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Sample records for acids syn anti-1-amino-3-2-iodoethenyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic

  1. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    Draye, Micheline [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement (EA1651), Universite de Savoie-Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)], E-mail: micheline.draye@univ-savoie.fr; Favre-Reguillon, Alain [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique (UMR7084), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue conte, 75003 Paris (France); Faure, Rene [Laboratoire des sciences analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lemaire, Marc [Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5246, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires, Universite Lyon 1 CPE, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne 69622 (France)

    2008-05-15

    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a {sup 137}Cs {gamma} source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination.

  2. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a 137Cs γ source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination

  3. Polysialic acid on SynCAM 1 in NG2 cells and on neuropilin-2 in microglia is confined to intracellular pools that are rapidly depleted upon stimulation.

    Werneburg, Sebastian; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Stangel, Martin; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2015-07-01

    NG2 cells comprise a heterogeneous precursor population but molecular markers distinguishing between the assumed NG2 cell subpopulations are lacking. Previously, we described that a subfraction of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 is modified with the glycan polysialic acid (polySia) in NG2 cells. As for its major carrier, the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, polySia attenuates SynCAM 1 adhesion. Functions, as well as cellular and subcellular distribution of polySia-SynCAM 1 are elusive. Using murine glial cultures we now demonstrate that polySia-SynCAM 1 is confined to the Golgi compartment of a subset of NG2 cells and transiently recruited to the cell surface in response to depolarization. NG2 cells with Golgi-confined polySia were NCAM-negative, but positive for markers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Consistent with previous data on polySia-SynCAM 1, polySia in Ncam(-/-) NG2 cells was exclusively attached to N-glycans and synthesized by ST8SIA2, one out of two mammalian polysialyltransferases. Unexpectedly, Golgi-confined polySia was also detected in Ncam(-/-) microglia, but this fraction resided on O-glycans and was produced by the second polysialyltransferase, ST8SIA4, indicating the presence of yet another polySia carrier in microglia. Searching for this carrier, we identified polysialylated neuropilin-2, so far only known from dendritic cells and exudate macrophages. Microglia activation by LPS, but not interleukin-4, caused a transient translocation of Golgi-localized polySia to the cell surface, resulting in complete depletion. Finally, NO-production of LPS-stimulated microglia was attenuated by addition of polySia suggesting that the observed loss of polySia-neuropilin-2 is involved in negative feedback regulation of pro-inflammatory microglia polarization. PMID:25752299

  4. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.

    Chih-Chieh Wang

    Full Text Available Disrupting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the developing brain has been causally linked with intellectual disability (ID and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Excitatory synapse strength is regulated in the central nervous system by controlling the number of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs. De novo genetic mutations of the synaptic GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP are associated with ID and ASD. SynGAP is enriched at excitatory synapses and genetic suppression of SynGAP increases excitatory synaptic strength. However, exactly how SynGAP acts to maintain synaptic AMPAR content is unclear. We show here that SynGAP limits excitatory synaptic strength, in part, by suppressing protein synthesis in cortical neurons. The data presented here from in vitro, rat and mouse cortical networks, demonstrate that regulation of translation by SynGAP involves ERK, mTOR, and the small GTP-binding protein Rheb. Furthermore, these data show that GluN2B-containing NMDARs and the cognitive kinase CaMKII act upstream of SynGAP and that this signaling cascade is required for proper translation-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity of excitatory synapses in developing cortical networks.

  5. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  6. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  7. An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalability needed to handle an increase in the attack traffic. We have designed a new defense mechanism to detect the SYN flood attacks. First, we introduce a mechanism for detecting SYN flood traffic more accurately by taking into consideration the time variation of arrival traffic. We investigate the statistics regarding the arrival rates of both normal TCP SYN packets and SYN flood attack packets. We then describe a new detection mechanism based on these statistics. Through the trace driven approach defense nodes which recei...

  8. Hd86, the Bm86 tick protein ortholog in Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum): expression in Pichia pastoris and analysis of nucleotides and amino acids sequences variations prior to vaccination trials.

    Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Nijhof, Ard Menzo; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2012-02-10

    The genus Hyalomma includes the most frequent tick species infesting livestock in North Africa, one of these species, Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum) is particularly important due to its role in the transmission of tropical theileriosis to cattle (Theileria annulata infection). We have cloned and characterized the orthologs of the Bm86 gene from H. scupense strains collected over Tunisia in 2006 and 2009. The recombinant protein rHd86 was expressed in Pichia pastoris for vaccination purpose using a transcript from the 2006 strain. The rHd86 was then purified from the yeast culture supernatant by a filtration and a size exclusion process. It was recognized by specific anti-Bm86 antisera. An important extent of inter-specific diversity ranging from 35 to 40% was recorded between Hd86 and Bm86/Bm95 proteins whilst a very limited level of intra-specific diversity (1.7%) occurred between the Hd86 vaccine candidate protein and its homologues from H. scupense strains collected in 2009. These results emphasise the need for assessing the efficacy against H. scupense and others important cattle Hyalomma species in Tunisia of our Hd86 vaccine candidate alongside with a Bm86 vaccine. PMID:21871736

  9. CNoA: Challenging Number Approach for uncovering TCP SYN flooding using SYN spoofing attack

    L.Kavisankar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenging number is used for the detection of Spoofing attack. The IP Spoofing is considered to beone of the potentially brutal attack which acts as a tool for the DDoS attack which is considered to be amajor threat among security problems in today’s internet. These kinds of attack are extremely severe.They bring down business of company drastically. DDoS attack can easily exhaust the computing andcommunication resources of its victim within a short period of time. There are attacks exploiting somevulnerability or implementation bug in the software implementation of a service to bring that down andsome attacks will use all the available resources at the target machine. This deals on attacks thatconsume all the bandwidth available to the victim machine. While concentrating on the bandwidth attackthe TCP SYN flood is the more prominent attack. TCP/IP protocol suite is the most widely used protocolsuite for data communication. The TCP SYN flood works by exhausting the TCP connection queue of thehost and thus denying legitimate connection request. There are various methods used to detect andprevent this attack, one of which is to block the packet based on SYN flag count from the same IP address.This kind of prevention methods becomes unsuitable when the attackers use the Spoofed IP address. TheSYN spoofing becomes a major tool the TCP SYN flooding. For the prevention of this kind of attacks, theTCP specific probing is used in the proposed scheme where the client is requested challenging numberwhile sending the ACK in the three way hand shake. This is very useful to find the Spoofed IPPackets/TCP SYN flood and preventing them.

  10. Analysis of the SYN Flood DoS Attack

    Mitko Bogdanoski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes systems vulnerability targeted by TCP (Transmission Control Protocol segments when SYN flag is ON, which gives space for a DoS (Denial of Service attack called SYN flooding attack or more often referred as a SYN flood attack. The effects of this type of attack are analyzed and presented in OPNET simulation environment. Furthermore, the paper presents two anomaly detection algorithms as an effective mechanism against this type of attack. Finally, practical approaches against SYN flood attack for Linux and Windows environment which are followed by are shown.

  11. Dendritic Cells for SYN Scan Detection

    Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems have previously been applied to the problem of intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on the function of Dendritic Cells (DCs). DCs are antigen presenting cells and key to activation of the human immune system, behaviour which has been abstracted to form the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA). In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion, asynchronously correlating the the fused data signals with a secondary data stream. Aggregate output of a population of cells, is analysed and forms the basis of an anomaly detection system. In this paper the DCA is applied to the detection of outgoing port scans using TCP SYN packets. Results show that detection can be achieved with the DCA, yet some false positives can be encountered when simultaneously scanning and using other network services. Suggestions are made for using adaptive signals to alleviate this uncovered problem.

  12. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  13. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  14. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  15. Overview of SYN flood attack detection techniques%SYN flood攻击检测技术综述

    石利平

    2011-01-01

    分析SYN flood attack攻击原理,并在此基础上研究几种典型的SYN flood攻击检测方法。对主要技术进行分析和比较,这些技术均有各自的优点和局限性,多种方法有机融合互补将成为SYN flood攻击检测研究的重点。%This paper analyses the principle of SYN flood attack,and some typical detecting methods are researched based on it.This paper summarizes and analyzes each of these schemes.These schemes have their own advantages and limitations,so organically combining s

  16. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  17. RecA-DNA filament topology: the overlooked alternative of an unconventional syn-syn duplex intermediate

    Egel, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The helical filaments of RecA protein mediate strand exchange for homologous recombination, but the paths of the interacting DNAs have yet to be determined. Although this interaction is commonly limited to three strands, it is reasoned here that the intrinsic symmetry relationships of quadruplex...... topology are superior in explaining a range of observations. In particular, this topology suggests the potential of post-exchange base pairing in the unorthodox configuration of syn-syn glycosidic bonds between the nucleotide bases and the pentose rings in the sugar-phosphate backbone, which would...

  18. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W;

    2002-01-01

    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5...

  19. Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM) in Variable Speed Drives (VSD) Applications

    Rajabi Moghaddam, Reza

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is comprehensively dedicated to the theoretical and experimental reevaluation of the Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM). A simple approach to derive the SynRM main characteristics and behavior is followed. An introduction to an evaluation of the different control strategies in is given. Finding suitable rotor geometry for the SynRM has been a subject for major investigation since 1923. This thesis will investigate the interior barrier rotor structure of the SynRM using the Fin...

  20. Porcine synapsin 1: SYN1 gene analysis and functional characterization of the promoter

    Hedegaard, Claus; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper; Madsen, Lone Bruhn;

    2013-01-01

    elements responsible for neuron-specific expression. Expression analysis of SYN1 demonstrated presence of transcript during embryonic development. Analysis of GFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos suggests that the pig SYN1 promoter directs expression in neuronal cells. Thus, the SYN1 promoter is...... a good candidate for use in the generation of pig models of human neurodegenerative disorders...

  1. Dealing with orphans: Catalogue synchronisation with SynCat

    Millar, A Paul [Deutsches Elektronen-Sychrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Donno, Flavia; Lo Presti, Giuseppe [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Jensen, Jens; De Witt, Shaun, E-mail: paul.millar@desy.d [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-01

    In the gLite grid model a site will typically have a Storage Element (SE) that has no direct mechanism for updating any central or experiment-specific catalogues. This loose coupling was a deliberate decision that simplifies SE design; however, a consequence of this is that the catalogues may provide an incorrect view of what is stored on a SE. In this paper, we present SynCat: a mechanism to allow catalogues to re-synchronise with SEs. The paper describes how catalogues can be sure, within certain tolerance, that files believed to be stored at various SEs are really stored there. SynCat also allows catalogues to be aware of transitory file metadata (such as whether a file normally stored on tape is currently available from disk) with low latency.

  2. SYN Packet Pacifier: a host-based anti-DoS-attack System

    Izumi, Yutaka; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Saito, Shoichi; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi

    Internet service provided by TCP connections are often susceptible to Denial of Service attack, especially SYN Flood from external hosts even internal on the network. In our research, we materialise a stateless session establishment mechanism at SYN packet in TCP 3Way Hand Shake then avoid consuming in that CPU, memory and others. We suggest SPP (SYN Packet Pacifier) in this paper. We arranged SPP within FreeBSD Kernel as the system based on above principles. SPP is a secure defense system and an effective DoS counter measure rather than the former methods such as SYN Cache and SYN Cookie.

  3. Chromosome Polymorphisms among Strains of Hansenula polymorpha (syn. Pichia angusta)

    Marri, Laura; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Satta, Giuseppe

    1993-01-01

    Contour-clamped homogeneous electrophoresis and an embedded-agarose method of sample preparation were combined to carry out an analysis of the chromosome sets of nine strains of Hansenula polymorpha (syn. Pichia angusta). Chromosomal DNA molecules could be separated into a series of bands ranging, approximately, from 650 up to 2,200 kb in size. Polymorphism of the electrophoretic pattern was demonstrated among the strains investigated in this study. Cross-hybridization between H. polymorpha a...

  4. Review of syn-flooding attack detection mechanism

    Manna, Mehdi Ebady

    2012-01-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) is a security threat which compromises the confidentiality of information stored in Local Area Networks (LANs) due to unauthorized access by spoofed IP addresses. SYN Flooding is a type of DoS which is harmful to network as the flooding of packets may delay other users from accessing the server and in severe cases, the server may need to be shut down, wasting valuable resources, especially in critical real-time services such as in e-commerce and the medical field. The objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the art of detection mechanisms for SYN flooding. The detection schemes for SYN Flooding attacks have been classified broadly into three categories - detection schemes based on the router data structure, detection schemes based on statistical analysis of the packet flow and detection schemes based on artificial intelligence. The advantages and disadvantages for various detection schemes under each category have been critically examined. The performance measures of the cate...

  5. Review Of Syn-Flooding Attack Detection Mechanism

    Mehdi Ebady Manna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Denial of Service (DoS is a security threat which compromises the confidentiality of information stored in Local Area Networks (LANs due to unauthorized access by spoofed IP addresses. SYN Flooding is a type of DoS which is harmful to network as the flooding of packets may delay other users from accessing the server and in severe cases, the server may need to be shut down, wasting valuable resources, especially in critical real-time services such as in e-commerce and the medical field. The objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the art of detection mechanisms for SYN flooding. The detection schemes for SYN Flooding attacks have been classified broadly into three categories – detection schemes based on the router data structure, detection schemes based on statistical analysis of the packet flow and detection schemes based on artificial intelligence. The advantages and disadvantages for various detection schemes under each category have been critically examined. The performance measures of the categories have also been compared.

  6. Effekten af udvidet periodisk syn på person- og varebiler

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Pilegaard, Ninette

    Dette notat har til formål at gennemføre en beregning af costs og benefits af udvidet periodisk syn af person- og varebiler i Danmark, under forudsætning af der gennemføres ét syn af per-son- og varebiler efter fire år, derefter ét syn efter to år og derefter én gang årligt (4,2,1,1…), som...

  7. Combination Reduction: A SYN-Sequence Selection Strategy for Reachability Testing of Concurrent Programs

    LU Chao; LU Yansheng

    2007-01-01

    Reachability testing is an approach to testing concurrent programs, which can systematically exercise every partially ordered SYN-sequence without constructing the static model. In fact, not all the SYN-sequences need to be tested. This paper proposed a SYN-sequence selection strategy for reachability testing,which can reduce the number of SYN-sequences generated without decreasing the effectiveness of detecting programs' errors. We described a simple algorithm to implement the strategy, and then discussed several optimizations to the algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in a case study to verify the efficacy of the strategy.

  8. Technical Note: n-Alkane lipid biomarkers in loess: post-sedimentary or syn-sedimentary?

    D. Faust

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing discussion whether n-alkane biomarkers – and organic matter (OM from loess in general – reflect a syn-sedimentary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate signal or whether they are significantly a post-sedimentary feature contaminated by root-derived OM. We present first radiocarbon data for the n-alkane fraction of lipid extracts and for the first time luminescence ages for the Middle to Late Weichselian loess-paleosol sequence of Gleina in Saxony, Germany. Comparison of these biomarker ages with sedimentation ages as assessed by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating shows that one n-alkane sample features a syn-sedimentary age (14C: 29.2 ± 1.4 kyr cal BP versus OSL: 27.3 ± 3.0 kyr. By contrast, the 14C ages derived from the other n-alkane samples are clearly younger (20.3 ± 0.7 kyr cal BP, 22.1 ± 0.7 kyr cal BP and 29.8 ± 1.4 kyr cal BP than the corresponding OSL ages (26.6 ± 3.1 kyr, 32.0 ± 3.5 kyr and 45.6 ± 5.3 kyr. This finding suggests that a post-sedimentary n-alkane contamination presumably by roots has occurred. In order to estimate the post-sedimentary n-alkane contamination more quantitatively, we applied a 14C mass balance calculation based on the measured pMC (percent modern carbon values, the calculated syn-sedimentary pMC values and pMC values suspected to reflect likely time points of post-sedimentary contamination (current, modern, 3 kyr, 6 kyr and 9 kyr. Accordingly, current and modern root-contamination would account for up to 7%, a 3 kyr old root-contamination for up to 10%, and an Early and Middle Holocene root-contamination for up to 20% of the total sedimentary n-alkane pool. We acknowledge and encourage that these first radiocarbon results need further confirmation both from other loess-paleosol sequences and for different biomarkers, e.g. carboxylic acids or alcohols as further lipid biomarkers.

  9. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    R. Y. Raskar; A. G. Gaikwad

    2014-01-01

    The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper...

  10. Structural Design of SynRM Rotor, and the Effect on Power Factor

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, structural designs for multiple synchoronous reluctance machine (SynRM) rotor configurations are presented. The rotor flux bridges are increased in thickness until mechanical integrity is achieved, and then the performance of the resulting SynRM is observed. After performing this a...

  11. Age-related decreases in SYN levels associated with increases in MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP levels in the rhesus macaque prefrontal cortex and hippocampus

    Haley, Gwendolen E.; Kohama, Steven G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.; Raber, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Loss of synaptic integrity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play an integral role in age-related cognitive decline. Previously, we showed age-related increases in the dendritic marker microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) in mice. Similarly, apolipoprotein E (apoE), involved in lipid transport and metabolism, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a glia specific marker, increase with age in rodents. In this study, we asses...

  12. Direct carbon-carbon bond formation via reductive soft enolization: a syn-selective Mannich addition of α-iodo thioesters.

    Truong, Ngoc; Sauer, Scott J; Seraphin-Hatcher, Cyndie; Coltart, Don M

    2016-08-16

    The β-amino carboxylic acid moiety is a key feature of numerous important biologically active compounds. We describe a syn-selective direct Mannich addition reaction that uses α-iodo thioesters and sulfonyl imines and produces β-amino thioesters. Enolate formation is achieved by reductive soft enolization. The products of the reaction provide straightforward access to biologically important β-lactams through a variety of known reactions. PMID:27492274

  13. Epileptogenic Q555X SYN1 mutant triggers imbalances in release dynamics and short-term plasticity

    Lignani, Gabriele; Raimondi, Andrea; Ferrea, Enrico; Rocchi, Anna; Paonessa, Francesco; Cesca, Fabrizia; Orlando, Marta; Tkatch, Tatiana; Valtorta, Flavia; Cossette, Patrick; Baldelli, Pietro; BENFENATI Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Synapsin I (SynI) is a synaptic vesicle (SV) phosphoprotein playing multiple roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity by differentially affecting crucial steps of SV trafficking in excitatory and inhibitory synapses. SynI knockout (KO) mice are epileptic, and nonsense and missense mutations in the human SYN1 gene have a causal role in idiopathic epilepsy and autism. To get insights into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis linked to SYN1 mutations, we analyzed the effects of the recently id...

  14. SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth.

    Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amélie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This 'synaptic autism pathway' notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2  knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2  as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174

  15. SynFind: Compiling Syntenic Regions across Any Set of Genomes on Demand.

    Tang, Haibao; Bomhoff, Matthew D; Briones, Evan; Zhang, Liangsheng; Schnable, James C; Lyons, Eric

    2015-12-01

    The identification of conserved syntenic regions enables discovery of predicted locations for orthologous and homeologous genes, even when no such gene is present. This capability means that synteny-based methods are far more effective than sequence similarity-based methods in identifying true-negatives, a necessity for studying gene loss and gene transposition. However, the identification of syntenic regions requires complex analyses which must be repeated for pairwise comparisons between any two species. Therefore, as the number of published genomes increases, there is a growing demand for scalable, simple-to-use applications to perform comparative genomic analyses that cater to both gene family studies and genome-scale studies. We implemented SynFind, a web-based tool that addresses this need. Given one query genome, SynFind is capable of identifying conserved syntenic regions in any set of target genomes. SynFind is capable of reporting per-gene information, useful for researchers studying specific gene families, as well as genome-wide data sets of syntenic gene and predicted gene locations, critical for researchers focused on large-scale genomic analyses. Inference of syntenic homologs provides the basis for correlation of functional changes around genes of interests between related organisms. Deployed on the CoGe online platform, SynFind is connected to the genomic data from over 15,000 organisms from all domains of life as well as supporting multiple releases of the same organism. SynFind makes use of a powerful job execution framework that promises scalability and reproducibility. SynFind can be accessed at http://genomevolution.org/CoGe/SynFind.pl. A video tutorial of SynFind using Phytophthrora as an example is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Agczny9Nyc. PMID:26560340

  16. SynDB: a Synapse protein DataBase based on synapse ontology.

    Zhang, Wuxue; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Chen; Xiong, Wei; Olyarchuk, John G; Walker, Michael; Xu, Weifeng; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhou, Zhuan; Wei, Liping

    2007-01-01

    A synapse is the junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell or gland cell. The functions and building molecules of the synapse are essential to almost all neurobiological processes. To describe synaptic structures and functions, we have developed Synapse Ontology (SynO), a hierarchical representation that includes 177 terms with hundreds of synonyms and branches up to eight levels deep. associated 125 additional protein keywords and 109 InterPro domains with these SynO terms. Using a combination of automated keyword searches, domain searches and manual curation, we collected 14,000 non-redundant synapse-related proteins, including 3000 in human. We extensively annotated the proteins with information about sequence, structure, function, expression, pathways, interactions and disease associations and with hyperlinks to external databases. The data are stored and presented in the Synapse protein DataBase (SynDB, http://syndb.cbi.pku.edu.cn). SynDB can be interactively browsed by SynO, Gene Ontology (GO), domain families, species, chromosomal locations or Tribe-MCL clusters. It can also be searched by text (including Boolean operators) or by sequence similarity. SynDB is the most comprehensive database to date for synaptic proteins. PMID:17098931

  17. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    R.Y. Raskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15

  18. Effect of acidic pH on the stability of α-synuclein dimers.

    Lv, Zhengjian; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Zhang, Yuliang; Ysselstein, Daniel; Rochet, Jean Christophe; Blanchard, Scott C; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2016-10-01

    Environmental factors, such as acidic pH, facilitate the assembly of α-synuclein (α-Syn) in aggregates, but the impact of pH on the very first step of α-Syn aggregation remains elusive. Recently, we developed a single-molecule approach that enabled us to measure directly the stability of α-Syn dimers. Unlabeled α-Syn monomers were immobilized on a substrate, and fluorophore-labeled monomers were added to the solution to allow them to form dimers with immobilized α-Syn monomers. The dimer lifetimes were measured directly from the fluorescence bursts on the time trajectories. Herein, we applied the single-molecule tethered approach for probing of intermolecular interaction to characterize the effect of acidic pH on the lifetimes of α-Syn dimers. The experiments were performed at pH 5 and 7 for wild-type α-Syn and for two mutants containing familial type mutations E46K and A53T. We demonstrate that a decrease of pH resulted in more than threefold increase in the α-Syn dimers lifetimes with some variability between the α-Syn species. We hypothesize that the stabilization effect is explained by neutralization of residues 96-140 of α-Syn and this electrostatic effect facilitates the association of the two monomers. Given that dimerization is the first step of α-Syn aggregation, we posit that the electrostatic effect thereby contributes to accelerating α-Syn aggregation at acidic pH. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 715-724, 2016. PMID:27177831

  19. Astrocyte-Specific Disruption of SynCAM1 Signaling Results in ADHD-Like Behavioral Manifestations

    Sandau, Ursula S.; Alderman, Zefora; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Raber, Jacob; Corfas, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes...

  20. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    Adams, C. H.

    1976-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.

  1. A Study and Detection of TCP SYN Flood Attacks with IP spoofing and its Mitigations

    Deepak Singh Rana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooding attacks are major threats on TCP/IP protocol suite these days; Maximum attacks are launched through TCP and exploit the resources and bandwidth of the machine. Flooding attacks are DDOS (Distributed denial of service attacks and utilize the weakness of the network protocols. SYN flood exploits the 3-way handshaking of the TCP by sending many SYN request with IP spoofing technique to victim host and exhaust the backlog queue resource of the TCP and deny legitimate user to connect. Capturing the packet flow is very important to detecting the DOS attack. This paper present how the TCP SYN flood takes place and show the number of packets received by the victim server under the attack.

  2. BrisSynBio: a BBSRC/EPSRC-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre

    Sedgley, Kathleen R.; Race, Paul R.; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-01-01

    BrisSynBio is the Bristol-based Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. It is one of six such Centres in the U.K. BrisSynBio's emphasis is on rational and predictive bimolecular modelling, design and engineering in the context of synthetic biology. It trains the next generation of synthetic biologists in these approaches, to facilitate translation of fundamental synthetic biology research to industry and the clinic, and to do this within an innovative and responsible research framework. PMID:27284028

  3. Die Einheit des Bewusstseins und das Phänomen der Synästhesie

    Mroczko-Wasowicz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Synästhetiker schmecken Berührungen, sehen Farben und Formen, wenn sie Musik hören oder einen Duft riechen. Es wurden auch so außergewöhnliche Formen wie Wochentage-Farben-, Berührung-Geruch- oder Schmerz-Farben-Synästhesien gefunden. Die von Neuro- wissenschaftlern und Philosophen als „Bindung“ genannte Fähigkeit mehrere Reize, die in verschiedenen Hirnarealen verarbeitet werden, miteinander zu koppeln und zu einer einheitlichen Repräsentation bzw. erfahrenen Einheit des Bewusstseins zusamme...

  4. Comparison of elongatio n efficiency between DHA and EPA in syn thesis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids%DHA 与 EPA 合成超长链多不饱和脂肪酸的效率比较

    余曼; 陈波; 张瑞帆; 吴峥峥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the elongation efficiency between DHA and EPA for synthesis of very long chain polyunsat -urated fatty acid (VLC-PUFAs) under catalytic action of ELOVL4 protease.Methods PC12 cells were transduced with recombinant adenovirus type 5 carrying mouse Elovl4 and green fluorescent protein (GFP).GFP-expressing and non-transduced cells were used as controls.ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs.ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot (WB).The transduced cells were treated with DHA or EPA (1:1).After 48 h of incubation,cells were collected,and fatty acid methyl esters were prepared following total lipids extraction .The fatty acid was analyzed by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) .Results GC-MS analysis showed that the DHA and EPA treated PC 12+Ad-ELOVL4 had n3 VLC-PUFAs in which 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 were 0.85%and 1.11%,respectively;34:6n3 and 36:6n3 were 0.16% and 0.29%,respectively.Total amount of pentaenoics synthesized from EPA was almost four times than that of hexaenoics synthesized from DHA .Conclusion Elongation efficiency of VLC-PUFAs from EPA is much higher than that from DHA .Therefore,dietary supplementation of more EPA rather than DHA may provide some therapeutic benefits for patients with Stargardts'disease (STGD3).%目的:比较在ELOVL4蛋白酶催化作用下,DHA和EPA合成超长链多不饱和脂肪酸VLC-PUFA的效率。方法构建携带ELOVL4基因和绿色荧光蛋白的重组腺病毒,转入培养的 PC12细胞,通过qRT-PCR定量分析ELOVL 4基因的表达量,WB检测ELOVL4蛋白的表达;1∶1加入DHA和EPA,孵育48 h之后进行脂肪酸提取,通过气相质谱 GC-MS分析超长链脂肪酸的成分。结果 GC-MS检测到分别用DHA及EPA处理后的PC12+Ad-ELOVL4的细胞中有n3 VLC-PUFA的表达,34:5n3和36:5n3分别为0.85%和1.11%;34:6n3和36:63n分别为0.16%和0.29%;EPA所产生的五烯酸总和是DHA所产生的六烯酸总和的4

  5. Overexpression of the calpain-specific inhibitor calpastatin reduces human alpha-Synuclein processing, aggregation and synaptic impairment in [A30P]αSyn transgenic mice.

    Diepenbroek, Meike; Casadei, Nicolas; Esmer, Hakan; Saido, Takaomi C; Takano, Jiro; Kahle, Philipp J; Nixon, Ralph A; Rao, Mala V; Melki, Ronald; Pieri, Laura; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Krueger, Rejko; Masliah, Eliezer; Riess, Olaf; Nuber, Silke

    2014-08-01

    Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), contain aggregated alpha-synuclein (αSyn), which is found in several modified forms and can be discovered phosphorylated, ubiquitinated and truncated. Aggregation-prone truncated species of αSyn caused by aberrant cleavage of this fibrillogenic protein are hypothesized to participate in its sequestration into inclusions subsequently leading to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Here, we investigated the role of calpain cleavage of αSyn in vivo by generating two opposing mouse models. We crossed into human [A30P]αSyn transgenic (i) mice deficient for calpastatin, a calpain-specific inhibitor, thus enhancing calpain activity (SynCAST(-)) and (ii) mice overexpressing human calpastatin leading to reduced calpain activity (SynCAST(+)). As anticipated, a reduced calpain activity led to a decreased number of αSyn-positive aggregates, whereas loss of calpastatin led to increased truncation of αSyn in SynCAST(-). Furthermore, overexpression of calpastatin decreased astrogliosis and the calpain-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins, potentially ameliorating the observed neuropathology in [A30P]αSyn and SynCAST(+) mice. Overall, our data further support a crucial role of calpains, particularly of calpain 1, in the pathogenesis of PD and in disease-associated aggregation of αSyn, indicating a therapeutic potential of calpain inhibition in PD. PMID:24619358

  6. SynDB: a Synapse protein DataBase based on synapse ontology

    Zhang, Wuxue; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Chen; Xiong, Wei; Olyarchuk, John G.; Walker, Michael; Xu, Weifeng; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhou, Zhuan; Wei, Liping

    2006-01-01

    A synapse is the junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell or gland cell. The functions and building molecules of the synapse are essential to almost all neurobiological processes. To describe synaptic structures and functions, we have developed Synapse Ontology (SynO), a hierarchical representation that includes 177 terms with hundreds of synonyms and branches up to eight levels deep. associated 125 additional protein keywords and 109 InterPr...

  7. 对TCP SYN Flood攻击和防御的分析

    聂涛

    2006-01-01

    TCP SYN Flood(TCP同步洪水攻击)是目前最流行的DoS(拒绝服务攻击)与DDoS的方式之一,这是一种利用TCP协议缺陷,破坏TCP三次握手建立正常连接,从而使得被攻击方资源耗尽的攻击方式。

  8. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-rela...

  9. Impact of irrigation regime on berry development and flavonoids composition in Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevine

    Zarrouk, Olfa; Francisco, Rita; Pinto-Marijuan, Marta; Brossa, Ricardo; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Pinheiro, Carla; Costa, Joaquim M.; Lopes, Carlos M.; Chaves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, field grown Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected to three irrigation regimes (conventional sustained deficit irrigation (DI), regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and non-irrigated (NI)) during two successive seasons (2007–2008). An integrative study was performed in grape berry skin tissues at four phenological stages of grape berry (pea size, véraison, mid-ripening and full maturation). The accumulation of flavonoid compou...

  10. SynFace-Speech-Driven Facial Animation for Virtual Speech-Reading Support

    Giampiero Salvi; Jonas Beskow; Samer Al Moubayed; Björn Granström

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes SynFace, a supportive technology that aims at enhancing audio-based spoken communication in adverse acoustic conditions by providing the missing visual information in the form of an animated talking head. Firstly, we describe the system architecture, consisting of a 3D animated face model controlled from the speech input by a specifically optimised phonetic recogniser. Secondly, we report on speech intelligibility experiments with focus on multilinguality and robustness t...

  11. Defense against SYN-Flood Denial of Service Attacks Based on Learning Automata

    Masoud Bekravi; Shahram Jamali; Gholam Shaker

    2012-01-01

    SYN-flooding attack uses the weakness available in TCPs three-way handshake process to keep it from handling legitimate requests. This attack causes the victim host to populate its backlog queue with forged TCP connections. In other words it increases Ploss (probability of loss) and Pa (buffer occupancy percentage of attack requests) and decreases Pr (buffer occupancy percentage of regular requests) in the victim host and results to decreased performance of the host. This paper proposes a sel...

  12. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

    Paul W. Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

  13. Syn- and post-collisional heat flow in the Cenozoic Eastern Alps

    Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.

    2001-08-01

    The heat flow evolution of a continental collisional zone is exemplified by the Eastern Alps. Heat flow maps for the syn-collision (Oligocene), syn-extrusion (Early/Middle Miocene), and post-extrusion (Late Miocene, Recent) stages are presented, and are discussed in relation to the orogenic evolution. Continental collision during Paleogene time was characterized by extremely low heat flow (front, and very high heat flow (>150 mW/m2) a few hundred kilometers south of it. The former was a result of crustal thickening and of thermal blanketing due to rapid sedimentation and nappe stacking. The latter was caused by slab break-off and magmatic activity. The Early/Middle Miocene syn-extrusion stage was characterized by rapid exhumation of metamorphic core complexes (Tauern and Rechnitz Windows), and by magmatic activity (Styrian Basin). Both mechanisms caused extremely high heat flow (>200 mW/m2). In contrast, the orogenetic front remained cold. Thereafter, magmatic activity ended and uplift rates decreased. Thus, Late Miocene heat flow is characterized by low to moderately high values. Heat flow values >75 mW/m2 were restricted to the transition zone of the Pannonian Basin characterized by thinned crust, and to the Tauern Window area. Recent temperature data indicate a subtle post-Miocene increase in heat flow.

  14. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  15. Magma interaction processes in syn-extensional granitoids: The Tertiary Menderes Metamorphic Core Complex, western Turkey

    Erkül, Sibel Tatar; Erkül, Fuat

    2012-06-01

    Western Turkey, which forms the eastern part of the Aegean region, was subjected to continental extension that led to formation of metamorphic core complexes and associated syn-extensional granitoids. This study deals with petrogenesis of the syn-extensional Early Miocene Alaçamdağ (AG) and Middle Miocene Salihli (SG) granitoids and associated mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) in order to better understand the time-progressive evolution of the mantle sources beneath the extended continental crust in western Turkey. AG and SG granitoids consist of undeformed and ductility deformed granitoids together with abundant MMEs. They are calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Mg# of AG host rocks is slightly lower than that of SG host rocks. AG host rocks have higher Na2O, Ba, Rb, Rb/La and lower Al2O3, CaO, MgO, TiO2, Zr/Y values than those of the SG host rocks. AG and SG host rocks differ from those of MMEs, with their lower Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2, Sr, V, Mg# and higher SiO2 values. MMEs are intermediate, corresponding to monzonite, monzodiorite (in AG) and diorite (in SG) compositions and are more mafic with respect to their host rocks. In the primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element patterns, host rock and MME samples have similar trace element patterns. All of these rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, K and Sr) and strongly depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs, Ta, Nb, P, Ti) compared to the primitive mantle. The isotope ratios of the syn-extensional AG and SG rocks display increasing radiogenic strontium and decreasing radiogenic neodymium. Isotopic values for the AG and SG host rocks and MME samples are 87Sr/86Sr (AG host) = 0.708835-0.710206 and ɛNd(t) (AG host) = (- 5.36 to - 7.36); 87Sr/86Sr (AG MME) = 0.709107-0.709801 and ɛNd(t) (AG MME) = - 5.36 to - 7.36; 87Sr/86Sr (AG MME)=0.709107-0.709801 and ɛNd(t) (AG MME)=-5.55 to -6.51; 87Sr/86Sr (SG

  16. SynLethDB: synthetic lethality database toward discovery of selective and sensitive anticancer drug targets.

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a type of genetic interaction between two genes such that simultaneous perturbations of the two genes result in cell death or a dramatic decrease of cell viability, while a perturbation of either gene alone is not lethal. SL reflects the biologically endogenous difference between cancer cells and normal cells, and thus the inhibition of SL partners of genes with cancer-specific mutations could selectively kill cancer cells but spare normal cells. Therefore, SL is emerging as a promising anticancer strategy that could potentially overcome the drawbacks of traditional chemotherapies by reducing severe side effects. Researchers have developed experimental technologies and computational prediction methods to identify SL gene pairs on human and a few model species. However, there has not been a comprehensive database dedicated to collecting SL pairs and related knowledge. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive database, SynLethDB (http://histone.sce.ntu.edu.sg/SynLethDB/), which contains SL pairs collected from biochemical assays, other related databases, computational predictions and text mining results on human and four model species, i.e. mouse, fruit fly, worm and yeast. For each SL pair, a confidence score was calculated by integrating individual scores derived from different evidence sources. We also developed a statistical analysis module to estimate the druggability and sensitivity of cancer cells upon drug treatments targeting human SL partners, based on large-scale genomic data, gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity profiles on more than 1000 cancer cell lines. To help users access and mine the wealth of the data, we developed other practical functionalities, such as search and filtering, orthology search, gene set enrichment analysis. Furthermore, a user-friendly web interface has been implemented to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. With the integrated data sets and analytics functionalities, SynLethDB would

  17. Høgres syn på statleg eigarskap i norsk oljeverksemd 1970-1984

    Aven, Håvard Brede

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgåva handlar om Høgre sitt syn på statleg eigarskap i norsk oljeverksemd i perioden 1970 til 1984, frå dei første drivverdige oljefelta blei funne på norsk sokkel og fram til Willoch-regjeringa gjennomførte Statoil-reforma i 1984. Høgre var i utgangspunktet skeptisk til statsdrift og utstrakt statleg eigarskap i industribedrifter. Likevel var det den borgarlege Borten-regjeringa – med ein industriminister frå Høgre – som sikra statleg aksjemajoritet i Norsk Hydro i 1970 og 1971...

  18. Ledarskapet i läraryrket : - sex pedagogers syn på sitt ledarskap

    Gunnarsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att beskriva och analysera sex pedagogers syn på sitt ledarskap. För att göra detta har jag genomfört sex kvalitativa intervjuer med olika pedagoger. De intervjuade är: tre förskolelärare, två lärare för yngre barn och en fritidspedagog. Pedagogerna är från olika städer och olika arbetslag. Jag har utfört undersökningen utifrån fyra huvudfrågor: – Vad innebär ledarskapet? – Vad är det som påverkar ledarskapet? – Hur kan man utveckla sig själv som ledare...

  19. SynArfGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 and localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of inhibitory synapses.

    Fukaya, Masahiro; Kamata, Akifumi; Hara, Yoshinobu; Tamaki, Hideaki; Katsumata, Osamu; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Hata, Yutaka; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Harvey, Robert J; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    SynArfGEF, also known as BRAG3 or IQSEC3, is a member of the brefeldin A-resistant Arf-GEF/IQSEC family and was originally identified by screening for mRNA species associated with the post-synaptic density fraction. In this study, we demonstrate that synArfGEF activates Arf6, using Arf pull down and transferrin incorporation assays. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that synArfGEF is present in somata and dendrites as puncta in close association with inhibitory synapses, whereas immunoelectron microscopic analysis reveals that synArfGEF localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of symmetric synapses. Using yeast two-hybrid and pull down assays, we show that synArfGEF is able to bind utrophin/dystrophin and S-SCAM/MAGI-2 scaffolding proteins that localize at inhibitory synapses. Double immunostaining reveals that synArfGEF co-localizes with dystrophin and S-SCAM in cultured hippocampal neurons and cerebellar cortex, respectively. Both β-dystroglycan and S-SCAM were immunoprecipitated from brain lysates using anti-synArfGEF IgG. Taken together, these findings suggest that synArfGEF functions as a novel regulator of Arf6 at inhibitory synapses and associates with the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and S-SCAM. PMID:21198641

  20. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Schrage, William G.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To acco...

  1. DFT Conformation and Energies of Amylose Fragments at Atomic Resolution Part I: Syn Forms of Alpha-Maltotetraose

    DFT optimization studies of ninety syn '-maltotetraose (DP-4) amylose fragments have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The DP-4 fragments studied include V-helix, tightly bent conformations, a boat, and a 1C4 conformer. The standard hydroxymethyl rotamers (gg, gt, tg) were ...

  2. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.529 Section 174.529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES...

  3. Ductile strain rate recorded in the Symvolon syn-extensional plutonic body (Rhodope core complex, Greece)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fazio, Eugenio; Ortolano, Gaetano; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Kern, Hartmut; Mengel, Kurt; Pezzino, Antonino; Punturo, Rosalda

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution deals with quantitative microstructural analysis, which was performed on granodiorites of the syn-tectonic Symvolon pluton (Punturo et al., 2014) at the south-western boundary of the Rhodope Core Complex (Greece). Our purpose is the quantification of ductile strain rate achieved across the pluton, by considering its cooling gradient from the centre to the periphery, using the combination of a paleopiezometer (Shimizu, 2008) and a quartz flow law (Hirth et al., 2001). Obtained results, associated with a detailed cooling history (Dinter et al., 1995), allowed us to reconstruct the joined cooling and strain gradient evolution of the pluton from its emplacement during early Miocene (ca. 700°C at 22 Ma) to its following cooling stage (ca. 500-300°C at 15 Ma). Shearing temperature values were constrained by means of a thermodynamic approach based on the recognition of syn-shear assemblages at incremental strain; to this aim, statistical handling of mineral chemistry X-Ray maps was carried out on microdomains detected at the tails of porphyroclasts. Results indicate that the strain/cooling gradients evolve "arm in arm" across the pluton, as also testified by the progressive development of mylonitic fabric over the magmatic microstructures approaching the host rock. References • Dinter, D. A., Macfarlane, A., Hames, W., Isachsen, C., Bowring, S., and Royden, L. (1995). U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Symvolon granodiorite: Implications for the thermal and structural evolution of the Rhodope metamorphic core complex, northeastern Greece. Tectonics, 14 (4), 886-908. • Shimizu, I. (2008). Theories and applicability of grain size piezometers: The role of dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. Journal of Structural Geology, 30 (7), 899-917. • Hirth, G., Teyssier, C., and Dunlap, J. W. (2001). An evaluation of quartzite flow laws based on comparisons between experimentally and naturally deformed rocks. International Journal of Earth

  4. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics. PMID:27230019

  5. SynFace—Speech-Driven Facial Animation for Virtual Speech-Reading Support

    Salvi Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes SynFace, a supportive technology that aims at enhancing audio-based spoken communication in adverse acoustic conditions by providing the missing visual information in the form of an animated talking head. Firstly, we describe the system architecture, consisting of a 3D animated face model controlled from the speech input by a specifically optimised phonetic recogniser. Secondly, we report on speech intelligibility experiments with focus on multilinguality and robustness to audio quality. The system, already available for Swedish, English, and Flemish, was optimised for German and for Swedish wide-band speech quality available in TV, radio, and Internet communication. Lastly, the paper covers experiments with nonverbal motions driven from the speech signal. It is shown that turn-taking gestures can be used to affect the flow of human-human dialogues. We have focused specifically on two categories of cues that may be extracted from the acoustic signal: prominence/emphasis and interactional cues (turn-taking/back-channelling.

  6. SynArfGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 and localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of inhibitory synapses

    Fukaya, M; Kamata, A.; Hara, Y; Tamaki, H.; Katsumata, O.; Ito, N.; Takeda, S.; Hata, Y; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, M.(Niigata University, 950-2181, Niigata, Japan); Harvey, R J; Sakagami, H.

    2011-01-01

    SynArfGEF, also known as BRAG3 or IQSEC3, is a member of the brefeldin A-resistant Arf-GEF/IQSEC family and was originally identified by screening for mRNA species associated with the post-synaptic density fraction. In this study, we demonstrate that synArfGEF activates Arf6, using Arf pull down and transferrin incorporation assays. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that synArfGEF is present in somata and dendrites as puncta in close association with inhibitory synapses, whereas immunoelec...

  7. Model-Based Development of Distributed Embedded Systems by the Example of the Scicos/SynDEx Framework

    Fischer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The embedded systems engineering industry faces increasing demands for more functionality, rapidly evolving components, and shrinking schedules. Abilities to quickly adapt to changes, develop products with safe design, minimize project costs, and deliver timely are needed. Model-based development (MBD) follows a separation of concerns by abstracting systems with an appropriate intensity. MBD promises higher comprehension by modeling on several abstraction-levels, formal verification, and automated code generation. This thesis demonstrates MBD with the Scicos/SynDEx framework on a distributed embedded system. Scicos is a modeling and simulation environment for hybrid systems. SynDEx is a rapid prototyping integrated development environment for distributed systems. Performed examples implement well-known control algorithms on a target system containing several networked microcontrollers, sensors, and actuators. The addressed research question tackles the feasibility of MBD for medium-sized embedded systems. In ...

  8. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  9. Syns man inte, finns man inte? : GANT Swedens hantering av image och relationer via Instagram och Pinterest

    Wängborg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: Syns man inte, finns man inte? GANT Swedens hantering av image och relationer via Instagram och Pinterest. Examinationsdatum: 2014-01-07 Kurs: Examensarbete inom Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, Public relations och information, 15 högskolepoäng (15 ECTS). HT2013, Kandidatkurs: Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, 30 högskolepoäng (30 ECTS). Författare: Linda Wängborg Handledare: Jonas Jonsson Examinator: Christian Christensen Nyckelord: sociala medier, public relation...

  10. Syn-thrusting polygonal normal faults exposed in the hinge of the Cingoli anticline, northern Apennines, Italy

    Petracchini, Lorenzo; Antonellini, Marco; Billi, Andrea; Scrocca, Davide

    2015-11-01

    The Cingoli arcuate anticline is part of the Apennines fold-thrust belt in Italy. The anticline involves sedimentary carbonate strata generally affected by syn-thrusting contractional structures such as bed-normal pressure solution seams, folds, and reverse faults. An exception is constituted by an outcrop in the anticline hinge, where sub-horizontal carbonate and chert beds are affected by joints and intraformational short normal faults. These faults are poorly-systematic and conceivably polygonal in map view. They cut through the carbonate beds while usually stop against the chert layers that are bent and extended along the faults themselves. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, greenish clayey residue, and micro-breccias including chert and carbonate clasts. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. The faults, in effect, are usually accompanied by bed-parallel pressure solution seams in the two contractional quadrants located at the present or past fault tips. The pressure solution features fade away departing from the faults. This evidence and others are analytically explained with fault tip stress distributions. The faults are interpreted as polygonal normal faults syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting) nucleated in response to multi-directional stretching processes occurred at the Cingoli triple-folded anticline extrados. The faults then grew through a four-stage process: (1. stop) the faults stopped at the competent chert beds; (2. shrink) faulting produced shrinkage (pressure solution) of carbonate beds at the fault compressive tips; (3. shrink and step) the faults stepped laterally at the competent chert beds; (4. shatter) the chert beds were shattered along the fault surfaces. The case presented constitutes the first reported one of syn-thrusting non-diagenetic polygonal normal faults.

  11. Verfahren SynBA-3K zur Analyse von Kommunikationsstörungen, Konflikten und Strategien der Konflikthandhabung in Organisationen

    Grüne, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Zur Untersuchung der Wirkung von Konflikten und Strategien der Bewältigung in Organisationen wurde ein Fragebogenverfahren auf theoretischer Grundlage des Belastungs-Beanspruchungs-Modells entwickelt. Der Fragebogen SynBA-3K (Synthetische Beanspruchungsanalyse bei Kommunikationsstörungen, Konflikten und Strategien der Konflikthandhabung in Organisationen) hat zum Ziel, Konflikte in Organisationen zu analysieren und Ansatzpunkte zur Gestaltung zu finden. Zwei Validierungsstudien, die in zwanzi...

  12. 基于时间序列分析的SYN Flooding源端检测方法%Detection method against SYN Flooding attacks based on source end by analysis of time series

    王朝辉; 苏旸

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于时间序列分析从源端对SYN Flooding攻击进行检测的方法.该方法是为了从源端对网络流量进行检测并预测,从而判断是否发生了SYN Flooding攻击,为受害者端及时响应提供依据;利用攻击网络流量的自相似性,采用Bloom Filter提取数据流特征信息,构造网络流量时间序列,建立自回归预报模型;通过动态预测网络流量并与设定的阈值进行比较来对攻击预警,提前作出响应.仿真实验结果表明,该方法能准确地统计出网络中数据包和新源IP数据包的出现次数,具有较好的检测率和较低的误报率,能够较准确地预测出下一时间段甚至几个时间段的网络流量,能为有效防御SYN Flooding攻击提供有力的数据支撑.%This paper proposed a method of detecting DDoS attacks based on source end by analyzing the abrupt change of time series data. By detecting and predicting the data flow in the Internet at source end, the method could judge whether SYN Flooding was occurred or not for providing the foundation for the victim end. It extracted the characteristic information of data flow by using the self-similarity of network traffic flow and Bloom Filter algorithm, so that it could construct the time series of the network traffic flow and build the auto-regressive( AR) forecasting model. By dynamically forecasting traffic flow and coin-paring with definite threshold, pre-alert was sent and response was ahead adopted. The experimental results show that the scheme can count the number of the data packages and the number of the new IP data packages with the better detection rate and lower misinformation rate, besides, it can predict the traffic flow in the next period even several periods correctly, which can provide strong support for effectively defending against SYN Flooding attacks.

  13. The syntaxin protein (MoSyn8) mediates intracellular trafficking to regulate conidiogenesis and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus.

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Liu, Muxing; Dong, Yanhan; Zhu, Qian; Li, Lianwei; Li, Bing; Yang, Jie; Li, Ying; Ru, Yanyan; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-03-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate cellular membrane fusion and intracellular vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and are critical in the growth and development of pathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe oryzae which causes rice blast. Rice blast is thought to involve distinct SNARE-mediated transport and secretion of fungal effector proteins into the host to modulate rice immunity. We have previously characterized two SNARE proteins, secretory protein (MoSec22) and vesicle-associated membrane protein (MoVam7), as being important in cellular transport and pathogenicity. Here, we show that syntaxin 8 (MoSyn8), a Qc-SNARE protein homolog, also plays important roles in growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity. The MoSYN8 deletion mutant (∆Mosyn8) mutant exhibits defects in endocytosis and F-actin organization, appressorium turgor pressure generation, and host penetration. In addition, the ∆Mosyn8 mutant cannot elaborate biotrophic invasion of the susceptible rice host, or secrete avirulence factors Avr-Pia (corresponding to the rice resistance gene Pia) and Avrpiz-t (the cognate Avr gene for the resistance gene Piz-t) proteins. Our study of MoSyn8 advances our understanding of SNARE proteins in effector secretion which underlies the normal physiology and pathogenicity of M. oryzae, and it sheds new light on the mechanism of the blight disease caused by M. oryzae. PMID:26522477

  14. Sheared-type G(anti).C(syn) base-pair: a unique d(GXC) loop closure motif.

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2003-05-30

    Stable DNA loop structures closed by a novel G.C base-pair have been determined for the single-residue d(GXC) loops (X=A, T, G or C) in low-salt solution by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The closing G.C base-pair in these loops is not of the canonical Watson-Crick type, but adopts instead a unique sheared-type (trans Watson-Crick/sugar-edge) pairing, like those occurring in the sheared mismatched G.A or A.C base-pair, to draw the two opposite strands together. The cytidine residue in the closing base-pair is transformed into the rare syn domain to form two H-bonds with the guanine base and to prevent the steric clash between the G 2NH(2) and the C H-5 protons. Besides, the sugar pucker of the syn cytidine is still located in the regular C2'-endo domain, unlike the C3'-endo domain adopted for the pyrimidines of the out-of-alternation left-handed Z-DNA structure. The facile formation of the compact d(GXC) loops closed by a unique sheared-type G(anti).C(syn) base-pair demonstrates the great potential of the single-stranded d(GXC) triplet repeats to fold into stable hairpins. PMID:12758081

  15. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia flowers

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers were stored using two methods in this investigation; first, under normally practiced conditions (NPS, i.e., the practice adopted by the flower’s collectors, and second, oven dried, powdered with liquid nitrogen, and stored at 00C (±10C in different small airtight sterilized vials labelled as laboratory processed samples (LPS. Both LPS and NPS were stored for a year i.e. from one harvesting season to the next. Experiments were carried out, at every month interval, to identify the factors responsible for spoilage of flowers during storage. LPS did not exhibit deterioration in the nutrient value throughout the year of storage, but NPS showed spoilage due to various biotic and abiotic factors comprised of moisture, temperature and microorganisms. To check postharvest spoilage various innovative storage techniques like physical and chemical treatments were experimented. Results revealed that storage at low temperature by liquid nitrogen treatment and chemical conversion to oxalic acid were the most effective techniques for a long-term storage.

  16. A 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ as an enhancer of transgene expression in dicotyledonous plants

    Kanoria Shaveta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high level of transgene expression is required, in several applications of transgenic technology. While use of strong promoters has been the main focus in such instances, 5′UTRs have also been shown to enhance transgene expression. Here, we present a 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ, which enhances gene expression in tobacco and cotton. Results The influence of synJ on transgene expression was studied in callus cultures of cotton and different tissues of transgenic tobacco plants. The study was based on comparing the expression of reporter gene gus and gfp, with and without synJ as its 5′UTR. Mutations in synJ were also analyzed to identify the region important for enhancement. synJ, enhances gene expression by 10 to 50 fold in tobacco and cotton depending upon the tissue studied. This finding is based on the experiments comparing the expression of gus gene, encoding the synJ as 5′UTR under the control of 35S promoter with expression cassettes based on vectors like pBI121 or pRT100. Further, the enhancement was in most cases equivalent to that observed with the viral leader sequences known to enhance translation like Ω and AMV. In case of transformed cotton callus as well as in the roots of tobacco transgenic plants, the up-regulation mediated by synJ was much higher than that observed in the presence of both Ω as well as AMV. The enhancement mediated by synJ was found to be at the post-transcriptional level. The study also demonstrates the importance of a 5′UTR in realizing the full potential of the promoter strength. synJ has been utilized to design four cloning vectors: pGEN01, pBGEN02, pBGEN02-hpt and pBGEN02-ALSdm each of which can be used for cloning the desired transgene and achieving high level of expression in the resulting transgenic plants. Conclusions synJ, a synthetic 5′UTR, can enhance transgene expression under a strong promoter like 35S as well as under a weak promoter like nos in

  17. Crustal processes cause adakitic chemical signatures in syn-collision magmatism from SE Iran

    Allen, Mark; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Neill, Iain

    2015-04-01

    We report new elemental and Nd-Sr isotopic analyses for Late Cenozoic intrusive and extrusive rocks emplaced in SE Iran as part of the wider syn-collision magmatic province within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. The sample sites are near the town of Dehaj in Kerman Province. Most of the rocks are from stocks and batholiths, interpreted as the roots of central volcanoes. Age controls are not precise, but the rocks are likely to be Late Miocene-Quaternary in age. Basaltic to andesitic lavas crop out nearby; their relationships to the intrusive rocks are uncertain. Geochemically, the entire range of rocks from basalt lavas through to rhyolitic intrusives ranges from 51-71 wt.% silica and isotopic signatures are similar to Bulk Earth, without any clear evidence for large-scale crustal contamination. The basaltic to andesitic lavas appear to have variable and often high La/Yb and Sr/Y such that they range from calc-alkaline arc-like rocks to adakitic compositions depending on the degree of fractionation. The intrusive rocks seem to form a separate suite, with clear indications of increasing Sr/Y and Dy/Yb with fractionation. Previous interpretations relate adakitic magmatism to Tethyan oceanic slab break-off and slab melting beneath the collision zone. However, as the 'adakitic signature' is increasingly apparent in more evolved magmas, at least in the intrusives, adakite generation is more likely to have occurred during melt evolution from an initial low Sr/Y and low La/Yb parent. This parental melt may have been similar in starting composition to proposed non-adakitic basaltic melts from elsewhere in the collision zone. The high Sr/Yb and La/Yb signatures are best explained by the suppression of plagioclase fractionation by high magmatic water contents, promoting incompatible behaviour of Sr. Conversely, Y and Yb are compatible during amphibole and garnet fractionation at crustal or uppermost mantle levels. Rather than a localised slab break-off or melting effect, the

  18. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    edifices. In particular, for the Ayaz-Akhtarma, the interferograms show the pre- and the syn-eruptive phases, reaching a maximum displacements about 5.3 cm in 70 days. In the case of the Khara Zira mud volcano eruption, the time span covered by the interferograms with good coherence values ends some months before the eruption, thus only the initial stages of the pre-eruption deformation can be observed, with a maximum uplift about 2.3 cm in 70 days. Paroxysmal phases that occasionally may interrupt the quiescent activity of mud volcanoes consist of violent release of large mud flows and flaming eruption caused by the self-ignition of the methane. The bulging observed in the interferograms connected with the pre- and syn-eruptive phases is probably due to an increase of overpressure which precedes a paroxysmal activity phase.

  19. Graben width controlling syn-rift sedimentation: the Palaeogene southern Upper Rhine Graben as an example

    Hinsken, Sebastian; Ustaszewski, Kamil; Wetzel, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Eocene to Early Oligocene syn-rift deposits of the southern Upper Rhine Graben (URG) accumulated in restricted environments. Sedimentation was controlled by local clastic supply from the graben flanks, as well as by strong intra-basinal variations in accommodation space due to differential tectonic subsidence, that in turn led to pronounced lateral variations in depositional environment. Three large-scale cycles of intensified evaporite sedimentation were interrupted by temporary changes towards brackish or freshwater conditions. They form three major base level cycles that can be traced throughout the basin, each of them representing a stratigraphic sub-unit. A relatively constant amount of horizontal extension ( ΔL) in the range of 4 5 km has been estimated for the URG from numerous cross-sections. The width of the rift ( L f ), however, varies between 35 and more than 60 km, resulting in a variable crustal stretching factor between the bounding masterfaults. Apart from block tilting, tectonic subsidence was, therefore, largely controlled by changes in the initial rift width ( L 0). The along-strike variations of the graben width are responsible for the development of a deep, trough-like evaporite basin (Potash Basin) in the narrowest part of the southern URG, adjacent to shallow areas in the wider parts of the rift such as the Colmar Swell in the north and the Rhine Bresse Transfer Zone that delimits the URG to the south. Under a constant amount of extension, the along-strike variation in rift width is the principal factor controlling depo-centre development in extensional basins.

  20. Calculations of kinetic isotope effects in the syn-eliminations of (2-phenylethyl)dimethylamine oxides

    Transition state theory (TST) calculations of kinetic isotope effects (KIE) for the syn-elimination of (2-phenylethyl)dimethylamine oxides have been carried out for a series of transition state (TS) models encompassing both E1-like and E1cB-like regions of the E2 mechanistic spectrum. A large number of different reaction coordinates were explored for both unsolvated and for coordination of solvent dimethylsulfoxide in the cyclic transition state models. The models of reaction for both solvated and unsolvated models of proton transfer are presented. A simplified method for easier initial screening of reaction coordinate contributions is developed, discussed, and found to produce accurate approximations to the full model KIE values. Both unsolvated and solvated models show E1-like E2 mechanism and the calculated values from both models are in extremely good agreement with experimentally measured KIE. Both models were used to investigate para-substituted derivatives (Z = CL, OCH3) of the parent compound (Z = H). The transition states are related by a shift in structure parallel to the central E2 diagonal of an O'Ferrall-Jencks-Fry reaction diagram, as predicted by Thornton, indicating that in the absence of other factors, the extent to which negative charge is accumulated at C/sub β/ in the transition state is a function primarily of the leaving group. All of the structural parameters such as bond distances and bond angles were related to independent bond orders. Beta-deuterium isotope effects produced by both solvated and nonsolvated models are temperature dependent

  1. Detrital zircon provenance of the Paleogene syn-rift sediments in the northern South China Sea

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Pang, Xiong; Jiang, Tao; Qiao, Peijun; Zhao, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The early rift sedimentation history of the South China Sea is still not well understood due to restricted borehole coverage of the Paleogene strata and lack of reliable stratigraphic dating. We use detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to explore the source-to-sink characteristics of syn-rift sequences in the northern South China Sea. The results reveal significant intrabasinal provenances in addition to the well-perceived terrigenous supply from the north. The Dongsha Uplift is considered to account for the dominance of the Early Cretaceous zircons in the Eocene samples. The Lower Oligocene sediments in the Qiongdongnan Basin could have been sourced from Hainan Island and local uplifts, but their distinction cannot be confirmed by the U-Pb age spectra. Contemporary sediments in the northern Pearl River Mouth Basin were most likely transported from southeastern South China with well-rounded zircon grains showing U-Pb age similarity to those from the northeastern tributaries of the Pearl River. By contrast, intrabasinal sources from the west and east are suggested to have contributed the infill of the southern part of the Pearl River Mouth Basin based on generally euhedral zircon shapes. These sedimentary source patterns appear to change very little in the Oligocene northern South China Sea. However, the newly detected Neoproterozoic zircons in the Upper Oligocene sediments from borehole L21 tend to indicate a southern source. The episodic and diachronic nature of rifting and erosion processes in the early South China Sea is the cause of complex patterns in the Paleogene provenance history.

  2. First report of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in dogs in north-western Italy, with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs

    Magi M; Guardone L.; Prati M.C.; Torracca B.; Macchioni F.

    2012-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faeca...

  3. Synthesis of 2,6-trans-disubstituted 5,6-dihydropyrans from (Z)-1,5-syn-endiols

    Flamme Eric M; Roush William R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Certain (Z)-1,5-syn-diols 2 may be converted into 2,6-trans-5,6-dihydropyrans by using phosphonium salt 4 or phosphorane 5 as dehydrating agents. A more general four step procedure converts the (Z)-1,5-syn-endiols into enantiomeric dihydropyrans ent-3 via regioselective silylation of the allylic alcohol unit followed by mesylate formation and base-promoted nucleophilic displacement.

  4. Stereoselective synthesis of a-hydroxy-b-amino acids: the chiral pool approach

    RADOMIR N. SAICIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the stereoselective homologation of a-amino acids into syn-a-hydroxy-b-amino acids is described, based on the conversion of stereoisomeric cyanohydrins into trans-oxazolines. The synthetic potential of the method is illustrated in the enantioselective formal synthesis of Bestatin.

  5. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population.

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM) were umc1303 (265.1 cM) on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM) on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM) on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM) on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (http://www.maizegdb.org). Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize. PMID:27031623

  6. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population.

    Shuaidong Hu

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h and optimum temperature (28°C/24h between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM were umc1303 (265.1 cM on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (http://www.maizegdb.org. Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize.

  7. Reactivation of a syn-growth unconformity during flexural-slip folding (Bóixols Anticline, Pyrenees, Spain)

    Tavani, Stefano; Granado, Pablo; Arbués, Pau; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-04-01

    The contractive growth strata of the Bóixols anticline (Spanish Pyrenees) include a major Upper Cretaceous syn-kinematic unconformity outstandingly exposed at the anticline forelimb. The unconformity divides and decouples the growth-sequence in two units of contrasting geometry. In the outer sector of the forelimb, the unconformity preserves its stratigraphic attitude, showing an angle of less than 20° and separating near-vertical to south-dipping upper and lower unit syn-kinematic strata. In the central portion of the forelimb, the multilayered lower unit acquires a near-vertical attitude, whereas layers of the upper unit become shallow-dipping. The angular unconformity there is about 90° and the unconformity is affected by meso-faults and S-C structures providing a top to the foreland shear sense. Such a shear zone is offset by high-angle reverse faults propagating from the underlying layer-parallel faults of the lower syn-kinematic unit. In the inner sector of the forelimb, strata of the lower and upper units are overturned and near-vertical, respectively. Still, the unconformable contact represents a shear zone, indicating a top to the crest shear sense. Shear senses along with relative timing and cross-sectional distribution of deformation structures, indicate flexural-slip folding in the growth sequence. Layer-parallel anisotropies oblique to each other were active at the same time and only during the later stage of folding, when layers of the lower unit were becoming orthogonal to those of the upper package, the flexural-slip mechanism arrested in the upper package. These observations point out that, regardless of its orientation, layering in the growth sequence of the Bóixols anticline promoted stress channeling, with the maximum stress keeping about parallel to beds almost for the entire folding process.

  8. N-(2,5-Dimethylphenylsuccinamic acid monohydrate

    B. S. Saraswathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H15NO3·H2O, the conformation of the N—H bond in the amide segment is syn to the ortho-methyl group and anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Further, the conformations of the amide O and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are anti to the adjacent methylene H atoms. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to one another. The structure shows an interesting hydrogen-bonding pattern with the water molecule forming hydrogen bonds with three different molecules of the compound. In the crystal, molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  9. REE Geochemistry of the uranium phases in syn-magmatic and hydrothermal- type U -mineralisation: two case histories from India

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) geochemistry of uranium-bearing phases from two genetically different types of uranium mineralisation is presented here. These include the syn-magmatic type, hosted by part of the Suryamalai or Sankarigranite in the Kullampatti area, Tamil Nadu and hydrothermal vein type, hosted by both basement granitoid and its overlying Shahabad Limestone in the Bhima basin at Gogi, Karnataka. The study is based on the Electron Microprobe (EMP) analysis of selected REEs from different U-bearing phases, viz., uraninite, its pseudomorphic altered product of gummite, pitchblende and coffinite. Those hosted by granite, compared to that in limestone, have higher contents of ΣREE. Those in syn-magmatic type contain HREE >LREE and vice-versa in hydrothermal type. The former pattern is reflected in the co-existing Y- and HREE-bearing multiple oxides of fergusonite, samarskite and betafite. Furthermore, U-bearing organic matter and smectite-illite clay at Gogi contain higher contents of LREE. Pitchblende in both granite and limestone shows perceptible positive Ce-anomaly whereas the coffinite in limestone shows negative Ce-anomaly. In the plot of ΣREE vs. chondrite-normalised LREE/HREE, except for those in the granite-hosted syn-magmatic type, the rest of U-phases as well as uraninite from other types (taken from literature) define a trend of positive correlation. The minimum-end of the ΣREE is represented by the unconformity-type of Collins Bay, Canada and Pine Creek deposits, Australia, and the maximum-end of ΣREE by hydrothermal vein type in the granite at Gogi. The syn-magmatic granite-hosted uraninite from Kullampatti, Rossing and Faraday plot close to each other, but away from the main positive trend toward a higher ΣREE. In simple oxides of uranium, LREE, MREE and HREE, appear to co-exist or substitute, respectively, for Ca, Th and U, as indicated by the corresponding increasing trends. During post-magmatic alteration of uraninite to gummite and

  10. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Raquel O. Simões

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

  11. Investigation phytochimique d'une brosse à dents africaine Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxiloides L.) (Rutaceae)

    Chaaib Kouri F.

    2004-01-01

    Résumé: Dans le but de rechercher de nouveaux composés naturels à intérêt thérapeutique, les extraits dichlorométhanique et méthanolique de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxyloides L.) (Rutaceae), une brosse à dents africaine ont été soumis à un criblage chimique et biologique. Un dépistage des activités: antifongiques contre le champignon phytopathogène Cladosporium cucumerinum et la levure commensale responsable de mycoses chez l'homme Candida albica...

  12. Diastereo- and Enantioselective Ruthenium Catalyzed Hydrohydroxyalkylation of 2-Silyl-Butadienes: Carbonyl syn-Crotylation from the Alcohol Oxidation Level

    Zbieg, Jason R.; Moran, Joseph; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of alcohols 2a-2j to 2-silyl-butadienes in the presence of ruthenium complexes modified by (R)-SEGPHOS or (R)-DM-SEGPHOS results in redox-triggered generation of allylruthenium-aldehyde pairs, which combine to form products of carbonyl crotylation 4a-4j in the absence of stoichiometric byproducts and with high levels of syn-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. In the presence of isopropanol under otherwise identical conditions, aldehydes 3a-3j are converted to an equivalent set of addu...

  13. Structure Activity Relationship of Phenolic Acid inhibitors of α-Synuclein Fibril Formation and Toxicity

    Mustafa eArdah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn is considered the key pathogenic event in many neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, giving rise to a whole category of neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. Although the molecular basis of α-syn toxicity has not been precisely elucidated, a great deal of effort has been put into identifying compounds that could inhibit or even reverse the aggregation process. Previous reports indicated that many phenolic compounds are potent inhibitors of α-syn aggregation. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-aggregating effect of gallic acid (GA (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, a benzoic acid derivative that belongs to a group of phenolic compounds known as phenolic acids. By employing an array of biophysical and biochemical techniques and a cell-viability assay, GA was shown not only to inhibit α-syn fibrillation and toxicity but also to disaggregate preformed α-syn amyloid fibrils. Interestingly, GA was found to bind to soluble, non-toxic oligomers with no β-sheet content, and to stabilize their structure. The binding of GA to the oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Additionally, by using structure activity relationship data obtained from fourteen structurally similar benzoic acid derivatives, it was determined that the inhibition of α-syn fibrillation by GA is related to the number of hydroxyl moieties and their position on the phenyl ring. GA may represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be used for the treatment of PD and related disorders.

  14. JOINTS AND SYN-SEDIMENTARY FAULTS NETWORKS IN MARINE CLAYS AND MUDSTONES. Importance for Radwaste storage

    Arnould, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  15. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. Synthesising acid mine drainage to maintain and exploit indigenous mining micro-algae and microbial assemblies for biotreatment investigations.

    Orandi, Sanaz; Lewis, David M

    2013-02-01

    The stringent regulations for discharging acid mine drainage (AMD) has led to increased attention on traditional or emerging treatment technologies to establish efficient and sustainable management for mine effluents. To assess new technologies, laboratory investigations on AMD treatment are necessary requiring a consistent supply of AMD with a stable composition, thus limiting environmental variability and uncertainty during controlled experiments. Additionally, biotreatment systems using live cells, particularly micro-algae, require appropriate nutrient availability. Synthetic AMD (Syn-AMD) meets these requirements. However, to date, most of the reported Syn-AMDs are composed of only a few selected heavy metals without considering the complexity of actual AMD. In this study, AMD was synthesised based on the typical AMD characteristics from a copper mine where biotreatment is being considered using indigenous AMD algal-microbes. Major cations (Ca, Na, Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn and Ni), trace metals (Al, Fe, Ag, Na, Co, Mo, Pb and Cr), essential nutrients (N, P and C) and high SO(4) were incorporated into the Syn-AMD. This paper presents the preparation of chemically complex Syn-AMD and the challenges associated with combining metal salts of varying solubility that is not restricted to one particular mine site. The general approach reported and the particular reagents used can produce alternative Syn-AMD with varying compositions. The successful growth of indigenous AMD algal-microbes in the Syn-AMD demonstrated its applicability as appropriate generic media for cultivation and maintenance of mining microorganisms for future biotreatment studies. PMID:22684898

  17. Petrogenesis of granitoid rocks at the northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and evidence of syn-collisional magmatism

    Samarendra Bhattacharya; Rajib Kar; S Moitra

    2004-12-01

    The northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt against the Singhbhum craton exposes granitic rocks with enclaves from both the high-grade and low-grade belts. A shear cleavage developed in the boundary region is also observed in these granitoids. Field features and petrography indicate syn-tectonic emplacement of these granitoids. Petrology-mineralogy and geochemistry indicate that some of the granitoids are derived from the high-grade protoliths by dehydration melting. Others could have been derived from low-grade protoliths. Moreover, microstructural signatures in these granitoids attest to their syn-collisional emplacement.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Ionically Unbound Polyphenol oxidase from Cinnamomum tamala syn. Cinnamomum Leaves

    Sanjeev Kumar Diwakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (EC. 1.10.3.1 PPO an ionically unbound and thermostable enzyme was extracted from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. The enzyme was purified 2.63-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 25 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 25 kD. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50oC temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0–9.0 and temperature (30–90oC. From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-80oC, the half-life (t1/2 values of the enzyme ranged from 19 to 72 min. The inactivation energy (Ea value of PPO was estimated to be 94.5 kJ mol-1. It showed higher specificity with substrate catechol (Km=6.8mM. Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu2+ indicating its role as cofactors, Fe2+, Hg2+, protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K+, Mg2+, Co2+, kojic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, urea, sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  19. N-(4-Methyl-2-nitrophenylsuccinamic acid

    Sabine Foro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H12N2O5, the conformation of the N—H bond in the amide segment is syn to the ortho-nitro group in the benzene ring. The amide C=O and the carboxyl C=O of the acid segment are syn to each other and both are anti to the H atoms on the adjacent –CH2 groups. Furthermore, the C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are in syn positions with respect to each other. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the amide group is 36.1 (1°. The amide H atom shows bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen bonding with an O atom of the ortho-nitro group and an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of another molecule. In the crystal, the N—H...O(C hydrogen bonds generate a chain running along the [100] direction. Inversion dimers are formed via a pair of O—H...O(C interactions, that form an eight-membered hydrogen-bonded ring involving the carboxyl group.

  20. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  1. An overview of the host spectrum and distribution of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica): part 1-Muroidea.

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a worldwide-distributed species of zoonotic nematodes with a high affinity to the liver. Several rodent species of the superfamily Muroidea serve as main hosts for this pathogen. C. hepaticum has been found in Muroidean hosts in more than 60 countries in Europe; North, Central, and South America; Asia; Africa; and Oceania. C. hepaticum was documented in more than 90 Muroidean rodent species (Murinae, Deomyinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, Cricetinae, Sigmodontinae, Gerbillinae, and Cricetomyinae). Globally, the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) seems to be the main host species for this nematode. However, locally high prevalences (above 50 %) have also been observed in several other synanthropic (commensal and non-commensal) Muroidea species (e.g., Rattus tanezumi, Ondatra zibethicus, Apodemus sylvaticus). This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in Muroidea host species. PMID:24248632

  2. Syn-orocline brittle deformation in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc. Timing orocline formation.

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    The time-frame for the development of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) (West European Variscan Belt), as a bend of a previously more linear orogenic belt, has recently been constrained paleomagnetically as an orocline in the Cantabrian Zone, northern Iberia (the core of the arc) (Weil et al, 2001, 2010). According to the known evidence, oroclinal generation took place in the uppermost Carboniferous-lowermost Permian, between about 310 and 295 Ma, and it is interpreted to have been ultimately caused by the self-subduction of the Pangean global Plate (Gutiérrez-Alonso et al., 2008). In the core of the IAA there are a host of coal-bearing continental basins developed coevally with the alleged timing of the arc and distributed along it. Because of this timing the syn-orocline rocks should record brittle deformation coherent with the closure of the IAA. In this study, we have analyzed the brittle fractures systems (joints) present in pre-, syn- and post-orocline rocks and performed the "orocline test" (Schwartz and Van der Voo, 1983; Eldredge et al., 1985), classically used for paleomagnetic and strain data (Weil et al 2001, Weil and Yonkee, 2010). According to the analysis of the joints we conclude that each of the data sets present in the different rock groups have been originated at a different stage in relation to the IAA origin. The joints in the pre-orocline rocks (Neoproterozoic and pre- Upper Carboniferous) trace the orocline with the same geometry as the bent large scale structures that have been used to define it. In addition, the joints in the syn-orocline rocks (Upper Pennsylvanian or Stephanian, 304 to 299 Ma) depict a curved trace with less curvature than the orocline. Furthermore, post-orocline rocks (Permian) contain joints which show no rotation. The described dataset evidences that the rotation of the IAA took place in Upper Pennsylvanian in agreement with the paleomagnetic arguments as the syn-orocline continental basins have been less rotated than the

  3. Motivation : En studie om lärares och elevers syn på motivation i skolan

    Sundström, Jenny; Wiman, Malin

    2009-01-01

    I vårt examensarbete undersöker vi olika typer av motivation. Vårt syfte med arbetet var att undersöka lärares syn motivation samt elevers egen motivation i skolan. De frågeställningar vi utgick från var: 1. Vilken typ av motivation har elever i år 4 och år 5? 2. Finns det någon skillnad mellan pojkars och flickors motivation? 3. Vilken typ av motivation strävar lärare efter att elever ska erhålla och använda sig av? 4. Hur ser lärare på intrinsic (inre) motivation, extrinsic (yttre) motivati...

  4. Thermal, chemical and isotopic homogenization of syn-extensional I-type plutons and mafic microgranular enclaves

    Tatar Erkül, Sibel; Erkül, Fuat; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-04-01

    Magma mixing and mingling processes are common phenomenon in the evolution of granitoid magmas. This study deals with examination of mineral chemical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of enclaves and enclosing syn-extensional granite bodies in western Turkey to make an attempt to solve problems regarding their origin. Mafic microgranular enclaves have granodiorite, quartz monzonite, monzonite and monzodiorite compositions, are subalkaline/calc-alkaline and high-K in character and display typical mixing/mingling textures. Mafic enclaves have partially overlapping geochemical characteristics onto their host rocks in terms of mobile elements and their isotopes while distinct immobile element patterns occur within host rocks and enclaves. Contrasting geochemistry of enclaves is mainly defined by their low SiO2 and high MgO, Mg# and high Fe2O3 contents. Chondrite-normalized spidergrams of enclaves also reveal two contrasting patterns. One is relatively enriched in rare earth element content and the other is slightly enriched and displays relatively flat pattern. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd contents of enclaves imply considerable amount of crustal input. Crustally derived felsic magma coeval with mafic magma have been chemically, thermally and mechanically exchanged with each other and resulting homogenization led to compositional and isotopic equilibration of mafic and felsic magmas. Fractional crystallization, mixing and the following crustal contamination were responsible for the final composition of syn-extensional granitoids. Such processes appear to have been widely occurred in continental extensional regime that caused melting and mixing of crustal and mantle sources at MOHO depth.

  5. Influence of syn-sedimentary faults on orogenic structures in a collisional belt: Insights from the inner zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Brogi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the possible influence of syn-sedimentary structures on the development of orogenic structures during positive tectonic inversion in the inner Northern Apennines (Italy). Examples from key areas located in southern Tuscany provided original cartographic, structural and kinematics data for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene thrusts, organized in duplex systems, verging in the opposite direction of the foreland propagation (back-thrusts), which affected the Late Triassic-Oligocene sedimentary succession of the Tuscan Domain, previously affected by pre-orogenic structures. These latter consist of mesoscopic-to cartographic-scale Jurassic syn-sedimentary normal faults and extensional structures, which gave rise to effective stratigraphic lateral variation and mechanical heterogeneities. Structural analysis of both syn-sedimentary faults and back-thrusts were therefore compared in order to discuss the possible role of the pre-existing anisotropies in influencing the evolution of the back-thrusts. As a result, it can be reasonably proposed that back-thrusts trajectories and stacking pattern were controlled by relevant syn-sedimentary normal faults; these latter were reactivated, in some cases, if properly oriented. Such an issue adds new inputs for discussing the potential role of structural inheritance during tectonic inversions, and helps to better understand the processes suitable for the development of back-thrusts in the inner zones of orogenic belts, as it is the case of the inner Northern Apennines.

  6. Organocatalytic and enantioselective Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes. Syn/anti-selectivity control using catalysts with the same absolute backbone chirality.

    Martínez, Jose I; Uria, Uxue; Muñiz, Maria; Reyes, Efraím; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric and catalytic Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes has been studied in the presence of two bifunctional catalysts both containing the same absolute chirality at the carbon backbone. The reaction performed in similar conditions allows us to control the syn or anti selectivity of the Michael adduct obtaining good yields and high enantiocontrol in all cases. PMID:26734103

  7. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM)

    Soumitra Maity; Subrata Ghosh

    2010-11-01

    An asymmetric route for the synthesis of highly functionalized 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives present in some polyketide natural products has been developed. The key step involves RCM of an appropriately constructed 1,7-dienol derived from D-mannitol to cyclohexane-1,4-diol followed by its stereoselective epoxidation.

  8. In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain

    Tian XH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Xin-hua Tian1, Feng Wei1, Tian-xiao Wang2, Peng Wang1, Xiao-ning Lin1, Jun Wang2, Dong Wang2, Lei Ren2,31Neurosurgical Department of Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital, 2Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, 3State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Nanobiotechnology can provide more efficient tools for diagnosis, targeted and personalized therapy, and increase the chances of brain tumor treatment being successful. Use of nanoparticles is a promising strategy for overcoming the blood–brain barrier and delivering drugs to the brain. Gelatin-siloxane (GS nanoparticles modified with Tat peptide can enhance plasmid DNA transfection efficiency compared with a commercial reagent.Methods: SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles are membrane-penetrable, and can cross the blood–brain barrier and deliver a drug to its target site in the brain. The efficiency of delivery was investigated in vivo and in vitro using brain capillary endothelial cells, a cocultured blood–brain barrier model, and a normal mouse model.Results: Our study demonstrated that both SynB-PEG-GS and PEG-GS nanoparticles had a spherical shape and an average diameter of 150–200 nm. It was shown by MTT assay that SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles had good biocompatibility with brain capillary endothelial cells. Cellular uptake by SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles was higher than that for PEG-GS nanoparticles for all incubation periods. The amount of SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles crossing the cocultured blood–brain barrier model was significantly higher than that of PEG-GS nanoparticles at all time points measured (P <0.05. In animal testing, SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticle levels in the brain were significantly higher than those of PEG-GS nanoparticles at all time points measured (P < 0.01. In contrast with localization in the brain, PEG-GS nanoparticle levels were significantly

  9. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  10. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn- thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  11. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    TAN Bin; ZHAI Zheng; LUO GuangSheng; WANG JiaDing

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn-thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  12. Pre-rift basement structure and syn-rift faulting at the eastern onshore Gulf of Corinth Rift

    Kranis, Haralambos; Skourtsos, Emmanuel; Gawthorpe, Robert; Leeder, Mike; Stamatakis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    %B We present results of recent field-based research with a view to providing information about and constraints on the initiation and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth (GoC) Rift. The onshore geology and structure of the GoC rift has been studied intensively and extensively; however most research efforts have focused on the western and partly the central parts. The last few years, efforts are being made to extend the scope of research in less-studied areas, such as the eastern southern onshore part of the GoC rift, trying to address two major issues in rift initiation and evolution, namely syn-rift faulting and pre-rift basement structure. While fault spacing and length appears to be well-constrained for the western and central parts of the GoC Rift, further east -and especially in the uplifted onshore southern part- this is thought to increase dramatically, as there are practically no mapped faults. We argue, however, that this may be a false image, owing to (i) the difficulty in identifying fault structures within a thick, fairly monotonous syn-rift sequence; (ii) the lesser attention this part has drawn; and (ii) the fact that the published summary geological and tectonic maps of the GoC area are based on the dated geological maps that cover the eastern and northern onshore shoulders of the Rift. Moreover, new field data provide new information on pre-rift structure: while only the topmost thrust sheet of the Hellenide nappe stack (Pindos Unit) was thought to crop out at the eastern southern onshore part, we mapped the underlying, non-metamorphic carbonate Unit (Tripolis Unit), which crops out within the footwall of a key intra-basin block (Xylokastro block). A minor outcrop further east, may also belong to this Unit, providing basement control, in connection with recently published offshore fault data. The mapping of these outcrops, combined with a revised stratigraphical framework for the early syn-rift deposits, allows the identification and mapping of faults

  13. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  15. First report of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in dogs in north-western Italy, with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs.

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Torracca, B; Macchioni, F

    2012-11-01

    Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faecal samples (270) were examined by flotation. E. boehmi (2.2%), E. aerophilus (4.4%) and T. vulpis (12.2%) were found; identification was done with measurements and through observation of morphological characters already known. The specific identification of E. boehmi was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy: its egg shell shows a dense network with a fine mesh, surrounding small pits, on the contrary E. aerophilus eggs present a thick mesh with wide depressions, while T. vulpis eggs surface is smooth. PMID:23193529

  16. First report of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi in dogs in north-western Italy, with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs

    Magi M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faecal samples (270 were examined by flotation. E. boehmi (2.2%, E. aerophilus (4.4% and T. vulpis (12.2% were found; identification was done with measurements and through observation of morphological characters already known. The specific identification of E. boehmi was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy: its egg shell shows a dense network with a fine mesh, surrounding small pits, on the contrary E. aerophilus eggs present a thick mesh with wide depressions, while T. vulpis eggs surface is smooth.

  17. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia) flowers

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-01-01

    Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia) flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers wer...

  18. Miniundersøgelse 18 børns syn på skolen i skoleåret 2015-2016

    Broström, Stig

    Selv om der således er variation blandt børnenes svar er der alligevel belæg for at sige, at hovedparten af børnene: - udtrykker et kritisk syn på indførelse af lektiecafeen - har begrænsede oplevelser af pædagogens virke og iværksættelse af alternative aktiviteter - kun i begrænset omfang har op...

  19. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  20. Characterization of the relA/spoT homologue slr1325 (syn-rsh) of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.PCC6803%集胞藻PCC6803中relA/spoT同源基因syn-rsh(slr1325)的鉴定

    缪小刚; 刘惠玲; 宁德刚

    2011-01-01

    [目的]四磷酸或五磷酸鸟苷(Guanosine 3′,5′-bispyrophosphate,(p)ppGpp)是细菌在遭遇环境胁迫时细胞产生应激反应的信号分子,(p)ppGpp由其合成酶RelA或具有合成酶或水解酶双重催化功能的RelA/SpoT合成.本文证明了集胞藻PCC6803(Synechocystis sp.)中唯一编码RelA/SpoT同源蛋白(命名为Syn-RSH)的基因slr1325(syn-rsh)的功能.[方法]通过互补试验证明syn-rsh表达产物的生物学功能;以纤维素薄层层析检测不同条件下Escherichia coli(p)ppGpp合成缺陷突变株及集胞藻PCC6803细胞中的(p)ppGpp.[结果]诱导Syn-RSH表达可使(p)ppGpp合成酶和水解酶基因缺失的E.coli突变株回复野生型表型,并在细胞中积累一定水平的ppGpp;在实验室培养条件下,集胞藻PCC6803细胞中可检测到低水平的ppGpp,氨基酸饥饿可诱导ppGpp水平升高并维持在相应水平.[结论]Syn-RSH具有(p)ppGpp合成酶和水解酶的双重功能,(p)ppGpp是集胞藻PCC6803在实验室生长条件下细胞生长所必需的.

  1. Syn for sagn

    Nyvang, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    representative of the early folkloristic movement, and his engagement in three different photographical projects during the years 1895—1927. Through a study of the actual pictures as well as readings of Olrik’s personal letters, applications for funding, and academic writings, two main arguments for the use of...

  2. The role of partial melting and syn-orogenic deformation in the pre-concentration of uranium and thorium. The example of the CAGE District (Northern Quebec).

    Trap, Pierre; Goncalves, Philippe; Durand, Cyril; Marquer, Didier; Feybesse, Jean-Louis; Richard, Yoann; Lacroix, Brice; Caillet, Yoann; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-01

    C and δ18O results obtained on calcite and graphite within a marble suggest temperature of 650-770°C for undeformed zones and 470-550°C in mylonitic shear zones. Within some shear zones within paragneiss, the metamorphic assemblages and disappearance of monazite suggest a possible hydrothermal alteration after the circulation of an acidic fluid under subsolidus condition. We propose a metallogenic model for remobilization of U and Th in response of syn-orogenic partial metling and deformation of a continental crust. During peak metamorphism, partial melting is responsible for a passive concentration of monazite in migmatitic paragneiss. Crystallization of anatectic melt released hydro-magmatic fluids that will move along the shear zones toward higher structural levels. These fluids are responsible for dissolution of monazite under sub-solidus conditions. The subsequent U-Th-rich fluids will precipitate U-Th along shear zone, within pegmatites, skarn or marbles. This process may act as strong pre-concentration mechanism process for world-class U-Th deposits.

  3. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model where crustal accretion is accompanied by slab retreat and lithospheric mantle

  4. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of ~ 9-11 kbar and ~ 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 °C.km- 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of ~ 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from ~ 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  5. Superimposed positive and negative inversion of the syn-rift fault network preserved in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline, Central Apennines, Italy

    Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Koopman, Anton; Mozafari, Mahtab; Solum, John; Swennen, Rudy; Taberner, Conxita

    2016-04-01

    Syn-rift tectono-sedimentary inheritance is common in thrust-related anticlines exposed in most foreland thrust-fold belts worldwide. Inherited extensional faults provide mechanical weakness zones that typically undergo positive inversion during contraction. This unavoidably has an impact on the evolution of contractional folds. Moreover, duplexing and imbrication of thrust sheets typically produce gravitational instability of inherited fault patterns and negative inversion can be triggered in the late stages of fault-fold interaction. Such polyphase evolutionary histories can deeply influence deformation and fluid flow patterns in fault-related folds and therefore can strongly influence the distribution of structurally controlled processes such as dolomitization. In this contribution we present the results obtained from a multidisciplinary study of the tectono-sedimentary pattern and paleofluid history in carbonates exposed in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline, at the mountain front of the Central Apennines (central Italy), where the occurrence of both syn-rift fault zones and related sediments has been previously described. Detailed mapping of the central part of the anticline, bed-perpendicular logging of syn-rift and post-rift strata, structural, petrographical, geochemical, microthermometrical, and petrophysical analyses were used to reconstruct the evolution of this anticline, starting from the pre-orogenic architecture up to its subsequent orogenic reworking. These data reveal: (1) the pre-orogenic tectono-sedimentary architecture of a folded Jurassic fault network; (2) multiple superimposition of extensional and contractional episodes of deformation on the same fault zones; (3) the presence of at least one main dolomitization episode, the timing of which is still being deciphered; (4) demonstrate the causal link between faulting and dolomitization, which favoured formation of dolostones along fault zones, particularly in the intersection/abutting areas

  6. On the balance between syn- and anticlinicity in smectic phases formed by achiral hockey-stick mesogens with and without chiral dopants

    Enz, Eva; Findeisen-Tandel, Sonja; Dabrowski, Roman; Giesselmann, Frank; Weissflog, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ute; Lagerwall, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A series of achiral hockey-stick-shaped mesogens forming tilted smectic liquid crystal phases of synclinic SmC- as well as anticlinic SmCa-type was prepared and characterized. While all homologues exhibit both phases, the balance shifts from anticlinic to synclinic order upon elongation of the terminal chain at the meta-position, defining the hockey-stick shape. The elongation also leads to an increased kinetic hindrance of the transition between syn- and anticlinic phases and a decreased tra...

  7. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Eric Danielson

    Full Text Available Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis, streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free.

  8. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Danielson, Eric; Lee, Sang H

    2014-01-01

    Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters) in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis), streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free. PMID:25531531

  9. Conditional transgenic mice expressing C-terminally truncated human α-synuclein (αSyn119 exhibit reduced striatal dopamine without loss of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons

    Flint Beal M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD. α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological inclusions of PD. Therefore, α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. To model α-synuclein-linked disease in vivo, transgenic mouse models have been developed that express wild-type or mutant human α-synuclein from a variety of neuronal-selective heterologous promoter elements. These models exhibit a variety of behavioral and neuropathological features resembling some aspects of PD. However, an important deficiency of these models is the observed lack of robust or progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that is characteristic of PD. Results We have developed conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice that can express A53T, E46K or C-terminally truncated (1–119 human α-synuclein pathological variants from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Using these mice, we have evaluated the expression of these α-synuclein variants on the integrity and viability of nigral dopaminergic neurons with age. Expression of A53T α-synuclein or truncated αSyn119 selectively in nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months fails to precipitate dopaminergic neuronal loss in these mice. However, αSyn119 expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months causes a marked reduction in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites together with other subtle neurochemical alterations. Conclusion We have developed and evaluated novel conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice with transgene expression directed selectively to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as a potential new mouse model of PD. Our data support the pathophysiological relevance of C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species in vivo. The

  10. Fluid source and pressure temperature conditions of high-salinity fluids in syn-tectonic veins from the Northeastern Apuan Alps (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Montomoli, Chiara; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Carosi, Rodolfo; Dini, Andrea; Genovesi, Marianna

    Structural studies on syn-tectonic veins cropping out in the northeastern sector of the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex (Northern Apennines, Italy) revealed two sets of veins: (1) type A fibrous veins within the “Scisti sericitici Formation”, related to a late-D1 tectonic phase; (2) B-veins, within the “Diaspri Formation” that developed between late-D1 and D2 tectonic phases. The mineralogy of the A (quartz, chlorite, hematite with minor amounts of apatite, allanite-(Ce), thorite and synchysite) and B-veins (quartz only) reflects the mineralogical composition of the host-rocks: quartz, chlorite, white mica and accessory minerals (apatite, zircon, titanite) occur in the “Scisti sericitici Formation”, while quartz is the main phase in the “Diaspri Formation”. The study of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz crystals of the syn-tectonic veins shows that the inclusions are always oversaturated in NaCl at room temperature and their salinities range from 29.5 to 37 wt.% NaCl equiv. The isochore of the earliest trapped fluid inclusions (type IA; primary inclusions in fiber quartz of A veins), coupled with mineralogical geothermometric data, constrains the pressure-temperature conditions to around 325-300 MPa and 370-380 °C during the late-D1 phase. Subsequent trapping of inclusion types IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB and VB in the two vein sets probably occurred during a pressure-temperature decrease (down to 220-245 MPa and 260-270 °C) at a lithostatic thermal gradient of 30 °C/km. Type IVB inclusions, on the other hand, were probably trapped at lower pressure (between lithostatic and hydrostatic conditions) during a transient pressure drop resulting from fault-valve action. SEM/EDS analyses on salts precipitated within opened inclusions confirmed the NaCl-rich compositions of the trapped fluids and also revealed the presence of minor amounts of Ca, K and Mn in the salts. A fluid circulation model, based on mineralogical and fluid inclusion data, was proposed for

  11. A study of the distribution, structure and seismic stratigraphy of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments in the Faroe sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin

    Olavsdottir, Jana

    older, Mesozoic structural elements controlling the sediment path way and restricting the depositional areas. The structural elements being re-activated at different times causing considerable structural complexity. Understanding older, Mesozoic, structural elements control on sedimentation is a...... potential tool understanding deviations from “normal” thermal subsidence and for predicting the prospectivity in syn- and post-rift succession in the Faroe-Shetland Basin. On top of the basalt in the Faroe-Shetland Basin there is deposited up to 3.5 km thick sedimentary package, which led into the basin......-Shetland Basin are constructed of various compositions, where Munkagrunnur Ridge, Fugloy Ridge and Faroe Platform consist of basaltic material while the NW British Platform area is composed of more stable rocks. The derived erosion products from the different adjacent areas will therefore be of diverse quality...

  12. Bland målarfärg och toner : En kvalitativ studie om förskollärares syn på estetik

    Andersson, Erika; Enlund, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att, utifrån en kvalitativ ansats, undersöka nio förskollärares syn på estetik i förskolan. Genom kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer ville vi ta del av förskollärarnas personliga tankar om och erfarenheter av estetik. Vi ämnade undersöka hur de beskriver den estetiska verksamheten, deras roll och förhållnings-sätt till området. Resultatet visade att förskollärarna framhåller estetik som betydelsefullt, men att begreppet är svårtolkat. Förskollärarna redogjorde fö...

  13. Stereochemical probes of bovine plasma amine oxidase: evidence for mirror image processing and a syn abstraction of hydrogens from C-1 and C-2 of dopamine

    Bovine plasma amine oxidase (PAO) has previously been shown to catalyze a nonstereospecific loss of tritium from [2(R)-3H]- and [2(S)-3H]dopamines, attributed to multiple, catalytically active binding sites for substrate. Analysis of products formed from incubation of dopamine with PAO in tritiated water indicates a stereospecific, pro-R, incorporation of label at C-2. Thus, tritium washout (random) and washin (pro-R) are not the microscopic reverse of one another. We conclude that the (enamine) intermediates leading to tritium washin are nonequivalently bound. The observation of pro-R incorporation has provided a straightforward synthetic route to [1(R)-2H,2(R)-3H]- and [1(S)-2H,2(R)-3H]dopamines, which upon oxidation with PAO are expected to be processed preferentially by 1S and 1R cleavage, respectively. From previously measured isotope effects, we predict the loss of tritium from the 1(R)-2H and 1(S)-2H samples to be 74:8 for a syn relationship between cleavage at C-1 and C-2 vs. 21:90 for an anti relationship. The observation of a 68:18 ratio at 100% conversion provides strong evidence for a syn cleavage. The data support a mechanism in which a single base catalyzes a 1,3-prototrophic shift of hydrogen from C-1 of the substrate to cofactor, followed by exchange from C-2. Additionally, the results confirm the presence of alternate binding modes for dopamine at the active site of bovine plasma amine oxidase. This interaction of dopamine with plasma amine oxidase is a rare example of mirror-image catalysis in which a single substrate has two functional binding orientations on an enzyme surface

  14. Submarine, silicic, syn-eruptive pyroclastic units in the Mount Read Volcanics, western Tasmania: Influence of vent setting and proximity on lithofacies characteristics

    McPhie, Jocelyn; Allen, Rodney L.

    Lithofacies characteristics of submarine, silicic, syn-eruptive pyroclastic units in the Cambrian Mount Read Volcanics, western Tasmania, have been used to infer the source vent setting and proximity. The submarine, syn-eruptive pyroclastic units typically consist of one or more, massive to graded, very thick (a few metres to >100 m) beds and are laterally extensive (>10 km along strike). They are composed of variable proportions of rhyolitic or dacitic pumice, crystals (mainly quartz and feldspar), shards, volcanic lithic clasts and non-volcanic sedimentary clasts. Although the dominant components are juvenile pyroclasts and the units are very thick, there is no textural evidence for hot emplacement. In some cases, pumice clasts define a bedding-parallel foliation formed during diagenetic compaction. Three types of units can be defined on the basis of lithofacies characteristics: (1) graded pumice-lithic breccia-shard-rich sandstone, probably generated by submarine explosive eruptions and deposited in relatively deep water at medial to distal sites; (2) very thick, graded to massive pumice brecciashard-rich sandstone, considered to be the proximal, mainly below-wave-base submarine record of a large-magnitude (>10 cubic km), explosive eruption from an intrabasinal submarine vent; (3) very thick, crystal-rich volcanic sandstone; the high crystal abundance in this facies is attributed to interaction between subaerial pyroclastic flows and seawater, and formation of crystal-enriched, submarine, water-supported, gravity currents; in this case, it is most likely that the source vent was subaerial, and that deposition took place at proximal to medial locations in relatively shallow water (probably <200 m).

  15. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  16. Hybrid macrocycle formation and spiro annulation on cis-syn-cis-tricyclo[6.3.0.02,6]undeca-3,11-dione and its congeners via ring-closing metathesis

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple methodology to transform cis-syn-cis-triquinane derivative 2 into the diindole based macrocycle 6 involving Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM. Various spiro-polyquinane derivatives have been assembled via RCM as a key step.

  17. Syn-Rift Subsidence Deficit of the Qiongdongnan Basin and the Synchronous Rapid Uplift of South Hainan Island: Some Clues on Surface Response to the Hainan Plume, NW South China Sea

    Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Based on tomography, geochemical and petrological evidences, a mantle plume called Hainan Plume has been suggested lying under Hainan Island. Our recent studies on basin subsidence and surface topography indicated that there existed surface vertical motion response to the suggested mantle plume. Post-rift rapid subsidence in the Qiongdongnan basin, which lies south of Hainan Island, is well known and accepted phenomenon. A particular feature is that the rapid subsidence did not just follow the end of syn-rift phase at ~ 21 Ma, but began after a ~10 my relatively tectonic quiescence. Different tectonic processes have been proposed to account for this rapid subsidence event. However, all these proposed mechanisms just focus on the rapid subsidence episode since Late Miocene. Our details subsidence analyses show that its tectonic subsidence is of a two-stage anomalous character: the deficit subsidence at the end of the syn-rift phase and the well known post-rift rapid subsidence after 10.5 Ma. Numerical analyses show that the stretching factor βs based on syn-rift sequences is much less than the observed crustal stretching factor βc, and the present basement depth can be almost predictable if assuming that the lithosphere was thinned with stretching factor βc; The crustal thinning happened during the syn-rift phase (before 21 Ma), and a new rifting and lower crustal flow after 21 Ma were not supported, proposing further that the syn-rift subsidence is deficit. Our further analyses proposed that the syn-rift subsidence deficit might be caused by the dynamic support of the secondary plume, and the post-rift rapid subsidence might result from the losing support of the thermal source decaying, therefore occurred to compensate the subsidence deficit of the syn-rift phase. The cooling history of the southern Hainan deduced by low temperature chronometry data, also indicated there exist an uplift event in the Late Oligocene (Shi et al., 2011). All the samples show that

  18. Diversity and factors controlling widespread occurrence of syn-rift Ladinian microbialites in the western Tethys (Triassic Catalan Basin, NE Spain)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Arenas, Concha; Salas, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The fault-block carbonate ramps of the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Catalan Basin hosted a wide variety of microbial deposits which formed during a syn-rift stage. Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of these microbialites allow us to reconstruct two depositional models for such microbial deposits. Moreover new insights into the interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that controlled the widespread development of these microbialites are provided. Stromatolites, ooidal-muddy microbial laminites and thrombolites were analyzed on the basis of their geometry, lamination and textural attributes. These microbialites are distributed over two Transgressive-Regressive sequences and coexisted during the Fassanian (Early Ladinian) regressive stage. Later, stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites developed during the Longobardian (Late Ladinian) transgressive stage. Three types of lamina couplets reflect distinct accretion processes linked to water chemistry, sediment supply and hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombolite textures were produced by accretionary, binding and encrusting processes (microbially mediated) and pervasive cementation. The widespread occurrence of microbial deposits is explained as a consequence of a biogeochemical cascade of events (e.g., anoxic/dysoxic seawater conditions, volcanic activity, upwelling of alkaline waters, nutrient concentrations, and microbial blooms), which promoted favorable conditions for microbial growth in the Tethys during the Ladinian. Furthermore, in the Catalan Basin, syn-rift fault induced subsidence and local water energy gradients exerted an essential role in the distribution of the three types of microbialites through space and time. Thrombolites were prone to grow in the hanging wall block of a half-graben (subtidal conditions), whereas stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites flourished preferably in a foot wall block setting (intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions). However, the fact

  19. The low temperature radiolysis of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 complexes with alkaline earth metal nitrates: An evidence for energy transfer to the macrocyclic ligand

    Zakurdaeva, O. A.; Nesterov, S. V.; Shmakova, N. A.; Sokolova, N. A.; Feldman, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Formation of paramagnetic intermediates in macrocyclic complexes of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) with alkaline earth metal nitrates under X-rays irradiation was studied by EPR spectroscopy. NO32- dianions appear to be predominant intermediate species in the samples irradiated at 77 K at low doses (up to 40 kGy). This result was interpreted as an evidence for energy transfer within the complex from crown ether to nitrate anion. Increase in the absorbed dose from 40 kGy to 284 kGy results in built-up of a new EPR signal assigned to macrocyclic -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals produced from crown ether moieties. Thermal annealing of the irradiated macrocyclic complexes at 273 К led to fast decay of NO32- . This process was accompanied by a formation of -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals in secondary reactions. The nature of the metal cations coordinated in the macrocycle cavity had no appreciable effect on the composition of radical products and their post-radiation transformations.

  20. Amino acids

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  1. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  2. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  3. A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting: The case of the Pan-African Hook Batholith in Central Zambia

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. Occasionally, sodic granitoids have been documented. Compositions were driven to more differentiated products by fractional crystallization, while Sr-Nd isotopes exclude crustal assimilation during crystallization. Recent new U-Pb age data constrain most of the felsic magmatism between 550 and 540 Ma. Scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, testify to periodic input of mantle material, and, in some cases, to interaction with metasomatizing fluids. Crystallization ages on mafic rocks span from 570 to 520 Ma, thus indicating that they were contemporaneous with the major granitic intrusion, which was the result of a number of successive felsic batches, eventually forming a coalescing batholith. Highly radiogenic Pb isotopic values attest to the radiogenic character of the rocks. Such an anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, perhaps as result of metasomatizing fluids. Enrichment in Th-U of large portions of the crust along this part of the margin of the Congo Craton is suggested. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support the interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressure of magmatism. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was emplaced at shallow crustal depths. This study further supports the idea that A-type granites, commonly considered to be restricted to anorogenic or extension-related environments, can also occur in compressional regimes.

  4. Syn-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rio Doce region: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotopic data of the Neoproterozoic Urucum Suite (eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Bilal, Essaid [Ecole de Mines de Saint Etienne (France); Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2000-03-01

    The Urucum Suite granitoids (Rio Doce region southeastern Brazil) contains four main facies: megafeldspar granites, deformed medium-to-coarse-grained granites, tourmaline, and pegmatitic facies. they intrude both the staurolite-garnet-muscovite-biotite schist of the Sao Tome formation (Rio Doce Group) and the Galileia metaluminous suite (596{+-}4 Ma). Detailed structural studies suggest that the Urucum Suite emplaced during an important dextral strike-slip movement (D{sub 1} phase) of the Brasiliano orogeny (650-450 Ma). Modal and chemical mineralogical variations suggest an evolution from the megafeldspar facies to the pegmatitic facies. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates the peraluminous character of the Urucum suite granitoids, the evolution from the megafeldspar facies granites to pegmatite facies granites to pegmatitic facies granites and suggests the syn-collisional character of this suite. U-Pb zircon (582{+-} 2 Ma) and monazite (576-573 {+-}4 Ma) data indicate that the Urucum Suite emplaced during the Brasiliano orogeny. The peraluminous nature of the Suite and isotopic rich character in the Rb-Sr ({sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr = 0.7114 to 0.7165) and Sm Nd (eNd{sub (T)} = -7.4 and -8.2) systems indicate that it formed by partial melting of older intermediate to felsic crustal sources. Based on early Proterozoic model-ages (2.3 to 1.8 Ga) and on 2.0 ga U-Pb inherited signature, granitoids of the Suite are probably derived from a rocks with a long crustal residence (Transamazonian basement), without extensive mantle contribution. (author)

  5. Syn-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rio Doce region: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotopic data of the Neoproterozoic Urucum Suite (eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    The Urucum Suite granitoids (Rio Doce region southeastern Brazil) contains four main facies: megafeldspar granites, deformed medium-to-coarse-grained granites, tourmaline, and pegmatitic facies. they intrude both the staurolite-garnet-muscovite-biotite schist of the Sao Tome formation (Rio Doce Group) and the Galileia metaluminous suite (596±4 Ma). Detailed structural studies suggest that the Urucum Suite emplaced during an important dextral strike-slip movement (D1 phase) of the Brasiliano orogeny (650-450 Ma). Modal and chemical mineralogical variations suggest an evolution from the megafeldspar facies to the pegmatitic facies. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates the peraluminous character of the Urucum suite granitoids, the evolution from the megafeldspar facies granites to pegmatite facies granites to pegmatitic facies granites and suggests the syn-collisional character of this suite. U-Pb zircon (582± 2 Ma) and monazite (576-573 ±4 Ma) data indicate that the Urucum Suite emplaced during the Brasiliano orogeny. The peraluminous nature of the Suite and isotopic rich character in the Rb-Sr (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.7114 to 0.7165) and Sm Nd (eNd(T) = -7.4 and -8.2) systems indicate that it formed by partial melting of older intermediate to felsic crustal sources. Based on early Proterozoic model-ages (2.3 to 1.8 Ga) and on 2.0 ga U-Pb inherited signature, granitoids of the Suite are probably derived from a rocks with a long crustal residence (Transamazonian basement), without extensive mantle contribution. (author)

  6. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  7. Synthesis and Monolayer Behaviors of Novel Hybrid Corynomycolic Acids Containing Semifluoroalkyl Groups.

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Tamaki, Kazuki; Oida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, novel hybrid-type corynomycolic acids [hybrid-OH and hybrid-COOH, with semifluoroalkyl groups (Rf-(CH2)n-: Rf = C4F9, n = 6 and Rf = C6F13, n = 3) located on the carbon atoms attached to the hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups (C-OH and C-COOH), respectively] were successfully synthesized. The behaviors and formation of hybrid corynomycolic acid monolayers at the air-water interface were investigated by surface tension and surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements to clarify the effects of the Rf chain length, position of the semifluoroalkyl group, and surfactant molecule stereochemistry. Compared to dialkyl corynomycolic acid, both the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC) of hybrid corynomycolic acids were reduced by the presence of the Rf group. With respect to the surface tension versus log concentration (γ vs. log C) isotherms, all syn-isomers of the hybrid-OH and hybrid-COOH acids showed two break points, while the anti-isomers showed only one break point. These different isotherms can be explained in terms of the steric repulsion between the two hydrophilic groups (OH and COO(-)), which depend on the stereochemistry of the surfactant. No effect of the location of the semifluoroalkyl group was observed. With respect to the formation of a monolayer film, four parameters-the lift-off area (AL), zero-pressure molecular area (A0), maximum of the Gibbs elastic modulus [EG (max)], and monolayer collapse pressure (πc)-were measured. Both AL and A0 of all hybrid corynomycolic acids were larger than the corresponding dialkyl acids due to the bulky and rigid Rf groups. Interestingly, syn- and anti-hybrids had almost identical isotherms on compression, although the values of πc of anti-hybrids were higher than those of syn-isomers. In addition, the values of EG (max) of hybrid-COOHs were slightly larger than those of the corresponding hybrid-OHs. Using the nascent soap method (agent-in-oil method), we found that

  8. Fluid Inclusion characteristics of syn-late orogenic Co-Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the Siegerland District of the Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Wohlgemuth, Christoph; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Siegerland District is located in the fold-and-thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts various syn- late orogenic vein-hosted hydrothermal mineralization types. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316 ± 10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at pT-conditions of 280 - 320 °C and 0.7 - 1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). The district is known for synorogenic siderite-quartz mineralization formed during peak-metamorphic conditions. At least 4 syn-late orogenic mineralization types are distinguished: Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au and hematite-digenite-bornite mineralization (Hellmann et al., 2012b). Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization of the Siegerland District belongs to the recently defined class of metasediment hosted synorogenic Co-Cu-Au deposits (i.e. Slack et al, 2010). Ore minerals are Fe-Co-Ni sulpharsenides, bearing invisible gold, chalcopyrite, and minor As-bearing pyrite. The gangue is quartz. The alteration mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The epigenetic quartz veins are closely related to the formation of reverse faults (Hellmann et al., 2011a). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions concerning the relationship between mineralization and microstructures have not been done so far for this deposit-class and this will be addressed here. Fluid inclusions are investigated in hydrothermally formed vein-quartz, selected from Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization bearing veins showing only minor overprints by later mineralization types. Two quartz generations are distinguished: subhedral quartz-I showing growth zonation and fine grained, recrystallized- and newly formed quartz-II grains forming irregular masses and fracture fillings in quartz-I. Co-Ni-Fe sulpharsenides and chalcopyrite are closely intergrown with quartz-II, implying their contemperaneous formation. However, fluid inclusions in quartz-II are often small, therefore fluid inclusions in quartz-I have been mostly investigated. In total, 180 inclusions from 4 different deposits have been

  9. «Fra idioti til spesialpedagogiske utfordringer» : ”Hvordan kan det idèhistoriske landskapet rundt Maria Montessori ha bidratt til å forme hennes syn på spesialpedagogiske utfordringer?»

    Haakenaasen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Formålet mitt med denne oppgaven har vært å få kunnskap om hva som kan ha bidratt til å forme Maria Montessoris syn på spesialpedagogiske utfordringer. Dette har jeg grepet fatt i ved å ta utgangspunkt i det idèhistoriske landskapet som Maria Montessori ble født inn i gjennom å presentere de tidsriktige rådende politiske, filosofiske, og religiøse strømningene. Maria Montessori var ikke fornøyd med utdanningsinstitusjonene på sin tid og så et sterkt behov for endring av et syst...

  10. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  11. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  12. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.

    2012-12-01

    -tuned by comparison with the general probability function calculated from all individual age and error values. Monazite chemical compositions and variations, in connection with the textural and zonal setting of the analyzed spots, were used to estimate the geological relevance of the derived age clusters, along with inter-sample comparisons anchored on granitoid samples displaying well-expressed age plateaus, conspicuously related to consolidation and emplacement ages. The resultant ages are consistent with sandwiching of juvenile Variscan metamorphic units and slivers of reworked older basement fragments in structurally coherent sequences, formed by syn/late-metamorphic tectonic stacking. Differential exhumation and ensuing areal or local lower pressure overprinting initiated in early Permian lasted up until the Late Jurassic. The age distribution of the pervasive metamorphic overprints, in consistency with the variation of the metamorphic conditions recorded, requires a partial revision and an iterative adjustment between determined ages and metamorphic features, and the lithostratigraphic separations operated in several basement units of the South Carpathians. Acknowledgements Grant PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0030 by the Romanian Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI)

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN SENYAWA FLAVONOID EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI TERONG BELANDA (Solanum betaceum, syn DALAM MENGHAMBAT REAKSI PEROKSIDASI LEMAK PADA PLASMA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR

    Ni Wayan Oktarini A.C.Dewi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan dari biji terong belanda dalam menghambat reaksi peroksidasi lemak plasma darah pada tikus dan menentukan golongan flavonoid yang aktif sebagai antioksidan. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH dan pengukuran kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar. Partisi ekstrak etanol biji menghasilkan fraksi n-heksan, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi etil asetat dan n-butanol positif mengandung senyawa flavonoid. Uji aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode DPPH menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat memiliki aktivitas antioksidan lebih besar dengan nilai IC50 1162,608 ppm. Fraksi etil asetat dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom menggunakan eluen n-heksan:etil asetat:n-butanol (6:4:0,1, diperoleh dua fraksi (Fraksi A dan fraksi B. Analisis dengan spektroskopi inframerah menunjukkan bahwa kedua isolat diduga mengandung gugus fungsi yang sama (OH, CH, C=O, C=C aromatik, C-O, CH alifatik. Analisis dengan spektroskopi UV-Vis diindikasikan bahwa fraksi A merupakan golongan dihidroflavonol dengan gugus hidroksi pada cincin A yaitu pada atom C-6, C-7 atau C-7, C-8 dan fraksi B merupakan golongan flavanon dengan gugus hidroksi pada cincin A yaitu pada atol C-7 dan C-8. Hasil analisis statistik pada pengukuran kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat dengan dosis 200 mg/kgBB mampu menurunkan kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar yang diberi aktivitas fisik maksimal. Kata kunci : Solanum betaceum, syn, malondialdehid, peroksidasi lemak, flavonoid ABSTRACT : The aims of this study are to determine the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds extracted from  Dutch eggplant seeds in inhibiting lipid peroxidation reactions in the Wistar rat blood plasma and to determine the active flavonoid compounds as antioxidants. The test of antioxidant activity was carried out with DPPH (diphenilpikril hidrazil method and measurment of MDA (malondialdehyde level of blood of the

  14. Syn- to post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic nappes: Structure and thermobarometry of the western Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex (Lavrion, Greece)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Lanari, Pierre; Tarantola, Alexandre; Ponthus, Léandre; Photiades, Adonis; France, Lydéric

    2016-05-01

    significant increase in temperature (∼350 °C). These structural, petrologic and thermobarometric data document the tectonic evolution from construction to destruction of the Hellenic orogenic belt. The steep-dipping blueschist facies foliation, preferentially preserved at high structural level in the middle unit, is considered to reflect tectonic accretion marked by successive burial (D1M1) and syn-orogenic exhumation (D2M2) without thermal relaxation. The transposition-retrogression of the blueschist facies mineral assemblage into a shallow-dipping greenschist facies foliation associated with an increase in temperature corresponds to lateral flow of the thermally relaxed nappe stack (D3M3). The development of a low-angle detachment, accommodating post-orogenic exhumation of the orogenic root, is attributed to gravitational collapse of the Hellenic belt.

  15. Phenolic Constituents, Antioxidant and Preliminary Antimycoplasmic Activities of Leaf Skin and Flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Milagros Rico; Ramírez, Ana S; Orestes Vega-Orellana; Miguel Suárez de Tangil; Aroa López

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extracts of leaf skins and flowers of Aloe vera from the Canary Islands were analyzed for their phenolic profiles and screened for their antioxidant and antimycoplasmic activities. The use of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) allowed the identification of 18 phenolic constituents. Leaf skin extracts were characterized by the abundance of catechin, sinapic acid and quercitrin. Gentisic acid, epicatechin and quercitrin were the most prominent phenolic ...

  16. Crystal structure of the bis(cyclohexylammonium succinate succinic acid salt adduct

    Modou Sarr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt adduct, 2C6H14N+·C4H4O42−·C4H6O4, consists of two cyclohexylammonium cations, one succcinate dianion and one neutral succinic acid molecule. Succinate dianions and succinic acid molecules are self-assembled head-to-tail through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and adopt a syn–syn configuration, leading to a strand-like arrangement along [101]. The cyclohexylammonium cations have a chair conformation and act as multidentate hydrogen-bond donors linking adjacent strands through intermolecular N—H...O interactions to both the succinate and the succinic acid components. This results in two-dimensional supramolecular layered structures lying parallel to (010.

  17. Folic Acid

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  18. Trifluoroselenoacetic acid, CF(3)C(O)SeH: preparation and properties.

    Gómez Castaño, Jovanny A; Romano, Rosana M; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge; Della Védova, Carlos O

    2010-11-01

    The hitherto unknown trifluoroselenoacetic acid was prepared through the reaction of trifluoroacetic acid with Woollins' reagent. The compound was fully characterized by mass spectrometry, (1)H, (19)F, (77)Se, and (13)C NMR, UV-visible, IR and Raman spectroscopy, and the boiling point at 46 °C was estimated from the vapor pressure curve. An IR matrix isolation study revealed the presence of two different syn-anti and anti-syn conformers. The IR spectra of the two stereoisomers have been assigned, aided by DFT, and ab initio calculations. The UV photolysis of Ar matrix isolated CF(3)C(O)SeH yielded CO, OCSe, CF(3)SeH, and CHF(3). Apart from CF(3)SeH, these products were also obtained by vacuum flash-pyrolysis (310 °C) of gaseous CF(3)C(O)SeH. Instead of CF(3)SeH, CF(2)Se, and HF were detected among the pyrolysis products. The different decomposition pathways of CF(3)C(O)SeH are discussed. PMID:20879731

  19. Elevernas uppfattning om teknikämnets användbarhet : Exempel på högstadieelevers syn på teknikämnets relevans för deras vardagsliv

    Amange, Basil

    2016-01-01

    Sammanfattning Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka hur högstadieelever uppfattar teknikämnets användbarhet. Utgångspunkten är vad Skolinspektionen (2014) påpekade i sin granskning av ämnet teknik när det gäller att erbjuda teknikundervisning som grundskoleelever upplever som relevant. Fokusområden har varit elevernas syn på teknikämnets relevans för deras vardagsliv. Metoden för studien är en kvalitativ undersökning som bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer med totalt åtta ele...

  20. Olika synsätt på arbetsplatsförlagd utbildning (APU). : En studie av lokalt samarbete mellan Parkskolan - Näringslivet i Örnsköldsvik.

    Hörnfeldt, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka och analysera vilka förväntningar skolans företrädare har på APU och vad närlingslivets företrädare erbjuder eleverna under APU-perioden. Studien belyste bl a samarbetet mellan skola och näringslivet, närlingslivets organisering och dess synsätt av APU. Studien har genomförts enligt en kombination av kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod via enkäter och intervjuer av skolpersonal och personal vid de företag där elever ur Parkskolans Industriprogram utfört sin a...

  1. "Får jag också vara bebis?" : Om pedagogers roll och syn på miljöns betydelse för barns lek i förskolan

    Bellos, Natali; Arevalo, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Syftet med studien är att synliggöra pedagogernas roll i leken, samt deras uppfattning om miljöns betydelse för leken. För att kunna få en förståelse för pedagogernas roll i barns lek och sin egen syn på miljöns betydelse för leken, genomfördes fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer med två pedagoger på två förskolor. De semistrukturerade intervjuerna innebär att vi hade en frågelista över det specifika temat som skulle beröras och en intervjuguide som kompletterades av följdfrågor (Bryman, 2007)....

  2. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  3. Extending framework based on the linear coordination polymers: Alternative chains containing lanthanum ion and acrylic acid ligand

    One-dimensional alternative chains of two lanthanum complexes: [La(L1)3(CH3OH)(H2O)2].5H2O (L1=anion of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid ) 1 and [La(L2)3(H2O)2].3H2O (L2=anion of trans-3-(4-methyl-benzoyl)-acrylic acid) 2 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C31H36LaN3O17, triclinic, P-1, a=9.8279(4)A, b=11.8278(5)A, c=17.8730(7)A, α=72.7960(10)o, β=83.3820(10)o, γ=67.1650(10)-bar , Z=2, R1=0.0377, wR2=0.0746; for 2: C33H37LaO14, triclinic, P-1, a=8.7174(5)A, b=9.9377(5)A, c=21.153(2)A, α=81.145(2)o, β=87.591(2)o, γ=67.345(5)o, Z=2, R1=0.0869, wR2=0.220. 1 is a rare example of the alternative chain constructed by syn-syn and anti-syn coordination mode of carboxylato ligand arranged along the chain alternatively. La(III) ions in 2 are linked by two η3-O bridges and four bridges (two η2-O and two η3-O) alternatively. Both of the linear coordination polymers grow into two- and three-dimensional networks by packing through extending hydrogen-bond network directed by ligands

  4. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  5. [Gastric Acid].

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  6. Folic acid

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  7. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  8. ACID RAIN

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  9. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  10. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  11. Geochemistry, U–Pb geochronology, Sm–Nd and O isotopes of ca. 50 Ma long Ediacaran High-K Syn-Collisional Magmatism in the Pernambuco Alagoas Domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Francisco da Silva Filho, Adejardo; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Santos, Lucilene; Armstrong, Richard; Van Schmus, William Randall

    2016-07-01

    The Pernambuco Alagoas (PEAL) domain shows the major occurrence of granitic batholiths of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, with Archean to Neoproterozoic range of Nd TDM model ages, giving clues on the role of granites during the Brasiliano orogeny. SHRIMP U/Pb zircon geochronological data for seven granitic intrusions of the PEAL domain divide the studied granitoids into three groups: 1) early-to syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages ca. 635 Ma (Serra do Catú pluton), 2) syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages 610-618 Ma (Santana do Ipanema, Água Branca, Mata Grande and Correntes plutons) and 3) late-to post-collision granitoids with ages of ca. 590 Ma (Águas Belas, and Cachoeirinha plutons). The intrusions of group 1 and 2, except the Mata Grande and Correntes plutons, show Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 Ga, while the granitoids from group 3, and Mata Grande Pluton and Correntes plutons have Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 Ga. The studied granitoids with ages <600 Ma are high-K, calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and those with ages <600 Ma are transitional high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline. The volcanic arc signatures associated with the Paleoproterozoic Nd TDM model ages are interpreted as inherited from the source rocks. The oldest ages and lower Nd TDM model ages are recorded from granitoids intruded in the southwest part of the PEAL domain, suggesting that these intrusions are associated with slab-tearing during convergence between the PEAL and the Sergipano domains. Zircon oxygen isotopic data in some of the studied plutons, together with the available Nd isotopic data suggest that the Brasiliano orogeny strongly reworked older crust, of either Paleoproterozoic or Tonian ages. The studied granitoids are coeval with calc-alkaline granitoids of the Transversal Zone and Sergipano domains and rare high-K calc-alkaline granitoids from the Transversal Zone domain. Such large volumes of high-K granitoids with

  12. Okadaic acid

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  13. Use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) versus ACEI/ARB alone in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Luo, Ying; Yang, Shi-kun; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Ming; Tang, Dan; Liu, Fu-you; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Li

    2015-05-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis; syn. Cordyceps sinensis) has been used in clinical therapy for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) for more than 15 years. O. sinensis is a household name in china and it is available even in supermarket. However, the precise role of O. sinensis has not been fully elucidated with meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the effectiveness of O. sinensis for the treatment of DKD. We identified 60 trials involving 4288 participants. Overall, O. sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB had a better effect when compared to ACEI/ARB alone on 24 h UP (MD = -0.23 g/d, 95% CI: - 0.28 to -0.19, p sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB may have a more beneficial effect on the proteinuria, inflammatory, dyslipidemia status as compared to ACEI/ARB alone in DKD III-IV stage patients, while there is no evidence that O. sinensis could improve the hyperglycemia status. However, with regard to low-quality and significant heterogeneity of included trials, to further verify the current results from this meta-analysis, long-term and well-designed RCTs with high-quality study are warranted to ascertain the long-term efficacy of O. sinensis. PMID:25682973

  14. Syn-collisional adakitic granodiorites formed by fractional crystallization: Insights from their enclosed mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Qumushan pluton, North Qilian Orogen at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Li, Jiyong; Sun, Wenli; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Yan; Shao, Fengli

    2016-04-01

    The Qumushan (QMS) syn-collisional granodiorite, which is located in the eastern section of the North Qilian Orogen at the northern margin of the Greater Tibetan Plateau, has typical adakitic characteristics and also contains abundant mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). This recognition offers an unprecedented insight into the petrogenesis of both the adakitic host granodiorite and the enclosed MMEs. The MMEs and their host granodiorites share many characteristics in common, including identical crystallization age (~ 430 Ma), same mineralogy, similar mineral chemistry and whole-rock isotopic compositions, indicating their genetic link. The MMEs are most consistent with being of cumulate origin formed at earlier stages of the same magmatic system that produced the QMS adakitic granodiorite. Subsequent replenishment of adakitic magmas could have disturbed the cumulate piles as "MMEs" dispersed in the adakitic granodiorite host during emplacement. The geochemical data and petrogenetic modeling of trace elements suggest that the QMS adakitic host granodiorite is most consistent with fractional crystallization dominated by the mineral assemblage of the MMEs. The parental magma for the QMS granodiorite is best explained as resulting from partial melting of the ocean crust together with recycled terrigenous sediments during continental collision, which may have also experienced interaction with mantle peridotite during ascent.

  15. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  16. Ascorbic Acid

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  17. Stearic Acid

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  18. Mefenamic Acid

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]·0.5anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2

    纪顺俊; 虞虹; 郎建平

    2002-01-01

    The reactions of [PPh4][(η5-C5Me5)WS3] with equimolar Hg2Cl2 in DMF produced syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]@0.5anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2] 1. The structure of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group Pī (No. 2) with a = 8.400(2), b = 8.729(2), c = 23.329(8) ?, α = 93.329(8), β = 93.446(2), γ = 96.673(1)°, V = 1725.1(5) ?3, Z = 2, C30H45S6W3, Mr = 1149.60, Dc = 2.213 g/cm3, F(000) = 1086, μ (MoKα) = 10.37 cm-1 and T = 193 K. With the use of 6199 observed reflections (I > 3.0σ(I)), the structure was refined to R = 0.053 and wR = 0.065. 1 consists of one syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2] and one-half of anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]. Both syn- and anti-isomer contain a four-membered W2(μ-S)2 ring. The W-W distances of the syn and anti forms are 2.8973(5) and 2.9113(8) , respectively.

  20. Solvent-Free Biginelli Condensation using Tungstate Sulfuric Acid: a Powerful and Reusable Catalyst for Selective Synthesis

    Rezvan Rezaee Nasab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA has been prepared and used as a recyclable catalyst for the Biginelli syn-thesis of some biologically active quinazolinones/thiones under solvent-free conditions. This method has advantages such as the avoidance of organic solvents, high yield of pure products, short reaction times, and operational simplicity.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rightsReceived: 28th April 2014; Revised: 15th May 2014; Accepted: 26th May 2014[ How to Cite: Nasab, R.R., Karami, B., Khodabakhshi, S. (2014. Selective Solvent‐free Biginelli Condensation using Tungstate Sulfuric Acid as Powerful and Reusable Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 142-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6794.148-154][ Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6794.148-154

  1. Preferential deprotonation and conformational stability of dicarboxylic acids: A packing effect

    Barooah, Nilotpal; Singh, W. Marjit; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2008-03-01

    Crystal structures of a series of salts of (6-carboxymethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxo-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1 H-pyrrolo[3,4- f]isoindol-2-yl)-acetic acid ( 1) and 2-carboxymethyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-isoinodole-5-carboxylic acid ( 2) with different polynuclear nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds, namely, quinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline and 8-hydroxyquinoline are determined. In the case of salt of 1 with quinolinium and 1,10-phenanthrolinium cations syn disposition between the carboxylate anion and carboxylic acid groups is observed; whereas in the case of the 8-hydroxyquinolinium salt of 1, it is the anti disposition. It is also found that the solid state structure of 1,10-phenanthrolinium salt of 2 has deprotonation at the aromatic end, whereas in 8-hydroxy-quinolinium salt of 2 is formed by deprotonation of carboxylic acid group on the aliphatic side. The dicarboxylic acid 2 forms 1:2 co-crystals with quinoline. From crystallographic study it is shown that the weak interactions become prominent in stabilising the observed conformers and also in stabilising specific deprotonated species.

  2. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  3. Understanding Acid Rain

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  4. Journalisters syn på journalistisk etik

    Roger Buch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, moral and values have gained much attention in the past decades, which also have created focus on journalism ethics, particularly because of the power and potentially negative consequences journalism can have. A survey with members of the Danish Union of Journalist show that, there is a wide spread consciousness on journalism ethics, and a rather high support for some selected ethical questions, but also that many experience ethical problems in media in general and on their own journalistic workplaces. The ethical consciousness is primarily created through own reflections and faults, dialogues with and observations of colleagues in the daily work. The leader and management level on the workplace, and the especially The Press Council plays on the contrary a very little or directly marginal role.

  5. Rapport om DanDiaSyn-projektet

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Hagedorn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9......Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9...

  6. Dehydroabietic acid

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Transfer/transform relationships in continental rifts and margins and their control on syn- and post-rift denudation: the case of the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Pik, Raphael; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Denele, Yoann; Razin, Philippe; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Khanbari, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquist features in continental rifts and margins, as well as transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present the structural study of such a structure (the Hadibo Transfer Zone, HTZ) from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, in Socotra Island, Yemen. There, from field data, the HTZ is interpreted as being reactivated, obliquely to divergence, since early rifting stages. Then, from a short review of transfer/transform fault zone geometries worldwide, we derive a classification in terms of relative importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd order), geometry, and location. We suggest that the HTZ is a 1st order transfer fault zone as it controls the initiation of a 1st order oceanic transform fault zone. We then investigate the denudation history of the region surrounding the HTZ in order to highlight the interplay of normal and transfer/transform tectonic structures in the course of rift evolution. Samples belong from two distinct East and West domains of the Socotra Island, separated by the (HTZ). Tectonic denudation started during the Priabonian-Rupelian along flat normal faults and removed all the overlying sedimentary formations, allowing basement exhumation up to the surface (~ 1.2 - 1.6 km of exhumation). Forward t-T modelling of the data requires a slightly earlier date and shorter period for development of rifting in the E-Socotra domain (38 - 34 Ma), compared to the W-Socotra domain (34 - 25 Ma), which suggests that the HTZ was already active at that time. A second major event of basement cooling and exhumation (additional ~ 0.7 - 1 km), starting at about ~ 20 Ma, has only been recorded on the E-Socotra domain. This second denudation phase significantly post-dates local rifting period but appears synchronous with Ocean Continent Transition (OCT: 20 - 17.6 Ma). This late syn-OCT uplift is maximum close to the HTZ, in the wedge of hangingwall delimited by this transfer system and the steep north-dipping normal faults that accommodated the vertical

  8. Retarded acid emulsion

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  9. Plasma amino acids

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  10. Acid Lipase Disease

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  11. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of a series of 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues: new insight into the structure-activity relation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 5, 6, and 7

    Sagot, Emanuelle; Pickering, Darryl S; Pu, Xiaosui;

    2008-01-01

    ( S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) activating the plethora of ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). In this paper, we present a chemo-enzymatic strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of fi...

  15. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  16. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    ... Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other ... ACIDS are as follows:Improving mental development or growth in infants. Adding arachidonic acid (an omega-6 ...

  17. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    ... experience a reaction during the first few days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection. Symptoms ... symptoms may begin during the first 3 days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection and ...

  18. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  19. Plasma amino acids

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  1. Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Catalysis of Dinuclear Cd(Ⅱ) Complexes Bridged by Unusual (N,O,O')-Coordinated a-Amino Acids

    DENG Dong-sheng; WANG Li; PEI Ya-mei; FENG Lu; LIU Chang-lin

    2012-01-01

    Four dinuclear amino acid cadmium(Ⅱ) complexes [Cd2(tren)2(dl-alaninato)](ClO4)3·H2O(Ⅰ),[Cd2(tren)2·(l-alaninato)](ClO4)3·H2O(Ⅱ),[Cd2(tren)2(dl-phenylalaninato)](ClO4)3(Ⅲ) and [Cd2(tren)2(l-phenylalaninato)]·(ClO4)3(Ⅳ),constructed from mixed ligands of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine(tren) and racemic or natural amino acids(amino acids=dl- or l-alanine,and dl- or l-phenylalanine),have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography.The structural analysis of complexes Ⅰ and Ⅲ reveals that the cadmium centers are coordinated by one tren ligand and one amino acid molecule with the unusual (N,O,O')-bridged mode,resulting in asymmetric chromophores of CdN4O and CdN5O in complex Ⅰ,CdN4O2 and CdN5O in complex Ⅲ,respectively.The utility of the four complexes as efficient water-compatible Lewis acid catalysts for the direct aldol reaction in water was examined.The reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding β-hydroxy ketones in up to 99% yield.Moreover,the diastereoselectivity of the reaction favors the formation of the syn-isomers.

  2. Ätstörningar - högkÀnsliga flickors problem? En studie om den finlÀndska vÃ¥rdens syn pÃ¥ Àtstörningar

    Ström, Sandra Ingrid Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Ätstörningar Àr en av de vanligaste psykiska diagnoserna som stÀlls pÃ¥ unga flickor idag. I Finland Àr vÃ¥rden av Àtstörningar relativt splittrad och Àtstörningspatienter vÃ¥rdas bÃ¥de inom den offentliga och den privata vÃ¥rden pÃ¥ bland annat psykiska och somatiska avdelningar samt specialiserade kliniker. I denna avhandling undersöks den finlÀndska vÃ¥rdpersonalens syn pÃ¥ Àtstörningar. Syftet Àr att undersöka hur allmÀnlÀkare samt specialiserad vÃ¥rdpersonal som arbetar ...

  3. Högläsningens effekter på elevers läsförmåga : En kvalitativ studie om lärares syn på högläsning och hur de använder den i undervisningen

    Augustsson, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärare använder sig av högläsning i undervisning för att främja elevernas läsförmåga och hur detta syns i elevernas aktiviteter. Teorin som studien bygger på är det sociokulturella perspektivet med ursprung i Lev Vygotskijs teorier om lärande, utveckling och språk. I studien har fem lärare som arbetar i årskurserna F–3 blivit intervjuade med en semistrukturerad intervju. Lärarna har även blivit observerade under en av sina högläsningslektioner för att s...

  4. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  5. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  6. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection assays

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  13. Nucleic acid detection kits

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  14. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  15. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  16. Bile acid sequestrants

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid and...... glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption of the...... enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  18. Fatty acids and epigenetics

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to assess the findings of recent studies on the effects of fatty acids on epigenetic process and the role of epigenetics in regulating fatty acid metabolism. Recent findings The DNA methylation status of the Fads2 promoter was increased in the liver of the offspring of mice fed an ?-linolenic acid-enriched diet during pregnancy. In rats, increasing total maternal fat intake during pregnancy and lactation induced persistent hypermethyl...

  19. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  20. Azetidinic amino acids

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  1. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  2. The acid rain primer

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  3. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  4. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth of...

  5. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  6. Science of acid rain

    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a...

  9. Locked nucleic acid

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...

  14. Characterization of acid tars

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  15. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    . However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  16. Canadian acid rain policy

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... of 2,5-anhydrides and not the expected 2-acetamido-2-deoxy aldose phenylhydrazones. The acetylated phenylhydrazones were found to eliminate acetic acid when heated in aqueous ethanol and 1-phenylazoalkenes could be isolated by crystallisation. By this method the 17, 20, 23 and 25 were prepared from...... aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79 and...

  18. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  19. N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid-based lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, magnetism and quantum Monte Carlo studies

    Zhuang Guilin, E-mail: glzhuang@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Wulin [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Zheng Jun [Center of Modern Experimental Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Yu Huiyou [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang Jianguo, E-mail: jgw@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers have been obtained through the hydrothermal reaction of N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid (H{sub 3}SIDA) and Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Gd, 4). Crystal structure analysis exhibits that lanthanide ions affect the coordination number, bond length and dimension of compounds 1-4, which reveal that their structure diversity can be attributed to the effect of lanthanide contraction. Furthermore, the combination of magnetic measure with quantum Monte Carlo(QMC) studies exhibits that the coupling parameters between two adjacent Gd{sup 3+} ions for anti-anti and syn-anti carboxylate bridges are -1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and -5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}, respectively, which reveals weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 4. - Graphical abstract: Four lanthanide coordination polymers with N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid were obtained under hydrothermal condition and reveal the weak antiferromagnetic coupling between two Gd{sup 3+} ions by Quantum Monte Carlo studies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four lanthanide coordination polymers of H{sub 3}SIDA ligand were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanide ions play an important role in their structural diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measure exhibits that compound 4 features antiferromagnetic property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum Monte Carlo studies reveal the coupling parameters of two Gd{sup 3+} ions.

  20. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  1. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  2. Folic acid in diet

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  3. Citric acid urine test

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  4. Stomach acid test

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  5. Azelaic Acid Topical

    ... pores and by decreasing production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of ... acid controls acne and rosacea but does not cure these conditions. It may take 4 weeks or ...

  6. Acid rain: An overview

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  7. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  8. Utilization of acid tars

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  9. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of...

  10. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  11. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  12. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  13. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  14. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  15. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  16. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  17. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  18. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  19. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Je Min Lee; Hyungjae Lee; SeokBeom Kang; Woo Jung Park

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human phys...

  20. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  1. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  2. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Anna Bilska; Lidia Włodek

    2002-01-01

    Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2) of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  3. Amino acid analysis.

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  4. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...... separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  5. [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide].

    Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, S

    1999-10-01

    Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. They are the antipellagra vitamin essential to many animals for growth and health. In human being, niacin is believed necessary together with other vitamins for the prevention and cure of pellagra. Niacin is widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver, fish, yeast and cereal grains. Nicotinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme NAD and NADP. Some of the most understood metabolic processes that involve niacin are glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and respiration. Niacin is also related to the following diseases: Hartnup disease; blue diaper syndrome; tryptophanuria; hydroxykynureninuria; xanthurenic aciduria; Huntington's disease. PMID:10540864

  6. Whither Acid Rain?

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and s...

  7. A very acid rocket

    Benoit Browaeys, D.

    1996-04-01

    The french rocket Ariane is the cause of environmental pollution. These effects are discussed in this article. Chloric acid and aluminium are in question: chloric acid is responsible of leaves necrosis and pulmonary diseases among the rats. For the man, the danger would be that drinking water could be contaminated by aluminium, which is neuro toxic with serious chronic effects. It is implicated in Alzheimer disease. But no studies has been made to search aluminium in drinking water of Sinnamary and Kourou. (N.C.). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  9. Whither Acid Rain?

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  10. Boric acid concentration monitoring

    Boric acid concentration was measured by thermal neutron absorption in the study of the boric acid sorption and desorption curves on an anion exchange resin. Ra-Be 18.5 GBq and Am-Be 111 GBq sources and water as a moderator were used. The SNM 12 cylindrical corona detector with 10B placed in the middle of the measuring cell was used for neutron flux measurement. The HP 9600 E computer system was used for measured data collection and evaluation. (Ha)

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    Calder Philip C

    2004-01-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites) and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and ...

  12. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  13. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  14. The Acid Rain Game.

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  15. The Acid Rain Debate.

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  16. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  17. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  18. Lactic acid and lactates

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  19. Acid dip for dosemeter

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  20. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  1. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  2. Origin of fatty acids

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  3. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. PMID:22296174

  4. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  5. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  6. Crystal structure of (2',3,6'-tri-chloro-biphenyl-2-yl)boronic acid tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate.

    Durka, Krzysztof; Kliś, Tomasz; Serwatowski, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C12H8BCl3O2·C4H8O, crystallizes as a tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate. The boronic acid group adopts a syn-anti conformation and is significantly twisted along the carbon-boron bond by 69.2 (1)°, due to considerable steric hindrance from the 2',6'-di-chloro-phenyl group that is located ortho to the boronic acid substituent. The phenyl rings of the biphenyl are almost perpendicular to one another, with a dihedral angle of 87.9 (1)° between them. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O inter-actions to form centrosymmetric dimers with R 2 (2)(8) motifs, which have recently been shown to be energetically very favourable. The hy-droxy groups are in an anti conformation and are also engaged in hydrogen-bonding inter-actions with the O atom of the tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecule. Cl⋯Cl halogen-bonding inter-actions [Cl⋯Cl = 3.464 (1) Å] link neigbouring dimers into chains running along [010]. Further aggregation occurs due to an additional Cl⋯Cl halogen bond [Cl⋯Cl = 3.387 (1) Å]. PMID:26870407

  7. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  8. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  9. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  10. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  11. Synthesis of structurally defined scaffolds for bivalent ligand display based on glucuronic acid anilides. The degree of tertiary amide isomerism and folding depends on the configuration of a glycosyl azide.

    Tosin, Manuela; Murphy, Paul V

    2005-05-13

    [structures: see text] Syntheses and structural analyses of bivalent carbohydrates based on anilides of glucuronic acid are described. Secondary anilides predominantly adopted the Z-anti structure; there is also evidence for population of the Z-syn isomer. Bivalent tertiary anilides displayed two signal sets in their NMR spectra, consistent with the presence of (i) a major isomer where both amides have E configurations (EE) and (ii) a minor isomer where one amide is E and the other Z (EZ). Qualitative NOE/ROE spectroscopic studies in solution support the proposal that the anti conformation is preferred for E amides. The crystal structure of one bivalent tertiary anilide showed E-anti and E-syn structural isomers; intramolecular carbohydrate-carbohydrate stacking was observed and mediated by carbonyl-pyranose, azide-azide, and pyranose-aromatic interactions. The EE to EZ isomer ratio, or the degree of folding, for tertiary amides, was greatest for a bivalent compound containing two alpha-glycosyl azide groups; this was enhanced in water, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are partially but not wholly responsible. Computational methods predicted azide-aromatic (N...H-C interaction) and azide-azide interactions for folded isomers. The close contact of the azide and aromatic protons (N...H-C interaction) was observed upon examination of the close packing in the crystal structure of a related monomer. It is proposed that the alpha-azide group is more optimally aligned, compared to the beta-azide, to facilitate interaction and minimize the surface area of the hydrophobic groups exposed to water, and this leads to the increased folding. The alkylation of bivalent secondary anilides induces a switch from Z to E amide that alters the scaffold orientation. The synthesis of a bivalent mannoside, based on a secondary anilide scaffold, for investigation of mannose-binding receptor cross-linking and lattice formation is described. PMID:15876103

  12. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  13. Studies on terreic acid.

    Yamamoto, H; Moriyama, K; Jinnouchi, H; Yagishita, K

    1980-03-01

    It was found that Aspergillus sp. No. Y-8980 which was isolated from a soil sample collected at Yoron Island in Kagoshima Prefecture belonged to Aspergillus terreus group by morphological observation. The active substance produced by the strain was obtained with a high yield in sucrose-yeast extract medium and extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol at pH 2.4 approximately 2.6 from the culture broth. The substance was crystallized from chloroform and ethyl acetate after charcoal treatment of the crude crystal. From various physico-chemical properties, it was found that the substance was identical to terreic acid. Terreic acid showed MICs of 25 approximately 100 mcg/ml, 12.5 mcg/ml and 50 mcg/ml against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas citri, respectively, but it did not control Pseudomonas, fungi and yeast. The LD50 was 75 mg/kg i.p. and i.v. in mice. With regards to the anti-tumor effect, the morphological degeneration on HeLa cells (human carcinoma cells) was observed in the concentrations of more than 6.25 mcg/ml of terreic acid. An increase of body weight of mice caused by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was not definitely observed by the daily administration of 150 mcg of terreic acid per mouse for 8 consecutive days. Above showed the enough survival effect in dd mice implanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, and the effect also was demonstrated by anatomies of mice. PMID:7190624

  14. Electrochemistry of nucleic acids

    Paleček, Emil; Bartošík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 3427-3481. ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nucleic acids electrochemistry * DNA biosensors * DNA damage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 41.298, year: 2012

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    ... niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do ... for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, ...

  17. ACID ROCK DRAINAGE

    Anca Ionce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acid rock drainage (ARD is an particularly important aspect for the evaluation of the decantation ponds’ safety, and which has been only once taken into consideration at the Tarnicioara decantation pond, year 2002, as a consequence of the apparition of a strong seepage on the deposit’s dump, that has chemically de-purified the water from the river Brateasa. We have observed ARD, which implies the release of acid solutions from the mining sterile deposits, from the underground mining works and from the quarries, in the following tailings dams: Tarnicioara, Valea Strajii, Poarta Veche- which served Tarniţa Preparation Enterprise and in the Dealu Negru and Paraul Cailor ponds- which, at their time served Fundu Moldovei Preparation Enterprise, both during the period of their functioning and the period after their closure. For the decantation pond Dumitrelu which served the Calimani preparation enterprise, acid seepages from the deposit were mentioned in a study made by SC ICPM SA Baia Mare in 1993. Subsequently to the closure of the objective such seepage did not take place anymore. Instead, by raining, there is a frequent plant sterile dragging from the contour retaining wall down to the trouble pond, situated upstream.

  18. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  19. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  20. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Anna Bilska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2 of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  1. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel' tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  2. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  3. Fælles syn på sagen

    Badsberg, Niels Andersson; Metcalf-Rinaldo, Oliver; Eimerdal, Stine; Moodley, David Benjamin; Christensen, Jesper Ørstrup; Johansen, Amanda Hofmann; Ohland-Andersen, Mads; Herskind, Julian

    2013-01-01

    This research project revolves around a wish for greater inclusion of visually impaired people in our society. The main objective of the project is the development of a design concept which can facilitate this inclusion. To establish the best possible conditions to achieve this we find our primary methodology within the school of Participatory Design, thus we aim to include the visual impaired people in several parts of the design process. The study shows through a phenomenological and hermen...

  4. Lärarens syn kring elevers motivation till matematiken

    Matti, Nuha

    2014-01-01

    This survey is a case study with the purpose to find out the teacher´s perceptions about students´ motivation to mathematics. Further this study aims for the teacher´s vision on how they consider students´ motivation in mathematics in secondary school. To collect research data I have used semi structured interviews with four secondary school teachers. The result constructs according to categories that depict the purpose of the study. These categories define students’ motivation like achieving...

  5. Socialsekreterares syn på insatsen kontaktperson : en kvalitativ studie

    Levin, Alice; Trepp, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This essay describes social workers view on the action contact person. The study was qualitative and six social workers were interviewed on the topic. The effort contact person were chosen as the object for this study since it is the most common action given to young people, despite the lack of research about this subject. The result was analyzed out of conduct action theory and the theory of street level bureaucrats as well as scientific research in this area. The result of this study shows ...

  6. SynCoPation: Interactive Synthesis-Coupled Sound Propagation.

    Rungta, Atul; Schissler, Carl; Mehra, Ravish; Malloy, Chris; Lin, Ming; Manocha, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in sound simulation has focused on either sound synthesis or sound propagation, and many standalone algorithms have been developed for each domain. We present a novel technique for coupling sound synthesis with sound propagation to automatically generate realistic aural content for virtual environments. Our approach can generate sounds from rigid-bodies based on the vibration modes and radiation coefficients represented by the single-point multipole expansion. We present a mode-adaptive propagation algorithm that uses a perceptual Hankel function approximation technique to achieve interactive runtime performance. The overall approach allows for high degrees of dynamism - it can support dynamic sources, dynamic listeners, and dynamic directivity simultaneously. We have integrated our system with the Unity game engine and demonstrate the effectiveness of this fully-automatic technique for audio content creation in complex indoor and outdoor scenes. We conducted a preliminary, online user-study to evaluate whether our Hankel function approximation causes any perceptible loss of audio quality. The results indicate that the subjects were unable to distinguish between the audio rendered using the approximate function and audio rendered using the full Hankel function in the Cathedral, Tuscany, and the Game benchmarks. PMID:26780813

  7. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  8. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  9. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  10. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  11. Self-neutralizing well acidizing

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1974-07-30

    A process for acidizing a subterranean region by contacting it with an acidic solution is improved by dissolving in the solution a pH-increasing reactant that subsequently adjusts the pH of the solution to a selected relatively neutral value. Urea is an example of the acid neutralizer. (10 claims)

  12. Differential Local Connectivity and Neuroinflammation Profiles in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus in the Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism.

    Codagnone, Martín Gabriel; Podestá, María Fernanda; Uccelli, Nonthué Alejandra; Reinés, Analía

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impaired social interaction, communication deficit and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Neuroinflammation and synaptic alterations in several brain areas have been suggested to contribute to the physiopathology of ASD. Although the limbic system plays an important role in the functions found impaired in ASD, reports on these areas are scarce and results controversial. In the present study we searched in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus of rats exposed to the valproic acid (VPA) model of ASD for early structural and molecular changes, coincident in time with the behavioral alterations. After confirming delayed growth and maturation in VPA rats, we were able to detect decreased exploratory activity and social interaction at an early time point (postnatal day 35). In mPFC, although typical cortical column organization was preserved in VPA animals, we found that interneuronal space was wider than in controls. Hippocampal CA3 (cornu ammonis 3) pyramidal layer and the granular layer of the dentate gyrus both showed a disorganized spatial arrangement in VPA animals. Neuronal alterations were accompanied with increased tomato lectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostainings both in the mPFC and hippocampus. In the latter region, the increased GFAP immunoreactivity was CA3 specific. At the synaptic level, while mPFC from VPA animals showed increased synaptophysin (SYN) immunostaining, a SYN deficit was found in all hippocampal subfields. Additionally, both the mPFC and the hippocampus of VPA rats showed increased neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) immunostaining together with decreased levels of its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM). Interestingly, these changes were more robust in the CA3 hippocampal subfield. Our results indicate that exploratory and social deficits correlate with region-dependent neuronal disorganization and reactive

  13. Ionic liquid supported acid-catalysed esterification of lauric acid

    Ionic Liquid (IL) based on 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf2) under acidic condition was used as catalyst for the esterification reaction of fatty acid. Various acids namely sulphuric acid, perchloric acid, p-toulene sulphonic acid and various chloride salts such as zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) immobilized in ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 gave acidic ILs. These acidic ILs were tested as catalysts for esterification reactions. Esterification of alcohol (methanol) with fatty acid (lauric acid) using ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 combined with H2SO4 (BMI.NTf2(H2SO4)) gave high activity (>85 %) and selectivity (100 %) observed over a period of 2 hours reaction with reaction temperature 70 degree Celsius. The ester became easily separated due to IL forming biphasic with product after the reaction where ester accumulated as the upper phase and IL with water produced after reaction at lower phase. Catalytic activities comparison also be studied between acidic ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 with acidic ionic liquid ChCl.2ZnCl2 and conventional acid catalyst. These ILs were characterised by using FTIR, NMR and TGA. Results from FTIR were showed no significant difference between ILs with ILs in acidic condition. The TGA curve show BMI.NTf2 thermals decomposition is ≥400 degree Celsius but when BMI.NTf2 combination with H2SO4, TGA curve show weight loss increase and becomes unstable. The advantages of ILs as catalyst are clean process and green chemistry due to its behaviour such as non-volatile, no loss of solvent through evaporation and reduced environmentally impact. This ILs-catalyst system can be recycle for further reaction. (author)

  14. New manganese (II) structures derived from 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetism

    One novel coordination polymer [Mn2(μ-2,6-DCBA)3(μ2-CH3CO2)2(2H2O)]·2H2O (2,6-DCBA = 2,6-dichlorobenzoato) (compound 1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of bridging ligand 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid and manganese acetate tetrahydrate. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that this compound crystallizes in space group P21/c with a = 10.1547(7), b = 24.5829(2), c = 12.6606(2) Å, β = 93.707(3), V = 3153.9(3) Å3 and Z = 4. The Mn(II) ions are connected by 2,6-DCBA and acetate group in μ-bridging mode to form 1D chains. Two water molecules are in the inter-layer space forming strong hydrogen bonds originating 2D layer structure. The preparation of this compound is very sensitive to the synthesis conditions, mainly to the solution pH and solvent yielding other two compounds 2 and 3. In compound 1 Mn(II) atoms in octahedral coordination are arranged in a zig–zag chain, with a trimeric structure repeated periodically along the chain, giving two exchange parameters: J1 related to a syn–syn bond; and J2 related to a bond of type anti–anti. A theoretical model was developed and then fitted to the magnetic susceptibility data, revealing an antiferromagnetic arrangement along the chain

  15. IRMPD spectroscopy of protonated S-nitrosocaptopril, a biologically active, synthetic amino acid.

    Coletti, Cecilia; Re, Nazzareno; Scuderi, Debora; Maître, Philippe; Chiavarino, Barbara; Fornarini, Simonetta; Lanucara, Francesco; Sinha, Rajeev K; Crestoni, Maria Elisa

    2010-11-01

    S-Nitrosocaptopril, a biologically active S-nitrosothiol, is generated as protonated species and isolated in the gas phase by electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) or ion-trap mass spectrometry. The structural and IR spectroscopic characterization of protonated S-nitrosocaptopril (SNOcapH(+)) is aided by the comparative study of the parent species lacking the NO feature, namely protonated captopril. The study is accomplished by methodologies based on tandem mass spectrometry, namely by energy resolved collision-induced dissociation and infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, backed by density functional theory calculations. IRMPD spectra have been obtained both in the 1000-1900 cm(-1) fingerprint range, using a beamline of the infrared free electron laser (IR-FEL) at the Centre Laser Infrarouge d'Orsay (CLIO), and in the O-H and N-H stretching region (2900-3700 cm(-1)) using the tunable IR radiation of a tabletop parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/OPA) laser source. The structural features of the ion have been ascertained by comparison of the experimental IRMPD spectra with the IR transitions calculated for the lowest energy isomers. Evidence is obtained that protonation occurs at the amide carbonyl oxygen which is found to be the thermodynamically most basic site. However, SNOcapH(+) is present as a thermally equilibrated mixture of low-energy structures, with a major contribution of the most stable isomer characterized by a trans relationship of the positively charged OH group with respect to the carboxylic acid functionality on the adjacent proline ring and by an anti conformation at the S-N (partial) double bond, though the energy difference with the analogous trans-syn isomer is less than 1 kJ mol(-1). The highly diagnostic N-O stretching mode has been unambiguously identified, which may be regarded as an informative probe for S-nitrosation features in more complex, biologically active

  16. New manganese (II) structures derived from 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetism

    Esteves, D. [CICECO, Departamento de Química Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Tedesco, J.C.D.; Pedro, S.S.; Cruz, C.; Reis, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Brandão, P., E-mail: pbrandao@ua.pt [CICECO, Departamento de Química Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    One novel coordination polymer [Mn{sub 2}(μ-2,6-DCBA){sub 3}(μ{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}(2H{sub 2}O)]·2H{sub 2}O (2,6-DCBA = 2,6-dichlorobenzoato) (compound 1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of bridging ligand 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid and manganese acetate tetrahydrate. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that this compound crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/c with a = 10.1547(7), b = 24.5829(2), c = 12.6606(2) Å, β = 93.707(3), V = 3153.9(3) Å{sup 3} and Z = 4. The Mn(II) ions are connected by 2,6-DCBA and acetate group in μ-bridging mode to form 1D chains. Two water molecules are in the inter-layer space forming strong hydrogen bonds originating 2D layer structure. The preparation of this compound is very sensitive to the synthesis conditions, mainly to the solution pH and solvent yielding other two compounds 2 and 3. In compound 1 Mn(II) atoms in octahedral coordination are arranged in a zig–zag chain, with a trimeric structure repeated periodically along the chain, giving two exchange parameters: J{sub 1} related to a syn–syn bond; and J{sub 2} related to a bond of type anti–anti. A theoretical model was developed and then fitted to the magnetic susceptibility data, revealing an antiferromagnetic arrangement along the chain.

  17. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  20. 油酸三乙醇胺皂化物的合成%Synthesis and Application of Oleic Acid Esterified Triethanolamine

    甘黎明

    2015-01-01

    The single factor controlling variables method,with saponification value after deducting acid value evalu-ation,study on the reaction ratio,reaction temperature,reaction time on synthesis of triethanolamine oleate.The results show that the oleic acid and triethanolamine ratio of 1.2∶1 (mol /mol),a temperature of 130 ℃,reaction time was 3h,the most abundant system of oleic acid esterified triethanolamine reaction equilibrium.The use of syn-thetic esterified oleic acid triethanolamine deployment of water -based lubricants meets the relevant requirements.%采用单因素控制变量法,以扣除酸值后的皂化值为评价指标,研究了反应配比、反应温度、反应时间对合成油酸三乙醇胺皂化物的影响。结果表明,油酸和三乙醇胺配比为1.2∶1(mol /mol)、温度为130℃、反应时间为3h 时,反应达到平衡时体系中油酸三乙醇胺皂化物的含量最多。利用合成的油酸三乙醇胺皂化物调配成的水基润滑油符合相关要求。

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    Calder Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids act as arachidonic acid antagonists. Components of both natural and acquired immunity, including the production of key inflammatory cytokines, can be affected by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although some of the effects of n-3 fatty acids may be brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, it is possible that these fatty acids might elicit some of their effects by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms. Such n-3 fatty acid-induced effects may be of use as a therapy for acute and chronic inflammation, and for disorders that involve an inappropriately-activated immune response.

  2. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO3, HNO3, and HNO3-H2SO4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H2SO4, HNO3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H2SO4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  3. Labeled bile acids

    A general short procedure for the introduction of 13C to the side chain of bile acids is described. Suitable (Z)-pregn-17(20)-enes are key intermediates, while the isotope is introduced by an ene reaction with [1,2,3-13C3]-methyl propiolate. For the labeling with tritium, the unlabeled product of the ene synthesis, a Δsup(5,16,22)-triene was saturated selectively at 16,17 and 22,23 with tritium gas. (author)

  4. N-(4-Isocyanophenylsuccinamic acid

    Lauren E. Burnham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H10N2O3, inversion-related molecules are connected by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds. With the exception of the atoms in the carboxylic acid group, the non-H atoms are roughly coplanar with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.270 (1 Å for the C atom to which the carboxylic group is attached. The C atom of the carboxylic group lies 1.730 (2 Å from the mean plane.

  5. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    B. Syama Sundar; P.S.Radhakrishna murti

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation wi...

  7. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  8. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  9. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  10. Caro's acid - its introduction to uranium acid leaching in Australia

    After extensive testing and plant trials to establish the benefits of Caro's acid (H2SO5) as an alternative oxidant, Queensland Mines Limited decided to replace pyrolusite with Caro's acid in its acid leach uranium treatment plant at Nabarlek. The decision was based on the reagent savings and environmental gains associated with the removal of manganese from the process liquors, as well as the labour savings and improved oxidation reduction potential control possible in leaching using the Caro's acid system. Some changes in operating parameters were necessary with the introduction of Caro's acid to the treatment plant. Operating results have confirmed the relationship between oxidant demand and uranium content of ore established during the trials. Acid savings have been as predicted from the plant trials. The major saving has been of hydrated lime required for tailings neutralisation

  11. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  12. Amino Acid Decarboxylase Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Pelin ERTÜRKMEN; Turhan, İlkay; Öner, Zübeyde

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms which have decarboxylase activity can form biogenic amine by enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids in foods. Histamine poisoning results from consumption of foods typically certain types of fish and cheeses that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Therefore, decarboxylase activity is an important problem at the selection of lactic acid bacteria as a starter culture in fermented products. In this study, decarboxylase activities of 161 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain...

  13. Synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts

    Tao Geng; Qiu Xiao Li; Ya Jie Jiang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts was investigated.The results showed that the catalytic activity and selectivity of zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(6)(pore diameter 6 nm)is better than that of commonly used hypophosphorous acid,zirconium sulfate supported on MCM-41 and zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(9)(pore diameter 9 nm).

  14. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  15. Molecular Simulation of Naphthenic Acid Removal on Acidic Catalyst Ⅱ. Experimental results of catalytic decarboxylation over acidic catalysts

    Fu Xiaoqin; Tian Songbai; Hou Shuandi; Longjun; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    The energy barriers of thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids and catalytic decarboxylation reactions of Br(o)nsted acid and Lewis acid were analyzed using molecular simulation technology.Compared with thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids, the decarboxylation reactions by acid catalysts were easier to occur. The decarboxylaton effect by Lewis acid was better than Br(o)nsted acid. The mechanisms of catalytic decarboxylation over acid catalyst were also verified by experiments on a fixed bed and a fluidized bed, the experimental results showed that the rate of acid removal could reach up to 97% over the acidic catalyst at a temperature above 400℃.

  16. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained by...... calculation of retention indices. For closer identification of halogenated FAMEs, mass spectrometry (MS) is very useful, in particular when employing the chemical ionisation mode. MS identification, however, is highly facilitated if halogenated species are first indicated by element-selective methods....

  17. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    Lee, Ji-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-im...

  18. Allelopathic Interactions Involving Phenolic Acids

    Blum, U.

    1996-01-01

    A major concern regarding allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids in no-till systems pertains to the fact that concentrations of individual phenolic acids recoverable from field soils are well below levels required for inhibition of germination and seedling growth in laboratory bioassays. Field soils contain a variety of phenolic acids as well as other toxic and nontoxic organic compounds that are available to interact with seeds and roots; whereas in laboratory bioassays, with few...

  19. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

  20. Kojic acid in organic synthesis

    ZIRAK, MARYAM; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The reactions of kojic acid in organic synthesis are reviewed. The aim of this review is to cover the literature up to the end of 2014, showing the distribution of publications involving kojic acid chemistry in the synthesis of various pyrone containing compounds, pyridine and pyridone heterocycles, and also other organic compounds. First, introductory text about the preparation, biological, and industrial applications, and the chemical properties of kojic acid is given. Then its uses in orga...

  1. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized. PMID:11499030

  2. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  3. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  4. The preparation and its believable effect of pentavalent ruenium-188 dimercaptosuccinic acid in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Background: Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) forms a complex with pentavalent rhenium-188, known as 188Re(V)-DMSA. This radiopharmaceutical has been shown to localize in a number of tumour types, most notably medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and in bone metastases and other bone lesions. We have previously shown that 186Re(V)-DMSA could be strongly uptaked by the lesion of MTC similar to that observed in the images of 99mTc(V)-DMSA and had potential therapeutic value in these patients. Compared with 186Re, the 188Re has the advantages of its ready availability from a generator. Thus the aim of this study was to establish a method of reliable preparation of 188Re(V)-DMSA and to evaluate its potential as a targeted radiotherapy agent to patient with MTC. Material and Method: The complex was prepared by reducing 188Re in the presence of DMSA with stannous chloride at the condition of pH 1.5. The reaction was taken to completion by heating the complex in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes. Excess stannous chloride was required and the presence of hydrochloric acid didn't reduce the yield of labelling. A large dose of ascorbic acid was used to minimize autoradiolysis. The products were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatograms (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) using a mobile phase consisting of n-butanol: acetic: water = 3:2:3 by volume. The TLC chromatograms were also visualized and quantified by gamma camera imaging. With the agreement, a patient who had a liver metastatic lesion from MTC but no symptoms (patient I) and another who had bone metastatic MTC and severe symptoms (patient II) were recruited . Both volunteers confirmed by a prior 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan received a dose of 74 MBq of 188Re(V)-DMSA and imaged at 3 hours with a GE Millennium VG ECT/CT. Results: The preparation had a good results with a labeling rate more than 95% and a stability in vitro more than 24 hours. The complex was a clear yellow solution which can be adjusted to pH=7

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of...

  6. Are Strong Bronsted Acids Necessarily Strong Lewis Acids?

    Sen-Gupta, K; Roy, D R; Subramanian, V

    2006-01-01

    The Broensted and Lowry acid base theory is based on the capacity of proton donation or acceptance (in the presence or absence of a solvent) whereas the Lewis acid base theory is based on the propensity of electron pair acceptance or donation. We explore through DFT calculation the obvious question whether these two theories are in conformity with each other. We use pKa as the descriptor for the Broensted and Lowry acidity. The DFT descriptors like ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and global electrophilicity are computed for 58 organic and inorganic acids. The fractional electron transfer, del(N) and the associated energy change, del(E) for the reaction of these acids with trimethyl amine (a strong base) are used as the possible descriptors for the Lewis acidity. A near exponential decrease in del(N) and (-del(E)) values is observed in general with an increase in pKa values. The findings reveal that a stronger Broensted acid in most cases behaves as a stronger Lewis acid as...

  7. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  8. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  9. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  10. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  11. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  12. Origin of nucleic acids

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  13. Cocrystals of fenamic acids with nicotinamide

    Fábián, László; Hamill, Noel; Eccles, Kevin S; Moynihan, Humphrey A; Maguire, Anita R.; McCausland, Linda; Lawrence, Simon E.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation between nicotinamide and five fenamic acid derivative drugs (flufenamic acid, niflumic tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and meclofenamic acid) was investigated using solution-based and solid-state preparation methods. It was anticipated that the well-known acid-aromatic nitrogen heterosynthon would provide a sufficient driving force for cocrystallization. The experiments yielded cocrystals with four of the five acids. Although the structures of these molecules are similar, ...

  14. Caffeic acid derivatives from Bupleurum chinense

    Haghi, G.; Hatami, A.; Mehran, M.; Hosseini, H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, caffeic acid (CA) and its three derivatives including 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA, neochlorogenic acid), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA, cryptochlorogenic acid), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, chlorogenic acid) were identified in Bupleurum chinense aerial parts using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector, reference compounds and chemical reactions. Separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution wit...

  15. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  16. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  17. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  18. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  19. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    ... suggests that taking pantothenic acid in combination with pantethine and thiamine does not improve muscular strength or ... Pantothenic Acid, D-Pantothenyl Alcohol, Dexpanthenol, Dexpanthénol, Dexpanthenolum, ... Pantothenate, Pantothénate, Pantothénate de Calcium, Pantothenol, ...

  20. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  1. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    ... acid fortification in the United States Recently, the American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a new study looking at the costs ... acid fortification and spina bifida in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. January 2016 [epub ahead of print]. Related Links ...

  2. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  3. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  4. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    ToddKlaenhammer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria found in a vast array of environments including dairy products and the human gastrointestinal tract. In both niches, surface proteins play a crucial role in mediating interactions with the surrounding environment. The sortase enzyme is responsible for covalently coupling a subset of surface dependent proteins (SDPs to the cell wall of Gram-positive organisms through recognition of a conserved C-terminal LPXTG motif. Genomic sequencing of LAB and annotation has allowed for the identification of sortase and SDPs. Historically, sortase and SDPs were predominately investigated for their role in mediating pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins in LAB has shed light on their important roles in mediating nutrient acquisition through proteinase P as well as positive probiotic attributes including adhesion, mucus barrier function, and immune signaling. Furthermore, sortase expression signals in LAB have been exploited as a means to develop oral vaccines targeted to the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we examine the collection of studies which evaluate sortase and SDPs in select species of dairy associated and health promoting LAB.

  5. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  6. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  7. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats

    KANAZAWA, Akio; TESHIMA, Shin-ichi; TOKIWA, Shigeru; IMATANAKA, Nobuya; カナザワ, アキオ; テシマ, シンイチ; トキワ, シゲル; イマタナカ, ノブヤ; 金沢, 昭夫; 手島, 新一; 常盤, 繁; 今田中, 伸哉

    1984-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) methylesters (ME) were preparedfrom a squid-liver oil and their hypocholesterolemic activities examined with rats. The supplementof 0.3% EPA-ME to the diet containing 1.0% cholesterol and 4.0% butter as lipids reduced a serum-cholesterollevel markedly, whereas DHA-ME gave almost no effect on the serum-cholesterol level.Both EPA-ME and DHA-ME reduced the liver-cholesterol level as effectively as linoleic acid did.The supplement of smal...

  8. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  9. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  10. The property and application of arachidonic acid

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). The author mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic health care function and application of AA

  11. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    IssyLaher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...

  13. ZINC-CHLORIDE INDUCED STEREOSELECTION IN SYNTHESES OF ALPHA-AMINO-BETA-HYDROXY ACID-DERIVATIVES

    VANDERWERF, AW; KELLOGG, RM; VANBOLHUIS, F

    1991-01-01

    Schiff bases formed from condensation of glycine esters with diphenylmethyleneamine have been silylated followed by condensation with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes at room temperature in the presence of catalytic amounts of ZnCl2; the syn-condensation products are obtained in good yield and stere

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-05-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with (/sup 14/C)-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA.

  15. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  16. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  17. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  18. Conformational preferences of DNA following damage by aristolochic acids: Structural and energetic insights into the different mutagenic potential of the ALI and ALII-N(6)-dA adducts.

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Abendong, Minette N; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-04-21

    Aristolochic acids (AAI and AAII), produced by the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, are classified as group I (human) carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. These acids are metabolized in cells to yield aristolactams (ALI and ALII, respectively), which further form bulky adducts with the purine nucleobases. Specifically, the adenine lesions are more persistent in cells and have been associated with chronic renal diseases and related carcinogenesis. To understand the structural basis of the nephrotoxicity induced by AAs, the ALI-N(6)-dA and ALII-N(6)-dA lesions are systematically studied using computational methods. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the aristolactam moiety intrinsically prefers a planar conformation with respect to adenine. Nucleoside and nucleotide models suggest that the anti and syn orientations about the glycosidic bond are isoenergetic for both adducts. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation is the most stable conformer for both types of AL-N(6)-dA adducted DNA, which agrees with previous experimental work on the ALII-N(6)-dA adduct and thereby validates our approach. Interestingly, this conformer differs from the dominant conformations adopted by other N6-linked adenine lesions, including those derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the second most stable syn base-displaced intercalated conformation lies closer in energy to the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation for ALI-N(6)-dA compared to ALII-N(6)-dA. This indicates that a mixture of conformations may be detectable for ALI-N(6)-dA in DNA. If this enhanced conformational flexibility of double-stranded DNA persists when bound to a lesion-bypass polymerase, this provides a possible structural explanation for the previously observed greater nephrotoxic potential for the ALI versus ALII-N(6)-dA adduct. In addition, the structural

  19. Macromolecular organic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Watson, J.S.; Sephton, M.A.; Gilmour, I.

    2005-01-01

    This study has detected bound organic acids within the Murchison meteorite organic macromolecule. Benzoic acid was the most abundant compound; other abundant compounds include C1 and C2 benzoic acids. Their origin and significance will be discussed.

  20. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.;

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  1. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  2. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  3. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  4. Main: Amino acid Analysis [KOME

    Full Text Available Amino acid Analysis UniProt search ... blastx result Result of blastx search ... against UniProt protein ... database kome_uniprot_search _blastx_result.zip kome_uniprot_search _blastx_resul ...

  5. Main: Amino acid Analysis [KOME

    Full Text Available Amino acid Analysis SwissProt search ... result Result of blastx search ... against SwissProt protein da ... tabase kome_swissprot_search _result.zip kome_swissprot_search _result ...

  6. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  7. The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB)

    Berman, H. M.; Feng, Z.; Schneider, Bohdan; Westbrook, J.; Zardecki, C.

    Vol. F. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic, 2001 - (Rossmann, M.; Arnold, E.), s. 657-682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : database * nucleic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185. ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2014

  9. Acid Rain - Acidification and Recovery

    Norton, S. A.; Kopáček, Jiří; Fernandez, I. J.

    2. Elsevier, 2014 - (Holland., H.; Turekian, K.), s. 379-414 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acid ification * nitrogen * nutrients * sulfur * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  10. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  11. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  12. MedlinePlus: Folic Acid

    ... Tests Homocysteine Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Vitamin B12 and Folate Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Related Issues Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow Cognitive Decline? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Genetics ...

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Pátek, Miroslav

    Berlin : Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007, s. 129-162. ISBN 978-3-540-48595-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : amino acids * homologous reactions Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Acid diffusion through polymer films

    Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.

    1997-07-01

    In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10

  15. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  16. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø;

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing...... strategies and of new principles for regulating the activity of the inhibitory action of aptamers of general interest to researchers working with nucleic acid aptamers...

  17. Piperidine nucleoside phosphonic acid derivatives

    Kovačková, Soňa; Dračínský, Martin; Rejman, Dominik

    Praha : Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 2011 - (Hocek, M.), s. 372-374 ISBN 978-80-86241-37-1. - (Collection Symposium Series. 12). [Chemistry of Nucleic Acid Components /15./. Český Krumlov (CZ), 05.06.2011-10.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : piperidine nucleoside * nucleoside phosphonic acids * nucleoside diphosphate analogs * nucleotide analogs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  19. Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation in mycobacteria.

    R. Srivastava; Gopinathan, K P; Ramakrishnan, T.

    1981-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid modification in six strains of mycobacteria was investigated. The presence of 5-methylcytosine in the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and its absence in the avirulent strain M. tuberculosis H37Ra and other saprophytic, fast-growing mycobacteria appear to be the salient features. However, deoxyribonucleic acid from M. smegmatis SN2 lysogenized with the temperature phage I3 showed the presence of 5-methylcytosine. All of the strains had N6-methyladenine.

  20. Bacillus subtilis Deoxyribonucleic Acid Gyrase

    Sugino, A; Bott, K F

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168 was shown to contain a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase activity which closely resembled those of the enzymes isolated from Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus in its enzymatic requirements, substrate specificity, and sensitivity to several antibiotics. The enzyme was purified from the wild type and nalidixic acid-resistant and novobiocin-resistant mutants of B. subtilis and was functionally characterized in vitro. The genetic loci nalA and novA but not novB were s...

  1. Regulatory aspects of acid rain

    On November 15, 1990, President Bush signed the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments into law. This was a historical document which marked the beginning of a concerted effort to address a most pressing environmental problem of this century, namely acid rain. Acid rain is the generic term used to describe the phenomenon by which sulfur dioxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form acids which are scrubbed out of the atmosphere during a precipitation event. When this happens the pH of the precipitation falls considerably below 7.0. Years of research have shown that acid rain has a very detrimental effect on soils, vegetation, and marine life. The large amounts of SO2 and NOx being released by coal-fired utility boilers have largely incriminated utility companies as being the culprits. Most of the research work has been in Canada because the direction of the jet stream across the US is such that the emissions from the midwestern and northeastern US are carried into southeastern Canada. An interim report from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) has assessed that power plants contribute up to 65% of the national annual emissions of SO2, and up to 29% of the NOx emissions. It is for these reasons that acid rain control has been given such a priority by legislators

  2. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    Specific radioimmunoassays have been developed for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum. Before carrying out the radioimmunoassay, the serum bile acids were extracted with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labelled glyco-[3H]-cholic acid, using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate, the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3% and conjugated lithocholic acid 3H]-cholic acid in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabelled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an ''oral cholate tolerance test'', which is a sensitive indicator of liver function, and by an ''oral cholylglycine tolerance test'' which is a useful test for bile acid absorption. (author)

  3. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  4. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  5. Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion

    Teyssen, Stephan; González-Calero, Gloria; Schimiczek, Michael; Singer, Manfred V.

    1999-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunt...

  6. Geometry of trigonal boron coordination sphere in boronic acids derivatives - a bond-valence vector model approach.

    Czerwińska, Karolina; Madura, Izabela D; Zachara, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    The systematic analysis of the geometry of three-coordinate boron in boronic acid derivatives with a common [CBO2] skeleton is presented. The study is based on the bond-valence vector (BVV) model [Zachara (2007). Inorg. Chem. 46, 9760-9767], a simple tool for the identification and quantitative estimation of both steric and electronic factors causing deformations of the coordination sphere. The empirical bond-valence (BV) parameters in the exponential equation [Brown & Altermatt (1985). Acta Cryst. B41, 244-247] rij and b, for B-O and B-C bonds were determined using data deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database. The values obtained amount to rBO = 1.364 Å, bBO = 0.37 Å, rBC = 1.569 Å, bBC = 0.28 Å, and they were further used in the calculation of BVV lengths. The values of the resultant BVV were less than 0.10 v.u. for 95% of the set comprising 897 [CBO2] fragments. Analysis of the distribution of BVV components allowed for the description of subtle in- and out-of plane deviations from the `ideal' (sp(2)) geometry of boron coordination sphere. The distortions specific for distinct groups of compounds such as boronic acids, cyclic and acyclic esters, benzoxaboroles and hemiesters were revealed. In cyclic esters the direction of strains was found to be controlled by the ring size effect. It was shown that the syn or anti location of substituents on O atoms is decisive for the deformations direction for both acids and acyclic esters. The greatest strains were observed in the case of benzoxaboroles which showed the highest deviation from the zero value of the resultant BVV. The out-of-plane distortions, described by the vz component of the resultant BVV, were ascertained to be useful in the identification of weak secondary interactions on the fourth coordination site of the boron centre. PMID:27048726

  7. Thermal Stability of Acetohydroxamic Acid/Nitric Acid Solutions

    The transmutation of transuranic actinides and long-lived fission products in spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel has been proposed as one element of the Advanced Accelerator Applications Program. Preparation of targets for irradiation in an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor would involve dissolution of the fuel and separation of uranium, technetium, and iodine from the transuranic actinides and other fission products. The UREX solvent extraction process is being developed to reject and isolate the transuranic actinides in the acid waste stream by scrubbing with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). To ensure that a runaway reaction will not occur between nitric acid and AHA, an analogue of hydroxyl amine, thermal stability tests were performed to identify if any processing conditions could lead to a runaway reaction

  8. Axonopathy in an α-Synuclein Transgenic Model of Lewy Body Disease Is Associated with Extensive Accumulation of C-Terminal–Truncated α-Synuclein

    Games, Dora; Seubert, Peter; Rockenstein, Edward; Patrick, Christina; Trejo, Margarita; Ubhi, Kiren; Ettle, Benjamin; Ghassemiam, Majid; Barbour, Robin; Schenk, Dale; Nuber, Silke; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in limbic and striatonigral systems is associated with the neurodegenerative processes in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The murine Thy-1 (mThy1)-α-syn transgenic (tg) model recapitulates aspects of degenerative processes associated with α-syn accumulation in these disorders. Given that axonal and synaptic pathologies are important features of DLB and PD, we sought to investigate the extent and characteristics of these alterations in mThy1-α-syn tg mice and to determine the contribution of α-syn c-terminally cleaved at amino acid 122 (CT α-syn) to these abnormalities. We generated a novel polyclonal antibody (SYN105) against the c-terminally truncated sequence (amino acids 121 to 123) of α-syn (CT α-syn) and performed immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses in mThy1-α-syn tg mice. We found abundant clusters of dystrophic neurites in layers 2 to 3 of the neocortex, the stratum lacunosum, the dentate gyrus, and cornu ammonis 3 of the hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, midbrain, and pons. Dystrophic neurites displayed intense immunoreactivity detected with the SYN105 antibody. Double-labeling studies with antibodies to phosphorylated neurofilaments confirmed the axonal location of full-length and CT α-syn. α-Syn immunoreactive dystrophic neurites contained numerous electrodense laminated structures. These results show that neuritic dystrophy is a prominent pathologic feature of the mThy1-α-syn tg model and suggest that CT α-syn might play an important role in the process of axonal damage in these mice as well as in DLB and PD. PMID:23313024

  9. Axonopathy in an α-synuclein transgenic model of Lewy body disease is associated with extensive accumulation of C-terminal-truncated α-synuclein.

    Games, Dora; Seubert, Peter; Rockenstein, Edward; Patrick, Christina; Trejo, Margarita; Ubhi, Kiren; Ettle, Benjamin; Ghassemiam, Majid; Barbour, Robin; Schenk, Dale; Nuber, Silke; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-03-01

    Progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in limbic and striatonigral systems is associated with the neurodegenerative processes in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The murine Thy-1 (mThy1)-α-syn transgenic (tg) model recapitulates aspects of degenerative processes associated with α-syn accumulation in these disorders. Given that axonal and synaptic pathologies are important features of DLB and PD, we sought to investigate the extent and characteristics of these alterations in mThy1-α-syn tg mice and to determine the contribution of α-syn c-terminally cleaved at amino acid 122 (CT α-syn) to these abnormalities. We generated a novel polyclonal antibody (SYN105) against the c-terminally truncated sequence (amino acids 121 to 123) of α-syn (CT α-syn) and performed immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses in mThy1-α-syn tg mice. We found abundant clusters of dystrophic neurites in layers 2 to 3 of the neocortex, the stratum lacunosum, the dentate gyrus, and cornu ammonis 3 of the hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, midbrain, and pons. Dystrophic neurites displayed intense immunoreactivity detected with the SYN105 antibody. Double-labeling studies with antibodies to phosphorylated neurofilaments confirmed the axonal location of full-length and CT α-syn. α-Syn immunoreactive dystrophic neurites contained numerous electrodense laminated structures. These results show that neuritic dystrophy is a prominent pathologic feature of the mThy1-α-syn tg model and suggest that CT α-syn might play an important role in the process of axonal damage in these mice as well as in DLB and PD. PMID:23313024

  10. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The composition and structure of humic acids isolated from lignohumate, which is produced by hydrolytic-oxidative conversion of technical lignosulfonates, were characterized by chemical and spectral methods (UV/VIS, FTIR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy). As comparative samples, humic acids (HA) were isolated also from lignite and organic horizon of mountain spruce forest soil. When compared with other HA studied, the lignohumate humic acids (LHHA) contained relatively few carboxyl groups, whose role is partly fulfilled by sulfonic acid groups. Distinctive 13C NMR signal of methoxyl group carbons, typical for lignin and related humic substances, was found at the shift of 55.9 ppm. Other alkoxy carbons were present in limited quantity, like the aliphatic carbons. Due to the low content of these carbon types, the LHHA has high aromaticity of 60.6%. Comparison with the natural HA has shown that lignohumate obtained by thermal processing of technical lignosulfonate can be regarded as an industrially produced analog of natural humic substances. Based on the chemical and spectral data evaluation, structural features of lignohumate humic acids were clarified and their hypothetical chemical structure proposed, which described typical "average" properties of the isolated fraction.

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients.During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  12. Fixation Status of Acid Soils

    Six acid soil series from different benchmark sites; Rangsit soil (Sulfic Tropaquepts) (two acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Korat soil (Oxic Paleustults), Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic paleustults) and Boundary grey soil and two Thai phosphate rocks (P R) (Lampun P R and Ratchabuie P R) had been characterized in the laboratory by isotope techniques (E, value Part 1). Triple superphosphate (TSP) was used as a standard fertilizer. R P and TSP with 50 mg P Kg-1 soil were incubated for 30 days to examine the fixing capacity of the acid soils. The results showed that Rangsit Soil which is acid sulfate had high fixing capacity. Pakchong soil retained higher P fixation ability than Korat and Warin soil series. The highest fixation capacity among 7 acid soils were Grey Soil and Mae Taeng soil series. The solubility of TSP was decreased when incorporated with soil after incubation for 30 days. P R from Ratchaburi showed higher effectiveness than Lamphun P R

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Ogawa, Jun; Matsumura, Kenji; Kishino, Shigenobu; Omura, Yoriko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2001-01-01

    Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadie...

  14. New nalidixic acid resistance mutations related to deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase activity.

    Yamagishi, J; Furutani, Y; Inoue, S.; Ohue, T; Nakamura, S; Shimizu, M

    1981-01-01

    In Escherichia coli K-12 mutants which had a new nalidixic acid resistance mutation at about 82 min on the chromosome map, cell growth was resistant to or hypersusceptible to nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, piromidic acid, pipemidic acid, and novobiocin. Deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase activity as tested by supercoiling of lambda phage deoxyribonucleic acid inside the mutants was similarly resistant or hypersusceptible to the compounds. The drug concentrations required for gyrase inhibition were ...

  15. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 2.5 L (0.66 gallon) capacity each. (f) Nitric acid of 70 percent or less concentration, when offered... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any...

  16. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivanković; Miljenko Konjačić; Nikolina Kelava

    2010-01-01

    Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P

  17. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms which enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments such as acidic foods and the acidity in the gastrointestinal tract. These mechanisms include the acid tolerance response, a two-component regula...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  19. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  20. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author)

  1. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  2. Toxicologic Study of Monochloroacetic Acid

    Lu Bo; Zhan Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Monochloroacetic Acid (MCA) is a chlorinated analog of acetic acids. MCA and its sodium salt (SMCA) are widely used as a chemical intermediate (primarily in the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides,carboxymethylcelluose, glycine and indigoid dyes).Moreover, MCA has been found as a common by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. Chloroacetates are ubiquitous in the environment, and MCA is the most abundant among chloroacetates. A background level of 0.1 - 1μg/L is expected to occur in precipitation[1]. Total world wide annual production of MCA reported was about 400 000 tons[2]. Many studies have showed that MCA not only caused acute or chronic damage to the skin , liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs, but also caused acute death systemically under high concentration[2,3]. So this article will discuss the toxic effect of Monochloroacetic Acid in Toxicology.

  3. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  4. The acid rain differential game

    Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on whether the countries cooperate or not. This paper presents the cooperative outcome and the open-loop and Markov-perfect Nash equilibria of the acid rain differential game. It will be shown that the depositions always converge to the critical loads but the steady-state levels of the buffer stocks differ. The theory is used to analyse the acid rain differential game for sulphur between Great Britain and Ireland. Finally, some results are given for the whole of Europe. 20 refs

  5. Fusidic acid betamethasone lipid cream.

    Girolomoni, G; Mattina, R; Manfredini, S; Vertuani, S; Fabrizi, G

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues are frequent disorders. They can be primitive infections (e.g. impetigo, folliculitis) or secondary infections complicating other diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis. The most common aetiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Topical antibiotic therapy may be sufficient in many instances to control these infections. Fusidic acid is an antibiotic used topically on the skin which is very active against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, and other Gram-positive bacteria. Resistance rates to fusidic acid are stably low. A fusidic acid and betamethasone formulation in a lipid-enriched cream (lipid cream) has been recently developed in order to provide effective antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in conjunction with a powerful emollient and moisturising effect. This preparation may be especially useful in patients with atopic-infected eczema. PMID:27121235

  6. Solid–liquid equilibria measurements for binary systems comprising (butyric acid + propionic or pentanoic acid) and (heptanoic acid + propionic or butyric or pentanoic or hexanoic acid)

    Highlights: ► Binary SLE measurement for butyric acid + {propionic or pentanoic acid}. ► Binary SLE measurements for heptanoic acid + {propionic or butyric or pentanoic or hexanoic acid}. ► Measurements undertaken using a synthetic method using two new apparati. - Abstract: Solid–liquid equilibria (SLE) measurements have been undertaken for carboxylic acid systems comprising (butyric acid + propionic or pentanoic acid) and (heptanoic acid + propionic or butyric or pentanoic or hexanoic acid) via a synthetic method using two complementary pieces of equipment. The measurements have been obtained at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range of (225.6 to 270.7) K. All the acid mixtures exhibit a eutectic point in their respective phase diagrams, which have been determined experimentally. The estimated maximum uncertainties in the reported temperatures and compositions are ±1 K and ±0.0006 mole fraction, respectively. The experimental data have been satisfactorily correlated with the Wilson and NRTL activity coefficient models.

  7. Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis.

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2013-02-19

    Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:23157425

  8. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...

  9. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  10. Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids via distillation

    The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of returns. However, the cosmetic market often demands high purity and colorless materi...

  11. Acidity of carboxylic acids: a rebuttal and redefinition

    Exner, Otto; Čársky, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 39 (2001), s. 9564-9570. ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : carboxylic acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.079, year: 2001

  12. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  13. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  14. Risk and Health Effect of Boric Acid

    Ang S. See

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boric acid is a pesticide usually used to kill mites, fungi, plants and insect including fleas, termites, cockroaches and wood decay fungi. Besides, it was also used in many fields such as food preservative, in newborn baby’s nurseries and antiseptic. Many reports indicated that boric acid poisoning occurred due to the misuse of household product and illegal use of boric acid in food product. In this study, the concern issue was the usage of boric acid that may lead to boric acid poisoning. Approach: This review had shown some information for boric acid such as its usage, the existent method for detection of boric acid in food. Besides, this review also discussed about the toxicology and pharmacokinetic of boric acid and the health impact of boric acid on human and animal. Result: Previous studies showed that food products such as yellow noodles contain boric acid. The boric acid level in most foods was different among the factory and the production period. It is due to the lack of standard measurement during the processing. Conclusion: Since boric acid was harmful to human health and may cause poisoning, hence, the control and the awareness of the usage of boric acid especially in food should be increased. There are numerous methods available for quantification of boric acid such as mannitol titration technique, colorimetric method. Accordingly, the analysis of boric acid is essential.

  15. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  16. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  17. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids Complexes of Two Peptide Nucleic Acid Strands and One

    1999-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids and analogues of peptide nucleic acids are used to form duplex, triplex, and other structures with nucleic acids and to modify nucleic acids. The peptide nucleic acids and analogues thereof also are used to modulate protein activity through, for example, transcription arrest...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  20. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  1. Acid evaporation property in chemically amplified resists

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Itani, Toshiro; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Yamana, Mitsuharu; Samoto, Norihiko; Kasama, Kunihiko

    1997-07-01

    The lithographic performance of a chemically amplified resist system very much depends on the photo-generated acid structure. In a previous paper, we reported the molecular structure dependence of two typical photo-generated acids (aromatic sulfonic acid and alkyl sulfonic acid) from the viewpoints of lithographic performance and acid characteristics such as acid generation efficiency, acid diffusion behavior and acid evaporation property. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of the remaining solvent in a resist film on the acid evaporation property. Four types of two-component chemically amplified positive KrF resists were prepared consisting of tert-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC) protected polyhydroxystyrene and sulfonic acid derivative photo-acid generator (PAG). Here, a different combination of two types of PAGs [2,4-dimethylbenzenesulfonic acid (aromatic sulfonic acid) derivative PAG and cyclohexanesulfonic acid (alkyl sulfonic acid) derivative PAG] and two types of solvents (propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate; PGMEA and ethyl lactate; EL) were evaluated. The aromatic sulfonic acid was able to evaporate easily during post exposure bake (PEB) treatment, but the alkyl sulfonic acid was not. The higher evaporation property of aromatic sulfonic acid might be due to the higher vapor pressure and the longer acid diffusion length. Furthermore, the amount of aromatic sulfonic acid in the PGMEA resist was reduced by more than that in the EL resist. The amount of acid loss also became smaller at a higher prebake temperature. The concentration of the remaining solvent in the resist film decreased with the increasing prebake temperature. We think that the acid evaporation property was affected by the remaining solvent in the resist, film; the large amount of remaining solvent promoted the acid diffusion and eventually accelerated the acid evaporation from the resist film surface in the PGMEA resist. In summary, the acid evaporation property depends on both the acid

  2. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Li-Hua Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. Hyaluronic acid and tendon lesions

    Kaux, Jean-François; Samson, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on hyaluronic acid’s ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function. This literature review analyses studies relating to the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of tendinopathies. Methods this review was constructed using the Medline database via Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. The key words hyaluronic acid, tendon and tendinopathy were used for the research. Results in total, 28 articles (in English and French) on the application of hyaluronic acid to tendons were selected for their relevance and scientific quality, including 13 for the in vitro part, 7 for the in vivo animal part and 8 for the human section. Conclusions preclinical studies demonstrate encouraging results: HA permits tendon gliding, reduces adhesions, creates better tendon architectural organisation and limits inflammation. These laboratory observations appear to be supported by limited but encouraging short-term clinical results on pain and function. However, controlled randomised studies are still needed. PMID:26958533

  4. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks. PMID:21120449

  5. Abscisic Acid Signaling in Plants

    Vaňková, Radomíra

    NEW YORK : Springer, 2012 - (Ahmad, P.; Prasad, M.), s. 359-368 ISBN 978-1-4614-0633-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PP2C * PYR/PYL/RCAR proteins * Abscisic acid Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  6. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram...

  7. An assessment of acid fog

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H2SO4 was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H+ concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ''clear air'') aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions

  8. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  9. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    2006-01-01

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic encepha

  10. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125I. (author)

  11. Modulating the electronic structure of amino acids: interaction of model lewis acids with anthranilic acid

    Tareq Irshaidat

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical B3LYP calculations, Yáñez and co-workers (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2293) illustrated that beryllium ions are capable of significantly modulating (changing) the electronic structures of imidazole. In this computational organic chemistry study, the interaction of this β-amino acid and five model Lewis acids (BeF1+, Be2+, AlF2(1+), AlF2+, and Al3+) were investigated. Several aspects were addressed: natural bond orbitals, including second order perturbation ana...

  12. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues. PMID:26572799

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  14. Effect of Humic Acid Application on Nitrate Accumulation in Edible-type Sweet Potato Tuberous Root%腐植酸对食用型甘薯块根硝酸盐积累的影响

    柴沙沙; 史春余; 张立明; 柳洪鹃; 王翠娟

    2013-01-01

    The sweet potato cultivar Beijing 553 was used to study the effects of humic acid (HA) on the nitrate accumulation in tuberous root under pool culture. The results showed that the application of HA reduced the nitrate content and the total nitrogen content in harvest time in sweet potato roots, but increased the nitrate reductase activity and total nitrogen of tuberous roots in early - middle period and the glutamine syn-thetase (GS) activity of functional leaves.%采用池栽方式,以北京553为试材,研究了腐植酸对甘薯块根硝酸盐积累的影响.结果表明,施用腐植酸降低了甘薯块根中硝酸盐含量,提高了前、中期功能叶片硝酸还原酶活性和块根中全氮含量,降低了收获期块根全氮含量,提高了块根和叶片中谷氨酰胺合成酶活性.

  15. Digestion and absorption of lipids and bile acids in sheep fed stearic acid, oleic acid, or tristearin

    Sheep were fed diets containing 7.5% added stearic acid, oleic acid, or tristearin for 21 days. In addition, 50 microCi/kg cerium-141 was included for the last 10 days on experimental diets as an unabsorbed reference substance. In the rumen dietary triglycerides were approximately 50% hydrolyzed, and hydrogenation resulted in saturation of the free fatty acid fraction. Some net synthesis of phospholipids, presumably microbial phospholipids, occurred in the rumen. In the intestine immediately distal to the pylorus, extensive secretion of bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and lipase occurred. This resulted in doubling of fatty acid fluxes through the duodenum. These endogenous secretions were reabsorbed rapidly however, with the major site of lipid and bile acid absorption in the region .6 to 4 m distal to the pylorus. Additional but less absorption occurred in the more distal segments of the small intestine. Overall absorption of stearic acid, oleic acid, and tristearin supplements was in the range 60 to 70%, and no differences were apparent between fats. Unsaturated fatty acids were over 90% absorbed as compared with 55 to 65% for saturated fatty acids. No significant effect of any of the supplements was observed on ruminal total volatile fatty acids, ratios of volatile fatty acids, or on overall cellulose or caloric digestion

  16. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  17. Acidic lakes and streams in the United States: The role of acidic deposition

    A statistically designed survey of lakes and streams in acid-sensitive areas of the United States, the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), was used to identify the role of acidic deposition, relative to other factors, in causing acidic conditions in 1,181 lakes and 4,668 streams. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of acid anions in 75% of the acidic lakes and 47% of the acidic streams. Organic anions are dominant in one-fourth of the acidic lakes and streams; acidic mine drainage is the dominant acid source in 25% of the acidic streams. Other causes of acidic conditions are relatively unimportant on a regional scale. Nearly all the deposition-dominated acidic systems were found in six well-delineated subpopulations that represent about one-fourth of the NSWS lake population and one-third of the NSWS stream population

  18. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  19. Uric Acid Inhibits Placental System A Amino Acid Uptake☆

    Bainbridge, S.A.; von Versen-Höynck, F.; Roberts, J M

    2008-01-01

    Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasi...

  20. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Verena Keitel, Ralf Kubitz, Dieter Häussinger

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions. Bile acids regulate bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis. Furthermore, bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death. Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors, of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membrane-bound, G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  1. Bile acid metabolism in tupaias (lemurs)

    The goal of this work is to study biliary elimination and the metabolism of the most important primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodesoxycholic acid, and the toxic secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid, which is formed in the intestine as a result of chenodesoxycholate therapy for the dissolving of gall stones. This work herewith offers a contribution to the answering of the question whether tupaias are a relevant animal model for the study of gall stone formation and their medicamentous dissolution by means of bile acids. (orig./MG)

  2. Determination of titratable acidity in white wine

    Rajković Miloš B.; Novaković Ivana D.; Petrović Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    The amount of titration acid in must is in the largest number of cases with in the range 5.0-8.0 g/dm3. Wines, as a rule, contain less acids than must, and according to Regulations, titratable acidity is in the range of 4.0-8.0 g/dm3 expressed in tartaric acid, because a part of tartaric acid is deposited in the form of salts (tartar or argol) during alcohol fermentation. For wines that contain less than 4 g/dm3 of titratable acids there arises a suspicion about their origin, that is, that du...

  3. Uncarilic Acid and Secouncarilic Acid, Two New Triterpenoids from Uucaria sessilifructus

    Yan Li; De-Qiang Feng; You-Kai Xu; Shang-Gao Liao; Mao-Juan Zhang; Bing Liu; Kai-Long Ji

    2013-01-01

    Two new compounds, the 6-oxo oleanane-type triterpenoid uncarilic acid, and its 5,6-secotriterpenoid derivative, secouncarilic acid, were isolated from the hooks and stems of Uucaria sessilifructus together with seven known ursane-type triterpenoids. Uncarilic acid is the second 6-oxo oleanane-type triterpenoid ever reported, while secouncarilic acid is the first oleanane-type 5,6-secotriterpenoid. A plausible biosynthetic pathway from uncarilic acid to secouncarilic acid was also postulated....

  4. Oxidation-reduction reactions of simple hydroxamic acids and plutonium(IV) ions in nitric acid

    Carrott, M. J.; Fox, O. D.; LeGurun, G.; Jones, C J; Mason, C; Taylor, Robin; Andrieux, Fabrice; Boxall, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Simple hydroxamic acids such as formo- and aceto-hydroxamic acids have been proposed as suitable reagents for the separation of either Pu and/or Np from U in modified or single cycle Purex based solvent extraction processes designed to meet the emerging requirements of advanced fuel cycles. The stability of these hydroxamic acids is dominated by their decomposition through acid hydrolysis. Kinetic studies of the acid hydrolysis of formo- and acetohydroxamic acids are reported in the absence a...

  5. Spontaneous curvature of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.

    Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; Fuller, Nola L; Kozlov, Michael M; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J; Rand, Peter R

    2005-02-15

    The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To examine this possibility, we determined the spontaneous radius of curvature (R(0p)) of PA and LPA, carrying oleoyl fatty acids, using well-established X-ray diffraction methods. We found that, under physiological conditions of pH and salt concentration (pH 7.0, 150 mM NaCl), the R(0p) values of PA and LPA were -46 A and +20 A, respectively. Thus PA has considerable negative spontaneous curvature while LPA has the most positive spontaneous curvature of any membrane lipid measured to date. The further addition of Ca(2+) did not significantly affect lipid spontaneous curvature; however, omitting NaCl from the hydration buffer greatly reduced the spontaneous curvature of PA, turning it into a cylindrically shaped lipid molecule (R(0p) of -1.3 x 10(2) A). Our quantitative data on the spontaneous radius of curvature of PA and LPA at a physiological pH and salt concentration will be instrumental in developing future models of biomembrane fission. PMID:15697235

  6. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  7. Complex formation of calcium with humic acid and polyacrylic acid

    In order to understand the migration behavior of radionuclides in the underground, it is also important to estimate the effect of the competing cations originally present in the groundwater. In this connection, the complexation of Ca(II) with Aldrich humic acid has been examined. For the study at trace concentrations (∝ 10-10 M) of Ca(II), the solvent extraction of 45Ca with TTA and TOPO in cyclohexane has been used. At macro concentrations (10-4 M) of Ca(II), the measurement of the free Ca2+ ion concentration with a calcium selective electrode has been conducted. To estimate the polyelectrolyte effect of humic acid separately from its heterogeneous composition effect, polyacrylic acid ([-CH2CH(COOH)-]n) has been selected as a representative of the homogeneous polymeric weak acids and its complexation with Ca(II) has also been examined. The values of log βα have been obtained at pH 5 ∝ 7 in 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0 M NaCl, where βα is the apparent formation constants defined by βα = [ML]/([M][R]). In this definition, [ML] and [M] are the concentrations of bound and free Ca2+ respectively, [R] is the concentration of dissociated proton exchanging sites. log βα of humate decreases from 2.19 ∝ 2.92 (depending on pH and ionic strength 1.0 α of polyacrylate (1.36 ∝ 3.24 for I = 0.1 ∝ 1.0). For both humate and polyacrylate, log βα decreases linearly with log[Na+], where [Na+] is the bulk concentration of sodium ion. Their dependences of log βα on ionic strength are stronger than those of log β of monomeric carboxylates such as oxalate and EDTA, indicating the large electrostatic effect of crowded negative charges on the macromolecules of humic or polyacrylic acid. (orig.)

  8. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  9. Increase of betulinic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by balancing fatty acids and betulinic acid forming pathways.

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Betulinic acid is a plant-based triterpenoid that has been recognized for its antitumor and anti-HIV activities. The level of betulinic acid in its natural hosts is extremely low. In the present study, we constructed betulinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. Given the betulinic acid forming pathways sharing the common substrate acetyl-CoA with fatty acid synthesis, the metabolic fluxes between the two pathways were varied by changing gene expressions, and their effects on betulinic acid production were investigated. We constructed nine S. cerevisiae strains representing nine combinations of the flux distributions between betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways. Our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve the betulinic acid production in S. cerevisiae while keeping a desirable growth phenotype by optimally balancing the carbon fluxes of the two pathways. Through modulating the expressions of the key genes on betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways, the difference in betulinic acid yield varied largely in the range of 0.01-1.92 mg L(-1) OD(-1). The metabolic engineering approach used in this study could be extended for synthesizing other triterpenoids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24389702

  10. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  11. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations. PMID:25764181

  12. [Inherited amino acid transport disorders].

    Igarashi, Y; Tada, K

    1992-07-01

    Disorders due to inherited amino acids transport defect are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into three types of transport defects, namely, brush-border membrane of epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney tubules (Hartnup disease, blue diaper syndrome, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria and lysine malabsorption syndrome), basolateral membrane (lysinuric protein intolerance) and membrane of intracellular organelles (cystinosis and hyperornitinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome). Pathogenesis, clinical feature, laboratory findings, diagnosis, genetics and treatment of these disorders are described, briefly. There is not much data for the transport systems themselves, so that further investigation in molecular and gene levels for transport systems is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transport and heterogeneity of phenotypes in inherited amino acids transport disorders. PMID:1404888

  13. Europium complexes with trifluoroacetic acid

    Synthesis conditions and spectra-luminescent properties of different-ligand europium complexes of the composition Eu (TFA)2x2D, where TFA = anion of trifluoroacetic acid, D = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridyl, triphenylphosphinoxide, hexamethyl-phosphotriamide, were studied. The compounds prepared have been characterized by the methods of elementary chemical analysis, IR and luminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that in the complex compounds two methods of coordination of the acid residue functional groups are realized, i.e. monodentate and bridge functions. The compounds were tested for resistance to UV light effect and to heating in the air. Complex with 2,2-dipyridyl proved the most thermally stable complex in the series studied, its decomposition temperature being 240 deg C

  14. Ursodeoxycholic acid and superoxide anion

    Predrag Ljubuncic; Omar Abu-Salach; Arieh Bomzon

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to scavenge superoxide anion (O2-).METHODS: We assessed the ability of UDCA to scavenge (O2-) generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) in a cell-free system and its effect on the rate of O2--induced ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in hepatic post-mitochondrial supernatants.RESULTS: UDCA at a concentration as high as 1 mmol/Ldid not impair the ability of the X-XO system to generate O2-, but could scavenge O2- at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mmol/L, and decrease the rate of AA oxidation at a concentration of 100 μmol/L.CONCLUSION: UDCA can scavenge O2-, an action that may be beneficial to patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  15. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Andreasen, P A

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing small molecule protease inhibitors of sufficient specificity has proved a daunting task. Aptamers seem to represent a promising alternative. In our review, we concentrate on biochemical mechanisms of...

  16. Ions in hyaluronic acid solutions

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Londono, David J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic biopolymer that is almost ubiquitous in biological tissues. An attempt is made to determine the dominant features that account for both its abundance and its multifunctional role, and which set it apart from other types of biopolymers. A combination of osmotic and scattering techniques is employed to quantify its dynamic and static properties in near-physiological solution conditions, where it is exposed both to mono- and divalent counterions. An equation of...

  17. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  18. Perfluorooctanoic Acid for Shotgun Proteomics

    Kadiyala, Chandra Sekhar Rao; Tomechko, Sara E.; Miyagi, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Here, we describe the novel use of a volatile surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), for shotgun proteomics. PFOA was found to solubilize membrane proteins as effectively as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). PFOA concentrations up to 0.5% (w/v) did not significantly inhibit trypsin activity. The unique features of PFOA allowed us to develop a single-tube shotgun proteomics method that used all volatile chemicals that could easily be removed by evaporation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. ...

  19. Electrochemical analysis of nucleic acids

    Paleček, Emil; Fojta, Miroslav; Jelen, František; Vetterl, Vladimír

    Weinheim : WileyVCH, 2002 - (Bard, A.; Stratmann, M.; Wilson, G.), s. 365-429 ISBN 3-527-30401-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084; GA AV ČR IBS5004107; GA AV ČR IAA4004901; GA AV ČR IAA4004002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : nucleic acid s * electrochemical analysis * DNA biosensors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    IssyLaher

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complicatio...

  1. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complicatio...

  2. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  3. Nature in the Classroom: Acid Rain.

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    As a lesson topic, acid rain is defined, its chemistry given, and its development since the 1950s described. The worldwide effects of acid rain are discussed along with the available technology for controlling the problem. (CM)

  4. How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth

    ... more Seniors' Oral Health How to Keep Your Teeth for a Lifetime Tooth loss is simply the ... your desktop! more... How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth Article Chapters How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth ...

  5. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  6. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  7. RETINOIC ACID ALTERS EPITHELIAL DIFFERENTIATION DURING PALATOGENESIS

    Retinoids are teratogenic in humans and animals, producing a syndrome of craniofacial malformations which includes cleft palate. his study investigates the mechanism through which retinoic acid induces cleft palate. urine palatogenesis after exposure to retinoic acid in utero is ...

  8. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  9. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  10. Stereochemistry of a Rhododaurichromanic Acid Derivative.

    Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Mándi, Attila; Anetai, Masaki; Monde, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A rhododaurichromanic acid A derivative was synthesized from the naturally occurring daurichromenic acid in enantiomeric pure form. Its absolute configuration was elucidated by applying VCD, ECD and DFT calculations. PMID:27032199

  11. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  12. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14CO2. None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14CO2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  13. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  14. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  15. Analysis of the apple fruit acid/low-acid trait by SSR markers

    Yuxin YAO; Heng ZHAI; Lingling ZHAO; Kai YI; Zhi LIU; Ye SONG

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to find out the genetic character-istics of malic acid in the course of apple genomic research and breeding. In this study, the SSR marker linked to the acid/low-acid trait in apple fruit was identified from 140 SSR primer pairs, using 91 F1 population hybrids from the intra-specific cross between apple cultivar 'Dongguang' and 'Fuji' as the experimental materials. Of 140 SSR primer pairs, only primer SDY085 produced a polymorphic band linked to acid trait, and the linkage distance was 8.89 cM. Also, the titrated acid and malic acid in different developmental stages were determined. The SSR marker analysis, coupled with the change of the total acid and malic acid contents, revealed that the acid/low-acid trait was governed by a major gene and acid trait was completely dominant.

  16. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with Crohn's disease

    In vivo 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid and the role of 7-ketolithocholic acid as an intermediate in this biotransformation were studied in 11 patients with Crohn's disease and in 5 healthy volunteers. The incorporation of deuterium into biliary ursodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid was determined by computed gas chromatography-mass fragmentography after ingestion of a dideuterated chenodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic-11,12-d2 acid. The incorporation of deuterium into ursodeoxycholic acid increased to a peak level at 48 h in the patients with Crohn's disease, but was delayed in healthy volunteers. In 8 patients and 2 healthy controls there were small amounts of 7-ketolithocholic acid in bile. The incorporation of deuterium into 7-ketolithocholic acid was confirmed in only 2 patients and the peak level was noted at 48 h. These observations suggest that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate of this biotransformation in patients with Crohn's disease

  17. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  18. Study of americium sorption by humic acids

    The results of investigation of influence of the cation content and acidity of soil solution on americium sorption by the humic acids have been shown. The most influence on the interphase distribution coefficient in the system 'humic acid - model soil solution' is caused by the presence of the iron (III), calcium ions and acidity of the solution. The increase of the sodium ions concentration in the solution makes an insignificant impact on the americium sorption. (Authors)

  19. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs), which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coas...