introduced an additional solvent component was found to enhance mobility and availability of oil, enhancing bioremediation. (author)

  18. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  19. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Ilieva, Irena P.; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey, and interview research and present the results o...

  20. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    IrenaP.Ilieva

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of...

  1. Bluetooth Low Energy - privacy enhancement for advertisement

    Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design, simulate, and implement a privacy enhancement protocol over BLE advertising channels. The design of the privacy enhancement is generic and modular. Due to the risk of privacy disclosure and device tracking by adversary, the main focus will be put on designing and implementing message confidentiality, replay prevention, and anti-tracking of device over BLE advertising channels. Bluetooth core specification 4.1 is used as baseline for design and implementat...

  2. Enhancing the Transformative Potential of Business Internships

    David Starr-Glass

    2006-01-01

    Business internships involve students, sponsoring firms, and institutions of higher learning. As part of a program to enhance internships, we reviewed the experience of a small number of business interns working in Central Europe. Their experiences were characterized as essentially situation-specific learning, competence training, and affirmation of coursework. Student perceptions suggest prematurely defined boundaries that limit the theoretical advantages of internships. In order to enhance ...

  3. Citalopram enhances cocaine's subjective effects in rats

    Soto, Paul L; Hiranita, Takato; Katz, Jonathan L.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to enhance the locomotor stimulatory, discriminative-stimulus, and convulsive effects of cocaine in rodents. A pharmacokinetic mechanism for the interaction is supported by increases in the brain levels of cocaine by fluoxetine treatment. Furthermore, the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine in rodents are enhanced by fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, SSRIs known to inhibit cocaine-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, whereas citalo...

  4. Vehicle Safety Enhancement System: Sensing and Communication

    Huihuan Qian; Yongquan Chen; Yuandong Sun; Niansheng Liu; Ning Ding; Yangsheng Xu; Guoqing Xu; Yunjian Tang; Jingyu Yan

    2013-01-01

    With the substantial increase of vehicles on road, driving safety and transportation efficiency have become increasingly concerned focus from drivers, passengers, and governments. Wireless networks constructed by vehicles and infrastructures provide abundant information to share for the sake of both enhanced safety and network efficiency. This paper presents the systematic research to enhance the vehicle safety by wireless communication, in the aspects of information acquisition through vehic...

  5. Cepheid masses for models with enhanced opacities

    Cepheid models with enhanced opacity are constructed and used to determine pulsation constants, Q0. These are compared to models without an enhanced opacity. Methods of determining Cepheid masses are investigated using the different models and are compared to results obtained by Gieren. The methods to determine the pulsation and Wesselink masses differ significantly, due to the use of a Q0 that varies with mass, radius and luminosity. 14 refs

  6. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation

  7. Enhancing Your Creativity: A 10-point guide

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2007-01-01

    Small children are experimental and creative learners. The socialisation process in modern societies, both at home and at educational institutions, does not enhance and develop their creativity. On the contrary, their creativity is discouraged in many ways. I conceptualise creativity developmentally: It is possible to use activities, teaching methods, motivation and procedures to enhance and develop creativity, even in older people. This booklet gives some tips that can be used both at home a...

  8. The Geometry of Enhancement in Multiple Regression

    Waller, Niels G.

    2011-01-01

    In linear multiple regression, "enhancement" is said to occur when R[superscript 2] = b[prime]r greater than r[prime]r, where b is a p x 1 vector of standardized regression coefficients and r is a p x 1 vector of correlations between a criterion y and a set of standardized regressors, x. When p = 1 then b [is congruent to] r and enhancement cannot…

  9. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    It was shown previously that desferrioxamine (DFO) enhances urinary excretion of Ga-67. The present study is an extension of these observations to other compounds that may enhance the excretion of Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tc), Ga-67 citrate (Ga) and Tl-201 chloride (Tl). The purpose of these studies was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide

  10. DRUG VEHICLE BASED APPROACHES OF PENETRATION ENHANCEMENT

    Swaroop R Lahoti; MOHD. HASSAN G DEHGHAN; Dinesh L Dhamecha; AMIT A RATHI; MARIA SAIFEE

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal delivery of drugs through the skin to the systemic circulation provides a convenient route of administration for a variety of clinical indications. For transdermal delivery of drugs, stratum corneum is the main barrier layer for permeation of drug. So to circumvent the stratum corneum and to increase the flux through skin membrane, different approaches of penetration enhancement are used. Many reviews had described regarding the chemical penetration enhancement but vehicle based e...

  11. Gimp Retinex for Enhancing Images from Microscopes

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    We recently proposed in the International Journal of Sciences the use of GIMP, the GNU Image Manipulation Program, for enhancing the panoramic radiographic images. One of its tools, the Retinex filter, revealed itself quite suitable for detecting weak features hidden in the shadows of these radiographic images. Here we show that this filter, besides being relevant for medical and biologic imaging, can be helpful for enhancing the images coming from microscopy techniques related to other scien...

  12. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  13. Contrast Enhanced US in the Abdomen

    Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound, which was introduced in 1996, has been widely used in Europe and Eastern Asia. Ultrasound contrast agent can be classified as first generation and second generation, depending on the gas within the microbubble. With the first generation contrast agent, the high MI technique was used, and only intermittent scanning was possible due to destruction of the microbubble during scanning. Use of the second generation contrast agent with the low MI technique makes continuous scanning possible. Contrast enhanced US can be used in detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. It is also helpful for monitoring of radiofrequency ablation and for targeting of US guided biopsy. Currently, because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the response of the tumor to treatment, new criteria are needed for treatment evaluation after administration of anti-angiogenic agents. Contrast enhanced US could provide quantitative markers for evaluation of the response to treatment via use of dynamic contrast enhanced US. Due to cost-effectiveness, contrast enhanced US is not yet widely used in Korea; however, considering recent issues regarding contrast agent related adverse reaction, such as contrast induced nephropathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and radiation exposure, contrast enhanced US might be more widely used in Korea, as an alternative imaging modality in the future.

  14. Is human enhancement also a personal matter?

    Menuz, Vincent; Hurlimann, Thierry; Godard, Béatrice

    2013-03-01

    Emerging technologies are increasingly used in an attempt to "enhance the human body and/or mind" beyond the contemporary standards that characterize human beings. Yet, such standards are deeply controversial and it is not an easy task to determine whether the application of a given technology to an individual and its outcome can be defined as a human enhancement or not. Despite much debate on its potential or actual ethical and social impacts, human enhancement is not subject to any consensual definition. This paper proposes a timely and much needed examination of the various definitions found in the literature. We classify these definitions into four main categories: the implicit approach, the therapy-enhancement distinction, the improvement of general human capacities and the increase of well-being. After commenting on these different approaches and their limitations, we propose a definition of human enhancement that focuses on individual perceptions. While acknowledging that a definition that mainly depends on personal and subjective individual perceptions raises many challenges, we suggest that a comprehensive approach to define human enhancement could constitute a useful premise to appropriately address the complexity of the ethical and social issues it generates. PMID:21786000

  15. On the chemical enhancement in SERS

    Jensen, Lasse

    2012-12-01

    In Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), the Raman signal of a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface is enhanced by many orders of magnitude. This provides a "finger-print" of molecules which can be used in ultrasensitive sensing devises. Here we present a time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study of the molecule-surface chemical coupling in SERS. A systematic study of the chemical enhancement (CHEM) of meta-and para-substituted pyridines interacting with a small silver cluster (Ag20) is presented. We find that the magnitude of chemical enhancement is governed to a large extent by the energy difference between the highest occupied energy level (HOMO) of the metal and the lowest unoccupied energy level (LUMO) of the molecule. A two-state approximation shows that the enhancement scales roughly as (ωX/ω¯e)4, where accent="true">ω¯e is an average excitation energy between the HOMO of the metal and the LUMO of the molecule and wX the HOMO-LUMO gap of the free molecule. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the CHEM enhancement by switching a dithienylethene photoswitch from its closed form to its open form. The open form of the photoswitch is found to be the strongest Raman scatterer when adsorbed on the surface whereas the opposite is found for the free molecule. This trend is explained using the simple two-state approximation.

  16. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  17. Meningeal enhancement of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images in the postoperative pediatric neurosurgical patient

    Postoperative meningeal enhancement on gadolinium MR images occurs often in children. A retrospective evaluation of meningeal enhancement of 49 MR images was completed in 29 children with surgically treated brain tumors. Surgery included tumor excision, needle biopsy, and ventricular shunting. Twenty-four of 49 studies in clinically well children showed mile linear enhancement at the craniotomy site, adjacent to the ventricular catheter or remote from the surgical site. Seven of 49 showed enhancement that was moderate in severity, nodular, or within the ventricle and was associated with ventriculitis, meningitis, recurrent tumor, leptomeningeal tumor or a subdural hematoma. Seven of eight children who shoed no meningeal enhancement had received radiation therapy. Thick, nodular, or intraventricular meningeal enhancement implies active leptomeningeal disease

  18. Enhancement characteristics of retroperitoneal lymphomatous lymph nodes

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Aaloekken, Trond Mogens [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], e-mail: trond.mogens.aalokken@rikshospitalet.no; Graff, Bjoern Anton [Div. of Diagnostics, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway); Kongsberg Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway); Holte, Harald [Dept. of Oncology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck and the mediastinum showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose: To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the retroperitoneum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, to test whether differences between these curves could be of diagnostic value, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the retroperitoneum with the curves of LLN of the neck and the mediastinum from previous similar investigations. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with LLN of the retroperitoneum (three with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 21 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal retroperitoneal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and the investigation of mediastinal lymph nodes comprised 24 patients with LLN. Results: The enhancement curves of the retroperitoneal LLN had significantly lower attenuation than those of the retroperitoneal control nodes. A combination of peak contrast value and time to peak adjusted to total body weight yielded a diagnostic accuracy which at the best showed a sensitivity of 90.5% with a specificity of 82.6%. The LLN of the retroperitoneum had higher attenuation values than corresponding nodes of the mediastinum but no significant difference was found between LLN of the retroperitoneum and LLN of the neck in previous similar investigations. Conclusion: The comparison of enhancement curves of retroperitoneal LLN with retroperitoneal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck and of the mediastinum. The best diagnostic accuracy was achieved by combining the parameters peak contrast value and time to peak and adjusting these values to the body weight. Peak enhancement of the

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of primary hepatic angiosarcoma: A pitfall of non-enhancement

    Wang, Liang, E-mail: liangw_1983@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Lv, Ke, E-mail: lvke@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Chang, Xiao-Yan, E-mail: changxiaoyan@hotmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Xia, Yu, E-mail: yuxiapumch@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Yang, Zhi-Ying, E-mail: yangzhy@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Jiang, Yu-Xin, E-mail: jiangyx@pumch.ac.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Dai, Qing, E-mail: qingdai_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Tan, Li, E-mail: tanlixg@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jian-Chu, E-mail: jianchu.li@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► The contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. ► PHA appeared similar peripheral enhancement pattern in our series. ► Non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA unexpectedly demonstrated non-enhancement on CEUS. ► It may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. ► This interesting finding warrants further investigations, particularly on intratumoral hemodynamics. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) characteristics of primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA). Methods: The sonographic findings and CEUS images of PHA in three patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In our study, 3 cases of PHA (2 multiple nodules and 1 solitary mass) showed similar enhancement pattern on CEUS, characterized by remarkable central non-enhancement and peripheral irregular enhancement in the arterial and portal phase, and complete wash-out in the late phase. Furthermore, we unexpectedly found that abundant neoplastic tissues were present in the central area of non-enhancement on pathological evaluation. Based on literature review, we supposed that the unusual finding may be associated with the very low velocity of blood flow in the central region of tumors. Conclusion: CEUS could well depict PHA with some common features, which may provide valuable clues in diagnosis of this rare disease. And non-necrotic tumor tissue of PHA could also demonstrate non-enhancement on CEUS, which warrant further investigations.

  20. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    Lin, Wen-Chiung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Li, Chao-Shiang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Tsun-Hou; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-te...

  1. Enhancing cognitive function across the life span.

    Korol, Donna L

    2002-04-01

    Glucose administration regulates many neural and behavioral processes in rodents, including learning and memory. Given the important role of glucose in brain function and the safety of glucose as a treatment, we have investigated the effects of glucose administration in humans of different ages. In previous work, we examined the effects of early-morning glucose consumption on cognitive functions in elderly individuals. In this population, glucose enhanced performance on specific measures, particularly on those tasks where mild age-related deficits appear (e.g., verbal declarative memory). Interestingly, glucose failed to enhance cognitive functions in young adults. Our recent work has examined three issues related to glucose enhancement of cognition: First, is glucose effective only in reversing impairments or can it also facilitate performance in highly functioning individuals? Second, are glucose effects dependent either on time of day or on interactions with other meals? Third, are typical breakfast foods as effective as glucose in enhancing cognitive performance? Our findings suggest that glucose can improve memory in highly functioning populations as it does in populations with deficits. However, enhancement by glucose may require sufficient levels of task difficulty and of blood glucose. In addition, like glucose, early morning consumption of cereal can improve performance on some cognitive tests. These results have important implications for the nature of glucose facilitation of memory and for the role of dietary factors in performance of many daily activities. PMID:11976194

  2. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology. PMID:26601028

  3. Image contrast enhancement using Chebyshev wavelet moments

    Uchaev, Dm. V.; Uchaev, D. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new algorithm for image contrast enhancement in the Chebyshev moment transform (CMT) domain is introduced. This algorithm is based on a contrast measure that is defined as the ratio of high-frequency to zero-frequency content in the bands of CMT matrix. Our algorithm enables to enhance a large number of high-spatial-frequency coefficients, that are responsible for image details, without severely degrading low-frequency contributions. To enhance high-frequency Chebyshev coefficients we use a multifractal spectrum of scaling exponents (SEs) for Chebyshev wavelet moment (CWM) magnitudes, where CWMs are multiscale realization of Chebyshev moments (CMs). This multifractal spectrum is very well suited to extract meaningful structures on images of natural scenes, because these images have a multifractal character. Experiments with test images show some advantages of the proposed algorithm as compared to other widely used image enhancement algorithms. The main advantage of our algorithm is the following: the algorithm very well highlights image details during image contrast enhancement.

  4. Technologies and countermeasures for gas recovery enhancement

    Guo Ping

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, China has been ranked as one of the top countries in gas production. Nevertheless, the domestic gas production can hardly satisfy the need of national economic development. Besides, an increasing number of gas fields have come to the middle or late development stages, and most gas reservoirs have low recovery efficiency due to the low permeability and water drive nature. Therefore, gas recovery enhancement has become an urgent issue. At present, the oil recovery enhancement is well defined, and there are methods describing the remaining oil and a complete set of mature EOR (enhanced oil recovery technologies. However, the definition and description of EGR (enhanced gas recovery are still undermined, and the description method for the distribution of residual gas and EGR technologies are almost unavailable. In view of this, by reviewing a wealth of related literatures, we defined EGR and also described the remaining gas distribution based on the remaining gas abundance. In addition, collecting three typical types (low-permeability, condensate and edge/bottom water of major gas reservoirs developed both at home and abroad, we summarized the geological and development characteristics, and found out the obstructions in the development. In response, we concluded and analyzed the relevant technologies and methods for enhancing the gas recovery of such reservoirs, and proposed the suggestions about EGR technology development, which provides a significant reference and popularization basis for EGR measures in fields.

  5. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied. PMID:26393186

  6. THE COGNITIVE ENHANCING EFFECT OF TOMATO POMACE

    Wipawee Thukhammee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor learning abilities and impaired memory are increasing their importance in accompany with the increased elderly population and stress exposure. Therefore, the development of cognitive enhancement is required. Recent findings showed that oxidative stress played the important role on the development of cognitive impairment in various conditions. Therefore the development of cognitive enhancer from vegetable possessing antioxidant is focused. The present study is carried out to determine the effect of dried tomato pomace powder on learning and memory both in normal and cognitive impairment conditions. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given dried tomato pomace at various doses ranging from 2, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 14 days. The animals were determined the cognitive enhancing effect of tomato pomace after single dose, 7 and 14 days after administration. The results showed that tomato pomace significantly decreased escape latency but increased retention time. In addition, we also determined the cognitive enhancing effect of this substance in cognitive deficit condition. In this part, all animals were induced cognitive deficit using scopolamine injection via intraperitoneal route after 14 days of treatment. Again, tomato pomace also improved cognitive impairment. Tomato pomace is the potential cognitive enhancer. However, the precise underlying mechanism is still required further investigation.

  7. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  8. Evaluation of the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Purpose: To evaluate the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and investigate the association between unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and early enhancement of the plaque. Methods: Forty-one patients presenting with angina pectoris and demonstrating single-vessel disease with non-calcified plaque and significant coronary stenosis (≥50%) on CTA were consecutively recruited for coronary CE-MRA. Contrast-to-noise ratio of the culprit plaque guided by CTA was measured on a cross-sectional multi-planar reconstruction image of the plaque on both pre- and post-CE-MRA. A 50% increasing of CNR was defined as plaque enhancement. The association between early enhancement of the plaques and UAP was analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven non-calcified plaques with significant coronary stenosis were detected in the 37 patients on MRA. 4 subjects were excluded because coronary atherosclerotic plaques were inadequate for identification on MRA. Of the 37 patients, 18 patients had UAP and other 19 patients presented stable angina pectoris (SAP). Of the 37 plaques on CE-MRA, 13 and 24 plaques presented early enhancement and no enhancement, respectively. Of the 13 early-enhanced plaques, 11 (85%) and 2 (15%) were found in the patients with UAP and SAP, respectively (p < 0.01). Of the 37 patients, 11 (61%) with UAP and 2 (11%) with SAP had early-enhanced plaques, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: CE-MRA allows detection of early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The early enhancement is common in unstable angina and could be a sign of vulnerability.

  9. Enhancing placebo effects: insights from social psychology.

    Sliwinski, Jim; Elkins, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251

  10. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  11. Proniosomes for Penetration Enhancement in Transdermal System

    Samita Singla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years an inclusive research has been done over provesicular approach for transdermal drug delivery. Skin has a very tough diffusion barrier inhibiting penetration of drug moiety which is rate limiting barrier for penetration of drugs. There are several approaches that deal with penetration enhancement across the skin. Vesicular and provesicular systems are promising amongst them. Vesicular systems including (niosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes and liposomes are promising systems to cross this permeation barrier. But their major drawback is their unstability, which can be overcome by using provesicular approaches like proniosomes, protransfersomes and proliposomes. Provesicular approaches have been proposed to enhance the stability of vesicles. These approaches may overcome skin barrier properties and enhance percutaneous absorption. In these systems both type of drugs, hydrophilic and lipophillic drugs can be incorporated. The focus of this review is to bring together different aspects related to mechanism of skin permeation of provesicular system, proniosomes preparation and its applications as a carrier system

  12. Enhancing superconducting critical current by randomness

    Wang, Y. L.; Thoutam, L. R.; Xiao, Z. L.; Shen, B.; Pearson, J. E.; Divan, R.; Ocola, L. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.

    2016-01-01

    The key ingredient of high critical currents in a type-II superconductor is defect sites that pin vortices. Contrary to earlier understanding on nanopatterned artificial pinning, here we show unequivocally the advantages of a random pinscape over an ordered array in a wide magnetic field range. We reveal that the better performance of a random pinscape is due to the variation of its local density of pinning sites (LDOPS), which mitigates the motion of vortices. This is confirmed by achieving even higher enhancement of the critical current through a conformally mapped random pinscape, where the distribution of the LDOPS is further enlarged. The demonstrated key role of LDOPS in enhancing superconducting critical currents gets at the heart of random versus commensurate pinning. Our findings highlight the importance of random pinscapes in enhancing the superconducting critical currents of applied superconductors.

  13. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they...... analysis of co-authorship network, can improve retrieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain collections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between information retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics / scientometrics and to create a common ground for the...... incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics to...

  14. Intermittent enhancement in chronic nodular calcified neurocysticercosis

    Martin Oselkin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of new onset seizures and epilepsy in the developing and tropical world. There has been a marked increase in domestic cases of diseases traditionally associated with developing countries, and now NCC should be high on a radiologist's differential diagnosis list for a patient with seizures. Radiologic findings of NCC correlate with the parasite's life cycle within the host. The calcified granulomas signify the final stage (nodular calcified as nonenhancing punctate calcifications on imaging and are traditionally known to remain without enhancement. Here we describe a unique case of intermittent enhancement of a cortical calcified nodule secondary to NCC that was followed for over 10 years. Radiologists must challenge the traditionally accepted progression of imaging findings and accept that calcified nodules of chronic NCC may intermittently enhance.

  15. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  16. Biomoral Enhancement. Definizioni e problemi aperti

    Luca Lo Sapio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the important disputation about biomoral enhancement, the new frontier of human enhancement international debate. In the first part, it analyses the main issues of Unfit for the future, the 2012 book of Savulescu and Persson, which represents a very relevant step within this theme. In the second part, it considers some arguments against Persson and Savulescu’s thesis and their own replies. Finally, it develops some arguments to show the difficulties related to the idea that it is possible to clearly understand the nature of a moral enhancement and point out the hurdle to circumscribe the basic elements we have to intervene on in order to obtain a real improvement of human moral attitudes.

  17. Enhancement of Images using Morphological Transformation

    Sreedhar, K; 10.5121/ijcsit.2012.4103

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with enhancement of images with poor contrast and detection of background. Proposes a frame work which is used to detect the background in images characterized by poor contrast. Image enhancement has been carried out by the two methods based on the Weber's law notion. The first method employs information from image background analysis by blocks, while the second transformation method utilizes the opening operation, closing operation, which is employed to define the multi-background gray scale images. The complete image processing is done using MATLAB simulation model. Finally, this paper is organized as follows as Morphological transformation and Weber's law. Image background approximation to the background by means of block analysis in conjunction with transformations that enhance images with poor lighting. The multibackground notion is introduced by means of the opening by reconstruction shows a comparison among several techniques to improve contrast in images. Finally, conclusions are pres...

  18. Scalable Quantum Computing with "Enhancement" Quantum Dots

    Lyanda-Geller, Y B; Yang, M J

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme of solid state realization of a quantum computer based on single spin "enhancement mode" quantum dots as building blocks. In the enhancement quantum dots, just one electron can be brought into initially empty dot, in contrast to depletion mode dots based on expelling of electrons from multi-electron dots by gates. The quantum computer architectures based on depletion dots are confronted by several challenges making scalability difficult. These challenges can be successfully met by the approach based on ehnancement mode, capable of producing square array of dots with versatile functionalities. These functionalities allow transportation of qubits, including teleportation, and error correction based on straightforward one- and two-qubit operations. We describe physical properties and demonstrate experimental characteristics of enhancement quantum dots and single-electron transistors based on InAs/GaSb composite quantum wells. We discuss the materials aspects of quantum dot quantum compu...

  19. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  20. Loudness enhancement - Monaural, binaural, and dichotic

    Elmasian, R.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    When one tone burst (T) precedes another (S) by 100 msec, variations in the intensity of T systematically influence the loudness of S. When T is more intense than S, S is increased; and when T is less intense, S loudness is decreased. This occurs in monaural, binaural, and dichotic paradigms of signal presentation. When T and S are presented to the same ear (monaural or binaural), there is more enhancement with less intersubject variability than when they are presented to different ears (dichotic paradigm). Monaural enhancements as large as 30 dB can readily be demonstrated, but decrements rarely exceed 5 dB. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed for this loudness enhancement, which apparently shares certain characteristics with time-order error, assimilation, and temporal partial masking experiments.

  1. Loudness enhancement: Monaural, binaural and dichotic

    Elmasian, R. O.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that when one tone burst precedes another by 100 msec variations in the intensity of the first systematically influences the loudness of second. When the first burst is more intense than the second, the second is increased and when the first burst is less intense, the loudness of the second is decreased. This occurs in monaural, binaural and dichotic paradigms of signal presentation. Where both bursts are presented to the same ear there is more enhancement with less intersubject variability than when they are presented to different ears. Monaural enhancements as large as 30 db can readily be demonstrated, but decrements rarely exceed 5 db. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed for this loudness enhancement, which apparently shares certain characteristics with time-order-error, assimilation, and temporal partial masking experiments.

  2. Stoner-enhanced paramagnetism in tungsten tetraboride

    We demonstrate that tungsten tetraboride (WB4), a heavy transition metallic compound without magnetic atoms, is an exchange-enhanced paramagnet revealed by the magnetization and specific heat measurements. WB4 has a small effective magnetic moment of 0.53 μ B/fu. The high magnetic susceptibility in the magnitude of 1 memu (mol·Oe)−1 below 10 K obeys quadratic temperature dependence. The upturn behavior of C P/T versus T 2 at low temperatures is attributed to the electron-paramagnon interactions. A high Stoner enhancement parameter, Z  =  0.93, was derived to explain the enhanced paramagnetism based on the Stoner model. (paper)

  3. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance

  4. Enhancement of artificial magnetism via resonant bianisotropy

    Markovich, Dmitry; Baryshnikova, Kseniia; Shalin, Alexander; Samusev, Anton; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    All-dielectric “magnetic light” nanophotonics based on high refractive index nanoparticles allows controlling magnetic component of light at nanoscale without having high dissipative losses. The artificial magnetic optical response of such nanoparticles originates from circular displacement currents excited inside those structures and strongly depends on geometry and dispersion of optical materials. Here an approach for enhancing of magnetic response via resonant bianisotropy effect is proposed and analyzed. The key mechanism of enhancement is based on electric-magnetic interaction between two electrically and magnetically resonant nanoparticles of all-dielectric dimer. It was shown that proper geometrical arrangement of the dimer in respect to the incident illumination direction allows flexible control over all vectorial components of the magnetic moment, tailoring the latter in the dynamical range of 100% and delivering enhancement up to 36% relative to performances of standalone spherical particles. The proposed approach provides pathways for designs of all-dielectric metamaterials and metasurfaces with strong magnetic responses.

  5. A Confucian reflection on genetic enhancement.

    Fan, Ruiping

    2010-04-01

    This essay explores a proper Confucian vision on genetic enhancement. It argues that while Confucians can accept a formal starting point that Michael Sandel proposes in his ethics of giftedness, namely, that children should be taken as gifts, Confucians cannot adopt his generalist strategy. The essay provides a Confucian full ethics of giftedness by addressing a series of relevant questions, such as what kind of gifts children are, where the gifts are from, in which way they are given, and for what purpose they are given. It indicates that Confucians should sort out different types of enhancement and bring them to the test of the Confucian values in terms of both Confucian virtue principles and specific ritual rules. It concludes that Confucians can accept some types of enhancement but must reject others. PMID:20379929

  6. Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.

  7. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu, E-mail: jjli@uw.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2600 (United States); Xie, Shuhong [Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Liu, Xiaoyan [College of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, and Advanced Materials for Energy Institute, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  8. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  9. Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?

    Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...

  10. Proposal of Enhanced Extreme Programming Model

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme programming is one of the commonly used agile methodologies in software development. It is very responsive to changing requirements even in the late phases of the project. However, quality activities in extreme programming phases are implemented sequentially along with the activities that work on the functional requirements. This reduces the agility to deliver increments continuously and makes an inverse relationship between quality and agility. Due to this relationship, extreme programming does not consume enough time on making extensive documentation and robust design. To overcome these issues, an enhanced extreme programming model is proposed. Enhanced extreme programming introduces parallelism in the activities' execution through putting quality activities into a separate execution line. In this way, the focus on delivering increments quickly is achieved without affecting the quality of the final output. In enhanced extreme programming, the quality concept is extended to include refinement of all phases of classical extreme programming and creating architectural design based on the refined design documents.

  11. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  12. Enhanced Engine Control for Emergency Operation

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    C-MAPSS40k engine simulation has been developed and is available to the public. The authenticity of the engine performance and controller enabled the development of realistic enhanced control modes through controller modification alone. Use of enhanced control modes improved stability and control of an impaired aircraft. - Fast Response is useful for manual manipulation of the throttles - Use of Fast Response improved stability as part of a yaw rate feedback system. - Use of Overthrust shortened takeoff distance, but was generally useful in flight, too. Initial lack of pilot familiarity resulted in discomfort, especially with yaw rate feedback, but that was the only drawback, overall the pilot found the enhanced modes very helpful.

  13. Surface-Enhanced X-Ray Fluorescence

    Anderson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Surface-enhanced x-ray fluorescence (SEn-XRF) spectroscopy is a form of surface- enhanced spectroscopy that was conceived as a means of obtaining greater sensitivity in x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. As such, SEn-XRF spectroscopy joins the ranks of such other, longer-wavelength surface-enhanced spectroscopies as those based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS), and surfaceenhanced infrared Raman absorption (SEIRA), which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. XRF spectroscopy has been used in analytical chemistry for determining the elemental compositions of small samples. XRF spectroscopy is rapid and quantitative and has been applied to a variety of metal and mineralogical samples. The main drawback of XRF spectroscopy as practiced heretofore is that sensitivity has not been as high as required for some applications. In SEn-XRF as in the other surface-enhanced spectroscopies, one exploits several interacting near-field phenomena, occurring on nanotextured surfaces, that give rise to local concentrations of incident far-field illumination. In this case, the far-field illumination comes from an x-ray source. Depending on the chemical composition and the geometry of a given nanotextured surface, these phenomena could include the lightning-rod effect (concentration of electric fields at the sharpest points on needlelike surface features), surface plasmon resonances, and grazing incidence geometric effects. In the far field, the observable effect of these phenomena is an increase in the intensity of the spectrum of interest - in this case, the x-ray fluorescence spectrum of chemical elements of interest that may be present within a surface layer at distances no more than a few nanometers from the surface.

  14. 78 FR 32381 - Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program-Enhanced Assessment...

    2013-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced Assessment Instruments--Kindergarten Entry Assessment Competition Correction In notice document 2013-12212 appearing on pages...

  15. Is the enhancement of global warming important?

    There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33oC lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

  16. Interpretation techniques. [image enhancement and pattern recognition

    Dragg, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The image enhancement and geometric correction and registration techniques developed and/or demonstrated on ERTS data are relatively mature and greatly enhance the utility of the data for a large variety of users. Pattern recognition was improved by the use of signature extension, feature extension, and other classification techniques. Many of these techniques need to be developed and generalized to become operationally useful. Advancements in the mass precision processing of ERTS were demonstrated, providing the hope for future earth resources data to be provided in a more readily usable state. Also in evidence is an increasing and healthy interaction between the techniques developers and the user/applications investigators.

  17. Percutaneous penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery

    Singh Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transdermal route has numerous advantages over the more traditional drug delivery routes. These include high bioavailability, absence of first pass hepatic metabolism, steady drug plasma concentrations, and the fact that therapy is non-invasive. The main obstacle to permeating drug molecules is the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Consequently, research into enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD by overcoming this layer, is an area of prime interest. This review article is written to provide a coverage commentary of the recent advancements in TDD enhancement techniques.

  18. Performance Enhancing Drugs: History, Medical Effects & Policy

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to serve as a general treatise on the vast topic of use of performance enhancing drugs in athletic competition. It begins by laying out the extensive history of doping in sports, from the ancient Romans to the East German Olympic swim team to the steroids scandal in baseball. The paper moves on to describe and discuss the many medical effects that use of performance enhancing drugs might trigger. The paper concludes by discussing the appropriateness of anti-doping po...

  19. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  20. How cognitive enhancement can change our duties

    Filippo eSantoni de Sio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper draws the scientific community’s attention to how pharmacological cognitive enhancement may impact on society and law. Namely, if safe, reliable, and effective techniques to enhance mental performance are eventually developed, then this may under some circumstances impose new duties onto people in high-responsibility professions – e.g. surgeons or pilots – to use such substances to minimize risks of adverse outcomes or to increase the likelihood of good outcomes. By discussing this topic, we also hope to encourage scientists to bring their expertise to bear on this current public debate.

  1. Microwave meta-atom enhanced spintronic rectification

    Gou, Peng; Xi, Fuchun; Qian, Qinbai; Xu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); An, Zhenghua, E-mail: anzhenghua@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-06

    An artificial meta-atom (MA), or alternatively, a plasmonic antenna, has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the microwave spin rectifying photovoltage by more than two orders in magnitude (∼280) in the ferromagnetic resonance regime. The large enhancement is attributed to the unique structure of the MA which magnifies both microwave electric (∼5) and magnetic (∼56) fields in the same near-field spatial region. Our work develops the interdisciplinary direction with artificial and natural magnetism and may find promising applications in high-frequency or opto-spintronic devices and wireless microwave energy harvesting.

  2. Photonic Enhancement of Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    Labelle, Andre Jean-Romeo Richard

    Colloidal quantum dots, nanocrystal semiconductors that can be cross-linked and assembled into absorbing thin films, are an attractive material for third-generation photovoltaic applications due to low-cost fabrication and bandgap tunability. As a result of their limited charge transport, these solution-processed thin films suffer from a mismatch in absorption length and charge extraction length. Concepts based on the interdigitation of n- and p-doped layers, approaches that reduce the distance photogenerated carriers must travel before extraction, offer promise on overcoming this limitation. In this thesis, I explore and develop techniques to address the absorption-extraction compromise in CQD materials by implementing nano- and micro-structuring techniques to enhance light absorption in the active film. First, I focus on the development of nanomaterials for light guiding/scattering enhancement in CQD films. For this, I develop a nanostructured gold reflector that, when suitably designed, guides light and traps it within the active film. I show that this yields enhanced broadband absorption with more than 4-fold improvement at the most improved wavelength, which translated into a 34% improvement in photocurrent in a working solar cell. I also show that periodic nanostructures employed for absorption enhancement can lead to improvements in solar cell performance. Limitations in device architecture and film formation, however, prevented significant performance advances for these nano-scale approaches. Regardless, these early results pointed me to a new and more impactful strategy. I focus in on realizing micron-scale structured electrodes to enhance absorption, which I show to be considerably more useful in view of the need to extract charge carriers with high efficiency. I discover that conformal film formation atop these structured electrodes is an absolute prerequisite to enhancing performance. These devices, which I term micro-pyramid CQD cells, provide a 24

  3. e-REAL: Enhanced Reality Lab

    Fernando Salvetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available e-REAL - enhanced reality lab - is a fully-immersive and multitasking environment, designed to experience challenging situations in a group setting, engaging all participants simultaneously on different levels: with peers, thematic experts and learning facilitators, both on site and remotely. e-REAL is a lab based on visual thinking and knowledge visualization, facilitated by enhanced (or augmented reality tools. It is a highly interactive and face-to-face lab that promotes proactive data and information research (everything is available, but learners have to actively look for it - allowing knowledge sharing with remote teams and integrating training on soft skills with those that are technical and specialized.

  4. Microwave meta-atom enhanced spintronic rectification

    An artificial meta-atom (MA), or alternatively, a plasmonic antenna, has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the microwave spin rectifying photovoltage by more than two orders in magnitude (∼280) in the ferromagnetic resonance regime. The large enhancement is attributed to the unique structure of the MA which magnifies both microwave electric (∼5) and magnetic (∼56) fields in the same near-field spatial region. Our work develops the interdisciplinary direction with artificial and natural magnetism and may find promising applications in high-frequency or opto-spintronic devices and wireless microwave energy harvesting

  5. Hybrid nanoantennas for directional emission enhancement

    Plasmonic and dielectric nanoparticles offer complementary strengths regarding their use as optical antenna elements. While plasmonic nanoparticles are well-known to provide strong decay rate enhancement for localized emitters, all-dielectric nanoparticles can enable high directivity combined with low losses. Here, we suggest a hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantenna consisting of a gold nanorod and a silicon nanodisk, which combines all these advantages. Our numerical analysis reveals a giant enhancement of directional emission together with simultaneously high radiation efficiency (exceeding 70%). The suggested hybrid nanoantenna has a subwavelength footprint, and all parameters and materials are chosen to be compatible with fabrication by two-step electron-beam lithography

  6. Enhanced OpenModelica Python Interface

    Bajracharya, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    OMPython is a Python library for OpenModelica, which provides a Python interface to OpenModelica. This thesis significantly improves OMPython by an enhanced, more powerful and easier to use API. It presents how a user can use the Python interface to simulate and access Modelica models using Python objects. The enhanced OMPython includes the list of functions that have been implemented such as getXXXNames(), getXXXValues(), setXXXValues(), getXXXOptions(), setXXXOptions(), and simulate(), etc....

  7. Psychological resources for safety culture enhancement

    Psychological resources for safety culture enhancement in nuclear power engineering are presented. Theoretical aspects and a practical approach to the use of psychology in safety assessment and quality assurance of NPPs are discussed. The safety culture of the atomic industry includes such problems as general risks in power production, the quality level of technology, technical reliability, and also the personnel's living conditions, job organization and professional education. But these problems of each NPP energy cycle are solved by people. People's psychological willingness (attitudes to successful performance) is an integrated and important psychological factor for safety culture enhancement). (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  9. Transport of radiopharmaceuticals under enhanced security measures

    Full text: The radiopharmaceutical industry makes million of shipments each year of both finished products and the medical radionuclides used to manufacture these drug products. These shipments are made to an from almost every member state of the IAEA. Since the events of September 11, 2001 member states have taken steps to enhance security of all dangerous goods. These well intentioned steps have often resulted in delays causing significant radioactive decay of these short half-life radionuclides. The IAEA can take a leadership role in the international regulatory community by enhancing security measures without allowing delays of critical radioactive materials shipments. (author)

  10. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Christos Argyropoulos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  11. Hybrid nanoantennas for directional emission enhancement

    Rusak, Evgenia; Staude, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.staude@anu.edu.au; Decker, Manuel; Sautter, Jürgen; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Powell, David A.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Plasmonic and dielectric nanoparticles offer complementary strengths regarding their use as optical antenna elements. While plasmonic nanoparticles are well-known to provide strong decay rate enhancement for localized emitters, all-dielectric nanoparticles can enable high directivity combined with low losses. Here, we suggest a hybrid metal-dielectric nanoantenna consisting of a gold nanorod and a silicon nanodisk, which combines all these advantages. Our numerical analysis reveals a giant enhancement of directional emission together with simultaneously high radiation efficiency (exceeding 70%). The suggested hybrid nanoantenna has a subwavelength footprint, and all parameters and materials are chosen to be compatible with fabrication by two-step electron-beam lithography.

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  13. Enhanced ants system and its application

    2005-01-01

    NP-hard combinational optimization problem is not solved very well until now. One enhanced ants system based on ants system is advanced after analysis of the deficiencies of existing ants systems. Some improvements are made in state transfer rule and local modification rule. Furthermore, the enhanced ants system can solve NP-hard combinational optimization problem with restraints and condition path. The successful application of TSP problem and transportation net problem indicates that the proposed system has stronger function and higher efficiency than the original system.

  14. Natural Image Enhancement Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Enhanced with Blended Migration Operator

    J. Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a novel and efficient algorithm for solving optimization problem in image processing applications. Image enhancement (IE is one of the complex optimization problems in image processing. The main goal of this paper is to enhance color images such that the eminence of the image is more suitable than the original image from the perceptual viewpoint of human. Traditional methods require prior knowledge of the image to be enhanced, whereas the aim of the proposed biogeography based optimization (BBO enhanced with blended migration operator (BMO algorithm is to maximize the objective function in order to enhance the image contrast by maximizing the parameters like edge intensity, edge information, and entropy. Experimental results are compared with the current state-of-the-art approaches and indicate the superiority of the proposed technique in terms of subjective and objective evaluation.

  15. Identification and Characterization of GH Receptor and Serum GH-binding Protein in Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Zhi-Yong LIAO; Shang-Quan ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Chinese sturgeon, a kind of cartilage ganoid, has a history of over one billion years and it is called the living fossil of aquatic biology since it keeps some evolutionary trace. Here, we characterized the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and serum growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) of Chinese sturgeon. It was shown that GHR was expressed in various tissues, mainly in hepatic, kidney and intestine tissues. GHR on the hepatic membrane has high and specific affinity for bream GH (brGH) and Scatchard analysis of the binding data showed a single class of high affinity binding site with an association constant Ka of 3.1×109 M-1. A specific band around 94 kD was detected by SDS-PAGE in cross-linking studies of membrane receptors. After incubation of Chinese sturgeon serum with 125I-brGH, a 125I-brGH-GHBP complex was identified by Sephadex G-75, indicating that in the serum exists GHBP specially binding to brGH.

  16. Conservation, sex-biased expression and functional annotation of microRNAs in the gonad of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Yuan, Lihong; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have crucial roles in regulating the expression of gametogenesis-related genes in animals. However, the mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the sturgeon has remained unclear. Identifying miRNAs and characterizing sex-biased miRNA expression is therefore critical for understanding the role of miRNAs during sexual differentiation in sturgeon. In this study, five different tissues from sturgeon before sex differentiation and the gonads were used for miRNA expression profiling. We screened 1037 miRNAs in miRBase 20.0 and an additional 103 sturgeon miRNAs using microarray and real-time PCR. We found that the sequences of 477 miRNAs out of a total of 1140 miRNAs were highly conserved (100%) among different fish species. From a total of 663 non-redundant miRNA probes, 481 miRNAs were detected in the gonads of both sexes. Of the 148 miRNAs that were identified to have sex-biased expression patterns between the testis and the ovary (P2. The microarray expression patterns of 13 randomly selected sex-biased miRNAs were validated using real-time PCR. Target gene prediction revealed a significant enrichment of functional groups (88 GO terms) and 18 KEGG pathways (P<0.05) and suggested that there are interactions between sex-biased miRNAs and 25 putative gametogenesis-related targets. Therefore, our miRNA expression analysis in juvenile A. schrenckii establishes a foundation for understanding and further investigating the role of miRNAs in sturgeon sex differentiation. PMID:27089517

  17. Growth of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus under experimental and farm conditions of the Czech Republic, with remarks on other sturgeons

    Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Mareš, J.; Peňáz, Milan; Baránek, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2011), s. 281-290. ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : sterlet juveniles and adults * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * condition factor Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=85841

  18. La restauration de l'esturgeon européen (Acipenser sturio) et les extractions de granulats dans la Gironde

    Lepage, M.; Rochard, E.; CASTELNAUD G.

    1998-01-01

    The Gironde estuary in the south-west of France is the last estuary where all diadromous fish from western europe still migrate. In addition, the Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne basin is the last know system where the reproduction of the european sturgeon take place. The european sturgeon is an endangered species which is listed under the Threatened species Red Book of France and other international conventions for the conservation of the nature. It is also fully protected in France since 1982 by a ...

  19. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C;

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil...

  20. Effects of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) on juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) performance, immune responses and gastrointestinal microbial community

    Geraylou, Z.; Souffreau, C.; Rurangwa, E.; Hondt, D' S.; Callewaert, L.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2012-01-01

    Arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are a newly discovered class of candidate prebiotics that exert different properties depending on their structure. In this study the effects of two different structures of AXOS, namely AXOS-32-0.30 (average degree of polymerization: 32, average degree of substitu