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Sample records for acids tfa sources

  1. Trans fatty acid intakes and food sources in the U.S. population: NHANES 1999-2002.

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in the top 25 food sources of TFA. Data are reported for 16,669 individuals ≥ 3 years of age. Median TFA intake was 2.3 % of calories (5 g/day) with 0.9-4.5 % of energy (1.5-13.1 g/day) over different quintiles of intake. Mean TFA intake was 2.5 % of energy (6.1 g/day). The range of TFA intake in the fifth quintile was very large, i.e., 3.5-12.5 % of energy or 8.8-92.4 g/day. Increasing quintiles of TFA intake were associated with increases in total fat (26.7-37.6 % of energy), saturated fat (7.6-10.5 % of energy), and calories (for those >20 years of age: 2,416-2,583 for men and 1,679-1,886 for women). Major food sources of dietary TFA were cakes, cookies, pies, and pastries. Based on current dietary guidance to consume as little industrial TFA as possible, much progress is needed to attain this goal, including food industry efforts to remove TFA from the food supply and educating the public about making healthy food choices. PMID:22903556

  2. 1-Methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [Hmim]Tfa: Mild and efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid for Hantzsch reaction under microwave irradiation

    Jemin R Avalani; Devji S Patel; Dipak K Raval

    2012-09-01

    One pot synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives was achieved via condensation of various -ketoesters with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate. The reaction was catalysed by a stable and reusable Brønsted acidic ionic liquid (IL), 1-methyl-imidazolium trifluoroacetate ([Hmim]Tfa), under microwave (MW) irradiation. The synergistic combination ofMWwith IL can potentially go a long way tomeet the increasing demand for chemical processes. This homogeneous catalytic procedure is simple and efficient. The catalyst can be reused at least four times with almost complete retention in its activity.

  3. Trans fatty acids (tFA: sources and intake levels, biological effects and content in commercial Spanish food Ácidos grasos trans (AGt: fuentes y niveles de ingesta, efectos biológicos y contenido en los alimentos comerciales españoles

    P.-M. Fernández-San Juan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of dietary habits in children and adolescents performed in Spain show that a high percentage of the daily energy intake corresponds to fat (42.0-43.0%. These findings show an excessive contribution of saturated fatty acids and also a considerable supply of trans fatty acids. These compounds are formed generally during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats. Also, in some cases naturally occurring trans fatty acids in smaller amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants (cows, sheep, these trans fatty acids are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach by reactions of biohydrogenation. On the other hand, metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids increase LDL cholesterol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Our results show that major sources of trans fatty acids in commercial Spanish foods are fast-food (hamburger, French fries, snacks, bakery products (cakes, donuts, biscuits, margarines and dehydrated soups.Estudios recientes sobre los hábitos alimentarios de niños y adolescentes llevados a cabo en nuestro país revelan que un alto porcentaje de las calorías que se ingieren en estos colectivos corresponden a las grasas (42,0-43,0%. Estos estudios muestran que existe una excesiva ingesta de ácidos grasos saturados y un preocupante incremento de la ingesta de ácidos grasos trans. Estos compuestos se forman generalmente en el proceso de hidrogenación catalítica parcial de los aceites vegetales comestibles, proceso que los convierte en grasas semisólidas, aunque en algunos casos también están presentes en pequeñas cantidades en carnes, leche y productos lácteos procedentes de animales rumiantes (vacas y ovejas ya que se originan de forma natural en reacciones de biohidrogenación producidas por la florabacteriana en el estómago de estos animales. Por otro lado, estudios metabólicos han demostrado que los ácidos grasos trans

  4. Trans Fatty Acid Intakes and Food Sources in the U.S. Population: NHANES 1999–2002

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Petersen, Barbara; Fleming, Jennifer; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Because of efforts to decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, intake should be assessed in the population to establish a baseline TFA intake. The 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to identify a benchmark for TFA intake. TFA was estimated by mean, median, and quintile of intake, TFA intake data were weighted using the NHANES 4-year sample weights. The main outcome measures included TFA intake in grams per day and percentage of energy in t...

  5. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. T...

  6. Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies

    There are two predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid and (VA) and rumenic acid [RA, a conjugated linoleic ...

  7. Effects of TFA addition on the growth of sintered YBa2Cu3Oy superconductors

    Kita, Ryusuke; Kuroda, Keita; Kato, Teppei; Miura, O.; Yamada, K.; Kaneko, K.

    The effects of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) addition on the growth of a superconducting phase in sintered YBCO samples were investigated. YBCO samples with TFA addition were prepared by adding TFA (99.0%) to YBCO powder and then pressed into pellets and heated 1173 K - 1213 K for 12 - 20 hr in air. After the heat treatment, the TFA-added sample showed large grain sizes and highly c-axis oriented structures compared to pure YBCO samples, which indicates the enhancement of the grain growth of YBCO sintered samples by the TFA addition. The Jc (0) value and Jc/Jc (0T) properties of the sintered samples was improved by the TFA addition.

  8. Effects of Ruminant trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Studies123

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lamarche, Benoît; Lock, Adam L.; Proctor, Spencer D.; Baer, David J

    2011-01-01

    There are 2 predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid (VA) and the naturally occurring isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA). The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence base from epidemiological and clinical studies to determine whether intake of rTFA iso...

  9. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids: health aspects

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and from ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60 % of the fatty acids in trans form, compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreas...

  10. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60......% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP...

  11. Trans Fatty Acid Levels in Foods and Intakes among Population Aged 3 Years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China

    LIU Ai Dong; LI Jian Wen; LIU Zhao Ping; ZHOU Ping Ping; MAO Wei Feng; LI Ning; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids. Methods The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake. Results The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68±0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89±2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86±0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83±1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41±0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29%of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and≥18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42%demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively. Conclusion The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.

  12. Progress in Preparing YBCO Tapes by TFA-MOD Method%TFA-MOD制备YBCO带材工艺研究进展

    丁发柱; 古宏伟; 李弢; 王连红

    2008-01-01

    由于第二代高温超导带材YBa2Cu3O7-z(简称YBCO)具有较高的不可逆磁场,可以在较高的温度和外加磁场下应用,是近年来高温超导材料研究的热点之一.采用三氟乙酸.金属有机沉积(trofluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition,TFA-MOD)法制备第二代高温超导YBCO带材由于不需要真空系统,成本低,沉积速率快而广受关注.综述了TFA-MOD制备YBCO带材的工艺最新进展,并对TFA-MOD制备的YBCO带材性能进行了讨论.

  13. Effective role of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to enhance the photocatalytic activity of F-doped TiO2 prepared by modified sol-gel method

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2016-03-01

    Highly photoactive mesoporous F-doped TiO2 with improved physico-chemical characteristics is achieved using modified sol-gel method. The usage of trifluoroacetic as fluorine precursor significantly modifies the morphology, size, pore shape, crystal phase, crystal structure, surface chemical state and to a lesser extent, {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets. The accessibility of fluoride ions on Tisbnd Osbnd Ti polymer chains during crystal growth during the sol-gel process remarkably influences the properties of catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, preparation of F-doped TiO2 using modified sol-gel and trifluoroacetic acid are limited, and still not enough. Thus this work provides additional insight by using an approach which is less hazardous, less costly and practical for large scale agile development in the photocatalysis industry.

  14. TFA from HFO-1234yf: accumulation and aquatic risk in terminal water bodies.

    Russell, Mark H; Hoogeweg, Gerco; Webster, Eva M; Ellis, David A; Waterland, Robert L; Hoke, Robert A

    2012-09-01

    A next-generation mobile automobile air-conditioning (MAC) refrigerant, HFO-1234yf (CF(3) CF = CH(2)), is being developed with improved environmental characteristics. In the atmosphere, it ultimately forms trifluoroacetic acid (TFA(A); CF(3)COOH), which is subsequently scavenged by precipitation and deposited on land and water as trifluoroacetate (TFA; CF(3)COO(-)). Trifluoroacetate is environmentally stable and has the potential to accumulate in terminal water bodies, that is, aquatic systems receiving inflow but with little or no outflow and with high rates of evaporation. Previous studies have estimated the emission rates of HFO-1234yf and have modeled the deposition concentrations and rates of TFA across North America. The present study uses multimedia modeling and geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling to assess the potential concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies over extended periods. After 10 years of emissions, predicted concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies across North America are estimated to range between current background levels (i.e., 0.01-0.22 µg/L) and 1 to 6 µg/L. After 50 years of continuous emissions, aquatic concentrations of 1 to 15 µg/L are predicted, with extreme concentrations of up to 50 to 200 µg/L in settings such as the Sonoran Desert along the California/Arizona (USA) border. Based on the relative insensitivity of aquatic organisms to TFA, predicted concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies are not expected to impair aquatic systems, even considering potential emissions over extended periods. PMID:22730026

  15. TFA Tanks Focus Area Midyear Review Report FY 1999

    SN Schlata

    1999-05-21

    The purpose of the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Midyear Review was to improve the quality and responsiveness of TFA technical solutions to identified user needs. This review goal was achieved through executing a multi-phased review approach

  16. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    Klaus Heinrich Vanselow

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, growth rates decreased under low nitrate concentrations. This effect was reinforced when cells were exposed to lower temperatures (from 26 °C down to 17 °C. Considering the cellular TFA concentration, nitrate provoked an increase of TFA under nitrate limitation up to 70% of the biological dry mass (BDM. In contrast to this finding, the EPA content decreased under low nitrate concentrations. Nevertheless, both TFA and EPA contents increased under a low culture temperature (17 °C compared to moderate temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C. In terms of biotechnological production, the growth rate has to be taken into account. Therefore, for both TFA and EPA production, a temperature of 17 °C and a nitrate concentration of 1800 µmol L-1 afforded the highest productivities. Temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C in combination with 1800 µmol L-1 nitrate showed slightly lower TFA and EPA productivities.

  17. Trans fatty acids in Europe: where do we stand?

    MOURATIDOU THEODORA; LIVANIOU ANASTASIA; MARTIN SABORIDO CARLOS; Wollgast, Jan; LOURO CALDEIRA SANDRA

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are a particular type of unsaturated fatty acid. They are naturally present in food products made from ruminant animals such as dairy and meat from cattle, sheep or goat (naturally occurring ruminant TFA or rTFA) but can also be produced industrially (TFA of industrial origin or iTFA). Consumption of TFA is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that ‘TFA intakes should be as low as is possibl...

  18. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samp...

  19. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Jarron, P.; Moraes, D.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dunand, S.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS)...

  20. 中国部分城市水环境中TFA的初步研究%Prelimary Study of TFA in Surface Water of Some Cities over China

    王巧云; 王新明

    2011-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid(TFA) is a stable organic pollutant with potential toxicity.The accumulation of TFA in water environment results in elevated concentration and also leads to ecological health risk.In this study,a total of 43 water samples,including tap water and surface water,were collected in 16 cities all over China.TFA in these water samples was pretreated through derivatization and analyzed by Gas Chromatography equipped with Mass Spectroscopy Detector.The results showed TFA was detectable in all water samples ranged from 13.7 ng·L-1 to 7 850 ng·L-1,and the values notably varied from city to city.Shanghai had the highest TFA concentration,with 3 054 ng·L-1 in tap water and 7 850 ng·L-1 in river water respectively.Spatial distribution analysis displayed that several areas in eastern China,like Shanghai,Anhui province,and Yantai in Shandong province,had relatively higher TFA concentrations as compared to other cities.The fluorochemical industrial area centralizes in eastern China,from which the direct or indirect emission of fluorochemicals as a source of TFA likely resulted in higher TFA concentrations in water environment in relevant areas.%三氟乙酸(trifluoroacetic acid,TFA)是稳定且有潜在毒害性的有机污染物,可在水环境中不断累积导致浓度持续升高,从而引起生态健康风险.本研究通过在全国16个城市采集自来水、河水、湖水等环境水样43个,用衍生化法-气相色谱-质谱联用技术检测水环境中TFA的浓度水平.结果表明,所有采样点的水样中均可检出TFA,浓度范围为13.7~7 850 ng.L-1,不同城市水环境中TFA的浓度差异显著.上海环境水中TFA浓度最高,自来水和河水中TFA的浓度分别为3 054 ng.L-1和7 850ng.L-1.TFA的地域分布显示位于华东地区的上海、安徽、山东烟台等地水环境中TFA水平明显高于其它城市.华东地区是中国氟化工业比较集中的区域,氟化工业生产过程直接或

  1. Nutritional implications of trans fatty acids during perinatal period, in French pregnant women

    Boue Carole; Combe Nicole; Billeaud Claude; Entressangles Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated the transfer of trans fatty acids (TFA) across the human placenta. It was suggested that TFA might disturb the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFA) in fetus and consequently might affect intrauterine human growth more or less according to the TFA intake level of the mother. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess, for French pregnant women, possible impact of their TFA intake on parameters of their term infants: 1/ TFA composition of the ...

  2. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease - An overview

    Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Niels Lyhne;

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong direct (positive) association between the intake of trans fatty acids (TRA) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA). However, comparisons, between ruminant TEA (R-TFA) and IP-TFA and risk...

  3. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between trans fatty acids (TFA) intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA. Some of these studies indicate an inverse association between ruminant TFA (R-TFA) intake and CHD implying...

  4. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) FY1999 Midyear Review Report

    The purpose of the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Midyear Review was to improve the quality and responsiveness of TFA technical solutions to identified user needs. This review goal was achieved through executing a multi-phased review approach. The first phase of the midyear review focused on the subset of FY99 work identified by Department of energy users as having continuing benefit in FY00-01. The TFA FY00-02 Technical Responses identified FY99 work that had continued applicability based on the most current set of site user needs. Each TFA FY00-02 Technical Response which included FY work scope was reviewed by the TFA Technical Advisory Group (TAG), in a meeting held in February 1999. Made up of technical experts from across the country, the TAG provides high-quality, short-turnaround, independent technical reviews for the TFA

  5. TFA-600系列产品介绍

    凤凰音响灯光技术有限公司

    2010-01-01

    @@ (接2010年34卷4期90页) TFA-600H/TFA-600HDP 梯形三分频音箱,梯形三分频有源音箱 TFA-600H是一款三分频的可转换三放大/二放大的梯形全频音箱,箱体内置有一种专利申请中的Den-dritic 树状高频波导.

  6. Influence Factor of Preparing YBCO Tapes by TFA-MOD Method%TFA-MOD技术制备YBCO涂层导体影响因素研究

    吕旭东; 古宏伟; 李弢; 丁发柱; 王连红

    2008-01-01

    采用三氟乙酸盐-金属有机物沉积法(trifluoroacetic acid-metall organic deposition,TFA-MOD)制备YB-CO带材,不需要真空系统,成本低,是近年来制备YBCO涂层导体研究的热点之一.对采用TFA-MOD技术制备YBCO涂层导体中的工艺做了较为系统的介绍,包括制备前驱物溶液、涂敷、低温烧结、高温烧结等环节,分析了加热温度,升温速率,水分压等参数的影响.并且讨论了如何从工艺环节提高YBCO涂层导体的性能.

  7. Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

  8. Preparation of anhydrous TFA solution for deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films

    The realisation of superconducting thin films by MOD is possible using different precursors; among them, the most promising approach is the use of trifluoroacetates (TFAMOD). However, one of the major drawbacks of this approach is the generation of water when trifluoroacetic acid (TFAH) is used. In this case, a lengthy purification process of the solution is necessary. As an alternative, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) has been used affording anhydrous TFA solutions without any additional purification. Anhydrous TFA solutions have allowed YBa2Cu3O7-x films to be obtained with high critical currents (Jc > 3-4 MA/cm2 at 77K, thickness 300nm)

  9. Luminescent properties of [UO2(TFA)2(DMSO)3], a promising material for sensing and monitoring the uranyl ion

    An uranyl complex [UO2(TFA)2(DMSO)3] (TFA=deprotonated trifluoroacetic acid; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide) has been successfully synthesized by reacting UO2(CH3COO)2 ·H2 O with one equivalent of (CF3 CO)2 O and DMSO. The complex has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and absorption and emission spectroscopies. The spectroscopic properties of the material make it suitable for its application in the sensing and monitoring of uranyl in the PUREX process. (author)

  10. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x1015 p/cm2

  11. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Jarron, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Pierre.Jarron@cern.ch; Moraes, D. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Danielle.Moraes@cern.ch; Despeisse, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dissertori, G. [ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dunand, S. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Kaplon, J. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miazza, C. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Shah, A. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Viertel, G.M. [ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wyrsch, N. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-05-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Enhancement of mononuclear procoagulant activity by platelet 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    Lorenzet, R; Niemetz, J; Marcus, A J; Broekman, M J

    1986-01-01

    Platelets induce generation of procoagulant tissue factor activity (TFa) by mononuclear leukocytes, and also enhance the TFa induced by endotoxin. Our present investigation demonstrated that arachidonic acid, which by itself had no effect on mononuclear TFa, greatly enhanced platelet-induced TFa. The effect was concentration dependent for both platelets and arachidonate (1-20 microM); other fatty acids tested were inactive. The enhancing effect of arachidonate was more pronounced if platelets...

  13. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  14. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    Klaus Heinrich Vanselow; Kai Marxen; Rüdiger Schulz; Maren Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, g...

  15. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Site Needs Assessment FY 1999

    RW Allen

    1999-05-03

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This is the fifth edition of the TFA site needs assessment. As with previous editions, this edition serves to provide the basis for accurately defining the TFA program for the upcoming fiscal year (FY), and adds definition to the program for up to 4 additional outyears. Therefore, this version distinctly defines the FY 2000 progrti and adds further definition to the FY 2001- FY 2004 program. Each year, the TFA reviews and amends its program in response to site users' science and technology needs.

  16. Substitution of trans fatty acids in foods on the Danish market

    Bysted, Anette; Mikkelsen, Aase Ærendahl; Leth, Torben

    2009-01-01

    , in 68% of the products (e.g. sweets, cakes and cookies as well as fast food such as pie and tortilla), IP-TFA were mainly substituted with saturated fatty acids (SFA). In some cases, the SFA source was coconut fat, whereas in other products, palm oil was added instead of partially hydrogenated oils...

  17. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  18. TFA Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY 2000

    LR Roeder-Smith

    2000-05-02

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements.

  19. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

  20. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  1. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    Jakobsen, M. U.; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 years...... were included. The participation was 66%. Dietary information: A 7-day dietary record. Results: The estimated median intake of ruminant TFA was 1.4 g/day with the 80% central range being from 0.9 to 2.1 among children aged 1 - 6 years and 1.6 g/day ( 1.0 - 2.4) among children aged 7 - 14 years. The...... median TFA intake was 1.8 g/ day (0.9-2.9) among adults aged 15 - 29 years and among adults aged 30 - 80 years. The intake expressed as percentage of energy intake was 0.8, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.7, respectively. Dairy products were the main source of ruminant TFA. Conclusions: The median intake of ruminant TFA...

  2. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    Steinhart Hans; Winkler Kirstin; Rickert Rainer

    2001-01-01

    The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated fatty acids (CFA), especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA). This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  3. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    Steinhart Hans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA and conjugated fatty acids (CFA, especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA. This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  4. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The...

  5. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price or quality of foods previously containing high amounts of IP-TFA. Various public health organizations, including the World Health Organization, have recommended reducing the consumption of IP-TFA, an...

  6. Rapid thermal decomposition for YBa2Cu3O7-δ films derived by DEA-modified TFA-MOD

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Zhao, S. C.; Liu, Z. Y.; Rui, R. S.; Qiu, W. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Li, M. J.; Yang, W. T.; Cai, C. B.

    2014-05-01

    Thermal decomposition of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films derived by diethanolamine (DEA)-modified trifluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) was investigated with respect to the understanding of the correlation between the stress releasing and rapid decomposition. It is revealed that the evaporation of DEA and the decomposition of precursor films occur simultaneously. A pyrolysis time as 20 seconds is optimal to keep the proper amount of DEA which prevents the films from severe stress during the pyrolysis. Then smooth surface of resultant films appears. In case of a pyrolysis time longer than 40 s, cracks emerge in the films accompanied with complete evaporation of DEA and appearance of Cu-rich particles, while films with pyrolysis time shorter than 10s is excessively soft, with large amount of DEA and TFA remaining in the film, implying insufficient pyrolysis.

  7. Trans fatty acids in adipose tissue and erythrocytes of Irish adults

    Hogan, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable and marine oils. TFA are not synthesized in the human body. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue reflects the habitual intake of TFA over the previous 1-2 years. Recent studies associate TFA with an increased serum level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and therefore an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of the present study was to assess the level of TFA in the subcutaneous fat ...

  8. Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods

    Shingfield, Kevin; Bonnet, Muriel; Scollan, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans-fatty acids (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and T...

  9. Fabrication of YBCO coated conductor by TFA-MOD using the '211 process'

    YBCO film was fabricated by the TFA-MOD method based on the '211 process' in which precursors of Y2Ba1Cu1O x (Y211) and Ba3Cu5O8 powders, instead of Y-, Ba-, and Cu-based acetates, were dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in order to explore its possible application in coated conductors. We evaluated the effects of the humidity and firing temperature on the phase formation, texture formability, and critical temperature (T c) and current (I c) of the YBCO film. We successively synthesized pure YBCO films of which those fired in 12.1-20.0% humidified Ar gas showed the highest critical properties, viz. a T c-zero of 88.6 K and I c of 30 A/cm width. These improvements in the critical properties were attributed to the formation of pure YBCO phase, to the improved density and the large grain size. In addition, we observed that the I c varied significantly with the firing temperature. The variation of the I c with the firing temperature was correlated with the microstructural evolution

  10. High-rate fabrication of YBCO coated conductors using TFA-MOD method

    Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Usui, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    The YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors derived from metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using the metal salts of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been developed with high critical current property. The long-length YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by multi-turn reel-to-reel system. Increasing the thickness per single coating in the multi-turn reel-to-reel system is a cost-effective technique for fabrication of the precursor films in the calcination process. In this work, we have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine salts of yttrium 4-oxopentanoate and copper 2-ethylhexanoate with focusing on increasing the thickness per single coating for a high-rate fabrication of the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD method. The critical thickness per single coating of the film fabricated from the new starting solution was 0.54 μm/coat. High critical current of 377 A/cm-width with high critical current density (3.0 MA/cm2) was obtained in the YBCO film fabricated on CeO2 buffered LaMnO3/MgO/Gd2Zr2O-7/HastelloyTM substrates using the new starting solution at the thickness per single coating of 0.42 μm/coat.

  11. Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia.

    McCarthy, Justine; Barr, Daniel; Sinclair, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted using solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quantified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples analysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids. PMID:18818158

  12. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis. PMID:26968402

  13. High-Sensitivity TFA-free LC-MS for Profiling Histones

    You, Jia; Wang, Liwen; Saji, Motoyasu; Olesik, Susan V.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Lucas, David M.; Byrd, John C.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of proteins by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) commonly involves the use of TFA as an ion-pairing agent, even though it forms adducts and suppresses sensitivity. The presence of adducts can complicate protein molecular weight assignment especially when protein isoforms coelute as in the case of histones. To mitigate the complicating effects of TFA adducts in protein LC-MS, we have optimized TFA-free methods for protein separation. Protein standards and histones were u...

  14. Trifluoroacetic acid from degradation of HCFCs and HFCs: A three-dimensional modeling study

    V. R. Kotamarthi; J. M. Rodriguez; Ko, M. K. W.; Tromp, T. K; Sze, N. D; Prather, Michael J

    1998-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3 COOH) is produced by the degradation of the halocarbon replacements HFC-134a, HCFC-124, and HCFC-123. The formation of TFA occurs by HFC/HCFC reacting with OH to yield CF3COX (X = F or Cl), followed by in-cloud hydrolysis of CF3COX to form TFA. The TFA formed in the clouds may be reevaporated but is finally deposited onto the surface by washout or dry deposition. Concern has been expressed about the possible long-term accumulation of TFA in certain aquatic envir...

  15. Progress in TFA-MOD for Superconducting Coated Conductors%涂层导体中的TFA-MOD超导层技术进展

    金利华; 李成山; 闫果; 卢亚锋

    2008-01-01

    三氟乙酸金属有机沉积(TFA-MOD)技术在制备超导涂层导体长带方面具有低成本和高效的特点.简述了TFA-MOD技术的基本原理以及在长带技术方面的进展,讨论了利用TFA-MOD技术制备涂层导体时仍然存在的技术和基础科学问题,并展望了我国涂层导体技术的发展状况.

  16. Growth mechanism of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process

    The growth rate expression in the TFA-MOD process for fabrication of coated conductors was revised according to the measurement of the growth rate using a long tape. The P(H2O) distribution along the gas flow-direction was calculated by the advection diffusion model. The above two outputs were combined to predict the minimum annealing time for complete reaction in the sample tape with a finite width. The prediction from the model was in good agreement with the experimental results

  17. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation. PMID:26911372

  18. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues. PMID:24607804

  19. Eichhornia crassipes: an advantageous source of shikimic acid

    Sthephanie F. Cardoso; Lucia M. X. Lopes; Isabele R. Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Pontederiaceae) is considered as one of the most productive plants on earth, and an aquatic weed, which causes serious environmental problems. In this study, this species is presented as an alternative of a renewable source of shikimic acid. Although this acid is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms, its occurrence is described for the first time in a species of the Pontederiace...

  20. TFA and the Magical Thinking of the "Best and the Brightest"

    Blumenreich, Megan; Rogers, Bethany L.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on oral history testimonies to examine the experiences of participants in the inaugural 1990 cohort of Teach For America (TFA)--a group of young people dubbed the "best and brightest" of their generation and tasked with "saving" urban education. For 25 years, TFA has operated according to the principle of the…

  1. Training the next Teachers for America: A Proposal for Reconceptualizing TFA

    Hopkins, Megan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers suggestions for reconceptualizing the Teach for America (TFA) program. She recommends that TFA develop a residency training model with the following features: (1) Extend the program's current two-year commitment to three years; (2) Require first-year corps members to complete a residency year in an experienced…

  2. Unfinishedness: Striving for a Viable Partnership between TFA and Its University Partner

    Meyers, Barbara; Fisher, Teresa R.; Alicea, Monica; Bloxson, Kolt M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Teach For America (TFA) affiliates with universities in most of its 40 regions nationally; however, few researchers intentionally study the content and processes of a partnership between TFA and a college of education. Purpose/Research Question/Focus of Study: To ensure that investments both organizations were making had a…

  3. A Racio-Economic Analysis of Teach for America: Counterstories of TFA Teachers of Color

    Lapayese, Yvette V.; Aldana, Ursula S.; Lara, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Teach for America (TFA), one of the alternative education programs of the U.S. Department of Education designed to address the achievement gap of students of color in the country. Topics explored in this research include issues of racism and race in the recruitment and support of its teacher corp; how TFA educators of color…

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Chemical Structure, Sources and Biological Properties

    AYDIN, Rahim

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2, cis-9, cis-12). In contrast to linoleic acid, double bonds in CLA are usually located at positions 9 and 11 or 10 and 12 and each double bond can be either in the cis or trans configuration. Meat and dairy products from ruminant animals (such as milk, butter, yogurt and cheese) are the principal natural sources of CLA in the human diet. Egg and meat products from poultry contain less CLA t...

  5. Eichhornia crassipes: an advantageous source of shikimic acid

    Sthephanie F. Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae is considered as one of the most productive plants on earth, and an aquatic weed, which causes serious environmental problems. In this study, this species is presented as an alternative of a renewable source of shikimic acid. Although this acid is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds in plants and microorganisms, its occurrence is described for the first time in a species of the Pontederiaceae family. Shikimic acid is the lead compound for the production of the antiviral agent oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu®. Semi-quantitative analyses of the plant extracts by HPLC-PDA showed that the aerial parts of E. crassipes contain higher shikimic acid concentration (0.03%-2.70% w/w than the roots (0.05%-0.90% w/w, and that methanol is a better solvent than water for shikimic acid extraction.

  6. Trans fatty acids, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes

    Risérus, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) could affect cell membrane functions, and may therefore influence peripheral insulin sensitivity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It is important to understand whether low amounts of TFA consumed during long periods may promote insulin resistance and have clinically relevant effects on diabetes risk. Data from controlled intervention studies examining the effects of TFA on insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes are reviewed. The results show no consistent e...

  7. 2012: No trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products

    D. Ansorena; Echarte, A. (Andrea); Olle, R. (Rebeca); Astiasaran, I. (Iciar)

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyze the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialized in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study...

  8. Pd layer on cube-textured substrates for MOD-TFA and PLD YBCO coated conductors

    Pd films were deposited on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) Ni-5 at.% W in order to exploit the Pd effect of the texture sharpening with respect to that of the substrate, for the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors. The Pd sharpening effect was relevant in the out-of-plane direction where the reduction for the ω-scans' full width at half maximum (FWHM) ranged from 55 to 65%, depending on the substrate roughness. The obtained minimum values of the FWHM in the transverse rolling direction of the (002) Pd ω-scan and in the (111) Pd φ-scan were of about 2.50 and 50, respectively. The CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 (YSZ is Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2) heterostructure of the buffer layer was developed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to transfer the sharp orientation of the Pd film, both the seed CeO2 layer and the YSZ layer were deposited at low temperatures (450 deg. C ), low enough to avoid Pd/Ni-W interdiffusion. The YBCO, films deposited by both PLD and metal-organic deposition (MOD) using metal trifluoroacetate acid (TFA), exhibited rolling direction (005) ω-scan and the (113) φ-scan FWHM values of about 2 deg. and 5 deg., respectively. In spite of the complete interdiffusion between Ni and Pd during the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good adherence, as well as a smooth and crack-free surface. A zero-resistance critical temperature (TC0) of 90.8 K for the MOD-TFA YBCO films and critical current-density (JC) up to 2.2 MA cm-2 at 77 K and self-field for PLD YBCO films have been obtained

  9. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complexa)

    Belinda Pastrana-Rios; Liliana del Valle Sosa; Jorge Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient). Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the com...

  10. Plasma transport and mammary uptake of trans fatty acids in dairy cows

    Vargas Bello Pérez, Einar

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, aspects of metabolism of lipids in dairy cows were studied, particularly 18:1 trans fatty acid (tFA) concentrations in plasma and lipoprotein fractions, and transportation of FA in epithelial mammary gland cell cultures. Two in vivo studies were conducted to elucidate which lipoprotein fractions were involved in bovine plasma transport of tFA by infusing oils that induced different plasma tFA profiles. Fatty acid profiles of plasma and lipoprotein fractions [high (HDL), l...

  11. A large and ubiquitous source of atmospheric formic acid

    D. B. Millet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formic acid (HCOOH is one of the most abundant acids in the atmosphere, with an important influence on precipitation chemistry and acidity. Here we employ a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret recent airborne and ground-based measurements over the US Southeast in terms of the constraints they provide on HCOOH sources and sinks. Summertime boundary layer concentrations average several parts-per-billion, 2–3× larger than can be explained based on known production and loss pathways. This indicates one or more large missing HCOOH sources, and suggests either a key gap in current understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation or a large, unidentified, direct flux of HCOOH. Model-measurement comparisons implicate biogenic sources (e.g., isoprene oxidation as the predominant HCOOH source. Resolving the unexplained boundary layer concentrations based: (i solely on isoprene oxidation would require a 3× increase in the model HCOOH yield, or (ii solely on direct HCOOH emissions would require approximately a 25× increase in its biogenic flux. However, neither of these can explain the high HCOOH amounts seen in anthropogenic air masses and in the free troposphere. The overall indication is of a large biogenic source combined with ubiquitous chemical production of HCOOH across a range of precursors. Laboratory work is needed to better quantify the rates and mechanisms of carboxylic acid production from isoprene and other prevalent organics. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs provide a large model source of HCOOH, while acetaldehyde tautomerization accounts for ~ 15% of the simulated global burden. Because carboxylic acids also react with SCIs and catalyze the reverse tautomerization reaction, HCOOH buffers against its own production by both of these pathways. Based on recent laboratory results, reaction between CH3O2 and OH could provide a major source of atmospheric HCOOH; however, including this chemistry degrades the model simulation of CH3

  12. WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few short-lived HFCs

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the prevalent (used in >80% passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide) refrigerant in automobile air conditioning units (MACs). With an atmospheric lifetime of ~14 years and a global warming potential (GWP) of 1430 on a 100-year time horizon, HFC-134a does not meet current and expected requirements for MAC refrigerants in many parts of the world. Therefore, substitutes with lower GWP are being sought. One of the simplest way to achieve lower GWP is to use chemicals with shorter atmospheric lifetimes. In this work, we investigate the dry and wet deposition and the rainwater concentration of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) produced by the atmospheric oxidation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The WRF/Chem model was used to calculate dry and wet TFA deposition over the contiguous USA during the May-September 2006 period that would result from replacing HFC-134a in MACs with a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP) and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP). The simulation is evaluated by comparing observations of precipitation and sulfate wet deposition at stations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). Simulated precipitation and sulfate wet deposition correlate well with the observations, but exhibit a positive bias for precipitation and a negative bias for sulfate wet deposition. Atmospheric lifetimes of TFP and PFP against oxidation by the hydroxyl radical OH, a prognostic species in WRF/Chem, are ~5 and ~4 days in the simulation, respectively. The model setup allows the attribution of dry and wet TFA deposition to individual source regions (California, Houston, Chicago, and the remaining contiguous USA in this work). TFA deposition is highest in the eastern USA because of numerous large sources and high precipitation in the region. West of the Continental Divide, TFA deposition is significantly lower, and its origin is dominated by emissions from

  13. Vortex creep in TFA-YBCO nanocomposite films

    Rouco, V.; Bartolomé, E.; Maiorov, B.; Palau, A.; Civale, L.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-11-01

    Vortex creep in YBa2Cu3O7 - x (YBCO) films grown from the trifluoracetate (TFA) chemical route with BaZrO3 and Ba2YTaO6 second-phase nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated by magnetic relaxation measurements. We observe that in YBCO nanocomposites the phenomenological crossover line from the elastic to the plastic creep regime is shifted to higher magnetic fields and temperatures. The origin of this shift lies on the new isotropic-strong vortex pinning contribution appearing in these nanocomposites, induced by local lattice distortions. As a consequence, we demonstrate that the addition of non-coherent NPs produces a decrease in the creep rate S in most of the phase diagram, particularly, in the range of fields and temperatures (T\\gt 60 K, {{μ }0}H\\gt 0.5 T) relevant for large scale applications.

  14. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Chung, Stephen W. C.; S. K. Tong; Violette F. P. Lin; Melva Y. Y. Chen; Janny K. M. Ma; Xiao, Y; Ho, Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA) content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette) samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest me...

  15. Progress on TFA-MOD coated conductor development

    The recent progress in coated conductor development by the TFA-MOD process was reviewed. Much progress was recognized in the R and D on TFA-MOD processing for satisfying several requirements, such as high superconducting performance, long tape production, high production rate, etc., considering the real application. For high superconducting performance, the high I c value of 413 A was achieved in a short sample with an architecture of MOD-YBCO/IBAD-GZO/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy. It was realized by improving the in-plane crystal grain alignment of the CeO2 buffer layer and optimizing conditions of the heat treatments in the calcination and crystallization processes. In the calcination process, it was found that lower heating rate was effective to improve the morphology of the multi-layered precursor by preventing from pore generation and segregation of Cu elements. In the crystallization process, it was found that high humid gas partial pressure was effective to improve the J c values by reducing the amounts and size of pores in the YBCO layers. Furthermore, in the case of thicker firm, it was found that the low heating rate in the crystallization process was effective to prevent from the crack formation. On the other hand, in order to obtain the long tape with uniform I c values, in the crystallization process, the gas flow condition in a large scale equipment for the continuous long tape process was investigated using a computer simulation technique. Consequently, the 8.6 m YBCO on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy tape which shows high I c performance of 119 A as an end-to-end value at 77.3 K in self fields, was successfully obtained. As a result, I c x L(length) value of 1024 A m was achieved

  16. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complex.

    Pastrana-Rios, Belinda; Del Valle Sosa, Liliana; Santiago, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient). Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the components and the ternary complex. Melittin (MLT) was observed to have increased helicity upon its interaction with centrin, followed by the thermally induced aggregation of MLT within the ternary complex in the TFA presence. PMID:26798810

  17. Impact of using sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late gestation

    mammary adipose tissue and subsequent milk yield. Soapstock is produced from seeds oil refining processes as a by-product potentially harmful to the environment but can use it as dietary fat source. The aim of this study were to study impact of adding either Na-SFA or Ca-SFA as a energy source instead of corn grains in buffalo rations on rumen activities and performance of late pregnant buffalo. Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 day were divided into three balanced groups. First group received the control ration consisted of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem hay and rice straw. In the second and third rations, yellow corn was replaced with either Na-SFA or Ca-SFA. Chemical composition of Na-SFA, Ca- SFA and the experimental rations are presented. Content of AEE in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA was higher. Incubation of teased rations in the rumen showed reduction in DM, OM and CP disappearances, also ED and PD with ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values increased with adding Na- SFA compared to adding Ca-SFA or control diet. As a result of foaming and physical coating of the fibre with added Na-SFA has been proposed as a possible theory for the sometimes observed depressed DM, OM and CP disappearances. Digestion coefficient of DM, OM, CP and WCS were decreased with feeding ration containing Na-SFA compared to that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between ration containing Ca-SFA and control one. These results might be due to the effect of LCFA in Na-SFA, which reflects on rumen fermentation, and consequently affect fibre digestibility. Nutritive values as TDN and DCP were decreased (P 3-N. These results might be due to release of FFA's in the rumen when feeding Na-SFA decreased both NH3-N and TVFA's. Fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, are antimicrobial and interfere with normal function of the ruminal microbes

  18. Overview of trans fatty acids: biochemistry and health effects.

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one non-conjugated double bond in the trans configuration, resulting in a straighter shape. TFA present in our diet can either be industrially produced and ruminant or natural. The major process contributing to formation of industrial TFA is hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Thermal processes such as edible oil refining and frying also lead to the formation of TFA while, ruminant/natural TFA is formed in the rumen of ruminant animals through bio-hydrogenation. Industrial TFA poses severe effects on our health like cardiovascular problems, insulin resistance, infertility in women, compromised fetal development and cognitive decline. There are strict regulations for limiting/removing the TFA content from food supply across the world. However in India, there is scarcity of data on TFA content in foods and their consumption levels. Given the alarmingly rising trend of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in India, removal of TFA from the food supply along with generating awareness among the masses in this regard is of immense importance. PMID:22813572

  19. Evaluation of nitrous acid sources and sinks in urban outflow

    Gall, Elliott T.; Griffin, Robert J.; Steiner, Allison L.; Dibb, Jack; Scheuer, Eric; Gong, Longwen; Rutter, Andrew P.; Cevik, Basak K.; Kim, Saewung; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James

    2016-02-01

    Intensive air quality measurements made from June 22-25, 2011 in the outflow of the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) metropolitan area are used to evaluate nitrous acid (HONO) sources and sinks. A two-layer box model was developed to assess the ability of established and recently identified HONO sources and sinks to reproduce observations of HONO mixing ratios. A baseline model scenario includes sources and sinks established in the literature and is compared to scenarios including three recently identified sources: volatile organic compound-mediated conversion of nitric acid to HONO (S1), biotic emission from the ground (S2), and re-emission from a surface nitrite reservoir (S3). For all mechanisms, ranges of parametric values span lower- and upper-limit values. Model outcomes for 'likely' estimates of sources and sinks generally show under-prediction of HONO observations, implying the need to evaluate additional sources and variability in estimates of parameterizations, particularly during daylight hours. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to model scenarios constructed with sources S1-S3 added independently and in combination, generally showing improved model outcomes. Adding sources S2 and S3 (scenario S2/S3) appears to best replicate observed HONO, as determined by the model coefficient of determination and residual sum of squared errors (r2 = 0.55 ± 0.03, SSE = 4.6 × 106 ± 7.6 × 105 ppt2). In scenario S2/S3, source S2 is shown to account for 25% and 6.7% of the nighttime and daytime budget, respectively, while source S3 accounts for 19% and 11% of the nighttime and daytime budget, respectively. However, despite improved model fit, there remains significant underestimation of daytime HONO; on average, a 0.15 ppt/s unknown daytime HONO source, or 67% of the total daytime source, is needed to bring scenario S2/S3 into agreement with observation. Estimates of 'best fit' parameterizations across lower to upper-limit values results in a moderate reduction of the unknown

  20. Rapid thermal decomposition for YBa2Cu3O7−δ films derived by DEA-modified TFA-MOD

    Thermal decomposition of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films derived by diethanolamine (DEA)-modified trifluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) was investigated with respect to the understanding of the correlation between the stress releasing and rapid decomposition. It is revealed that the evaporation of DEA and the decomposition of precursor films occur simultaneously. A pyrolysis time as 20 seconds is optimal to keep the proper amount of DEA which prevents the films from severe stress during the pyrolysis. Then smooth surface of resultant films appears. In case of a pyrolysis time longer than 40 s, cracks emerge in the films accompanied with complete evaporation of DEA and appearance of Cu-rich particles, while films with pyrolysis time shorter than 10s is excessively soft, with large amount of DEA and TFA remaining in the film, implying insufficient pyrolysis.

  1. Luminescent properties of [UO{sub 2}(TFA){sub 2}(DMSO){sub 3}], a promising material for sensing and monitoring the uranyl ion

    Martin-Ramos, Pablo; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira da [Centro de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra (CFisUC), Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Ana L.; Melo, J. Sergio Seixas de [Centro de Quimica de Coimbra, Department of Chemistry, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Laura C.J. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Martin-Gil, Jesus, E-mail: pmr@unizar.es [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenierias Agrarias, University of Valladolid, Palencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    An uranyl complex [UO{sub 2}(TFA){sub 2}(DMSO){sub 3}] (TFA=deprotonated trifluoroacetic acid; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide) has been successfully synthesized by reacting UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} ·H{sub 2} O with one equivalent of (CF{sub 3} CO){sub 2} O and DMSO. The complex has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and absorption and emission spectroscopies. The spectroscopic properties of the material make it suitable for its application in the sensing and monitoring of uranyl in the PUREX process. (author)

  2. Sources of acidic storm flow in an Appalachian Headwater Stream

    Swistock, Bryan R.; Dewalle, David R.; Sharpe, William E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the source of increased dissolved aluminum concentrations during acidic storm flows on a small Pennsylvania stream. Data for six episodes during fall 1986 and spring 1987 showed depressions in stream pH and increases in sulfates, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved aluminum. Flow separation analyses were conducted using 18O as a tracer in a three-component mass balance tracer model. Results showed that soil water and groundwater are the dominant flow sources, accounting for approximately 20 and 75% of total flow during storms, respectively. Channel precipitation generally provided less than 5% of total flows. Hydrograph separation using aluminum agreed with 18O results, while other chemical parameters produced unsatisfactory results. The data support Hewlett's (1982) variable source area concept of storm flow generation with inputs of older, deep circulating groundwater from low-elevation source areas early in an event and later inputs of younger soil water and possibly shallow groundwater from expanding source areas at higher elevations. The results suggest that the most toxic runoff events for aquatic life occur during large storms when the greatest inputs of soil water cause elevated stream dissolved aluminum concentrations. Reductions in storm flow acidity and dissolved aluminum concentrations on this catchment will be most dependent upon changes in soil water and/or groundwater chemistry.

  3. Crystal growth of YBCO coated conductors by TFA MOD method

    Yoshizumi, M.; Nakanishi, T.; Matsuda, J.; Nakaoka, K.; Sutoh, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2008-09-01

    The crystal growth mechanism of TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa 2Cu 3O y has been investigated to understand the process for higher production rates of the conversion process. YBCO films were prepared by TFA-MOD on CeO 2/Gd 2Zr 2O 7/Hastelloy C276 substrates. The growth rates of YBCO derived from Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3 starting solutions were investigated by XRD and TEM analyses. YBCO growth proceeds in two steps of the epitaxial one from the substrate and solid state reaction. The overall growth rate estimated from the residual amounts of BaF 2 with time measured by XRD is proportional to a square root of P(H 2O). The trend was independent of the composition of starting solutions, however, the growth rate obtained from the 1:1.5:3 starting solutions was high as twice as that of 1:2:3, which could not be explained by the composition of BaF 2 included in the precursor films. On the other hand, the growth rate measured from the thickness of the YBCO quenched film at the same process time showed no difference between the samples of 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3. The epitaxial growth rate of 1:1.5:3 was also the same as the overall growth rate of that, which means there was no solid state reaction to form YBCO after the epitaxial growth. The YBCO growth mechanism was found to be as follows; YBCO crystals nucleate at the surface of the substrate and epitaxially grow into the precursor by layer-by-layer by a manner with trapping unreacted particles. The amounts of YBCO and the unreacted particles trapped in the YBCO film are independent of the composition of the starting solution in this step. Unreacted particles react with each other to form YBCO and pores by solid state reaction as long as there is BaF 2 left in the film. The Ba-poor starting solution gives little BaF 2 left in the film and so the solid state reaction is completed within a short time, resulting in the fast overall growth rate.

  4. Intake of trans fatty acid and risk of cardiovascular disease in Asian population : a systematic review

    Wang, Zherun; 王浙潤.王浙润

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies in western countries have suggested a positive association between intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In Asia, although intake of TFA was relatively low, it evidenced an increasing trend which was accompanied with an increasing prevalence of CVDs among the population. There was currently no systematic review on the relationship between intake of TFA and CVDs in Asian population. This systematic review was aimed to synthesiz...

  5. Trans Fatty Acids: Effects on Cardiometabolic Health and Implications for Policy

    Micha, R.; Mozaffarian, D.

    2008-01-01

    In both developed and developing countries, trans fatty acids (TFA) are largely consumed from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. This article focuses on TFA as a modifiable dietary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reviewing the evidence for lipid and non lipid effects; the relations of trans fat intake with clinical endpoints; and current policy and legislative issues. In both observational cohort studies and randomized clinical trials, TFA adversely affect lipid profiles (includin...

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids on Human Health: Important Aspects to Consider.

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10, which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk. PMID:25746671

  7. Trans Fatty Acids Induce Vascular Inflammation and Reduce Vascular Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells

    Iwata, Naomi G.; Pham, Matilda; Rizzo, Norma O.; Cheng, Andrew M.; Maloney, Ezekiel; Kim, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from rumi...

  8. Fabrication of YBCO coated conductor by TFA-MOD method in route of dissolving Y211 and Ba3Cu5O8 powders in TFA

    We fabricated YBCO coated conductors using a new TFA-MOD method and evaluated the phase formation, texture evolution, and critical properties as a function of the firing temperature and oxygen heat treatment time, in order to explore its possible application in CCs fabrication. In the fabrication process, Y2Ba1Cu1O x and Ba3Cu5O8 powders were used as precursors, instead of Y-, Ba- and Cu-based acetate or organics, and dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid followed by firing and oxygen heat treatment. We observed that for the films fired at 725 deg. C, BaF2 and other second phases formed and T c was measured to be 66.5 K. In contrast, when the film was fired at 775 deg. C, strong and sharp (0 0 l) diffraction peaks of YBCO were observed, without the formation of the BaF2 phase. In addition, X-ray pole-figure analysis indicated that a strong biaxial texture was developed and the full-width at half-maximums of in-plane and out-of-plane textures were 4.38 deg. and 4.26 deg., respectively. The critical temperature and current were also increased to 85.3 K and 35.8 A/cm-width, respectively, at 77 K when the oxygen heat treatment time was increased to 20 h. Microstructure observation indicated that a crack-free surface was obtained and that there was no a-axis grain growth

  9. Pd layer on cube-textured substrates for MOD-TFA and PLD YBCO coated conductors

    Mancini, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Celentano, G [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Galluzzi, V [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Rufoloni, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Vannozzi, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Augieri, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ciontea, L [Technical University of Cluj Napoca, Str. C Daicoviciu 15, 3400 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Petrisor, T [Technical University of Cluj Napoca, Str. C Daicoviciu 15, 3400 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Gambardella, U [INFN-LFN, Via E Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Longo, G [ISM-CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Cricenti, A [ISM-CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    Pd films were deposited on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) Ni-5 at.% W in order to exploit the Pd effect of the texture sharpening with respect to that of the substrate, for the development of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors. The Pd sharpening effect was relevant in the out-of-plane direction where the reduction for the {omega}-scans' full width at half maximum (FWHM) ranged from 55 to 65%, depending on the substrate roughness. The obtained minimum values of the FWHM in the transverse rolling direction of the (002) Pd {omega}-scan and in the (111) Pd {phi}-scan were of about 2.5{sup 0} and 5{sup 0}, respectively. The CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CeO{sub 2} (YSZ is Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilised ZrO{sub 2}) heterostructure of the buffer layer was developed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to transfer the sharp orientation of the Pd film, both the seed CeO{sub 2} layer and the YSZ layer were deposited at low temperatures (450 deg. C ), low enough to avoid Pd/Ni-W interdiffusion. The YBCO, films deposited by both PLD and metal-organic deposition (MOD) using metal trifluoroacetate acid (TFA), exhibited rolling direction (005) {omega}-scan and the (113) {phi}-scan FWHM values of about 2 deg. and 5 deg., respectively. In spite of the complete interdiffusion between Ni and Pd during the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good adherence, as well as a smooth and crack-free surface. A zero-resistance critical temperature (T{sub C0}) of 90.8 K for the MOD-TFA YBCO films and critical current-density (J{sub C}) up to 2.2 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and self-field for PLD YBCO films have been obtained.

  10. Nutritional quality of fresh and heated Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seed oil: trans-fatty acid isomers profiles and antioxidant properties

    Dhibi, Madiha; Issaoui, Manel; Brahmi, Faten; Mechri, Beligh; Mnari, Amira; Cheraif, Imed; Skhiri, Fathia; Gazzah, Noureddine; Hammami, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4). Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%....

  11. New processing technique of TFA-MOD YBCO coated conductors using the '211' process

    We fabricated the YBCO films on single crystal LaAlO3 substrates via a metal organic deposition (MOD) process. In the process, Y2Ba1Cu1Ox and Ba3Cu5O8 powders were dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) followed by calcining and firing heat treatments. To evaluate the effects of the firing temperature on YBCO phase formation and critical properties, the films were fired at 750 degrees C, 775 degrees C and 800 degrees C after calcining at 430 degrees C. Microstructure observation indicated that a crack-free surface formed and a strong biaxial texture was developed. The FWHM of out-of-plane texture was measured to be in the range of 4.3 - 7.0 degree for all the films. When the YBCO film was fired at 775 degrees C, it had the highest critical properties: 88.5 K of critical temperature and 16 A/cm-width of critical current (1MA/cm2 as critical current density). On the other hand, those properties were degraded as firing at 750 degrees C and 800 degrees C. It is considered that the improved critical values are partly owing to dense and homogeneous microstructure, strong texture, and high oxygen content.

  12. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2003-01-01

    similar investigations in 1992 and 1995. A gradual decline of TFA in Danish margarines was observed. From 1992 to 1995, a reduction of TFA from 10.4 to 3.6% took place in margarines with 20-40% linoleic acid. In 1999, TFA was practically absent in all the margarines, but it remained unchanged in...... shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years in the...

  13. The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats

    Gazzah Noureddine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans-fatty acids (TFA are known as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases, insulin resistance and obesity accompanied by systemic inflammation, the features of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the effects on the liver induced by lipids and also few studies are focused on the effect of foods rich in TFAs on hepatic functions and oxidative stress. This study investigates whether high-fat diets with different TFA levels induce oxidative stress and liver dysfunction in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group: C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO, 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO and 20% margarine diet (MG. Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks. Results A liver damage was observed in rats fed with high-fat diet via increase of liver lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The intake of oxidized oil led to higher levels of lipid peroxidation and a lower concentration of plasma antioxidants in comparison to rats fed with FSO. The higher inflammatory response in the liver was induced by MG diet. Liver histopathology from OSO and MG groups showed respectively moderate to severe cytoplasm vacuolation, hypatocyte hypertrophy, hepatocyte ballooning, and necroinflammation. Conclusion It seems that a strong relationship exists between the consumption of TFA in the oxidized oils and lipid peroxidation and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The extent of the peroxidative events in liver was also different depending on the fat source suggesting that feeding margarine with higher TFA levels may represent a direct source of oxidative stress for the organism. The present study provides evidence for a direct effect of TFA on NAFLD.

  14. The HMG-box mitochondrial transcription factor xl-mtTFA binds DNA as a tetramer to activate bidirectional transcription.

    Antoshechkin, I; Bogenhagen, D F; Mastrangelo, I A

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial HMG-box transcription factor xl-mtTFA activates bidirectional transcription by binding to a site separating two core promoters in Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Three independent approaches were used to study the higher order structure of xl-mtTFA binding to this site. First, co-immunoprecipitation of differentially tagged recombinant mtTFA derivatives established that the protein exists as a multimer. Second, in vitro chemical cross-linking experiments provided e...

  15. Fabrication of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process at low-pressure atmosphere

    Influence of the process conditions, including the water partial pressure and the total annealing pressure, on YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) film growth has been investigated in order to increase the growth rate. YBCO films have been fabricated on SrTiO3 substrate by metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA) as a solute source under the low-pressure atmosphere. It was observed that the growth rate of the YBCO film was in proportion to the square root of the water partial pressure and was in inverse proportion to the total pressure. A higher YBCO growth rate was achieved about 3 times as fast as that under the atmospheric fabrication conditions with maintaining the high Jc performance. On the other hand, the volume fraction of a-axis oriented grains in the YBCO film was strongly dependent on the growth rate, a-axis oriented YBCO grains were clearly recognized in the films grown with either very low or very high growth rate. As a result, it was found that the growth region should be controlled to prevent from the growth of the a-axis oriented grains

  16. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypic...

  17. Intake of trans fatty acid in Japanese university students.

    Kawabata, Terue; Shigemitsu, Sachiko; Adachi, Naoko; Hagiwara, Chie; Miyagi, Shigeji; Shinjo, Sumie; Maruyama, Takenori; Sugano, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Because trans fatty acids (TFAs) are a potent risk factor for coronary heart disease, it is important to know the amount of TFA consumed. We estimated TFA intakes of Japanese university students by direct measurement. Subjects included 118 students (57 males and 61 females) in two regions of Japan: Kanto (Tokyo area) and Okinawa. A dietary survey was conducted over six consecutive days using dietary records and photographic records. A single-day meal in the survey period was reproduced to measure TFA content by gas chromatography. The median values of TFA intakes (and energy percentage) estimated by the contents of reproduced meals for men were 0.43 g/d (0.22%) in Kanto and 0.30 g/d (0.14%) in Okinawa. Corresponding values for women were 0.49 g/d (0.29%) and 0.73 g/d (0.35%), respectively. Compared to the group with a low TFA intake, the subjects with a high TFA intake consumed significantly more energy from total fat and saturated fatty acids, and had a high ratio of TFA/linoleic acid. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed the intakes of TFA were positively associated with those of saturated fatty acids and groups of nonessential groceries such as cookies, cakes and pastries. In conclusion, the TFA intakes of these survey subjects were relatively lower than the WHO recommended energy ratio (<1%). However, nutritional education on dietary habits seems indispensable for those subjects who are consuming high volumes of TFA. PMID:20651456

  18. Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rocks

    李哲; 张再龙; 孙燕华; 劳永新; 蔺五正; 吴卫芳

    2003-01-01

    Catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids in immature oil source rock samples were examined in this study. The rock samples were obtained from seven oil fields in China. In order to clarify the effect of each mineral matter in the rock samples, both the Fe M?ssbauer effect and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to determine the relative content of each mineral in the rock samples, and the catalytic activities of several minerals like clays, carbonates and pyrite were determined. The Fe M?ssbauer effect and the XRD studies show that clays are the main mineral components in the rock samples except for the samples from Biyang and Jianghan in which the main mineral component is ankerite. The other mineral components include calcite, plagioclase, quartz, feldspar, siderite, aragonite, pyrite, analcime, pyroxene and anhydrite. The studies of the catalytic decarboxylations of fatty acids suggest that carbonates and pyrite can make much greater contributions to the catalytic activities of the rock samples than clays. It is found that the overall catalytic activities of the rock samples are well related to the relative contents and the catalytic activities of clays, carbonates and pyrite in the rock samples.

  19. Trans fatty acids in the Nordic countries

    Aro, Antti; Becker, Wulf; Pederssen, Jan I.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) comprise a variety of positional isomers, mainly with 18 carbon atoms and one double bond (C18:1). They are found in foods of ruminant animal origin and in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. The isomeric composition of TFA in animal and vegetable foods differs, but no definite differences have been documented between the metabolic and health effects of the different isomers. In the Nordic countries the intake of TFA has declined during the past 10-15 years, mainly ...

  20. DFT study of Rb-TFA structure after high-pressure action

    Scholtzová, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The pressure-induced A-B phase transition of synthetic Rb-tetra-ferri-annite (Rb-TFA) mica was studied theoretically by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The calculations show that Rb-TFA keeps a Franzini A-type structure up to at least 5.39 GPa of pressure, whereas at higher pressure, it transforms to a Franzini B-type structure. The negative value of the tetrahedral rotation angle α = -4.68° has appeared at 5.56 GPa of calculated pressure. This result is in a relatively good agreement with experimentally estimated phase transition area in the range of 3.36-3.84 GPa. The energy difference between the A and B structures is very small (ΔE = 8 kJ/mol). The detailed analysis of the optimized structural data shows minimal changes in the structure of Rb-TFA after the pressure-induced phase transition.

  1. Microstructure of YBCO thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    The microstructure of the recently developed coated conductors was investigated by using electron back scatter diffraction pattern (EBSP). We prepared TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films on CeO2/LaMnO3/IBAD-MgO/Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrates of 1 cm-width. The EBSP observation showed that there was a difference of surface microstructure between the midsection and the end of TFA-MOD YBCO film layer in the direction of width. This is attributed not to the local difference of the biaxial texture of CeO2 top layer but to the local difference of growth condition during TFA-MOD process.

  2. Microstructure of YBCO thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    Nagino, I.; Matsumoto, K.; Adachi, H.; Miyata, S.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2010-11-01

    The microstructure of the recently developed coated conductors was investigated by using electron back scatter diffraction pattern (EBSP). We prepared TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x (YBCO) films on CeO 2/LaMnO 3/IBAD-MgO/Gd 2Zr 2O 7/Hastelloy C276 substrates of 1 cm-width. The EBSP observation showed that there was a difference of surface microstructure between the midsection and the end of TFA-MOD YBCO film layer in the direction of width. This is attributed not to the local difference of the biaxial texture of CeO 2 top layer but to the local difference of growth condition during TFA-MOD process.

  3. Microstructure of YBCO thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    Nagino, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1, Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Matsumoto, K., E-mail: matsu@post.matsc.kyutech.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1, Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Adachi, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Miyata, S.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    The microstructure of the recently developed coated conductors was investigated by using electron back scatter diffraction pattern (EBSP). We prepared TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) films on CeO{sub 2}/LaMnO{sub 3}/IBAD-MgO/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Hastelloy C276 substrates of 1 cm-width. The EBSP observation showed that there was a difference of surface microstructure between the midsection and the end of TFA-MOD YBCO film layer in the direction of width. This is attributed not to the local difference of the biaxial texture of CeO{sub 2} top layer but to the local difference of growth condition during TFA-MOD process.

  4. Development of Low AC Loss TFA-MOD Coated Conductors

    Katayama, K.; Machi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. Applying YBCO CCs to the power electric devices such as transformers and power cables, the reduction of alternating current (AC) loss for long wire is necessary. Multi-filamentation process, which is one of the most effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. We have developed the filamentation process using chemical etching. MOD derived CCs are, however, easily damaged in the chemical etching process due to existence of pores in a YBCO layer, resulting in critical current (Ic)-degradation and weak delamination strength. Consequently, it is difficult to scribe MOD derived CCs into 1mm-wide filaments for long length using the chemical etching process. Accordingly, we have studied a scribing process using an excimer laser without chemical etching. We defined P' value in this study as a function of irradiated laser power [J] divided by processing speed[m/s]. We studied relationship between the P' value and the results of scribing. It was found that we could scribe the C.C. with a sufficient depth in the condition of large P' value. Furthermore, we found that the Ic was degraded with further increase of the P' value. A 5 mm wide short sample was divided into 10 filaments by the excimer laser scribing process at the P' of 9[J/(m/s)]. The sample revealed reduction of the hysteresis loss down to 1/10 which could be expected from a theoretical prediction using the numbers of the filaments. Ic-degradation was suppressed as 28%, which was smaller than that of the scribed sample using chemical etching (Ic degradation was 38%). Subsequently, we applied the technique to a 100m long YBCO CC. The hysteresis loss of the 100m long MOD derived CC was reduced down to 1/10 (1/the number of filaments) after the multi-filamentation.

  5. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup;

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of...... TFA intake on plasma metabolites....

  6. Effect of humic acid source on humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Erhayem, Mohamed; Sohn, Mary

    2014-02-01

    In many studies, different humic acid (HA) sources are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of HA source on HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how HA adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2. In this study, six humic acids (HAs) were studied which were derived from soils (SLHA), or from sediments (SDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. Humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and the sedimentation of HA-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were monitored by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to complement the study of HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Phosphate buffer was found to reduce the amount of HA adsorbed onto nano-TiO2 relative to solutions of NaCl of the same pH and ionic strength. Adsorption constant values (Kads) for HAs varied in the order SLHA>FSDHA (freshwater sedimentary HA)>ESDHA (estuarine sedimentary HA). SSF results suggested that the more highly conjugated fractions of HA, which are more prevalent in SLHAs versus SDHAs, were preferentially adsorbed. In order to better understand the relationship between adsorption and aggregation, sedimentation studies were conducted and it was found that the percentage of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was preferentially enhanced in the order of the presence of SLHA>FSDHA>ESDHA. The extent of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was decreased with increasing HA concentration. TEM imaging of nano-TiO2 confirmed that nano-TiO2 was aggregated in the presence of HAs. The findings in this study suggest that HAs from different sources influence the fate and transport of nano-TiO2 in the environment differently. PMID:24140685

  7. Trends in Trans Fatty Acids Reformulations of US Supermarket and Brand-Name Foods From 2007 Through 2011

    Otite, Fadar O.; Jacobson, Michael F.; Dahmubed, Aspan; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although some US food manufacturers have reduced trans fatty acids (TFA) in their products, it is unknown how much TFA is being reduced, whether pace of reformulation has changed over time, or whether reformulations vary by food type or manufacturer. Methods: In 2007, we identified 360 brand-name products in major US supermarkets that contained 0.5 g TFA or more per serving. In 2008, 2010, and 2011, product labels were re-examined to determine TFA content; ingredients lists were...

  8. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods: a market basket investigation

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of these strategies in the EU. Design The potential consumption of I-TFA was assessed in a market basket investigation by analysi...

  9. The Content of Fat and Polyenoic Acids in the Major Food Sources of the Arctic Diet

    Shukla, V. K. S.; Clausen, Jytte Lene; Egsgaard, Helge;

    1980-01-01

    in western countries. The triglyceride content of muscle samples was also estimated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system was used for localizing the position of double bonds in the unsaturated acids, by means of their pyrrolidides. The fat tissue from the seal was the main source of...... polyenoic acids, tri- and pentaenoic acids in the diet of the Arctic hunter. Those acids were derived metabolically from linolenic acid. In contrast polyenoic acids, linoleic acid and its derivatives in the nonarctic diet, were mainly supplied from muscle of nonruminant animals and from sources of vegetable...

  10. Study of Modified TFA-MOD Method for YBCO Film Growth

    Li, C. S.; Lu, Y. F.; Zhang, P. X.; Yu, Z. M.; Tao, B. W.; Feng, J. Q.; Jin, L. H.

    The traditional all-TFA precursor solution for coated conductors has sensitivity to the heating rate in pyrolysis process. This sensitivity could be weakened by using a modified precursor solution, which was prepared by the mixture of yttrium trifluoroacetate, barium trifluoroacetate, and copper benzoate. The YBCO films were deposited on buffered NiW substrates (NiW/Y2O3/YSZ/CeO2) with the modified precursor solution. The texture, microstructure and superconducting properties of YBCO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and four-probe method, respectively. The YBCO films prepared by modified TFA-MOD method demonstrated high performance.

  11. Trifluoroacetic Acid Level in the Atmosphere of Beijing and Its Relationship with PM2.5

    Guo, Junyu; Zhang, Jianbo

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA), one of the main degradation products of HCFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-134a, were detected in Beijing, China between 2013 and 2014. By analyzing the 137 atmospheric samples, the results showed that the annual mean atmospheric concentration of TFA was 1459±223 pg•m-3. TFA was mainly distributed in gaseous phase, for the concentration was 1396±225 pg•m-3, while that in particle phase was 62±8 pg•m-3. Considering the frequent occurrence of hazy weather in Beijing, the relationship between TFA and PM2.5 in atmosphere was analyzed. The correlation analysis shows that the proportion of particle phase in atmosphere concentration of TFA and mass concentration of PM2.5 are positively correlated with each other (PTFA. At the same time, when mass concentration of PM2.5 in atmosphere is high, atmospheric concentration of TFA is relatively low. According to the correlation analysis, mass concentration of PM2.5 and atmospheric concentration of TFA are negatively correlated with each other (P=0.005). The main reason is very likely that particle's extinction for light can be enhanced as particle level rises, which causes TFA precursors photolysis to weaken. The results indicate that PM2.5 has a significant impact on TFA.

  12. Trans fatty acids: effects on cardiometabolic health and implications for policy.

    Micha, R; Mozaffarian, D

    2008-01-01

    In both developed and developing countries, trans fatty acids (TFA) are largely consumed from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. This article focuses on TFA as a modifiable dietary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reviewing the evidence for lipid and non-lipid effects; the relations of trans fat intake with clinical endpoints; and current policy and legislative issues. In both observational cohort studies and randomized clinical trials, TFA adversely affect lipid profiles (including raising LDL and triglyceride levels, and reducing HDL levels), systemic inflammation, and endothelial function. More limited but growing evidence suggests that TFA also exacerbate visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. These potent effects of TFA on a multitude of cardiovascular risk factors are consistent with the strong associations seen in prospective cohort studies between TFA consumption and risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) death. The documented harmful effects of TFA along with the feasibility of substituting partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with healthy alternatives indicate little reason for continued presence of industrially produced TFA in food preparation and manufacturing or in home cooking fats/oils. A comprehensive strategy to eliminate the use of industrial TFA in both developed and developing countries, including education, food labeling, and policy and legislative initiatives, would likely prevent tens of thousands of CHD events worldwide each year. PMID:18996687

  13. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these...... biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC......% central range 0·98, 2·19) in men and 1·47% (1·01, 2·19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18 : 1t, 18:1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue...

  14. Fabrication of YBCO film approached by the '211 process' in the TFA-MOD method

    We fabricated YBCO film using a new approach to the TFA-MOD method. In the fabrication process, Y2Ba1Cu1Ox and Ba3Cu5O8 powders were used as precursors (the so called '211 process'), instead of Y-, Ba-, and Cu-based acetates, and dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid followed by calcining and firing heat treatment. Consequently, we successfully synthesized YBCO film and evaluated the phase formation, texture evolution, and critical properties as a function of the calcining and firing temperature and humidity, in order to explore its possible application in coated conductor fabrication. The films were calcined at 430-460 deg. C and then fired at 750-800 deg. C in a 0-20% humidified Ar-O2 atmosphere. We observed that the amount of BaF2 phase was effectively reduced and that a sharp and strong biaxial texture formed under a humidified atmosphere, leading to increased critical properties. In addition, we found that the microstructure varied significantly with the firing temperature; the grains grew further, the film became denser, and the degree of texture and phase purity varied as the firing temperature increased. For the film fired at 775 deg. C after calcining at 460 deg. C, the critical current was found to be 39 A cm-1 width (the corresponding critical current density is 2.0 MA cm-2), which was probably attributable to such factors as the enhanced phase purity and out-of-plane texture, the moderate film density and grain size, and the crack-free surface

  15. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  16. The occurrence of fatty acids in immature source rocks and their distribution characteris-tics

    2001-01-01

    The fatty acids in extractable bitumen and kerogen of immature source rocks of the Liaohe Basin and Jiyang sag were investigated in this study. The result showed that the bitumen fatty acids were mainly associated with non-hydrocarbon fraction and that the kerogen fatty acids with some tightly bound fatty acids were mainly bounded in a net structure of kerogen by ester bonds. For the investigated source rocks, the fatty acids in bitumen, bound fatty acids and tightly bound acids in kerogen ranged in 0.01% -0.073 9%, 0.005% - 0.045 5% and 0.005%- 0.010% respectively. Among the fatty acids analyzed in this study, mono-carboxylic acids, a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids accounted for 70%-100%, 0%-30% and <10% respec-tively. It was also found that the mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains mainly existed in bitumen, and that the a, w-di-carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids mainly existed in kerogen. From above, it was assumed that the mono-car- boxylic acids in bitumen might have played an important role in the hydrocarbon generation from fatty acids in imma-ture source rocks.

  17. Intermediate phase evolution in YBCO thin films grown by the TFA process

    The YBCO thin film growth process from TFA precursors involves a complex reaction path which includes several oxide, fluoride and oxyfluoride intermediate phases, and the final microstructure and properties of the films are strongly influenced by the morphological and chemical evolution of these intermediate phases. In this work we present a study of the evolution of the intermediate phases involved in the TFA YBCO growth process under normal pressure conditions and we show that the oxygen partial pressure during pyrolysis of the TFA precursors is an important parameter. The Cu phase after the TFA pyrolysis can be either CuO, Cu2O or a mixture of both as the oxygen partial pressure is modified. The kinetics evolution of the intermediate phases has been determined for films pyrolysed in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres and it is concluded that non-equilibrium phase transformations influence the reaction path towards epitaxial YBCO films and its microstructure. The intermediate phase evolution in these two series of films is summarized in kinetic phase diagrams.

  18. National Affiliation or Local Representation: When TFA Alumni Run for School Board

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; Linkow, Tamara Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Historically power to govern public schools has been delegated to local school boards. However, this arrangement of power has been shifting over the past half century and increasingly, local school boards are targeted as ineffective and antiquated. Teach For America (TFA), typically examined for its placement of teachers, also seeks to develop…

  19. Changes in Trans Fatty Acid Profiles for Selected Snack Foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Historically, many snack foods had been formulated with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, the primary contributor of trans fatty acids (TFA) in the US diet. Health concerns about TFA and saturated fat intake and increased risk for chronic health disorders have prompted some manufacturers to ref...

  20. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  1. Ionic liquid-assisted solublization for improved enzymatic esterification of phenolic acids

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    in a binary system, which is composed of ionic liquid tOMA•TFA (trioctylmethylammonium Trifluoroacetate) and octanol. Ionic liquid tOMA•TFA has great solubility towards most of phenolic acid. The strategy of increasing the solubility of phenolic in ionic liquid tOMA•TFA was proved to be an efficient way...... was also higher than the parallel experiment where no ionic liquid was applied for increasing solubility of DHCA. Relative high conversion of ferulic and caffeic acids was achieved when similar reactions were conducted with these two phenolic acids, and the conversion in the system containing ionic liquid...... was significant higher than the system without ionic liquid....

  2. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  3. Influence of nitrogen sources on amino acid production by aspergillus niger

    The effect of different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in 0.1% and 0.2% concentration on the production of amino acid was studied using a wild strain of Aspergillus niger. The rate of amino acid biosynthesis was found to be higher when 0.2% corn steep liquor was incorporated in the mineral medium. It was concluded from the study that the amino acid synthesis by wild strain depends not only on the nature and type of nitrogen sources used but the concentration of nitrogen source also play an important in the accumulation of free amino acids in the medium. (author)

  4. ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS PLANT SOURCES IN THE CRIMEA

    A. E. Paliy; F. M. Melikov; O. A. Grebennikova; V. D. Rabotyagov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the content of phenolics and rosmarinic acid in 32 species of aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, native to the South Coast of the Crimea. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the studied species was 490.3 – 18511.0 mg/100g of plant raw materials. Rosmarinic acid was found in 15 species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families. Rosmarinic acid was not noticed in the studied plants from Apiaceae family. The concentrat...

  5. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    Dominik Szwajgier; Anna Dmowska

    2010-01-01

    Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases), a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifi...

  6. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  7. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  8. The ortho backbone amide linker (o-BAL) is an easily prepared and highly acid-labile handle for solid-phase synthesis

    Boas, Ulrik; Brask, Jesper; Christensen, J.B.;

    2002-01-01

    , followed by purification through steam distillation, Cleavage studies of Leu-enkephalin anchored to either o-BAL or p-BAL handles revealed that both handles were surprisingly acid-labile and released the peptide with dilute TFA (5% and even 1% TFA in CH2Cl2). This useful property allowed the synthesis of...

  9. Simulation experiments for evolution of fatty acids in immature source rocks

    2001-01-01

    The anhydrous, hydrous and bitumen-extrac- ted simulations were carried out for the immature source rocks from the Liaohe sag. It has been shown from the result that with increasing temperature in simulation experiments, the fatty acids content decreased at first and then increased. The decrease of fatty acids in immature rocks is presumably related to alkanes generation in immature oils, whilst the increase may be related to the fact that some additional fatty acids are generated from kerogen and the tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen are released as bound fatty acids in kerogen and unbound fatty acids in bitumen. The fact that the bitumen generated from kerogen contains fatty acids has demonstrated that some bound and tightly bound fatty acids in kerogen can be transferred into bitumen. The preferential fatty acids in the immature source rocks are found to be mono-carboxylic acids with longer chains, whilst krogen contains relatively more di-carboxylic acids. It has been found that the fatty acids in immature source rocks can be changed from that with more longer chains to that with more shorter chains when evolution extent has been increased. Based on simulation results and the fact that the majority of fatty acids in immature oils are those with longer chains, it is inferred that the contribution of fatty acids to forming alkanes in immature oils mainly takes place at the evolution stage with R0 (0.6%. The simulation experiments have also demonstrated that H2O could promote the generation of fatty acids with more di-carboxylic acids and delay alkanes formation from fatty acids.

  10. Study on the growth of YBCO films deposited by rapid pyrolysis process TFA-MOD%快速前处理TFA-MOD制备YBCO超导薄膜的研究

    丁灵效; 陈文祥; 熊杰; 陶伯万

    2009-01-01

    三氟乙酸盐金属有机物沉积(TFA-MOD)方法是制备YBa2Cu3O7(YBCO)超导薄膜最有应用前景的方法之一.采用快速前处理TFA-MOD的方法在LaAlO3单晶基片上生长YBCO薄膜并与常规的TFA-MOD方法进行对比研究.XRD分析表明用快速前处理TFA-MOD方法制备的YBCO薄膜的c轴取向一致性,没有常规的TFA-MOD制备的YBCO薄膜好.SEM的分析表明快速前处理TFA-MOD制备的YBCO超导薄膜表面有孔洞和YBCO(103)取向生长的晶粒,常规方法制备的YBCO薄膜表面比较光滑,孔洞较少.虽然较常规方法制备的薄膜的临界电流密度(JC)低,但超导电性能分析表明,快速前处理方法制备的YBCO薄膜JC达到1mA/cm2以上,且前处理时间大幅缩短,对于提高YBCO薄膜制备的效率非常有效.

  11. Acides gras trans : récents développements

    Morin Odile

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Some recent developments on trans fatty acids (TFA include aspects like regulation (limited levels in food for Denmark, labelling in USA and Canada, scientific data analysed by different expert committees (Codex Alimentarius, Efsa in Europe, Afssa in France, technology with process solutions already developed (some of them, for more than 10 years or in progress to decrease their occurrence. While most of the “natural” unsaturated fatty acids (UFA are in the cis configuration, TFA main dietary origins are: i products containing fats from ruminant animals (dairy products, meat…, where TFA are produced by the bacterial transformation of UFA in the rumen of animals – ii partially hydrogenated fats (vegetable and fish oils – iii oils heated at high temperature (like deodorisation during refining. If the Codex Alimentarius as well as USA and Canada have adopted a definition of TFA excluding conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, or in the case of Denmark, excluding also the TFA from “natural” origin, the European and French Authorities (Efsa and Afssa define TFA as any UFA (MUFA or PUFA having at least one double bond in the trans configuration. TFA dietary intake surveys show a significant trend to decrease, but all the countries do not start from the same point (USA, Canada four times more than Greece, for instance. Within European countries, TFA consumptions are at least ten times lower than saturated fatty acids (SAFA intakes. 60% of the TFA intake contributing food are from animal origins (Afssa report. Considering the health effects of TFA, it is well established now that, as for SAFA, higher intakes (when compared to cis MUFA and PUFA increase the LDL-cholesterol level, and tend to decrease HDL-cholesterol (when compared to SAFA and cis MUFA and PUFA, with a linear dose-response and a probable threshold under which no effect can be observed (Aquitaine study. The nutritional status of CLAs is not that clear, and the expert position

  12. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of One-dimensional Polynuclear Complex [La(bipyN2O2)(TFA)3]n

    2000-01-01

    A novel polymeric complex [La(bipyN2O2)(TFA)3]n(TFA= trifluoroacetylacetone) was prepared.The X-ray structure analysis revealed that the complex has an infinite one-dimensional supramolecule structure with the 4,4'-bipyridyl-N,N'-dioxide as a bridge.La(Ⅲ) is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms, six from three trifluoroacetylacetonate anions, two from two 4,4'-bipyridyl-N,N'-dioxide molecules.

  13. Vortex oscillations in TFA-grown YBCO thin-films with BZO nanoparticles

    An ac susceptibility methodology has been applied to investigate the vortex dynamics of YBa2Cu3O7-x-BaZrO3 nanocomposites grown by the chemical solution deposition TFA route, close to the irreversibility line. By analysing the linear, non-dissipative Campbell regime at low ac fields, we determined the temperature and field dependence of the restoring pinning constant, αL(Hdc, T), characterising the harmonic oscillation of vortices inside their potential wells. Different than standard TFA-YBCO films, BZO nanocomposites displayed increasing αL(Hdc) curves in the whole studied (Hdc, T) phase diagram, a behavior not predicted by the standard collective theory. We suggest results may be explained by the softening of the vortex-lattice, owed to the microstrain induced by the nanoparticles in the YBCO matrix.

  14. Development of wide area reaction system for Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process

    The previously developed numerical simulation method for the TFA-MOD process, which calculated the YBCO growth kinetics, gas element diffusion and gas flow, was applied to study the suitable gas flow mode for a multi-turning Reel-to-Reel tape conveyance system of a long YBCO coated conductors. The high YBCO production rate with uniform J c distribution among tape lines is desired in the system. It was found by the numerical simulation for the vertical gas flow onto the tape surface to realize the above demands even in a wider reaction area. We developed a new wide area reaction tube for the Reel-to-Reel TFA-MOD process according to the numerically designed gas flow configuration. The demand for the new tube was confirmed to be satisfied by experiments

  15. Use of polymeric compounds to produce thick YBCO films by TFA-MOD process

    One route to achieve thick YBCO layers by a single deposition on single crystal substrates (LAO) has been to modify the viscosity of the solution by using different polymeric agents in precursor solutions. A screening investigation of several polymers with different molecular weights has been performed to choose the best additive based on the following criteria : to increase viscosity, to avoid any chemical reaction with the precursors and to keep the same decomposition temperature as compared to the pyrolysis of the TFA precursors. Solution viscosity, thermal and thermo-gravimetric analysis measurements have been used to characterize the TFA solutions with the additives. An increase of the YBCO films thickness of 100% (≥600nm) has been demonstrated keeping a high Jc ≥ 1.1 MA/cm2 (77K)

  16. High critical current YBCO films using advanced TFA-MOD process

    As a method of the fabrication process of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors, the metalorganic deposition (MOD) process using metal trifluoroacetates (TFA) has been considered to be a strong candidate as a low cost fabrication process for coated conductors with high Jc. In the case of the MOD process using the TFA salts for the all three elements, it requires several tens hours in the calcination process for each single coated film to minimize the generation of pores in the film. In order to shorten the calcination time, a new combination of starting materials was developed. In this study, the new heating process for these new materials has been investigated. Consequently, the calcination time was shortened to be about 17%. Also, the overall transport Ic of 292 A and the Jc value of 2.0 MA/cm2 were achieved with 1.48 μm in thickness at 77 K in self-field

  17. In Vivo Performance of a Novel Fluorinated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent for Functional Analysis of Bile Acid Transport

    Vivian, Diana; Cheng, Kunrong; Khurana, Sandeep; Xu, Su; Kriel, Edwin H; Dawson, Paul A.; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel trifluorinated cholic acid derivative, CA-lys-TFA, was designed and synthesized for use as a tool to measure bile acid transport noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study, the in vivo performance of CA-lys-TFA for measuring bile acid transport by MRI was investigated in mice. Gallbladder CA-lys-TFA content was quantified using MRI and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were compared to those in mice ...

  18. Ethanol-based TFA-MOD method for preparation of YBCO films

    Wang, L.; Shi, D. Q.; Zhu, X. B.; Li, Q.; Yamashita, T.; Taylor, R.; Barry, J.; Dou, S. X.

    2010-12-01

    Highly c-axis orientated YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x films were prepared on LaAlO 3 single crystal substrates via metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates using ethanol as solvent instead of the toxic methanol. The onset transition temperature is 91 K and the critical current density under self field is over 1 MA/cm 2 at 77 K, which indicates ethanol can be used as solvent for high-quality YBCO films using TFA-MOD.

  19. Ethanol-based TFA-MOD method for preparation of YBCO films

    Highly c-axis orientated YBa2Cu3O7-x films were prepared on LaAlO3 single crystal substrates via metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates using ethanol as solvent instead of the toxic methanol. The onset transition temperature is 91 K and the critical current density under self field is over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K, which indicates ethanol can be used as solvent for high-quality YBCO films using TFA-MOD.

  20. Conversion behavior comparison of TFA-MOD and non-fluorine solution-deposited YBCO films

    The densification behavior during conversion of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films formed by the trifluoroacetate (TFA)-based metal-organic deposition (MOD) technique was compared to a non-fluorine oxycarbonate-based MOD process and nitrate-based polymer-assisted deposition (PAD). The critical current densities obtained in all processes exceeded 106 A/cm2 in films at least 300 nm thick. Rapid densification of films was observed in all processes, beginning at 700 deg. C in the TFA and PAD processes and 650 deg. C in the oxycarbonate process. YBCO nucleation occurred shortly after densification began in all processes. Residual carbon measurements were performed using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Carbon persisted in films from all processes until after densification began, but it was reduced to background levels soon after YBCO nucleation. Film density and second phase morphology were controlled through adjustments to the ambient oxygen partial pressure. Morphological evidence of extensive transient liquid phase formation was observed in PAD films and is consistent with the densification and nucleation behavior. The common behavior between the PAD, oxycarbonate-MOD, and TFA-MOD processes suggests that a melt forms in all systems, but the extent of this melt varies.

  1. Low noise, low power front end electronics for pixelized TFA sensors

    Poltorak, K; Dabrowski, W; Despeisse, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Wyrschb, N

    2009-01-01

    Thin Film on ASIC (TFA) technology combines advantages of two commonly used pixel imaging detectors, namely, Monolithic Active Pixels (MAPs) and Hybrid Pixel detectors. Thanks to direct deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H) sensor lm on top of the readout ASIC, TFA shows the similarity to MAP imagers, allowing, however, more sophisticated front–end circuitry to extract the signals, like in case of Hybrid Pixel technology. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results of TFA structures, obtained with 10 μm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensors, deposited directly on top of integrated circuit optimized for tracking applications at linear collider experiments. The signal charges delivered by such a-Si:H n-i-p diode are small; about 37 e-/μm for minimum ionizing particles, therefore a low noise, high gain and very low power of the front- end are of primary importance. The developed demonstrator chip, designed in 250 nm CMOS technology, comprises an array of 64 by 64 pi...

  2. High speed production of YBCO precursor films by advanced TFA-MOD process

    YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) long tapes derived from the metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using the starting solution containing trifluoroacetate (TFA) have been developed with high critical currents (Ic) over 200 A/cm-width. However, high speed production of YBCO films is simultaneously necessary to satisfy the requirements of electric power device applications in terms of cost and the amounts of the tapes. In this work, we developed a new TFA-MOD starting solution using F-free salt of Y, TFA salt of Ba and Cu-Octylate for application to the coating/calcination process and discussed several issues by using the Multi-turn (MT) Reel-to-Reel (RTR) system calcination furnace for the purpose of high throughput without degradation of the properties. The coating system was improved for uniform deposition qualities in both longitudinal and transversal directions. YBCO films using the new starting solution at the traveling rate of 10 m/h in coating/calcination by the MT-RTR calcination furnace showed the values of the critical current density of 1.6 MA/cm2 as thick as 1.5 μm at 77 K under the self fields after firing at the high heating rate in the crystallization.

  3. Improvement of Production Rate of YBCO Coated Conductors Fabricated by TFA-MOD Method

    Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Usui, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    The metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using trifluoroacetate (TFA) salts is considered to be an effective method for inexpensively fabricating YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors with high critical current density property. The long-length TFA-MOD YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by multi-turn reel-to-reel system. Increasing the thickness per single coating in the multi-turn reel-to-reel system is a cost-effective technique for fabrication of the precursor films in the calcination process since it reduces the number of coatings and shortens the processing time. In this work, we have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine salts of yttrium propionate and copper 2-ethylhexanoate with focusing on increasing the thickness per single coating for a high-rate fabrication of the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD method. The critical thickness per single coating of the precursor film fabricated from the new starting solution was improved to 0.44 μm/coat. Furthermore, the addition of diacetoneacrylamide in the new starting solution increased the critical thickness per single coating to 0.79 μm/coat. High critical current of 791 A/cm-width with high critical current density of 2.7 MA/cm2 was obtained using the new starting solution with diacetoneacrylamide at the thickness per single coating of 0.49 μm/coat.

  4. Etude chez une population d’Aquitaine de l’effet des acides gras trans alimentaires sur les lipides plasmatiques et le profil des lipoprotéines

    Boue Carole

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD development, in 90 pregnant and 97 non-pregnant women, who were recruited between 1996 and 1999, in the South-West of France. The contents of TFA in total lipids, cholesteryl esters (CE and total phospholipids (TPL of the women’s plasma, were determined using a combination of thin layer chromatography and capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results indicate that the mean content of total TFA in plasma total lipids, expressed as proportion of all fatty acids, was 0.7%, with trans 18:1 being the most prevalent isomers (67%, followed by trans 18:2 (25% and trans 16:1 (8%. Trans 18:3 isomers were undetectable. In TPL, the TFA accounted for 0.7% of total fatty acids, whereas in CE, the mean TFA level was twice (0.3% as lower than in TPL. Moreover, these TFA were mainly represented by trans 18:1 isomers in TPL, and by trans 18:2 isomers in CE. Furthermore, there was no evidence of significant correlations between concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL or high-density-lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and the TFA percentage in either adipose tissue or plasma. Overall, based on these results, it appears that the TFA intake level of French population does not induce an increase of CHD risk.

  5. Predicted Changes in Fatty Acid Intakes, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Replacement of trans Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oil with Application-Appropriate Alternatives

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)—containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Michael E.R. Dugan; Payam Vahmani; Turner, Tyler D; Cletos Mapiye; Manuel Juárez; Nuria Prieto; Angela D. Beaulieu; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; John F Patience; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, ...

  7. Fish and shellfish as dietary sources of methylmercury and the ω-3 fatty acids, eicosahexaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid: risks and benefits

    Fish and shellfish supply the human diet with not only complex nutrients including the ω-3 fatty acids, but also highly toxic chemicals including methylmercury. The dietary essential fatty acids are linoleic and α-linolenic acid. Two ω-3 fatty acids with longer carbon chains, eicosahexaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can be synthesized in humans from α-linolenic precursors. Though not required in the diet per se, EPA and DHA have important roles in metabolism. The almost exclusive source of preformed dietary DHA is fish and shellfish. These foods are also an important source of EPA. In marked contrast to the benefits of fish and shellfish as sources of preformed ω-3 fatty acids, fish and shellfish are almost exclusively the dietary source of methylmercury. Fortunately, these chemicals are not uniformly distributed across many species of fish and shellfish. The purpose of this article is to provide information on the comparative distribution of these chemicals and nutrients to help groups formulating dietary recommendations

  8. YBa2Cu3O7-x films prepared by TFA-MOD method for coated conductor application

    The epitaxial growth of YBCO films both on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) and Ni-W biaxially textured metallic substrates prepared by metal-organic deposition (MOD) using a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution is reported. The degree of epitaxy of the YBCO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as deposited films exhibit good morphological and structural properties. The ω-scan of the YBCO films grown on (001) SrTiO3 single crystal substrate and on Pd/CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffered biaxially textured Ni-5at%W (Ni-W) tapes has a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.120 and 3.40, respectively. The φ-scan of (113) peak of YBCO film grown on Ni-W substrate has FWHM of 6.10. The YBCO/STO film has a zero resistance critical temperature of Tc(R = 0) = 92 K and a critical current density Jc > 2 MA/cm2 at 77 K and in zero magnetic field

  9. Development and performance test of a continuous source of nitrous acid (HONO)

    Ammann, M.; Roessler, E.; Kalberer, M.; Bruetsch, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Zellweger, C.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Laboratory investigations involving nitrous acid (HONO) require a stable, continuous source of HONO at ppb levels. A flow type generation system based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with sulfuric acid has been developed. Performance and speciation of gaseous products were tested with denuder and chemiluminescence techniques. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids for saprophagous soil invertebrates

    Elhottová, Dana; Frouz, Jan; Krištůfek, Václav; Lukešová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Tříska, Jan

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2002, s. 31-37. ISBN 80-86525-00-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /6./. České Budějovice (CZ), 23.04.2001-25.04.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033; GA AV ČR IAB6066903; GA AV ČR IAA6066001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : polyunsaturated fatty acids * soil microorganisms * animal diet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. 2012: no trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products.

    Ansorena, Diana; Echarte, Andrea; Ollé, Rebeca; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2013-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyse the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialised in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study. No significant amounts of TFA were found in any of the analysed products, regardless the brand. TFA content ranged between 0.17 g and 0.22 g/100 g product (mean=0.19 g/100 g product). Expressed on percentage of fatty acids, the maximum value was 0.87 g/100 g fatty acids and the mean value was 0.68%. These data are significantly lower than those observed in previously published papers for these types of products, and highlighted the importance of updating food composition databases in order to accurately estimate the real and current intake of TFA. PMID:23265507

  12. Acides gras trans : récents développements

    Morin Odile

    2005-01-01

    Some recent developments on trans fatty acids (TFA) include aspects like regulation (limited levels in food for Denmark, labelling in USA and Canada), scientific data analysed by different expert committees (Codex Alimentarius, Efsa in Europe, Afssa in France), technology with process solutions already developed (some of them, for more than 10 years) or in progress to decrease their occurrence. While most of the “natural” unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are in the cis configuration, TFA main di...

  13. 一种新的四肽(TFA-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-oH)合成工艺%Synthesis Of TFA-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-OH

    吴修艮; 丁德平; 聂丽云; 高瑞银

    2010-01-01

    目的 确定一种新的四肤(TFA-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-0H)合成工艺.方法 以Boc-Gly-OSu、Boc-Thr-OSu、丙氨酸和脯氨酸为原料,选择适当的反应条件,得Boc-Gly-Pro-Thr-Ala-OH,再通过反应生成更稳定的目标产物.结果 收率较高,质量稳定.结论 本合成的新的四肽在收率、有关物质等方面都符合要求.

  14. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits.

    Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A

    2012-06-01

    Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:22591897

  15. Trifluoroacetic acid as excipient destabilizes melittin causing the selective aggregation of melittin within the centrin-melittin-trifluoroacetic acid complex

    Belinda Pastrana-Rios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA may be the cause of the bottleneck in high resolution structure determination for protein-peptide complexes. Fragment based drug design often involves the use of synthetic peptides which contain TFA (excipient. Our goal was to explore the effects of this excipient on a model complex: centrin-melittin-TFA. We performed Fourier transform infrared, two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopies and spectral simulations to analyze the amide I'/I'* band for the components and the ternary complex. Melittin (MLT was observed to have increased helicity upon its interaction with centrin, followed by the thermally induced aggregation of MLT within the ternary complex in the TFA presence.

  16. Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. as a rich source of essential fatty acids and phthalides

    Ghasemi Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study is the first assessment of the fatty acids of leaf and essential oil compositions of new three habitats of aerial parts of K. odoratissima. Methods: The aerial parts of K. odoratissima from the three habitats were dried. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation for 3 h in a Clevenger-type apparatus, then the analysis of the components was carried out using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. To study the oil yield and fatty acids, the dried leaves subjected to extraction in hexane by using Soxhlet Apparatus. To analyze fatty acids from the oil fractions by gas chromatography technique, the oil was subjected to transesterification to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters, which, were dissolved in hexane and subjected to GC analysis. Results: According to the results, a total of 43 components, the major constitutes of essential oil compositions were (Z-Ligustilide (76.45%, Unknown-A (4.47%, (E-Ligustilide (2.57%, (Z-Butylidene phthalide (2.37%, 5-pentyl cyclohexa-1,3-diene (1.57% and Kessane (0.77% in K. odoratissima. The sixteen fatty acids were separated from the oil (5% yield per 100 g dry matter. Linoleic acid (25.46%, α-Linolenic acid (16.66%, Palmitic acid (11.92%, Oleic acid (9.33%, Stearic acid (4.72%, Petroselinic acid (2.53%, Arachidonic acid (2.51% and Erucic acid (1.76% were major fatty acids. Conclusion: Generally, K. odoratissima is a rich source of essential fatty acids and phthalide derivatives, specially (Z-ligustilide. This study was presented valuable information about the phytochemical properties, which can be useful for the future researches on the pharmacological effects of K. odoratissima.

  17. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  18. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE's Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50)

  19. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste

  20. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30

  1. Importance of secondary sources in the atmospheric budgets of formic and acetic acids

    F. Paulot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed budget of formic and acetic acids, two of the most abundant trace gases in the atmosphere. Our bottom-up estimate of the global source of formic and acetic acids are ~1200 and ~1400 Gmol/yr, dominated by photochemical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, in particular isoprene. Their sinks are dominated by wet and dry deposition. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate this budget against an extensive suite of measurements from ground, ship and satellite-based Fourier transform spectrometers, as well as from several aircraft campaigns over North America. The model captures the seasonality of formic and acetic acids well but generally underestimates their concentration, particularly in the Northern midlatitudes. We infer that the source of both carboxylic acids may be up to 50% greater than our estimate and report evidence for a long-lived missing secondary source of carboxylic acids that may be associated with the aging of organic aerosols. Vertical profiles of formic acid in the upper troposphere support a negative temperature dependence of the reaction between formic acid and the hydroxyl radical as suggested by several theoretical studies.

  2. Current oscillations during the anodic dissolution of copper in trifluoroacetic acid

    A phenomenon of current oscillators was characterized crosswise active-passive potential region during the electrodissolution of copper electrode in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The current density-potential curves show two transition points. A potential region of current oscillations was found as a part of limiting current region. The Cu|TFA electrochemical oscillator was found to displaying rich dynamical response on varying the temperature and the applied potential. The Cu|TFA system display current oscillation behaviour from the mono-periodic to the mixed-mode (relaxation type). Changes of the electrode surface structure and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic forced microscopy and optical microscopy.

  3. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv...... investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  4. Crystal grains alignment of SmBCO film by advanced TFA-MOD method

    We grew SmBa2Cu3O7-y (SmBCO) films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single crystalline substrates by an advanced TFA-MOD method and discussed the effects of process conditions such as oxygen partial pressure in the crystallization step on the crystal grains alignment of SmBCO film. Oxygen partial pressure affected strongly on the orientation of SmBCO film. Formation of a-axis crystal grains of the SmBCO was suppressed, and, at the same time, c-axis crystal grains of the SmBCO increased with decreasing the oxygen concentration

  5. Decomposition and Oriented Growth of Films Prepared with Low Fluorine TFA-MOD Approach

    Xiaohui Zhao; Pan Zhang; Yabing Wang; Jie Xiong; Bowan Tao

    2013-01-01

    TFA-MOD approach of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films has been approved to be the most promising method for mass production of low cost high temperature coated conductors. In order to reduce the decomposition time and improve the properties of YBCO films, copper propionate was used as the precursor and certain Lewis-bases were introduced into the precursor solution. The fluorine content of the solution was significantly reduced. High quality oriented YBCO films were prepared on LAO substrates with thi...

  6. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases. PMID:25380206

  7. Use of sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late pregnancy

    Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 days were divided into three groups balanced by bodyweight and expected date of parturition. The first group received a control ration consisting of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem (Trifolim alexandrinum) hay and rice straw. In the second and third groups, yellow corn was replaced with either sodium salts of fatty acids (Na-SFA) or calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-SFA). The content of acid ether extract (AEE) in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA were higher. Degradability rates of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), effective degradability (ED) and potential degradability (PD) decreased with the ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values of DM, OM and CP increased with adding Na-SFA compared with adding Ca-SFA or the control diet. Digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP and cell wall constituents (CWC) were lower with feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between the control and Ca-SFA-containing rations. Values for total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) were reduced (P < 0.05) with the ration contained Na-SFA compared with Ca-SFA. Feed intake was not affected by feeding rations containing Na-SFA or Ca-SFA, but bodyweight (BWt) was higher after feeding rations containing Ca-SFA or Na-SFA compared with the control. pH values, propionic acid and free fatty acids (FFA's) in the rumen were higher (P < 0.05) when feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA or the control, while total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), acetic, Ac:Pr ratio and NH3-N were significantly decreased. Adding Na-SFA in the ration decreased glucose and total protein concentrations in blood compared with Ca-SFA or in the control. Concentrations of albumin, globulin and their ratio were not affected with feeding

  8. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  9. Radiation grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto poly-tetrafluoroethylene-perfluorovinylether (TFA) and poly-tetrafluoroethylene-polyethylene (ET) films

    Preparation of membranes of poly-tetrafluoroethylene-perfluorovinylether (TFA) and poly-tetrafluoroethylene-polyethylene (ET) films grafted with 4-vinylpyridine using γ-rays has been carried out. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected. Furthermore, quaternization of the pyridine of the grafted chains was conducted. The effect of monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was also investigated. The order of the grafting rate gram per hour depending on monomer concentration was found to be 0.94 and 1.0 for TFA and ET films, respectively. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behavior, dimensional stability, mechanical and electrical properties were investigated. The grafted film of TFA and ET showed a marked decrease in elongation with a significant increase in the tensile strength. (author)

  10. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Pei-Ling Tang; Osman Hassan; Jamaliah Md-Jahim; Wan Aida Wan Mustapha; Mohamad Yusof Maskat

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF), coconut coir fiber (CCF), pineapple peel (PP), pineapple crown leaves (PCL), kenaf bast fiber (KBF), and kenaf core fiber (KCF), as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol) and alkaline treatment (NaOH), to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The findi...

  11. First Year Middle and High School Teachers' Mathematical Content Proficiency and Attitudes: Alternative Certification in the Teach for America (TFA) Program

    Evans, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the mathematical content proficiency middle and high school teachers have before and after their first year teaching and taking graduate coursework in the Teach for America (TFA) program, as well as what attitudes toward mathematics TFA teachers have over the first year. There was a significant increase…

  12. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  13. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  14. Fibrous Agricultural Biomass as a Potential Source for Bioconversion to Vanillic Acid

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the potential of six fibrous agricultural residues, namely, oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF, coconut coir fiber (CCF, pineapple peel (PP, pineapple crown leaves (PCL, kenaf bast fiber (KBF, and kenaf core fiber (KCF, as a source of ferulic acid and phenolic compounds for bioconversion into vanillic acid. The raw samples were pretreated with organosolv (NaOH-glycerol and alkaline treatment (NaOH, to produce phenol-rich black liquor. The finding showed that the highest amount of phenolic compounds and ferulic acid was produced from CCF and PP, respectively. This study also found that organosolv treatment was the superior method for phenolic compound extraction, whereas alkaline treatment was the selective method for lignin extraction. Vanillic acid production by Aspergillus niger I-1472 was only observed when the fermentation broth was fed with liquors from PP and PCL, possibly due to the higher levels of ferulic acid in those samples.

  15. Effect of Cerium Doping on Superconducting Properties of YBCO Film Prepared by TFA-MOD Method

    The effects of Ba and Ce addition has been investigated in YBCO prepared by trifluoroacetate(TFA) metalorganic deposition(MOD) method. Precursor solutions with cation ratios of Y:Ba:Cu:Ce=1:2+x:3:x(x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1.5) have been prepared by adding an excess amount of cerium and barium. Coated film was calcined at lower temperature under a moisture-containing oxygen atmosphere. Superconducting YBCO films have been obtained by performing conversion heat treatment at temperature of 780-810 degrees C under a moisture-containing Ar(1,000 ppm oxygen) atmosphere. It has been shown that the critical current(Ic) of YBCO film was degraded by doping of Ba and Ce atoms. But Ic was increased as the amount of doped Ba and Ce content increased from 5% to 15 %. It was observed that there was little increase of a flux pinning force with Ba and Ce addition in YBCO film prepared by TFA-MOD process.

  16. Fabrication and growth mechanism of YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD process

    In the development for the coated conductors, the trifluoroacetates-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) process using the multi-coating method was applied to form thicker YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films on the CeO2 buffered IBAD(Zr2Gd2O7)/Hastelloy tape. As a result, in the 5 times coated film with 1.38 μm in thickness, the Jc and Ic values achieved to be 1.5 MA/cm2 and 210 A, respectively. Then, we fabricated a 1 m long YBCO tape by the continuous reel-to-reel system. As a result, we confirmed the tape to be homogeneous by XRD analysis. Additionally, we report the theoretical analysis of YBCO growth during post-annealing in the TFA-MOD process considering both the diffusion in the gas boundary layer and the growth kinetics at the precursor/YBCO interface. This model reveals a basic idea of the growth mechanism to define the steady state growth rate, and could explain the experimental results. In addition, it predicts that the growth rate could be estimated from the partial pressure of the water vapor of the inlet gas

  17. Growth process and microstructure of Y123 film fabricated by advanced TFA-MOD process

    The advanced metal organic deposition (MOD) process using F-free salt of Cu and trifluroacetates (TFA) salts (Superconductivity Research Laboratory (SRL)-Method) was applied to form well oriented Y123 film on LaAlO3 substrate. In order to clarify the growth mechanism of the Y123 film by the advanced TFA-MOD process, two methods were introduced. One was the quenching method to get samples under several different conditions during the process, and the microstructures were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The other was in situ observation method to know surface changes of the film by the generation of liquid and/or gas. From the θ-2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films fabricated by suitable conditions (0 0 n) diffraction peaks were obtained indicating they had strongly c-axis oriented structure. The thin YBCO films had critical current density (J C) of 3.8-4.9 MA/cm2 (77 K,0 T) measured by the four-probe-method. A growth model with some process-controlling parameters was proposed based on the above observed results

  18. Fabrication of long Y123 coated conductor tape by advanced TFA-MOD process

    Metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) using metal trifluoro acetate (TFA) precursors is thought to be promising since YBCO films with high Jc can be fabricated by this process inexpensively. However it is difficult to maintain high Jc throughout long tapes. We have improved Ic values and longitudinal Ic distribution for a long coated conductor tape by the advanced TFA-MOD method. It was clarified that a humid atmosphere degraded as-coated films. The Ba-poor composition precursor from the 1:2:3 cationic ratio improved Jc/Ic significantly. As a result, a 86 m long coated conductor was obtained with Ic values higher than 200 A/cm-w throughout the tape except for one small region. Almost of the tape has as high Ic as 300 A/cm-w and the end-to-end Ic x L value was 14 000 Am (Ic 250 A, L = 56 m)

  19. Growth process of Ba-poor YBCO film fabricated by TFA-MOD process

    Metal organic deposition process using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) is one of the most promising processes to fabricate YBCO film. It has been reported that YBCO films grown by the starting solution with Ba-poor (cation ratio as Y:Ba:Cu = 1:1.5:3) have higher JC value and has smaller and less pores than those of the YBCO film with stoichiometric composition. It is important to investigate the growth mechanism of YBCO crystals to obtain a high JC film by controlling the crystal structures. In this study, YBCO films were fabricated under various Ba concentrations in the TFA starting solution, and the influences of Ba composition on the growth process and microstructures were investigated. As a result, the Ba-poor YBCO film with Ba/Y = 1.5 and high JC had less a-axis oriented Y123 in comparison with the film with Ba/Y = 2. Furthermore, pores in the Ba-poor film were less than that in the stoichiometric composition film. This decrease of pores in the Ba-poor film was considered to be caused by the smaller size of non-reacted phases especially such as Ba-F rich particles entrapped by growing Y123 in the growing Y123 layer. It is considered that both the reductions of a-axis oriented Y123 and pores were the reasons of improving JC values in Ba-poor film

  20. Effects of Excess Yttrium Addition on YBCO Thin Films Prepared by TFA-MOD Process

    [YBa2Cu3O7-x]thin films were fabricated on LaAlO3(100) substrate by TFA-MOD process. Yttrium-excess (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 at%) coating solution was prepared by adding extra amount of yttrium into a stoichiometric(Y:Ba:Cu=1:2:3) TFA precursor solution. Results are presented concerning the influence of excess yttrium additions on the microstructure development and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x film. Large sized CuO particles was observed by SEM EDS investigation. The addition of excess yttrium affected little on Tc of YBa2Cu3O7-xfilm. Jc of YBCO film was enhanced with excess yttrium addition. Jc maximum of 2.21 MA/cm2 (77 K, self field) appeared with the 15 at% addition of excess yttrium. With further yttrium addition up to 20 at %, Jc decreased down to 0.9 MA/cm2.

  1. Processing for long YBCO coated conductors by advanced TFA-MOD process

    The long tape process was developed using the advanced TFA precursor solution. In a long tape production, the advanced TFA precursor solution was coated by a die-coater using the reel-to-reel system, and the multi-coating method was applied for thicker film fabrication. We successfully fabricated long uniform precursor films. In the high temperature treatment, a large scale equipment for the continuous long tape process was developed. This equipment had a perpendicular gas flow system to the tape length which is effective to fabricate the uniform films. Ic values and its distribution in the YBCO tape fabricated by this method on CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy were measured. And the uniform and high performance was confirmed. A 0.25 m long YBCO film with 1.38 μm in thickness on the metal substrate shows the high Ic performance of 210 A with end to end at 77.3 K in self-fields

  2. Transmission electron microscopy studies of YBCO films fabricated by advanced TFA-MOD process

    The advanced metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) is one of the most promising methods for producing superconducting coated conductors. In order to form highly grain aligned YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) films with high JC, it is important to control the microstructures of the films. In the present work, Y123 films were grown by the advanced TFA-MOD method on CeO2 layered LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates. Quenched films were prepared by cooling rapidly during the crystallization stage, and their cross-sectional microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bright-field images (BFIs) showed existence of some grains, precipitates and their interfaces in the film. Selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAEDPs) were taken from various regions, and a-axis and/or c-axis-oriented structures, amorphous structures, etc. were observed. In addition, Y123 grains, BaF2, CuO and Y2Cu2O5 grains were clarified by the scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analyses

  3. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  4. Connecting Source with Sink: The Role of Arabidopsis AAP8 in Phloem Loading of Amino Acids.

    Santiago, James P; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2016-05-01

    Allocation of large amounts of nitrogen to developing organs occurs in the phloem and is essential for plant growth and seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and many other plant species, amino acids represent the dominant nitrogen transport forms in the phloem, and they are mainly synthesized in photosynthetically active source leaves. Following their synthesis, a broad spectrum of the amino nitrogen is actively loaded into the phloem of leaf minor veins and transported within the phloem sap to sinks such as developing leaves, fruits, or seeds. Controlled regulation of the source-to-sink transport of amino acids has long been postulated; however, the molecular mechanism of amino acid phloem loading was still unknown. In this study, Arabidopsis AMINO ACID PERMEASE8 (AAP8) was shown to be expressed in the source leaf phloem and localized to the plasma membrane, suggesting its function in phloem loading. This was further supported by transport studies with aap8 mutants fed with radiolabeled amino acids and by leaf exudate analyses. In addition, biochemical and molecular analyses revealed alterations in leaf nitrogen pools and metabolism dependent on the developmental stage of the mutants. Decreased amino acid phloem loading and partitioning to sinks led to decreased silique and seed numbers, but seed protein levels were unchanged, demonstrating the importance of AAP8 function for sink development rather than seed quality. Overall, these results show that AAP8 plays an important role in source-to-sink partitioning of nitrogen and that its function affects source leaf physiology and seed yield. PMID:27016446

  5. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  6. A biogenic source of oxalic acid and glyoxal in marine boundary layer

    Facchini, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Sciare, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of oxalic acid aerosol measurements samples performed at Mace Head (Ireland, 53°20'N, 9°54'W) and Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean, 37°48'S, 77°34'E), supporting the existence of a biogenic source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Aerosol oxalic acid was detected in clean marine air masses in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3, at Mace Head, and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, at Amsterdam Island. In both hemispheres, oxalic acid concentration showed a clear seasonal trend, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in the fall-winter period, in analogy with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., MSA and amines). Oxalic acid was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with the major contribution given by the 1.0-2.0 μm size range, and by the lower accumulation mode (0.25-0.5 μm). Given the observed size distributions, marine aerosol oxalic acid can be assumed as the result of the combination of different formation processes, among which in-cloud oxidation of gaseous precursors [1] and photochemical degradation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids [2] are likely the most important. Among aerosol oxalic acid precursors, glyoxal is the most likely candidate in the marine boundary layer, as a source of glyoxal over the oceans has recently been discovered by satellite observations [3] and confirmed by in situ measurements [4]. In support of this hypothesis, SCIAMACHY satellite retrieved glyoxal column concentrations, over the two sampling sites, resulted characterized by a clear seasonal trend, resembling the aerosol oxalic acid one. [1] Warneck, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2423-2427, 2003. [2] Kawamura & Sakaguchi, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D3, 3501-3509, 1999. [3] Fu et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15303, doi:10.1029/2007JD009505, 2008 [4] Sinreich et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 15075-15107, 2010.

  7. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluorinated alkyl acids in tap-water based beverages

    C. Eschauzier; M. Hoppe; M. Schlummer; P. de Voogt

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap wat

  8. Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, R.; Bartels, Else Marie;

    2011-01-01

    ruminant origin. By searching five bibliographic databases, analyses from six published and two unpublished prospective cohort studies, assessing the association of intake of TFA with fatal and/or non-fatal CHD, were identified. Four and three studies reported separate associations for intake of ruminant...... CHD. Ruminant-TFA intake (increments ranging from 0.5 to 1.9 g/day) was not significantly associated with risk of CHD (risk ratio (RR)=0.92 (0.76-1.11); P=0.36), and neither was industrial-TFA intake, although there was a trend towards a positive association (RR=1.21 (0.97-1.50); P=0.09). In...... conclusion, our analysis suggests that industrial-TFA may be positively related to CHD, whereas ruminant-TFA is not, but the limited number of available studies prohibits any firm conclusions concerning whether the source of TFA is important. The null association of ruminant-TFA with CHD risk may be due to...

  9. Eliminating artificial trans fatty acids in Argentina: estimated effects on the burden of coronary heart disease and costs

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the impact of Argentine policies to reduce trans fatty acids (TFA) on coronary heart disease (CHD), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and associated health-care costs. Methods We estimated the baseline intake of TFA before 2004 to be 1.5% of total energy intake. We built a policy model including baseline intake of TFA, the oils and fats used to replace artificial TFAs, the clinical effect of reducing artificial TFAs and the costs and DALYs saved due to aver...

  10. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproduci...

  11. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  12. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    Kuroda, Keisuke, E-mail: keisukekr@gmail.com [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Michio [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oguma, Kumiko [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takizawa, Satoshi [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  13. Measurement of local critical currents in TFA-MOD processed coated conductors by use of scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    We have investigated 2-dimensional distribution of critical current density. We have measured TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductor. We used scanning Hall-probe microscopy. These provided information is useful for fabrication process of coated conductor. We have carried out 2-dimensional (2D) measurement of local critical current in a Trifluoroacetates-Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed YBCO coated conductor using scanning Hall-probe microscopy. Recently, remarkable R and D accomplishments on the fabrication processes of coated conductors have been conducted extensively and reported. The TFA-MOD process has been expected as an attractive process to produce coated conductors with high performance at a low production cost due to a simple process using non-vacuum equipments. On the other hand, enhancement of critical currents and homogenization of the critical current distribution in the coated conductors are definitely very important for practical applications. According to our measurements, we can detect positions and spatial distribution of defects in the conductor. This kind of information will be very helpful for the improvement of the TFA-MOD process and for the design of the conductor intended for practical electric power device applications.

  14. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes and polymer nanocomposite fabrication using trifluoroacetic acid as a co-solvent

    We herein report the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a co-solvent. TFA is a strong but volatile acid which is miscible with many commonly used organic solvents. Our study demonstrates that MWCNTs can be effectively purified and readily dispersed in a range of organic solvents including dimethyl formamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dichloromethane when mixed with 10 vol.% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the chemical structure of the TFA-treated MWCNTs remained intact without oxidation. The dispersed carbon nanotubes in TFA/THF solution were mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fabricate polymer nanocomposites. A good dispersion of nanotubes in solution and in polymer matrices was observed and confirmed by SEM, optical microscopy, and light transmittance study. Low percolation thresholds of electrical conductivity were observed from the fabricated MWCNT/PMMA composite films. Further enhancement in the dispersion of MWCNTs was achieved by adding a conjugated conducting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), to the dispersion, wherein TFA also serves as a doping agent to the conducting polymer. The ternary nanocomposite MWCNT/P3HT/PMMA exhibited an extremely low percolation threshold of less than 0.006 wt% of MWCNT content. This low percolation threshold is attributed to a good dispersion of MWCNTs and enhanced conductivity of the nanocomposites by conjugated conducting polymer

  15. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases, a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifidobacterium strains to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. Studies were carried out using Bifidibacteriumstrains (B. animalis Bi30, B. catenulatum KD 14 and B. longum KN 29. The strains were cultivated using minimal growth media containing selected natural and synthetic carbon sources: German wheat bran, rye bran, barley spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl esters of phenolic acids. The production of extracellular feruloyl esterase was estimated using the post cultivation supernatants and methyl ferulate. The concentration of ferulic acid released from the ester was determined using HPLC with DAD detection. Results. The most efficient bacterial strain for FAE production was B. animalis cultivated in the presence of methyl p-coumarate and methyl ferulate as the main carbon sources (14.95 nmol·ml-1·min-1 and 4.38 nmol·ml-1·min-1, respectively. In the case of each FAE, the highest activity was obtained at 37oC (pH 6.3 in Theorell/Steinhagen buffer (B. animalis Bi30 or in Tris/HCl buffer (B. catenulatum KD14 and B. longum KN29. Taking under consideration all results, it should be noticed that the highest feruloyl esterase activities were obtained using synthetic methyl esters of phenolic acids. Conclusions. The presented resultsbroaden the knowledgeabout the production of the feruloyl esterase by probiotic bacteria. Although the enzyme is only accessory during

  16. Growth Response and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Procambarus clarkii Fed Different Sources of Dietary Lipid

    WEN Xiao-bo; KU Yao-mei; ZHOU Kai-ya

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipidon weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile red swamp crawfish, Procam-barus clarkii. Six semi-purified diets containing vitamin-free casein, defatted soybean meal, 0.5% cholinechloride, 0.5 % glycine and 0.5 % cholesterol were supplemented with 6.0 % of either anchovy oil, linseed oil,soybean oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil or pork lard. Each diet was fed to crawfish (3.07±0.21 g averageweight) in three replicate aquaria for 60 days. Survival rate, weight gain and feed conversion were best forcrawfish fed the diet containing anchovy oil. Crawfish fed the linseed oil diet had the second highest weightgain, followed by crawfish on soybean oil, repaseed oil, safflower oil and pork lard diets, respectively. Feedconversion values were a reflection of weight gain. Results showed that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are dietaryessential for juvenile Procambarus clarkii, although n-3 fatty acids promoted faster growth than n-6. Howev-er, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) had better growth-promoting effect than18 : 3n-3, due probably to the limited ability of crawfish to bioconvert fatty acids to polyenoic forms of longerchain length. The fatty acid composition of the crawfish generally reflected that of the dietary lipids, especial-ly for the diets containing unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a means of distinguishing fulvic and humic acids from dissolved and sedimentary aquatic sources and terrestrial sources

    Senesi, Nicola; Miano, Teodoro M.; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria

    Thirteen fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA) isolated from river waters and sediment, marine sediments, leonardite, soils, and paleosol, have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission, excitation and, partly, synchronous scan excitation modes. Emission spectra are generally characterized by a unique broad band, whereas excitation spectra exhibit a variable number of peaks or shoulders of various intensity; these peaks are particularly well-resolved for sedimentary HA samples. A decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence, which is associated with a red-shift (longer wavelengths) of both the emission maximum and the main excitation peaks, is observed when passing from dissolved aquatic and soil FA to river and marine sedimentary HA, to leonardite and soil HA, and, finally, to paleosol HA. Evident differences are shown in the relative intensity and wavelength maxima, measured in any mode, between soil FA and HA from the same source. For FA and HA of various nature and origin, the fluorescence is suggested to be caused by chemically different structural units. These units fluoresce from the blue-violet to the green and consist of variously extended, condensed, aromatic and/or heterocyclic ring systems, with a high degree of electronic conjugation and bearing suitable hydroxyl, alkoxyl and carbonyl groups (e.g. salicyl, cinnamic and hydroxybenzoic derivatives, naphtols, naphtoquinones, coumarin), and quinoline-derivatives, flavonoids and Schiffbase derivatives. Fluorescence properties of humic substances may represent an additional diagnostic criterium useful in distinguishing between FA and HA from the same or various natural sources.

  18. Batch fermentation model of propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici in different carbon sources.

    Coral, Jefferson; Karp, Susan Grace; Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Luciana; Parada, José Luis; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as additive in animal feed and also in the manufacturing of cellulose-based plastics, herbicides, and perfumes. Salts of propionic acid are used as preservative in food. PA is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. Nowadays, PA production by fermentation of low-cost industrial wastes or renewable sources has been an interesting alternative. In the present investigation, PA production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4965 was studied using a basal medium with sugarcane molasses (BMSM), glycerol or lactate (BML) in small batch fermentation at 30 and 36 degrees C. Bacterial growth was carried out under low dissolved oxygen concentration and without pH control. Results indicated that P. acidipropionici produced more biomass in BMSM than in other media at 30 degrees C (7.55 g l(-1)) as well as at 36 degrees C (3.71 g l(-1)). PA and biomass production were higher at 30 degrees C than at 36 degrees C in all cases studied. The best productivity was obtained by using BML (0.113 g l(-1) h(-1)), although the yielding of this metabolite was higher when using glycerol as carbon source (0.724 g g(-1)) because there was no detection of acetic acid. By the way, when using the other two carbon sources, acetic acid emerged as an undesirable by-product for further PA purification. PMID:18386184

  19. Present status and strategy of reel-to-reel TFA-MOD process for coated conductors

    On the research and development of a reel-to-reel TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process, a present status is reviewed and its future strategy is addressed. As a base of the study, the 90 m long tape with uniform Ic distribution of the 300 A/cm-width level was obtained on the CeO2 buffered IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrate. The tape has the 56 m region with the end-to-end Ic value of 250 A, which corresponds to maximum product of Ic x L of 14,000 Am. Based on the results, several directions on R and D have been studied such as 'higher Ic', 'higher Ic-B', 'higher production rate both in coating/calcinations and crystallization steps' and lower cost buffer/substrate'. Then, an extremely high Ic value of 735 A/cm-width was achieved in a short tape by the compositional control (e.g. Ba-deficient), in the starting solutions. On the efforts for achieving higher Ic-B properties, high Ic values of 115 and 35 A/cm-width under the magnetic fields of 1 and 3 T were obtained by the RE mixture of Y and Gd in REBCO, addition of Zr and a growth rate control process. On the other hand, the production rate for the coating/calcinations process was improved by development of new starting solutions, which uses F-free Y salt instead of TFA salt of Y. The high Jc value of 1.9 MA/cm2 was confirmed using the precursor films fabricated at a high traveling rate of 10 m/h. Concerning a higher rate in the crystallization step, the multi-turning system with a vertical gas flow system was developed. The validity of the concept was confirmed using 2-turn parts of the furnace. The high Ic value of 250 A/cm-width was realized in the 5 m tape crystallized with a traveling rate of 3 m/h, which is equivalent to 15 m/h for usage of entire area of the furnace of 10-turns. Furthermore, in order to achieve the lower cost, the architecture of the coated conductor with a low cost buffer/substrate system has been developed. An IBAD buffered substrate using IBAD-MgO layer

  20. Development of BZO Doped YGdBCO Thick Films Using TFA-MOD Process

    Nakamura, T.; Nakahata, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.; Kimura, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Kato, T.; Hirayama, T.

    TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process is of considerable practical concern for future applications since it can fabricate high performance coated conductors (CCs) with low cost. In this study, we developed the process for fabricating thick films in BZO nanoparticle doped Y0.77Gd0.23Ba1.5Cu3Oy (YGdBCO) CCs in order to realize high Ic values under magnetic field. The effect of RTR (Reel To Reel)-dip-coating conditions on microstructure, Jc(-B-θ) properties, etc. was investigated in order to fabricate crack-free thick and high performance films. A BZO doped YGdBCO film with uniform 3.0 μm thickness showed the high in-field Ic and Jc values of 55.6 A/cm-w and 0.18 MA/cm2@77.8K, 3T, respectively.

  1. Optimization of oxygenation process in YBCO tapes fabricated by TFA-MOD method

    The effect of oxygen doping on the superconducting properties, such as T c, J c and the irreversibility line, of YBCO coated conductor prepared by the TFA-MOD method was investigated. We observed a systematic change of T c value as oxygen annealing temperature, T a indicating the oxygen doping level was successfully modified by the heat treatment. The oxygen doping caused an upward shift of the irreversibility line as well as an increase of J c at wide temperature and field range. We also performed a high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurement to observe the oxygen absorption behavior. The result suggests the mobility of oxygen becomes very slow at the temperature below 350 deg. C

  2. Fabrication of REBa2Cu3O7-y film by advanced TFA-MOD process

    We fabricated GdBa2Cu3O7-y (GdBCO) films on SrTiO3 single crystalline substrate by metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetate (TFA). The volume percent of a-axis grains is strongly dependent on the P(H2O). Then, maximum P(H2O) has been changed while heating GdBCO. The higher driving force (high P(H2O)) is required for faster crystallization with growing the GdBCO phase crystals from the substrate, since the volume percent of a-axis grain decreases with increasing the maximum P(H2O). The Tc and the transport Jc values could be obtained as 92 K and 2.3 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field

  3. Present status and strategy of reel-to-reel TFA-MOD process for coated conductors

    Izumi, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Miura, M.; Nakaoka, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Sutoh, Y.; Miyata, S.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    On the research and development of a reel-to-reel TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process, a present status is reviewed and its future strategy is addressed. As a base of the study, the 90 m long tape with uniform I c distribution of the 300 A/cm-width level was obtained on the CeO 2 buffered IBAD-Gd 2Zr 2O 7/Hastelloy C276 substrate. The tape has the 56 m region with the end-to-end I c value of 250 A, which corresponds to maximum product of I c × L of 14,000 Am. Based on the results, several directions on R&D have been studied such as “higher I c”, “higher I c- B”, “higher production rate both in coating/calcinations and crystallization steps” and lower cost buffer/substrate”. Then, an extremely high I c value of 735 A/cm-width was achieved in a short tape by the compositional control (e.g. Ba-deficient), in the starting solutions. On the efforts for achieving higher I c- B properties, high I c values of 115 and 35 A/cm-width under the magnetic fields of 1 and 3 T were obtained by the RE mixture of Y and Gd in REBCO, addition of Zr and a growth rate control process. On the other hand, the production rate for the coating/calcinations process was improved by development of new starting solutions, which uses F-free Y salt instead of TFA salt of Y. The high J c value of 1.9 MA/cm 2 was confirmed using the precursor films fabricated at a high traveling rate of 10 m/h. Concerning a higher rate in the crystallization step, the multi-turning system with a vertical gas flow system was developed. The validity of the concept was confirmed using 2-turn parts of the furnace. The high I c value of 250 A/cm-width was realized in the 5 m tape crystallized with a traveling rate of 3 m/h, which is equivalent to 15 m/h for usage of entire area of the furnace of 10-turns. Furthermore, in order to achieve the lower cost, the architecture of the coated conductor with a low cost buffer/substrate system has been developed. An IBAD buffered

  4. Present status and strategy of reel-to-reel TFA-MOD process for coated conductors

    Izumi, T., E-mail: izumi@istec.or.j [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Yoshizumi, M.; Miura, M.; Nakaoka, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Sutoh, Y.; Miyata, S.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    On the research and development of a reel-to-reel TFA-MOD (Metal Organic Deposition using Trifluoro-acetates) process, a present status is reviewed and its future strategy is addressed. As a base of the study, the 90 m long tape with uniform I{sub c} distribution of the 300 A/cm-width level was obtained on the CeO{sub 2} buffered IBAD-Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Hastelloy C276 substrate. The tape has the 56 m region with the end-to-end I{sub c} value of 250 A, which corresponds to maximum product of I{sub c} x L of 14,000 Am. Based on the results, several directions on R and D have been studied such as 'higher I{sub c}', 'higher I{sub c}-B', 'higher production rate both in coating/calcinations and crystallization steps' and lower cost buffer/substrate'. Then, an extremely high I{sub c} value of 735 A/cm-width was achieved in a short tape by the compositional control (e.g. Ba-deficient), in the starting solutions. On the efforts for achieving higher I{sub c}-B properties, high I{sub c} values of 115 and 35 A/cm-width under the magnetic fields of 1 and 3 T were obtained by the RE mixture of Y and Gd in REBCO, addition of Zr and a growth rate control process. On the other hand, the production rate for the coating/calcinations process was improved by development of new starting solutions, which uses F-free Y salt instead of TFA salt of Y. The high J{sub c} value of 1.9 MA/cm{sup 2} was confirmed using the precursor films fabricated at a high traveling rate of 10 m/h. Concerning a higher rate in the crystallization step, the multi-turning system with a vertical gas flow system was developed. The validity of the concept was confirmed using 2-turn parts of the furnace. The high I{sub c} value of 250 A/cm-width was realized in the 5 m tape crystallized with a traveling rate of 3 m/h, which is equivalent to 15 m/h for usage of entire area of the furnace of 10-turns. Furthermore, in order to achieve the lower cost, the architecture of the

  5. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

  6. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  7. Direct and remarkably efficient conversion of methane into acetic acid catalyzed by amavadine and related vanadium complexes. A synthetic and a theoretical DFT mechanistic study.

    Kirillova, Marina V; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Reis, Patrícia M; da Silva, José A L; da Silva, João J R Fraústo; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2007-08-29

    Vanadium(IV or V) complexes with N,O- or O,O-ligands, i.e., [VO{N(CH2CH2O)3}], Ca[V(HIDPA)2] (synthetic amavadine), Ca[V(HIDA)2], or [Bu4N]2[V(HIDA)2] [HIDPA, HIDA = basic form of 2,2'-(hydroxyimino)dipropionic or -diacetic acid, respectively], [VO(CF3SO3)2], Ba[VO(nta)(H2O)]2 (nta = nitrilotriacetate), [VO(ada)(H2O)] (ada = N-2-acetamidoiminodiacetate), [VO(Hheida)(H2O)] (Hheida = 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetate), [VO(bicine)] [bicine = basic form of N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine], and [VO(dipic)(OCH2CH3)] (dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate), are catalyst precursors for the efficient single-pot conversion of methane into acetic acid, in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) under moderate conditions, using peroxodisulfate as oxidant. Effects on the yields and TONs of various factors are reported. TFA acts as a carbonylating agent and CO is an inhibitor for some systems, although for others there is an optimum CO pressure. The most effective catalysts (as amavadine) bear triethanolaminate or (hydroxyimino)dicarboxylates and lead, in a single batch, to CH3COOH yields > 50% (based on CH4) or remarkably high TONs up to 5.6 x 103. The catalyst can remain active upon multiple recycling of its solution. Carboxylation proceeds via free radical mechanisms (CH3* can be trapped by CBrCl3), and theoretical calculations disclose a particularly favorable process involving the sequential formation of CH3*, CH3CO*, and CH3COO* which, upon H-abstraction (from TFA or CH4), yields acetic acid. The CH3COO* radical is formed by oxygenation of CH3CO* by a peroxo-V complex via a V{eta1-OOC(O)CH3} intermediate. Less favorable processes involve the oxidation of CH3CO* by the protonated (hydroperoxo) form of that peroxo-V complex or by peroxodisulfate. The calculations also indicate that (i) peroxodisulfate behaves as a source of sulfate radicals which are methane H-abstractors, as a peroxidative and oxidizing agent for vanadium, and as an oxidizing and coupling agent for CH3CO* and that (ii) TFA is

  8. Sources of fatty acids in Lake Michigan surface microlayers and subsurface waters

    Meyers, P.A.; Owen, R.M.

    1980-11-01

    Fatty acid and organic carbon contents have been measured in the particulate and dissolved phases of surface microlayer and subsurface water samples collected from Lake Michigan. Concentrations are highest close to fluvial sources and lowest in offshore areas, yet surface/subsurface fractionation is lowest near river mouths and highest in open lake locations. These gradients plus accompanying fatty acid compositional changes indicate that river-borne organic materials are important constituents of coastal Lake Michigan microlayers and that sinking and turbulent resuspension of particulates affect surface film characteristics. Lake neuston and plankton contributes organic components which partially replace potamic materials removed by sinking.

  9. AC loss reduction of TFA-MOD coated conductors in long length by laser scribing technique

    Katayama, K.; Hirano, H.; Machi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Izumi, T.

    TFA-MOD process is expected to be promising for future applications since it can produce high performance YBCO coated conductors with low cost. Applying YBCO coated conductors to the power electric devices such as transformer, cable, motors, reduction of AC loss for long wire is necessary. Multifilamentation, which is one of the effective approaches for AC loss reduction, has been developed by the scribing process. YBCO coated conductors produced by our standard TFA-MOD process delaminated into two parts by the laser scribing. The delamination was clarified to occur within the superconducting layer caused by the defects such as pores in the superconducting layer. In order to reduce the defects in the superconducting layer, we modify the heat treatment profile performed on the decomposed precursor films by applying the interim annealing(550-600°C) before crystallization heat treatment(740-770°C). The interim annealed samples had much less and smaller pores than the standard processed ones. The peel strength measured by transverse tensile test was as high as the PLD derived coated conductors which was successfully scribed into five filaments resulting in 1/5 AC loss. A 50m long YBCO coated conductor with the characteristics of 398A/cmwidth was obtained and cut into 5 mm width, followed by the laser scribing process into five filaments. The multifilamentation process was successfully performed without delamination throughout the wire. The hysteresis loss was down to 1/N (N: number of filaments), as we aimed. The IC properties of the filaments were 29±4A, indicating the wire was uniformly fabricated.

  10. Processing for long YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD process

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-X (YBCO) using metal trifluoroacetate (TFA) precursors is considered to be a strong candidate as a low cost fabrication process in coated conductors since the TFA-MOD process is a non vacuum process and can provide high Jc films. In order to develop long tape conductors using this process, the influence of the gas flow direction in the heat treatment was investigated. The Jc value decreases toward to leeward side in the case of the parallel gas flow condition. On the other hand, in the case of the perpendicular gas flow condition. The Jc value reveals uniformity in all over the tape and the high Jc level is maintained. In the case of long tape production, it was found that the perpendicular gas flow to the tape length is effective to fabricate the uniform films. It could minimize the influence of consumption of H2O and generation of HF gas in the up-stream area to the leeward region. The Jc and Ic properties and these distribution of the YBCO tape fabricated by this method on CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy is presented. Furthermore, a large scale equipment for the continues long tape process was developed based on the above findings. Consequently we have fabricated a 1 m long Y123 tape conductor by a reel to reel system. Even in the first trial, the uniform reaction for the entire length was recognized

  11. Ac loss characteristics of YBCO superconducting tapes fabricated by TFA-MOD technique

    We investigated the ac loss properties of a YBCO superconducting tape fabricated by TFA-MOD technique. The thickness of the YBCO layer is 1.2 μm. A 6-tape stack of 50 mm in length and 10 mm in width was inserted into a saddle-shaped pickup coil. The ac loss was measured at 35-77 K by applying an external ac magnetic field. The magnetic field angle was changed by rotating the sample stack around its longitudinal axis. The effective penetration field, which corresponds to the breaking point of an ac loss curve, decreased with increasing field angle though it was much smaller than that which was estimated for a superconducting slab with the same thickness as the width of a tape. As a result, the ac loss increased monotonically with an increasing field angle against the wide surface for any amplitude. The observed field angular dependence of the ac loss agreed with the theoretically predicted one by using the observed ac losses in perpendicular magnetic field. Anyway the ac loss for a larger amplitude than the effective penetration field was proportional to the critical current density and the projective width of a tape in the direction of the applied magnetic field for any field angle and any temperature as well known. In addition we estimated the magnetic field, B, dependence of the critical current, I c, from the observed magnetization curves. It was shown that zero-field I c appeared to be a linear function of temperature and I c-B characteristics was scaled with zero-field I c. We also discussed a difference in I c-B characteristics and its temperature dependence between TFA-MOD tapes and IBAD-PLD ones

  12. Transport performance of a HTS current lead prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO tapes

    A superconducting current lead has been prepared using 12 tapes of the trifluoroacetates - metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (Ic) of about 100 A at 77 K in self-field. The tapes are 4.5 mm in width, 220 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was formed through the TFA-MOD process on HastelloyTM substrate tapes with two buffer oxide layers of Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) and CeO2. The 12 YBCO tapes were arrayed on the both sides (six tapes on each side) of a stainless steel board with 3 mm in thickness for a board type shape. They were similarly soldered to copper caps at the both ends. The transport current of 1000 A was stably applied for 10 min in the liquid nitrogen temperature without any voltage generation in all tapes. Although some voltage in some YBCO tapes generated at the applied currents of about 1100 A, the transport current of 1200 A was successfully applied without quenching. The voltage between both copper caps linearly increased with increasing the transport current, and it was about 300 μV at an applied current of 1000 A. A low joint resistance between the YBCO tapes and the copper caps resulted in small amounts of the Joule heating at the joints when 1000 A was applied. The overall (effective) thermal conductivity of the current leads composed of YBCO tapes and the stainless steel board was much lower than that of Non-superconducting current leads. Therefore, the present current leads with small heat leakage seemed to be practically promising for superconducting magnets.

  13. Ac loss characteristics of YBCO superconducting tapes fabricated by TFA-MOD technique

    Iwakuma, Masataka; Nigo, Masahiro; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Naoya; Kiss, Takanobu; Funaki, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Takashi; Izumi, Teruo; Yamada, Yutaka; Shiohara, Yuu

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the ac loss properties of a YBCO superconducting tape fabricated by TFA-MOD technique. The thickness of the YBCO layer is 1.2 μm. A 6-tape stack of 50 mm in length and 10 mm in width was inserted into a saddle-shaped pickup coil. The ac loss was measured at 35-77 K by applying an external ac magnetic field. The magnetic field angle was changed by rotating the sample stack around its longitudinal axis. The effective penetration field, which corresponds to the breaking point of an ac loss curve, decreased with increasing field angle though it was much smaller than that which was estimated for a superconducting slab with the same thickness as the width of a tape. As a result, the ac loss increased monotonically with an increasing field angle against the wide surface for any amplitude. The observed field angular dependence of the ac loss agreed with the theoretically predicted one by using the observed ac losses in perpendicular magnetic field. Anyway the ac loss for a larger amplitude than the effective penetration field was proportional to the critical current density and the projective width of a tape in the direction of the applied magnetic field for any field angle and any temperature as well known. In addition we estimated the magnetic field, B, dependence of the critical current, Ic, from the observed magnetization curves. It was shown that zero-field Ic appeared to be a linear function of temperature and Ic-B characteristics was scaled with zero-field Ic. We also discussed a difference in Ic-B characteristics and its temperature dependence between TFA-MOD tapes and IBAD-PLD ones.

  14. Nutritional implications of trans fatty acids during perinatal period, in French pregnant women

    Boue Carole

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have demonstrated the transfer of trans fatty acids (TFA across the human placenta. It was suggested that TFA might disturb the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFA in fetus and consequently might affect intrauterine human growth more or less according to the TFA intake level of the mother. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess, for French pregnant women, possible impact of their TFA intake on parameters of their term infants: 1/ TFA composition of the umbilical cord (plasma lipids and parietal phospholipids, 2/ birth weight and head circumference. The TFA composition of maternal and umbilical plasma lipids, and parietal phospholipids of umbilical cord were determined by gas chromatography, associated with a thin-layer chromatography for the phospholipids. Because TFA content of adipose tissue is a reliable biochemical indicator of the usual TFA intake level, maternal adipose tissue was also analyzed. Trans fatty acid (TFA percentage was significantly higher (p = 0.001 in maternal (0.9% of total fatty acids than in umbilical plasma total lipids (0.6% thus confirming their placental passage. Moreover, trans isomer pattern of cord plasma lipids was different from the maternal’s one, especially regarding trans isomers of linoleic acid (9c,12c-18:2. Percentage values of 9c,13t + 9t,12t and 9t,12c isomers were respectively, 2 and 3 times higher (p < 0.001 in umbilical than in maternal plasma (Except trans 16:1 acids. All trans isomers observed in umbilical plasma lipids were detected in both parietal and vessel (vein and arteries phospholipids of umbilical cord. Nevertheless, 9c13t + 9t12t isomer mix level was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in artery than in vein TPL. Moreover, in artery TPL, percentage value of 9c13t+9t12t isomer mix was inversely correlated (r = - 0.703, p = 0.003 with arachidonic acid content. Nevertheless, for this French population, there was no relation between either weight or head

  15. Study of acid solution bonding in epoxy matrix for sealed radioactive sources production

    The present work aims to analyze different resin formulations. These formulations are used in the production of radioactive sealed sources that are used in many fields such as nuclear medicine; environmental analyzes, radiation detectors accuracy check, and so on. These sources can be produced with different radioisotopes and different activities, it all depending on the use they will have. Certain types of resins have the same density water. This property is appreciated when we consider that radiotracers used in nuclear medicine are applied in aqueous solutions. So the sources used for checking and calibrating equipment must have their radioisotopes sealed in a material having similar properties, thus the measures are reproducible and repetitive. The most important aspect that is brought to attention in this work is the miscibility those resins have with water. The radioisotopes for the production of the sources are supplied in an aqueous form. In case the resin and the radioisotope solution do not mix, the source will not be sturdy enough to seal the radioisotopes in its structure and the source will not be safe. There were prepared different formulations with different amounts of acid solution, and the cured formulations were analyzed by Wipe Test, DSC (Differential Splanatory Calorimetry) and also, the possible volatile aspect of the radionuclide used. All to evaluate the integrity of the sources. The obtained results were satisfactory and show that when the resin is well cured, the radioisotope remains sealed in the matrix, making it possible to produce radioactive sealed sources. (author)

  16. New Role of Sulfuric Acid In Production of Multicomponent Fertilizers From Renewable Sources

    Helena Gorecka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibility of using renewable sources: slaughter wastes and wood ashes in the production of NPK fertilizers. The content of macronutrients, micronutrients and toxic elements in these materials was reported. In the present work, poultry feathers were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, animal bones as the source of phosphorus and wood ash as the source of potassium and micronutrients. Bioavailability of fertilization components was increased by mineralization with sulfuric acid, which transformed keratinous nitrogen of poultry feathers into ammonia nitrogen, hydroxyapatite phosphorus to bioavailable orthophosphate. Also, mineralization of organic content of the materials was achieved. The method of production and the composition of NPKS fertilizer, the content of which was adjusted to the requirements of oil seed rape was provided. The fertilization properties were checked in germination tests.

  17. Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods.

    MacInnis, John J; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Young, Cora J

    2016-06-21

    An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitous global contaminants, limits the analytical reliability of atmospheric chemists to make accurate gas and particulate measurements that are demonstrably free of interferences due to sampling artefacts. A gas phase source for PFAAs based on the acid displacement mechanism using perfluoropropionate (PFPrA), perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been constructed. The displacement efficiency of gas phase perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is inversely related to chain length. Decreasing displacement efficiencies for PFPrA, PFBA, PFHxA, and PFOA were 90% ± 20%, 40% ± 10%, 40% ± 10%, 9% ± 4%, respectively. Generating detectable amounts of gas phase perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) was not possible. It is likely that lower vapour pressure and much higher acidity play a role in this lack of emission. PFCA emission rates were not elevated by increasing relative humidity (25%-75%), nor flow rate of carrier gas from 33-111 sccm. Overall, reproducible gaseous production of PFCAs was within the error of the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a displacing acid (±20%) and was accomplished using a dry nitrogen flow of 33 ± 2 sccm. A reproducible mass emission rate of 0.97 ± 0.10 ng min(-1) (n = 8) was observed for PFBA. This is equivalent to an atmospheric mixing ratio of 12 ppmv, which is easily diluted to environmentally relevant mixing ratios of PFBA. Conversely, generating gas phase perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) by sublimating the solid acid under the same conditions produced a mass emission rate of 2800 ng min(-1), which is equivalent to a mixing ratio of 18 ppthv and over a million times higher than suspected atmospheric levels. Thus, for analytical certification of atmospheric sampling methods, generating gas phase standards for PFCAs is best accomplished using acid displacement under dry conditions

  18. Characterization of DMSO Coordination to Palladium(II) in Solution and Insights into the Aerobic Oxidation Catalyst, Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2

    Diao, Tianning; White, Paul; Guzei, Ilia; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 (TFA = trifluoroacetate) is an effective catalyst for a number of different aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we provide insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to palladium(II) in both the solid state and in solution. A crystal structure of Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 confirms that the solid-state structure of this species has one O-bound and one S-bound DMSO ligand, and a crystallographically characterized mono-DMSO complex, trans-Pd(DMSO)(OH2)(...

  19. Production of extracellular ferulic acid esterases by Lactobacillus strains using natural and synthetic carbon sources

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, also known as feruloyl esterases, cinnamic acid esterases or cinnamoyl esterases, belong to a common group of hydrolases distributed in the plant kingdom. Especially the fungal enzymes were very well characterised in the past whereas the enzyme was rarely found in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains. It is well known that strong antioxidants free phenolic acids can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal microflora composed among others also of Lactobacillus strains. The aim of this study was to examine four Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus K1, L. rhamnosus E/N, PEN, OXYfor the ability to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. The LAB strains were grown in the minimal growth media using German wheat bran, rye bran, brewers’ spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, methyl syringate or methyl vanillate as the sole carbon source. FAE activity was determined using the post-cultivation supernatants, methyl ferulate and HPLC with UV detection. Results. The highest FAE activity was obtained with L. acidophilus K1 and methyl ferulate (max. 23.34 ±0.05 activity units and methyl p-coumarate (max. 14.96 ±0.47 activity units as carbon sources. L. rhamnosus E/N, OXY and PEN exhibited the limited ability to produce FAE with cinnamic acids methyl esters. Methyl syringate and methyl vanillate (MS and MV were insufficient carbon sources for FAE production. Brewers’ spent grain was the most suitable substrate for FAE production by L. acidophilus K1 (max. 2.64 ±0.06 activity units and L. rhamnosus E/N, OXY and PEN. FAE was also successfully induced by natural substrates rye bran, corn pectin (L. acidophilus K1, German wheat bran and larchwood arabinogalactan (E/N, PEN or German wheat bran and corn pectin (OXY. Conclusions. This study proved the

  20. Prospective evaluation of trans-fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study

    Limburg, Paul J.; Liu-Mares, Wen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang, Alice H.; Harnack, Lisa; Flood, Andrew P; Sellers, Thomas A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of dietary trans-fatty acids (tFAs) have generated recent public interest, scientific discussion and legislative action. Although most widely recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, associations between tFA intake and incident cancer have also been proposed. With respect to colorectal cancer (CRC), existing observational data remain limited and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of tFA intake and CRC risk, overall and b...

  1. Replacement of Trifluoroacetic Acid with HCl in the Hydrophobic Purification Steps of Pediocin PA-1: a Structural Effect

    Gaussier, Hélène; Morency, Hélène; Lavoie, Marc C; Subirade, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a purification contaminant associated with pediocin PA-1 that interferes with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy structural analysis. As revealed by circular dichroism, its presence affects the structural folding of pediocin. Consequently, we propose a new pediocin PA-1 purification procedure using HCl instead of TFA in all of the hydrophobic steps. This procedural change does not affect the purification yield or the amount of pediocin PA-1 purified. Further...

  2. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  3. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  4. Carboxylic Acid Photochemistry is a Marine Source of Glyoxal and Other Aldehydes

    Chiu, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Tinel, L.; George, C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal is a highly water-soluble precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Over land, glyoxal is known to be produced by the oxidation of volatile organic carbon (VOC) from both anthropogenic and natural sources. However, marine sources are still not well understood. Previous studies above the remote Pacific Ocean have detected typical glyoxal mixing ratios of 30-40 pptv, concentrations too high to be explained with current chemical understanding or atmospheric models. Because the lifetime of glyoxal is very short, the glyoxal found must have originated from, rather than been transported to, the open ocean. Furthermore, eddy covariance measurements indicate that an organic surface microlayer may be producing the glyoxal by as yet unknown processes. Here we present laboratory studies of the formation of glyoxal from carboxylic acids. Nonanoic, octanoic, and heptanoic acids floated on water and subjected to ultraviolet light are converted into their equivalent alkenals. Subsequent ozonolysis of the alkenals leads to the formation of glyoxal. We employ a PTR-MS to detect the alkenals, and a cavity-enhanced DOAS to detect the glyoxal. Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of carboxylic acids and their derivatives in the environment, this mechanism has the potential to be a significant source of glyoxal in the atmosphere.

  5. ASAM LEMAK TRANS DALAM MAKANAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KESEHATAN [Trans Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Effects on Human Health

    Jansen Silalahi 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids are present in natural dietary fat as cis-isomer and, only small amount is in the form of trans-isomer fatty acids (TFA especially in food of ruminant- animal origin. Trans fatty acids are generated in fat during hydrogenation process and by heating treatment at 180 oC or above. Negative effects of TFA are of increasing concern as they are found to have more risk than saturated fatty acids with regard to coronary heard disease incidences. When consumed in large amounts (more than 2 % of total energy TFA increases total cholesterol levels by increasing low density lipoprotein (LDL and decreasing high density lipoprotein (HDL. Therefore the resulting effects may be twice as much as that caused by saturated fatty acids because saturated fatty acids increase LDL without affecting HDL. This article reviews trans fatty acids in foods and their effects on human health.

  6. Amino Acids as a Source of Organic Nitrogen in Antarctic Endolithic Microbial Communities

    McDonald, G. D.; Sun, H. J.

    2002-12-01

    In the Antarctic Dry Valleys, cryptoendolithic microbial communities occur within porous sandstone rocks. Current understanding of the mechanisms of physiological adaptation of these communities to the harsh Antarctic environment is limited, because traditional methods of studying microbial physiology are very difficult to apply to organisms with extremely low levels of metabolic activity. In order to fully understand carbon and nitrogen cycling and nutrient uptake in cryptoendolithic communities, and the metabolic costs that the organisms incur in order to survive, it is necessary to employ molecular geochemical techniques such as amino acid analysis in addition to physiological methods. Low-molecular-weight biomolecules such as amino acids can be used as tracers of carbon and nitrogen uptake and loss by microbial communities living in solid-state matrices such as rock or sediment. We have measured the concentrations and D/L ratios for several amino acids as a function of depth in a large sandstone boulder. Concentrations of both free and bound amino acids decrease by more than two orders of magnitude from the surface to the visible base of the community (approximately 1.2 cm depth), while the D/L ratios of the amino acids increase from near zero to 0.2 or greater over the same depth interval. We interpret these data as an indication that one or more community members are selectively scavenging L-amino acids as the amino acids are transported through the rock by intermittently percolating meltwater. This is consistent with the known preference of lichens for amino acids as nitrogen sources rather than inorganic nitrogen under conditions of nutrient limitation. It is not yet clear whether there is also a contribution to amino acid uptake from heterotropic bacteria associated with the cryptoendolithic community. The increase in D/L ratios with depth observed in the rock is too great to be attributable solely to the natural occurrence of D-amino acids in bacteria

  7. Application of chromatographic techniques in the preparation of phosphoric acid from superphosphate fertilizer as phosphate ions source

    Ion exchange and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods of analysis have been applied for the preparation of phosphoric acid from phosphate fertilizer as a source of phosphate ions. Amberlite IRA-400 (C1) has been used in ion-exchange separation. In HPLC an indirect spectrophotometric method of detection using phthalic acid in the mobile phase has been applied to detect the separated phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid produced has been well characterized and compared with a standard. (author)

  8. Source Tracking and Succession of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria during Fermentation.

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at evaluating raw materials as potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) sources for kimchi fermentation and investigating LAB successions during fermentation. The bacterial abundances and communities of five different sets of raw materials were investigated using plate-counting and pyrosequencing. LAB were found to be highly abundant in all garlic samples, suggesting that garlic may be a major LAB source for kimchi fermentation. LAB were observed in three and two out of five ginger and leek samples, respectively, indicating that they can also be potential important LAB sources. LAB were identified in only one cabbage sample with low abundance, suggesting that cabbage may not be an important LAB source. Bacterial successions during fermentation in the five kimchi samples were investigated by community analysis using pyrosequencing. LAB communities in initial kimchi were similar to the combined LAB communities of individual raw materials, suggesting that kimchi LAB were derived from their raw materials. LAB community analyses showed that species in the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were key players in kimchi fermentation, but their successions during fermentation varied with the species, indicating that members of the key genera may have different acid tolerance or growth competitiveness depending on their respective species. PMID:26133985

  9. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  10. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles.

    Gözde Gürdeniz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of TFA intake on plasma metabolites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, 52 overweight postmenopausal women received either partially hydrogenated soybean oil, providing 15.7 g/day of TFA (trans18:1 or control oil with mainly oleic acid for 16 weeks. Subsequent to the intervention period, the subjects participated in a 12-week dietary weight loss program. Before and after the TFA intervention and after the weight loss programme, volunteers participated in an oral glucose tolerance test. PLSDA revealed elevated lipid profiles with TFA intake. NMR indicated up-regulated LDL cholesterol levels and unsaturation. LC-MS profiles demonstrated elevated levels of specific polyunsaturated (PUFA long-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs and a sphingomyelin (SM which were confirmed with a lipidomics based method. Plasma levels of these markers of TFA intake declined to their low baseline levels after the weight loss program for the TFA group and did not fluctuate for the control group. The marker levels were unaffected by OGTT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that intake of TFA affects phospholipid metabolism. The preferential integration of trans18:1 into the sn-1 position of PCs, all containing PUFA in the sn-2 position, could be explained by a general up-regulation in the formation of long-chain PUFAs after TFA intake and/or by specific mobilisation of these fats into PCs. NMR supported these findings by revealing increased unsaturation of plasma lipids in the TFA group. These specific changes in membrane lipid species may be related to the mechanisms of TFA-induced disease but

  11. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    Sergi Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1, biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  12. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization.

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10-0.12 h(-1)), biomass (0.7-0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14-0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. PMID:26690180

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Sources on the Growth and Docosahexaenoic Acid Accumulation in Crypthecodinium cohnii

    Wang Jufang; Wu Haizhen; Liang Shizhong; Chen Feng

    2002-01-01

    The effect of various nitrogen sources on the growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) yield is determined in Crypthecodinium cohnii ATCC30556. Single nitrogen tryptone and peptone are suitable to growth, the dry weight biomass is up to 2.78 g/L and 2.70g/L respectively on medium containing 0.34 g/L nitrogen. Peptone is a favorable nitrogen source for DHA accumulation, DHA yield increases up to 338.56 mg/L. Using peptone and KNO3 as a multiple nitrogen source, the highest biomass and DHA yield are obtained from media containing 0.34 g/L nitrogen in which the ratio of peptone-N:NO3--N is 1:2,and the biomass and DHA yield are 2.98 g/L(DW) and 527.97mg/L respectively.

  14. Bi(TFA3 and Bi(OTf3 Catalyzed Conversions of Epoxides to Thiiranes with Ammonium Thiocyanate and Thiourea under Non-Aqueous Conditions

    Ahmad R. Khosropour

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Various epoxides are converted to their corresponding thiiranes in excellent yields with ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea under non-aqueous conditions in the presence of catalytic amounts of Bi(TFA3 and Bi(OTf3.

  15. Bi(TFA)3 and Bi(OTf)3 Catalyzed Conversions of Epoxides to Thiiranes with Ammonium Thiocyanate and Thiourea under Non-Aqueous Conditions

    Khosropour, Ahmad R.; Iraj Mohammadpoor-Baltork

    2001-01-01

    Various epoxides are converted to their corresponding thiiranes in excellent yields with ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea under non-aqueous conditions in the presence of catalytic amounts of Bi(TFA)3 and Bi(OTf)3.

  16. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis. PMID:26970291

  17. Sulphation by cultured cells. Cysteine, cysteinesulphinic acid and sulphite as sources for proteoglycan sulphate.

    Humphries, D E; Silbert, C K; Silbert, J E

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, bovine aortic endothelial cells, and IMR-90 human embryonic lung fibroblasts were tested to determine their ability to use cysteine or cysteine metabolites as a source of sulphate (SO4). Cells were incubated in SO4-depleted medium containing [3H]glucosamine plus 0.2 mM-cystine, 0.3 mM-cysteinesulphinic acid or 0.3 mM-sulphite (SO3). The [3H]chondroitin sulphate produced by the different cells was found to vary considerably in degree of sulphation under these conditions. One line of smooth-muscle cells utilized cysteine effectively as a SO4 source and thus produced chondroitin sulphate which was highly sulphated. IMR-90 fibroblasts produced partly sulphated chondroitin sulphate under these conditions, while another smooth-muscle cell line could not utilize cysteine, but could utilize cysteinesulphinic acid as a partial SO4 source. In contrast with the above cells, endothelial cells could not use cysteine or cysteinesulphinic acid as a source of SO4 and produced chondroitin with almost no SO4. All of the cells were able to utilize SO3. Incubation of the cells in the SO4-depleted medium containing [35S]cysteine confirmed that only the first line of smooth-muscle cells could convert significant amounts of [35S]cysteine to 35SO4. Furthermore, the addition of 0.4 mM inorganic SO4 did not inhibit the production of SO4 from cysteine by these cells. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3138971

  18. Assessment of trans-fatty acids intake via bakery food among above three-year-old population in Beijing and Guangzhou city%北京及广州3岁以上居民焙烤食品中反式脂肪酸摄入量评估

    李建文; 刘爱东; 张磊; 刘兆平; 李宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解我国焙烤食品消费量及其中反式脂肪酸(TFA)含量,评估北京及广州两大城市3岁及以上人群焙烤食品中 TFA 的摄入量及其供能。方法2011年在中国5个城市采集焙烤食品样品,采用国家标准气相色谱法测定 TFA 含量;以 t-检验方法分析2007年前后各类焙烤食品中 TFA 含量差异,用简单分布模型(确定性评估)进行 TFA 摄入评估,计算每个个体每日 TFA 的摄入水平,包括不同人群(全人群及各年龄组)TFA 摄入量(每天摄入 TFA 的克数),以及 TFA 供能占膳食摄入总能量的百分比。结果各类焙烤食品中 TFA 平均含量在每100 g 食物0.01~0.83 g 范围内。饼干、面包和糕点中 TFA 含量≤0.3 g /100 g的样品比例分别为77.1%,71.8%和67.0%。每100 g 食物平均 TFA 含量较高的食品为威化饼干、夹心饼干,泡芙、蛋糕、牛角/羊角面包,为0.65~0.83 g。夹心饼干和派中 TFA 含量,2007年后比2007年前有显著下降(P<0.01)。北京与广州人群通过焙烤食品摄入的 TFA 为0.049 g·d -1,供能比为0.027%,远低于“小于1%”的 WHO 建议值。在所有年龄组中,3~6岁年龄组的 TFA 摄入量最高,供能比为0.041%。结论我国焙烤食品大部分 TFA 含量较低,北京及广州全人群焙烤食品 TFA 引发的健康风险极低。但部分焙烤食品中 TFA 含量较高,建议进一步降低焙烤食品中 TFA 含量。%OBJECTIVE To investigate trans-fatty acids (TFA)contents in bakery food and assess TFA intake via bakery food and its energy contribution in Beijing and Guangzhou city.METHODS Bak-ery food sa mples were collected in 201 1 ,standard GC-method were used to determine TFA content,da-ta of TFA content were analyzed by t-test to evaluate for statistically significant differences.Si mple distri-bution model(determinative risk assess ment)of TFA intake was used to

  19. A review of sources, multimedia distribution and health risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in China.

    Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been recognized as emerging pollutants because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, biota and humans. In order to investigate their sources, fate and environmental effects, a great number of surveys have been carried out over the past several years. In the present review, we summarized the status of sources and emission, concentration, distribution and risks of PFAAs in China. Concentrations of PFAAs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in various environmental media including water, sediment, soil, rain, snow and organisms, as well as human tissues are summarized based on the available data. Concentrations of PFAAs in aquatic systems are higher in relatively more industrialized and urbanized areas than those from the less populated and remote regions in China, indicating that their emission and distribution are closely related to regional urbanization and industrialization. PFAAs and related products have been widely used over the past several decades, which have brought about high concentrations detected in environmental matrixes, biota and even local residents. Ecological risk assessment of PFAAs is still less developed in China. Most existing studies compared concentrations of PFAAs to guideline values derived for single species to evaluate the risk. In order to reveal the transport, partitioning and degradation of PFAAs in the environment, further studies on their behavior, fate, bioaccumulation and adverse effects in different trophic levels should be conducted. PMID:25262946

  20. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.;

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...... countries. TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland...... and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty...

  1. MO observation on YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors obtained by TFA-MOD technique

    We have observed the flux penetration into a high-T c superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) tape by a magneto-optical (MO) imaging technique in order to feed back to the R and D of processing. The MO images of YBCO coated conductor prepared by metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) showed many weak links such as periodic defect and other serious defects, which were corresponding to the dispersion of critical current along to length direction. Since the combination study of MO imaging with TEM observation revealed the reason of such defects, we could feed back to several processes. The new TFA-MOD tapes prepared by using an advanced process after using many innovations showed a homogeneous flux penetration observed by MO imaging, and then it is confirmed that the process went to higher stage rather than previous one

  2. Microstructural observation of YBa2Cu3O7-X thin films prepared by TFA-MOD method

    We have investigated an epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-X (YBCO) films on (0 0 1) SrTiO3 substrates prepared by metal organic deposition (MOD) method using trifluoroacetate (TFA) solution. The effects of heating rate on the growth mechanism of TFA-MOD YBCO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Partially transformed films were prepared by two different heating rates, 18 and 625 deg. C/min. The film thickness of both specimens decreased with annealing time and the films prepared by rapid heating had unidentified phase except YBCO phase. On the contrary, the films prepared by slow heating had the better texture than those prepared by rapid heating

  3. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  4. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N.; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty ...

  5. Crystal growth of YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD method

    The crystal growth mechanism of TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3Oy has been investigated to understand the process for higher production rates of the conversion process. YBCO films were prepared by TFA-MOD on CeO2/Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrates. The growth rates of YBCO derived from Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3 starting solutions were investigated by XRD and TEM analyses. YBCO growth proceeds in two steps of the epitaxial one from the substrate and solid state reaction. The overall growth rate estimated from the residual amounts of BaF2 with time measured by XRD is proportional to a square root of P(H2O). The trend was independent of the composition of starting solutions, however, the growth rate obtained from the 1:1.5:3 starting solutions was high as twice as that of 1:2:3, which could not be explained by the composition of BaF2 included in the precursor films. On the other hand, the growth rate measured from the thickness of the YBCO quenched film at the same process time showed no difference between the samples of 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3. The epitaxial growth rate of 1:1.5:3 was also the same as the overall growth rate of that, which means there was no solid state reaction to form YBCO after the epitaxial growth. The YBCO growth mechanism was found to be as follows; YBCO crystals nucleate at the surface of the substrate and epitaxially grow into the precursor by layer-by-layer by a manner with trapping unreacted particles. The amounts of YBCO and the unreacted particles trapped in the YBCO film are independent of the composition of the starting solution in this step. Unreacted particles react with each other to form YBCO and pores by solid state reaction as long as there is BaF2 left in the film. The Ba-poor starting solution gives little BaF2 left in the film and so the solid state reaction is completed within a short time, resulting in the fast overall growth rate

  6. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (Ic) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on HastelloyTM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd2Zr2O7 and CeO2. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (Ic), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  7. R and D for long tapes with high Ic by advanced TFA-MOD process

    Recent progress in the research and development of the TFA-MOD processing for the coated conductors was reviewed. For the higher Ic performance, crack generation in the thick films was a problem, which limits increasing Ic values. It was found that both lower heating rate and low PH2O in the crystallization step are effective to improve the critical thickness for obtaining crack-free films. However, the high PH2O is preferable for a high production rate and high Jc performance. Then, the new heat treatment profile, which could suppress crack formation even in thick films under the high PH2O, was developed. Consequently, the high Ic value of 470A at 77K was realized in the film with 3μm in thick. Concerning the long-tape processing, the key factors for high Ic performance by TFA-MOD process were investigated. The highly textured substrate for high crystallinity of the YBCO layer, the thick film with maintaining reasonable high Jc and full conversion reaction to form the YBCO layer are important to obtain high superconducting performance in long tapes. At present, a 25m long tape with a reasonable high Ic value of 100A, and a high Ic value of 250A in a 4m long tape were achieved. In order to realize a high production rate, the processes for both calcination and crystallization steps have to be developed. In the calcination step, the multi-turning continuous system was developed to maintain an effective travelling rate even in the multi-coating method. On the other hand, in the crystallization step, it was confirmed that optimization of the processing parameters such as a high water vapour partial pressure, a low total pressure, and a high gas flow rate could make the YBCO growth rate increase. The combination effect of these parameters is experimentally confirmed and the 5 times higher production rate was achieved in the crystallization step. Additionally, the equipment design of the multi-turning system with a new gas flow concept, which is a vertical gas flow

  8. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyamaday@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.j [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Tachikawa, K. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [SWCC Showa Cable System Co., LTD, 4-1-1 Minami-Hashimoto, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1133 (Japan); Tamura, H.; Mito, T. [NIFS National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I{sub c}) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 {mu}m in overall thickness. The 1.5 {mu}m thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy{sup TM} C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CeO{sub 2}. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 {mu}V at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I{sub c}), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  9. Crystal growth of YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD method

    Yoshizumi, M. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 10-13, Shinonome 1-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)], E-mail: myoshizumi@istec.or.jp; Nakanishi, T.; Matsuda, J.; Nakaoka, K.; Sutoh, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 10-13, Shinonome 1-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    The crystal growth mechanism of TFA (trifluoroacetates)-MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} has been investigated to understand the process for higher production rates of the conversion process. YBCO films were prepared by TFA-MOD on CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Hastelloy C276 substrates. The growth rates of YBCO derived from Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3 starting solutions were investigated by XRD and TEM analyses. YBCO growth proceeds in two steps of the epitaxial one from the substrate and solid state reaction. The overall growth rate estimated from the residual amounts of BaF{sub 2} with time measured by XRD is proportional to a square root of P(H{sub 2}O). The trend was independent of the composition of starting solutions, however, the growth rate obtained from the 1:1.5:3 starting solutions was high as twice as that of 1:2:3, which could not be explained by the composition of BaF{sub 2} included in the precursor films. On the other hand, the growth rate measured from the thickness of the YBCO quenched film at the same process time showed no difference between the samples of 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3. The epitaxial growth rate of 1:1.5:3 was also the same as the overall growth rate of that, which means there was no solid state reaction to form YBCO after the epitaxial growth. The YBCO growth mechanism was found to be as follows; YBCO crystals nucleate at the surface of the substrate and epitaxially grow into the precursor by layer-by-layer by a manner with trapping unreacted particles. The amounts of YBCO and the unreacted particles trapped in the YBCO film are independent of the composition of the starting solution in this step. Unreacted particles react with each other to form YBCO and pores by solid state reaction as long as there is BaF{sub 2} left in the film. The Ba-poor starting solution gives little BaF{sub 2} left in the film and so the solid state reaction is completed within a short time, resulting in the fast overall

  10. Quantum localization, dephasing and vibrational energy flow in a trans-formanilide (TFA)-H2O complex

    Graphical abstract: Recent stimulated emission pumping-population transfer spectroscopic studies are providing measurements of energy barriers to hydrogen bond rearrangements involving biological molecules and water. To determine the kinetics of hydrogen bond rearrangements we need in addition information about energy flow in the biomolecule-water complex. We address the problem of quantum energy flow in one such complex system using a random matrix approach. We report here calculations of energy flow in the peptide trans-formanilide (TFA) that account for the hydrogen bonding of a water molecule to one of two sites on the peptide. Coupling to the water is found to enhance energy flow in the peptide. At energies near the hydrogen bond rearrangement barrier the rate of energy flow in TFA is nevertheless sufficiently sluggish to have a significant impact on the kinetics of water shuttling between hydrogen-bonding sites. - Abstract: Recent stimulated emission pumping-population transfer spectroscopic studies are providing measurements of energy barriers to hydrogen bond rearrangements involving biological molecules and water. To determine the kinetics of hydrogen bond rearrangements we need in addition information about energy flow in the biomolecule-water complex. We address the problem of quantum energy flow in one such complex system using a random matrix approach. We report here calculations of energy flow in the peptide trans-formanilide (TFA) that account for the hydrogen bonding of a water molecule to one of two sites on the peptide. Coupling to the water is found to enhance energy flow in the peptide. At energies near the hydrogen bond rearrangement barrier the rate of energy flow in TFA is nevertheless sufficiently sluggish to have a significant impact on the kinetics of water shuttling between hydrogen-bonding sites.