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Sample records for acids syn anti-1-amino-3-2-iodoethenyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic

  1. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    Draye, Micheline [Laboratoire de Chimie Moleculaire et Environnement (EA1651), Universite de Savoie-Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)], E-mail: micheline.draye@univ-savoie.fr; Favre-Reguillon, Alain [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique (UMR7084), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 2 rue conte, 75003 Paris (France); Faure, Rene [Laboratoire des sciences analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lemaire, Marc [Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, UMR CNRS 5246, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires, Universite Lyon 1 CPE, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, Villeurbanne 69622 (France)

    2008-05-15

    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a {sup 137}Cs {gamma} source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination.

  2. Radiation chemistry of cis-syn-cis dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Acidity and uranyl nitrate dependence

    The cis-syn-cis isomer of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been shown to be an efficient extractant able to perform the separation of Pu(IV) and U(VI) from fission products and then the separation of Pu(IV) from U(VI) without valence exchange as required in the PUREX process. This macrocycle was irradiated in nitric acid with a 137Cs γ source to study its radiation chemical stability. Radiation chemical yields (G) were determined by gas chromatography. The results show that the presence of uranyl nitrate has a strong influence on DCH18C6 radiation chemical stability. Indeed, the presence of this template ion increases the macrocycle stability by promoting fragments recombination

  3. Polysialic acid on SynCAM 1 in NG2 cells and on neuropilin-2 in microglia is confined to intracellular pools that are rapidly depleted upon stimulation.

    Werneburg, Sebastian; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Stangel, Martin; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2015-07-01

    NG2 cells comprise a heterogeneous precursor population but molecular markers distinguishing between the assumed NG2 cell subpopulations are lacking. Previously, we described that a subfraction of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 is modified with the glycan polysialic acid (polySia) in NG2 cells. As for its major carrier, the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, polySia attenuates SynCAM 1 adhesion. Functions, as well as cellular and subcellular distribution of polySia-SynCAM 1 are elusive. Using murine glial cultures we now demonstrate that polySia-SynCAM 1 is confined to the Golgi compartment of a subset of NG2 cells and transiently recruited to the cell surface in response to depolarization. NG2 cells with Golgi-confined polySia were NCAM-negative, but positive for markers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Consistent with previous data on polySia-SynCAM 1, polySia in Ncam(-/-) NG2 cells was exclusively attached to N-glycans and synthesized by ST8SIA2, one out of two mammalian polysialyltransferases. Unexpectedly, Golgi-confined polySia was also detected in Ncam(-/-) microglia, but this fraction resided on O-glycans and was produced by the second polysialyltransferase, ST8SIA4, indicating the presence of yet another polySia carrier in microglia. Searching for this carrier, we identified polysialylated neuropilin-2, so far only known from dendritic cells and exudate macrophages. Microglia activation by LPS, but not interleukin-4, caused a transient translocation of Golgi-localized polySia to the cell surface, resulting in complete depletion. Finally, NO-production of LPS-stimulated microglia was attenuated by addition of polySia suggesting that the observed loss of polySia-neuropilin-2 is involved in negative feedback regulation of pro-inflammatory microglia polarization. PMID:25752299

  4. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.

    Chih-Chieh Wang

    Full Text Available Disrupting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the developing brain has been causally linked with intellectual disability (ID and autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Excitatory synapse strength is regulated in the central nervous system by controlling the number of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs. De novo genetic mutations of the synaptic GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP are associated with ID and ASD. SynGAP is enriched at excitatory synapses and genetic suppression of SynGAP increases excitatory synaptic strength. However, exactly how SynGAP acts to maintain synaptic AMPAR content is unclear. We show here that SynGAP limits excitatory synaptic strength, in part, by suppressing protein synthesis in cortical neurons. The data presented here from in vitro, rat and mouse cortical networks, demonstrate that regulation of translation by SynGAP involves ERK, mTOR, and the small GTP-binding protein Rheb. Furthermore, these data show that GluN2B-containing NMDARs and the cognitive kinase CaMKII act upstream of SynGAP and that this signaling cascade is required for proper translation-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity of excitatory synapses in developing cortical networks.

  5. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane

  6. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  7. An Active Defense Mechanism for TCP SYN flooding attacks

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become a serious problem. To assure that network services will not be interrupted and more effective defense mechanisms to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Another problem is single-point defenses (e.g. firewalls) lack the scalability needed to handle an increase in the attack traffic. We have designed a new defense mechanism to detect the SYN flood attacks. First, we introduce a mechanism for detecting SYN flood traffic more accurately by taking into consideration the time variation of arrival traffic. We investigate the statistics regarding the arrival rates of both normal TCP SYN packets and SYN flood attack packets. We then describe a new detection mechanism based on these statistics. Through the trace driven approach defense nodes which recei...

  8. Hd86, the Bm86 tick protein ortholog in Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum): expression in Pichia pastoris and analysis of nucleotides and amino acids sequences variations prior to vaccination trials.

    Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Nijhof, Ard Menzo; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2012-02-10

    The genus Hyalomma includes the most frequent tick species infesting livestock in North Africa, one of these species, Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum) is particularly important due to its role in the transmission of tropical theileriosis to cattle (Theileria annulata infection). We have cloned and characterized the orthologs of the Bm86 gene from H. scupense strains collected over Tunisia in 2006 and 2009. The recombinant protein rHd86 was expressed in Pichia pastoris for vaccination purpose using a transcript from the 2006 strain. The rHd86 was then purified from the yeast culture supernatant by a filtration and a size exclusion process. It was recognized by specific anti-Bm86 antisera. An important extent of inter-specific diversity ranging from 35 to 40% was recorded between Hd86 and Bm86/Bm95 proteins whilst a very limited level of intra-specific diversity (1.7%) occurred between the Hd86 vaccine candidate protein and its homologues from H. scupense strains collected in 2009. These results emphasise the need for assessing the efficacy against H. scupense and others important cattle Hyalomma species in Tunisia of our Hd86 vaccine candidate alongside with a Bm86 vaccine. PMID:21871736

  9. CNoA: Challenging Number Approach for uncovering TCP SYN flooding using SYN spoofing attack

    L.Kavisankar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenging number is used for the detection of Spoofing attack. The IP Spoofing is considered to beone of the potentially brutal attack which acts as a tool for the DDoS attack which is considered to be amajor threat among security problems in today’s internet. These kinds of attack are extremely severe.They bring down business of company drastically. DDoS attack can easily exhaust the computing andcommunication resources of its victim within a short period of time. There are attacks exploiting somevulnerability or implementation bug in the software implementation of a service to bring that down andsome attacks will use all the available resources at the target machine. This deals on attacks thatconsume all the bandwidth available to the victim machine. While concentrating on the bandwidth attackthe TCP SYN flood is the more prominent attack. TCP/IP protocol suite is the most widely used protocolsuite for data communication. The TCP SYN flood works by exhausting the TCP connection queue of thehost and thus denying legitimate connection request. There are various methods used to detect andprevent this attack, one of which is to block the packet based on SYN flag count from the same IP address.This kind of prevention methods becomes unsuitable when the attackers use the Spoofed IP address. TheSYN spoofing becomes a major tool the TCP SYN flooding. For the prevention of this kind of attacks, theTCP specific probing is used in the proposed scheme where the client is requested challenging numberwhile sending the ACK in the three way hand shake. This is very useful to find the Spoofed IPPackets/TCP SYN flood and preventing them.

  10. Analysis of the SYN Flood DoS Attack

    Mitko Bogdanoski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes systems vulnerability targeted by TCP (Transmission Control Protocol segments when SYN flag is ON, which gives space for a DoS (Denial of Service attack called SYN flooding attack or more often referred as a SYN flood attack. The effects of this type of attack are analyzed and presented in OPNET simulation environment. Furthermore, the paper presents two anomaly detection algorithms as an effective mechanism against this type of attack. Finally, practical approaches against SYN flood attack for Linux and Windows environment which are followed by are shown.

  11. Dendritic Cells for SYN Scan Detection

    Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems have previously been applied to the problem of intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on the function of Dendritic Cells (DCs). DCs are antigen presenting cells and key to activation of the human immune system, behaviour which has been abstracted to form the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA). In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion, asynchronously correlating the the fused data signals with a secondary data stream. Aggregate output of a population of cells, is analysed and forms the basis of an anomaly detection system. In this paper the DCA is applied to the detection of outgoing port scans using TCP SYN packets. Results show that detection can be achieved with the DCA, yet some false positives can be encountered when simultaneously scanning and using other network services. Suggestions are made for using adaptive signals to alleviate this uncovered problem.

  12. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  13. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  14. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  15. Overview of SYN flood attack detection techniques%SYN flood攻击检测技术综述

    石利平

    2011-01-01

    分析SYN flood attack攻击原理,并在此基础上研究几种典型的SYN flood攻击检测方法。对主要技术进行分析和比较,这些技术均有各自的优点和局限性,多种方法有机融合互补将成为SYN flood攻击检测研究的重点。%This paper analyses the principle of SYN flood attack,and some typical detecting methods are researched based on it.This paper summarizes and analyzes each of these schemes.These schemes have their own advantages and limitations,so organically combining s

  16. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  17. RecA-DNA filament topology: the overlooked alternative of an unconventional syn-syn duplex intermediate

    Egel, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The helical filaments of RecA protein mediate strand exchange for homologous recombination, but the paths of the interacting DNAs have yet to be determined. Although this interaction is commonly limited to three strands, it is reasoned here that the intrinsic symmetry relationships of quadruplex...... topology are superior in explaining a range of observations. In particular, this topology suggests the potential of post-exchange base pairing in the unorthodox configuration of syn-syn glycosidic bonds between the nucleotide bases and the pentose rings in the sugar-phosphate backbone, which would...

  18. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W;

    2002-01-01

    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5...

  19. Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM) in Variable Speed Drives (VSD) Applications

    Rajabi Moghaddam, Reza

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is comprehensively dedicated to the theoretical and experimental reevaluation of the Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM). A simple approach to derive the SynRM main characteristics and behavior is followed. An introduction to an evaluation of the different control strategies in is given. Finding suitable rotor geometry for the SynRM has been a subject for major investigation since 1923. This thesis will investigate the interior barrier rotor structure of the SynRM using the Fin...

  20. Porcine synapsin 1: SYN1 gene analysis and functional characterization of the promoter

    Hedegaard, Claus; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper; Madsen, Lone Bruhn;

    2013-01-01

    elements responsible for neuron-specific expression. Expression analysis of SYN1 demonstrated presence of transcript during embryonic development. Analysis of GFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos suggests that the pig SYN1 promoter directs expression in neuronal cells. Thus, the SYN1 promoter is...... a good candidate for use in the generation of pig models of human neurodegenerative disorders...

  1. Dealing with orphans: Catalogue synchronisation with SynCat

    Millar, A Paul [Deutsches Elektronen-Sychrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Donno, Flavia; Lo Presti, Giuseppe [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Jensen, Jens; De Witt, Shaun, E-mail: paul.millar@desy.d [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-01

    In the gLite grid model a site will typically have a Storage Element (SE) that has no direct mechanism for updating any central or experiment-specific catalogues. This loose coupling was a deliberate decision that simplifies SE design; however, a consequence of this is that the catalogues may provide an incorrect view of what is stored on a SE. In this paper, we present SynCat: a mechanism to allow catalogues to re-synchronise with SEs. The paper describes how catalogues can be sure, within certain tolerance, that files believed to be stored at various SEs are really stored there. SynCat also allows catalogues to be aware of transitory file metadata (such as whether a file normally stored on tape is currently available from disk) with low latency.

  2. SYN Packet Pacifier: a host-based anti-DoS-attack System

    Izumi, Yutaka; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Saito, Shoichi; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi

    Internet service provided by TCP connections are often susceptible to Denial of Service attack, especially SYN Flood from external hosts even internal on the network. In our research, we materialise a stateless session establishment mechanism at SYN packet in TCP 3Way Hand Shake then avoid consuming in that CPU, memory and others. We suggest SPP (SYN Packet Pacifier) in this paper. We arranged SPP within FreeBSD Kernel as the system based on above principles. SPP is a secure defense system and an effective DoS counter measure rather than the former methods such as SYN Cache and SYN Cookie.

  3. Chromosome Polymorphisms among Strains of Hansenula polymorpha (syn. Pichia angusta)

    Marri, Laura; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Satta, Giuseppe

    1993-01-01

    Contour-clamped homogeneous electrophoresis and an embedded-agarose method of sample preparation were combined to carry out an analysis of the chromosome sets of nine strains of Hansenula polymorpha (syn. Pichia angusta). Chromosomal DNA molecules could be separated into a series of bands ranging, approximately, from 650 up to 2,200 kb in size. Polymorphism of the electrophoretic pattern was demonstrated among the strains investigated in this study. Cross-hybridization between H. polymorpha a...

  4. Review of syn-flooding attack detection mechanism

    Manna, Mehdi Ebady

    2012-01-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) is a security threat which compromises the confidentiality of information stored in Local Area Networks (LANs) due to unauthorized access by spoofed IP addresses. SYN Flooding is a type of DoS which is harmful to network as the flooding of packets may delay other users from accessing the server and in severe cases, the server may need to be shut down, wasting valuable resources, especially in critical real-time services such as in e-commerce and the medical field. The objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the art of detection mechanisms for SYN flooding. The detection schemes for SYN Flooding attacks have been classified broadly into three categories - detection schemes based on the router data structure, detection schemes based on statistical analysis of the packet flow and detection schemes based on artificial intelligence. The advantages and disadvantages for various detection schemes under each category have been critically examined. The performance measures of the cate...

  5. Review Of Syn-Flooding Attack Detection Mechanism

    Mehdi Ebady Manna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Denial of Service (DoS is a security threat which compromises the confidentiality of information stored in Local Area Networks (LANs due to unauthorized access by spoofed IP addresses. SYN Flooding is a type of DoS which is harmful to network as the flooding of packets may delay other users from accessing the server and in severe cases, the server may need to be shut down, wasting valuable resources, especially in critical real-time services such as in e-commerce and the medical field. The objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the art of detection mechanisms for SYN flooding. The detection schemes for SYN Flooding attacks have been classified broadly into three categories – detection schemes based on the router data structure, detection schemes based on statistical analysis of the packet flow and detection schemes based on artificial intelligence. The advantages and disadvantages for various detection schemes under each category have been critically examined. The performance measures of the categories have also been compared.

  6. Effekten af udvidet periodisk syn på person- og varebiler

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Pilegaard, Ninette

    Dette notat har til formål at gennemføre en beregning af costs og benefits af udvidet periodisk syn af person- og varebiler i Danmark, under forudsætning af der gennemføres ét syn af per-son- og varebiler efter fire år, derefter ét syn efter to år og derefter én gang årligt (4,2,1,1…), som...

  7. Combination Reduction: A SYN-Sequence Selection Strategy for Reachability Testing of Concurrent Programs

    LU Chao; LU Yansheng

    2007-01-01

    Reachability testing is an approach to testing concurrent programs, which can systematically exercise every partially ordered SYN-sequence without constructing the static model. In fact, not all the SYN-sequences need to be tested. This paper proposed a SYN-sequence selection strategy for reachability testing,which can reduce the number of SYN-sequences generated without decreasing the effectiveness of detecting programs' errors. We described a simple algorithm to implement the strategy, and then discussed several optimizations to the algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in a case study to verify the efficacy of the strategy.

  8. Technical Note: n-Alkane lipid biomarkers in loess: post-sedimentary or syn-sedimentary?

    D. Faust

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing discussion whether n-alkane biomarkers – and organic matter (OM from loess in general – reflect a syn-sedimentary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate signal or whether they are significantly a post-sedimentary feature contaminated by root-derived OM. We present first radiocarbon data for the n-alkane fraction of lipid extracts and for the first time luminescence ages for the Middle to Late Weichselian loess-paleosol sequence of Gleina in Saxony, Germany. Comparison of these biomarker ages with sedimentation ages as assessed by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating shows that one n-alkane sample features a syn-sedimentary age (14C: 29.2 ± 1.4 kyr cal BP versus OSL: 27.3 ± 3.0 kyr. By contrast, the 14C ages derived from the other n-alkane samples are clearly younger (20.3 ± 0.7 kyr cal BP, 22.1 ± 0.7 kyr cal BP and 29.8 ± 1.4 kyr cal BP than the corresponding OSL ages (26.6 ± 3.1 kyr, 32.0 ± 3.5 kyr and 45.6 ± 5.3 kyr. This finding suggests that a post-sedimentary n-alkane contamination presumably by roots has occurred. In order to estimate the post-sedimentary n-alkane contamination more quantitatively, we applied a 14C mass balance calculation based on the measured pMC (percent modern carbon values, the calculated syn-sedimentary pMC values and pMC values suspected to reflect likely time points of post-sedimentary contamination (current, modern, 3 kyr, 6 kyr and 9 kyr. Accordingly, current and modern root-contamination would account for up to 7%, a 3 kyr old root-contamination for up to 10%, and an Early and Middle Holocene root-contamination for up to 20% of the total sedimentary n-alkane pool. We acknowledge and encourage that these first radiocarbon results need further confirmation both from other loess-paleosol sequences and for different biomarkers, e.g. carboxylic acids or alcohols as further lipid biomarkers.

  9. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    R. Y. Raskar; A. G. Gaikwad

    2014-01-01

    The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper...

  10. Structural Design of SynRM Rotor, and the Effect on Power Factor

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, structural designs for multiple synchoronous reluctance machine (SynRM) rotor configurations are presented. The rotor flux bridges are increased in thickness until mechanical integrity is achieved, and then the performance of the resulting SynRM is observed. After performing this a...

  11. Age-related decreases in SYN levels associated with increases in MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP levels in the rhesus macaque prefrontal cortex and hippocampus

    Haley, Gwendolen E.; Kohama, Steven G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.; Raber, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Loss of synaptic integrity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play an integral role in age-related cognitive decline. Previously, we showed age-related increases in the dendritic marker microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) in mice. Similarly, apolipoprotein E (apoE), involved in lipid transport and metabolism, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a glia specific marker, increase with age in rodents. In this study, we asses...

  12. Direct carbon-carbon bond formation via reductive soft enolization: a syn-selective Mannich addition of α-iodo thioesters.

    Truong, Ngoc; Sauer, Scott J; Seraphin-Hatcher, Cyndie; Coltart, Don M

    2016-08-16

    The β-amino carboxylic acid moiety is a key feature of numerous important biologically active compounds. We describe a syn-selective direct Mannich addition reaction that uses α-iodo thioesters and sulfonyl imines and produces β-amino thioesters. Enolate formation is achieved by reductive soft enolization. The products of the reaction provide straightforward access to biologically important β-lactams through a variety of known reactions. PMID:27492274

  13. Epileptogenic Q555X SYN1 mutant triggers imbalances in release dynamics and short-term plasticity

    Lignani, Gabriele; Raimondi, Andrea; Ferrea, Enrico; Rocchi, Anna; Paonessa, Francesco; Cesca, Fabrizia; Orlando, Marta; Tkatch, Tatiana; Valtorta, Flavia; Cossette, Patrick; Baldelli, Pietro; BENFENATI Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Synapsin I (SynI) is a synaptic vesicle (SV) phosphoprotein playing multiple roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity by differentially affecting crucial steps of SV trafficking in excitatory and inhibitory synapses. SynI knockout (KO) mice are epileptic, and nonsense and missense mutations in the human SYN1 gene have a causal role in idiopathic epilepsy and autism. To get insights into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis linked to SYN1 mutations, we analyzed the effects of the recently id...

  14. SYN2 is an autism predisposing gene: loss-of-function mutations alter synaptic vesicle cycling and axon outgrowth.

    Corradi, Anna; Fadda, Manuela; Piton, Amélie; Patry, Lysanne; Marte, Antonella; Rossi, Pia; Cadieux-Dion, Maxime; Gauthier, Julie; Lapointe, Line; Mottron, Laurent; Valtorta, Flavia; Rouleau, Guy A; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio; Cossette, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. This 'synaptic autism pathway' notably includes disruption of SYN1 that is associated with epilepsy, autism and abnormal behavior in both human and mice models. Synapsins constitute a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins (SYN1-3) present in the majority of synapses where they are implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Synapsins I and II, the major Syn isoforms in the adult brain, display partially overlapping functions and defects in both isoforms are associated with epilepsy and autistic-like behavior in mice. In this study, we show that nonsense (A94fs199X) and missense (Y236S and G464R) mutations in SYN2 are associated with ASD in humans. The phenotype is apparent in males. Female carriers of SYN2 mutations are unaffected, suggesting that SYN2 is another example of autosomal sex-limited expression in ASD. When expressed in SYN2  knockout neurons, wild-type human Syn II fully rescues the SYN2 knockout phenotype, whereas the nonsense mutant is not expressed and the missense mutants are virtually unable to modify the SYN2 knockout phenotype. These results identify for the first time SYN2  as a novel predisposing gene for ASD and strengthen the hypothesis that a disturbance of synaptic homeostasis underlies ASD. PMID:23956174

  15. SynFind: Compiling Syntenic Regions across Any Set of Genomes on Demand.

    Tang, Haibao; Bomhoff, Matthew D; Briones, Evan; Zhang, Liangsheng; Schnable, James C; Lyons, Eric

    2015-12-01

    The identification of conserved syntenic regions enables discovery of predicted locations for orthologous and homeologous genes, even when no such gene is present. This capability means that synteny-based methods are far more effective than sequence similarity-based methods in identifying true-negatives, a necessity for studying gene loss and gene transposition. However, the identification of syntenic regions requires complex analyses which must be repeated for pairwise comparisons between any two species. Therefore, as the number of published genomes increases, there is a growing demand for scalable, simple-to-use applications to perform comparative genomic analyses that cater to both gene family studies and genome-scale studies. We implemented SynFind, a web-based tool that addresses this need. Given one query genome, SynFind is capable of identifying conserved syntenic regions in any set of target genomes. SynFind is capable of reporting per-gene information, useful for researchers studying specific gene families, as well as genome-wide data sets of syntenic gene and predicted gene locations, critical for researchers focused on large-scale genomic analyses. Inference of syntenic homologs provides the basis for correlation of functional changes around genes of interests between related organisms. Deployed on the CoGe online platform, SynFind is connected to the genomic data from over 15,000 organisms from all domains of life as well as supporting multiple releases of the same organism. SynFind makes use of a powerful job execution framework that promises scalability and reproducibility. SynFind can be accessed at http://genomevolution.org/CoGe/SynFind.pl. A video tutorial of SynFind using Phytophthrora as an example is available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Agczny9Nyc. PMID:26560340

  16. SynDB: a Synapse protein DataBase based on synapse ontology.

    Zhang, Wuxue; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Chen; Xiong, Wei; Olyarchuk, John G; Walker, Michael; Xu, Weifeng; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhou, Zhuan; Wei, Liping

    2007-01-01

    A synapse is the junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell or gland cell. The functions and building molecules of the synapse are essential to almost all neurobiological processes. To describe synaptic structures and functions, we have developed Synapse Ontology (SynO), a hierarchical representation that includes 177 terms with hundreds of synonyms and branches up to eight levels deep. associated 125 additional protein keywords and 109 InterPro domains with these SynO terms. Using a combination of automated keyword searches, domain searches and manual curation, we collected 14,000 non-redundant synapse-related proteins, including 3000 in human. We extensively annotated the proteins with information about sequence, structure, function, expression, pathways, interactions and disease associations and with hyperlinks to external databases. The data are stored and presented in the Synapse protein DataBase (SynDB, http://syndb.cbi.pku.edu.cn). SynDB can be interactively browsed by SynO, Gene Ontology (GO), domain families, species, chromosomal locations or Tribe-MCL clusters. It can also be searched by text (including Boolean operators) or by sequence similarity. SynDB is the most comprehensive database to date for synaptic proteins. PMID:17098931

  17. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    R.Y. Raskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15

  18. Effect of acidic pH on the stability of α-synuclein dimers.

    Lv, Zhengjian; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Zhang, Yuliang; Ysselstein, Daniel; Rochet, Jean Christophe; Blanchard, Scott C; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2016-10-01

    Environmental factors, such as acidic pH, facilitate the assembly of α-synuclein (α-Syn) in aggregates, but the impact of pH on the very first step of α-Syn aggregation remains elusive. Recently, we developed a single-molecule approach that enabled us to measure directly the stability of α-Syn dimers. Unlabeled α-Syn monomers were immobilized on a substrate, and fluorophore-labeled monomers were added to the solution to allow them to form dimers with immobilized α-Syn monomers. The dimer lifetimes were measured directly from the fluorescence bursts on the time trajectories. Herein, we applied the single-molecule tethered approach for probing of intermolecular interaction to characterize the effect of acidic pH on the lifetimes of α-Syn dimers. The experiments were performed at pH 5 and 7 for wild-type α-Syn and for two mutants containing familial type mutations E46K and A53T. We demonstrate that a decrease of pH resulted in more than threefold increase in the α-Syn dimers lifetimes with some variability between the α-Syn species. We hypothesize that the stabilization effect is explained by neutralization of residues 96-140 of α-Syn and this electrostatic effect facilitates the association of the two monomers. Given that dimerization is the first step of α-Syn aggregation, we posit that the electrostatic effect thereby contributes to accelerating α-Syn aggregation at acidic pH. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 715-724, 2016. PMID:27177831

  19. Astrocyte-Specific Disruption of SynCAM1 Signaling Results in ADHD-Like Behavioral Manifestations

    Sandau, Ursula S.; Alderman, Zefora; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Raber, Jacob; Corfas, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes...

  20. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    Adams, C. H.

    1976-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.

  1. A Study and Detection of TCP SYN Flood Attacks with IP spoofing and its Mitigations

    Deepak Singh Rana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooding attacks are major threats on TCP/IP protocol suite these days; Maximum attacks are launched through TCP and exploit the resources and bandwidth of the machine. Flooding attacks are DDOS (Distributed denial of service attacks and utilize the weakness of the network protocols. SYN flood exploits the 3-way handshaking of the TCP by sending many SYN request with IP spoofing technique to victim host and exhaust the backlog queue resource of the TCP and deny legitimate user to connect. Capturing the packet flow is very important to detecting the DOS attack. This paper present how the TCP SYN flood takes place and show the number of packets received by the victim server under the attack.

  2. BrisSynBio: a BBSRC/EPSRC-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre

    Sedgley, Kathleen R.; Race, Paul R.; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2016-01-01

    BrisSynBio is the Bristol-based Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)/Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)-funded Synthetic Biology Research Centre. It is one of six such Centres in the U.K. BrisSynBio's emphasis is on rational and predictive bimolecular modelling, design and engineering in the context of synthetic biology. It trains the next generation of synthetic biologists in these approaches, to facilitate translation of fundamental synthetic biology research to industry and the clinic, and to do this within an innovative and responsible research framework. PMID:27284028

  3. Die Einheit des Bewusstseins und das Phänomen der Synästhesie

    Mroczko-Wasowicz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Synästhetiker schmecken Berührungen, sehen Farben und Formen, wenn sie Musik hören oder einen Duft riechen. Es wurden auch so außergewöhnliche Formen wie Wochentage-Farben-, Berührung-Geruch- oder Schmerz-Farben-Synästhesien gefunden. Die von Neuro- wissenschaftlern und Philosophen als „Bindung“ genannte Fähigkeit mehrere Reize, die in verschiedenen Hirnarealen verarbeitet werden, miteinander zu koppeln und zu einer einheitlichen Repräsentation bzw. erfahrenen Einheit des Bewusstseins zusamme...

  4. Comparison of elongatio n efficiency between DHA and EPA in syn thesis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids%DHA 与 EPA 合成超长链多不饱和脂肪酸的效率比较

    余曼; 陈波; 张瑞帆; 吴峥峥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the elongation efficiency between DHA and EPA for synthesis of very long chain polyunsat -urated fatty acid (VLC-PUFAs) under catalytic action of ELOVL4 protease.Methods PC12 cells were transduced with recombinant adenovirus type 5 carrying mouse Elovl4 and green fluorescent protein (GFP).GFP-expressing and non-transduced cells were used as controls.ELOVL4 gene expression was quantified by qRT-PCRs.ELOVL4 protein was analyzed by Western-Blot (WB).The transduced cells were treated with DHA or EPA (1:1).After 48 h of incubation,cells were collected,and fatty acid methyl esters were prepared following total lipids extraction .The fatty acid was analyzed by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) .Results GC-MS analysis showed that the DHA and EPA treated PC 12+Ad-ELOVL4 had n3 VLC-PUFAs in which 34:5n3 and 36:5n3 were 0.85%and 1.11%,respectively;34:6n3 and 36:6n3 were 0.16% and 0.29%,respectively.Total amount of pentaenoics synthesized from EPA was almost four times than that of hexaenoics synthesized from DHA .Conclusion Elongation efficiency of VLC-PUFAs from EPA is much higher than that from DHA .Therefore,dietary supplementation of more EPA rather than DHA may provide some therapeutic benefits for patients with Stargardts'disease (STGD3).%目的:比较在ELOVL4蛋白酶催化作用下,DHA和EPA合成超长链多不饱和脂肪酸VLC-PUFA的效率。方法构建携带ELOVL4基因和绿色荧光蛋白的重组腺病毒,转入培养的 PC12细胞,通过qRT-PCR定量分析ELOVL 4基因的表达量,WB检测ELOVL4蛋白的表达;1∶1加入DHA和EPA,孵育48 h之后进行脂肪酸提取,通过气相质谱 GC-MS分析超长链脂肪酸的成分。结果 GC-MS检测到分别用DHA及EPA处理后的PC12+Ad-ELOVL4的细胞中有n3 VLC-PUFA的表达,34:5n3和36:5n3分别为0.85%和1.11%;34:6n3和36:63n分别为0.16%和0.29%;EPA所产生的五烯酸总和是DHA所产生的六烯酸总和的4

  5. Overexpression of the calpain-specific inhibitor calpastatin reduces human alpha-Synuclein processing, aggregation and synaptic impairment in [A30P]αSyn transgenic mice.

    Diepenbroek, Meike; Casadei, Nicolas; Esmer, Hakan; Saido, Takaomi C; Takano, Jiro; Kahle, Philipp J; Nixon, Ralph A; Rao, Mala V; Melki, Ronald; Pieri, Laura; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Krueger, Rejko; Masliah, Eliezer; Riess, Olaf; Nuber, Silke

    2014-08-01

    Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), contain aggregated alpha-synuclein (αSyn), which is found in several modified forms and can be discovered phosphorylated, ubiquitinated and truncated. Aggregation-prone truncated species of αSyn caused by aberrant cleavage of this fibrillogenic protein are hypothesized to participate in its sequestration into inclusions subsequently leading to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Here, we investigated the role of calpain cleavage of αSyn in vivo by generating two opposing mouse models. We crossed into human [A30P]αSyn transgenic (i) mice deficient for calpastatin, a calpain-specific inhibitor, thus enhancing calpain activity (SynCAST(-)) and (ii) mice overexpressing human calpastatin leading to reduced calpain activity (SynCAST(+)). As anticipated, a reduced calpain activity led to a decreased number of αSyn-positive aggregates, whereas loss of calpastatin led to increased truncation of αSyn in SynCAST(-). Furthermore, overexpression of calpastatin decreased astrogliosis and the calpain-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins, potentially ameliorating the observed neuropathology in [A30P]αSyn and SynCAST(+) mice. Overall, our data further support a crucial role of calpains, particularly of calpain 1, in the pathogenesis of PD and in disease-associated aggregation of αSyn, indicating a therapeutic potential of calpain inhibition in PD. PMID:24619358

  6. Impact of irrigation regime on berry development and flavonoids composition in Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevine

    Zarrouk, Olfa; Francisco, Rita; Pinto-Marijuan, Marta; Brossa, Ricardo; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Pinheiro, Carla; Costa, Joaquim M.; Lopes, Carlos M.; Chaves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, field grown Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected to three irrigation regimes (conventional sustained deficit irrigation (DI), regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and non-irrigated (NI)) during two successive seasons (2007–2008). An integrative study was performed in grape berry skin tissues at four phenological stages of grape berry (pea size, véraison, mid-ripening and full maturation). The accumulation of flavonoid compou...

  7. 对TCP SYN Flood攻击和防御的分析

    聂涛

    2006-01-01

    TCP SYN Flood(TCP同步洪水攻击)是目前最流行的DoS(拒绝服务攻击)与DDoS的方式之一,这是一种利用TCP协议缺陷,破坏TCP三次握手建立正常连接,从而使得被攻击方资源耗尽的攻击方式。

  8. SynDB: a Synapse protein DataBase based on synapse ontology

    Zhang, Wuxue; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Chen; Xiong, Wei; Olyarchuk, John G.; Walker, Michael; Xu, Weifeng; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhou, Zhuan; Wei, Liping

    2006-01-01

    A synapse is the junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell or gland cell. The functions and building molecules of the synapse are essential to almost all neurobiological processes. To describe synaptic structures and functions, we have developed Synapse Ontology (SynO), a hierarchical representation that includes 177 terms with hundreds of synonyms and branches up to eight levels deep. associated 125 additional protein keywords and 109 InterPr...

  9. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-rela...

  10. SynFace-Speech-Driven Facial Animation for Virtual Speech-Reading Support

    Giampiero Salvi; Jonas Beskow; Samer Al Moubayed; Björn Granström

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes SynFace, a supportive technology that aims at enhancing audio-based spoken communication in adverse acoustic conditions by providing the missing visual information in the form of an animated talking head. Firstly, we describe the system architecture, consisting of a 3D animated face model controlled from the speech input by a specifically optimised phonetic recogniser. Secondly, we report on speech intelligibility experiments with focus on multilinguality and robustness t...

  11. Defense against SYN-Flood Denial of Service Attacks Based on Learning Automata

    Masoud Bekravi; Shahram Jamali; Gholam Shaker

    2012-01-01

    SYN-flooding attack uses the weakness available in TCPs three-way handshake process to keep it from handling legitimate requests. This attack causes the victim host to populate its backlog queue with forged TCP connections. In other words it increases Ploss (probability of loss) and Pa (buffer occupancy percentage of attack requests) and decreases Pr (buffer occupancy percentage of regular requests) in the victim host and results to decreased performance of the host. This paper proposes a sel...

  12. Syn- and post-collisional heat flow in the Cenozoic Eastern Alps

    Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.

    2001-08-01

    The heat flow evolution of a continental collisional zone is exemplified by the Eastern Alps. Heat flow maps for the syn-collision (Oligocene), syn-extrusion (Early/Middle Miocene), and post-extrusion (Late Miocene, Recent) stages are presented, and are discussed in relation to the orogenic evolution. Continental collision during Paleogene time was characterized by extremely low heat flow (front, and very high heat flow (>150 mW/m2) a few hundred kilometers south of it. The former was a result of crustal thickening and of thermal blanketing due to rapid sedimentation and nappe stacking. The latter was caused by slab break-off and magmatic activity. The Early/Middle Miocene syn-extrusion stage was characterized by rapid exhumation of metamorphic core complexes (Tauern and Rechnitz Windows), and by magmatic activity (Styrian Basin). Both mechanisms caused extremely high heat flow (>200 mW/m2). In contrast, the orogenetic front remained cold. Thereafter, magmatic activity ended and uplift rates decreased. Thus, Late Miocene heat flow is characterized by low to moderately high values. Heat flow values >75 mW/m2 were restricted to the transition zone of the Pannonian Basin characterized by thinned crust, and to the Tauern Window area. Recent temperature data indicate a subtle post-Miocene increase in heat flow.

  13. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

    Paul W. Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

  14. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  15. Magma interaction processes in syn-extensional granitoids: The Tertiary Menderes Metamorphic Core Complex, western Turkey

    Erkül, Sibel Tatar; Erkül, Fuat

    2012-06-01

    Western Turkey, which forms the eastern part of the Aegean region, was subjected to continental extension that led to formation of metamorphic core complexes and associated syn-extensional granitoids. This study deals with petrogenesis of the syn-extensional Early Miocene Alaçamdağ (AG) and Middle Miocene Salihli (SG) granitoids and associated mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) in order to better understand the time-progressive evolution of the mantle sources beneath the extended continental crust in western Turkey. AG and SG granitoids consist of undeformed and ductility deformed granitoids together with abundant MMEs. They are calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Mg# of AG host rocks is slightly lower than that of SG host rocks. AG host rocks have higher Na2O, Ba, Rb, Rb/La and lower Al2O3, CaO, MgO, TiO2, Zr/Y values than those of the SG host rocks. AG and SG host rocks differ from those of MMEs, with their lower Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2, Sr, V, Mg# and higher SiO2 values. MMEs are intermediate, corresponding to monzonite, monzodiorite (in AG) and diorite (in SG) compositions and are more mafic with respect to their host rocks. In the primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element patterns, host rock and MME samples have similar trace element patterns. All of these rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, K and Sr) and strongly depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs, Ta, Nb, P, Ti) compared to the primitive mantle. The isotope ratios of the syn-extensional AG and SG rocks display increasing radiogenic strontium and decreasing radiogenic neodymium. Isotopic values for the AG and SG host rocks and MME samples are 87Sr/86Sr (AG host) = 0.708835-0.710206 and ɛNd(t) (AG host) = (- 5.36 to - 7.36); 87Sr/86Sr (AG MME) = 0.709107-0.709801 and ɛNd(t) (AG MME) = - 5.36 to - 7.36; 87Sr/86Sr (AG MME)=0.709107-0.709801 and ɛNd(t) (AG MME)=-5.55 to -6.51; 87Sr/86Sr (SG

  16. SynLethDB: synthetic lethality database toward discovery of selective and sensitive anticancer drug targets.

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a type of genetic interaction between two genes such that simultaneous perturbations of the two genes result in cell death or a dramatic decrease of cell viability, while a perturbation of either gene alone is not lethal. SL reflects the biologically endogenous difference between cancer cells and normal cells, and thus the inhibition of SL partners of genes with cancer-specific mutations could selectively kill cancer cells but spare normal cells. Therefore, SL is emerging as a promising anticancer strategy that could potentially overcome the drawbacks of traditional chemotherapies by reducing severe side effects. Researchers have developed experimental technologies and computational prediction methods to identify SL gene pairs on human and a few model species. However, there has not been a comprehensive database dedicated to collecting SL pairs and related knowledge. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive database, SynLethDB (http://histone.sce.ntu.edu.sg/SynLethDB/), which contains SL pairs collected from biochemical assays, other related databases, computational predictions and text mining results on human and four model species, i.e. mouse, fruit fly, worm and yeast. For each SL pair, a confidence score was calculated by integrating individual scores derived from different evidence sources. We also developed a statistical analysis module to estimate the druggability and sensitivity of cancer cells upon drug treatments targeting human SL partners, based on large-scale genomic data, gene expression profiles and drug sensitivity profiles on more than 1000 cancer cell lines. To help users access and mine the wealth of the data, we developed other practical functionalities, such as search and filtering, orthology search, gene set enrichment analysis. Furthermore, a user-friendly web interface has been implemented to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. With the integrated data sets and analytics functionalities, SynLethDB would

  17. Høgres syn på statleg eigarskap i norsk oljeverksemd 1970-1984

    Aven, Håvard Brede

    2014-01-01

    Denne masteroppgåva handlar om Høgre sitt syn på statleg eigarskap i norsk oljeverksemd i perioden 1970 til 1984, frå dei første drivverdige oljefelta blei funne på norsk sokkel og fram til Willoch-regjeringa gjennomførte Statoil-reforma i 1984. Høgre var i utgangspunktet skeptisk til statsdrift og utstrakt statleg eigarskap i industribedrifter. Likevel var det den borgarlege Borten-regjeringa – med ein industriminister frå Høgre – som sikra statleg aksjemajoritet i Norsk Hydro i 1970 og 1971...

  18. Ledarskapet i läraryrket : - sex pedagogers syn på sitt ledarskap

    Gunnarsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att beskriva och analysera sex pedagogers syn på sitt ledarskap. För att göra detta har jag genomfört sex kvalitativa intervjuer med olika pedagoger. De intervjuade är: tre förskolelärare, två lärare för yngre barn och en fritidspedagog. Pedagogerna är från olika städer och olika arbetslag. Jag har utfört undersökningen utifrån fyra huvudfrågor: – Vad innebär ledarskapet? – Vad är det som påverkar ledarskapet? – Hur kan man utveckla sig själv som ledare...

  19. SynArfGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 and localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of inhibitory synapses.

    Fukaya, Masahiro; Kamata, Akifumi; Hara, Yoshinobu; Tamaki, Hideaki; Katsumata, Osamu; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Hata, Yutaka; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Harvey, Robert J; Sakagami, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    SynArfGEF, also known as BRAG3 or IQSEC3, is a member of the brefeldin A-resistant Arf-GEF/IQSEC family and was originally identified by screening for mRNA species associated with the post-synaptic density fraction. In this study, we demonstrate that synArfGEF activates Arf6, using Arf pull down and transferrin incorporation assays. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that synArfGEF is present in somata and dendrites as puncta in close association with inhibitory synapses, whereas immunoelectron microscopic analysis reveals that synArfGEF localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of symmetric synapses. Using yeast two-hybrid and pull down assays, we show that synArfGEF is able to bind utrophin/dystrophin and S-SCAM/MAGI-2 scaffolding proteins that localize at inhibitory synapses. Double immunostaining reveals that synArfGEF co-localizes with dystrophin and S-SCAM in cultured hippocampal neurons and cerebellar cortex, respectively. Both β-dystroglycan and S-SCAM were immunoprecipitated from brain lysates using anti-synArfGEF IgG. Taken together, these findings suggest that synArfGEF functions as a novel regulator of Arf6 at inhibitory synapses and associates with the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and S-SCAM. PMID:21198641

  20. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Schrage, William G.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To acco...

  1. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.529 Section 174.529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES...

  2. DFT Conformation and Energies of Amylose Fragments at Atomic Resolution Part I: Syn Forms of Alpha-Maltotetraose

    DFT optimization studies of ninety syn '-maltotetraose (DP-4) amylose fragments have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The DP-4 fragments studied include V-helix, tightly bent conformations, a boat, and a 1C4 conformer. The standard hydroxymethyl rotamers (gg, gt, tg) were ...

  3. Ductile strain rate recorded in the Symvolon syn-extensional plutonic body (Rhodope core complex, Greece)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fazio, Eugenio; Ortolano, Gaetano; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Kern, Hartmut; Mengel, Kurt; Pezzino, Antonino; Punturo, Rosalda

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution deals with quantitative microstructural analysis, which was performed on granodiorites of the syn-tectonic Symvolon pluton (Punturo et al., 2014) at the south-western boundary of the Rhodope Core Complex (Greece). Our purpose is the quantification of ductile strain rate achieved across the pluton, by considering its cooling gradient from the centre to the periphery, using the combination of a paleopiezometer (Shimizu, 2008) and a quartz flow law (Hirth et al., 2001). Obtained results, associated with a detailed cooling history (Dinter et al., 1995), allowed us to reconstruct the joined cooling and strain gradient evolution of the pluton from its emplacement during early Miocene (ca. 700°C at 22 Ma) to its following cooling stage (ca. 500-300°C at 15 Ma). Shearing temperature values were constrained by means of a thermodynamic approach based on the recognition of syn-shear assemblages at incremental strain; to this aim, statistical handling of mineral chemistry X-Ray maps was carried out on microdomains detected at the tails of porphyroclasts. Results indicate that the strain/cooling gradients evolve "arm in arm" across the pluton, as also testified by the progressive development of mylonitic fabric over the magmatic microstructures approaching the host rock. References • Dinter, D. A., Macfarlane, A., Hames, W., Isachsen, C., Bowring, S., and Royden, L. (1995). U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Symvolon granodiorite: Implications for the thermal and structural evolution of the Rhodope metamorphic core complex, northeastern Greece. Tectonics, 14 (4), 886-908. • Shimizu, I. (2008). Theories and applicability of grain size piezometers: The role of dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. Journal of Structural Geology, 30 (7), 899-917. • Hirth, G., Teyssier, C., and Dunlap, J. W. (2001). An evaluation of quartzite flow laws based on comparisons between experimentally and naturally deformed rocks. International Journal of Earth

  4. SynFace—Speech-Driven Facial Animation for Virtual Speech-Reading Support

    Salvi Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes SynFace, a supportive technology that aims at enhancing audio-based spoken communication in adverse acoustic conditions by providing the missing visual information in the form of an animated talking head. Firstly, we describe the system architecture, consisting of a 3D animated face model controlled from the speech input by a specifically optimised phonetic recogniser. Secondly, we report on speech intelligibility experiments with focus on multilinguality and robustness to audio quality. The system, already available for Swedish, English, and Flemish, was optimised for German and for Swedish wide-band speech quality available in TV, radio, and Internet communication. Lastly, the paper covers experiments with nonverbal motions driven from the speech signal. It is shown that turn-taking gestures can be used to affect the flow of human-human dialogues. We have focused specifically on two categories of cues that may be extracted from the acoustic signal: prominence/emphasis and interactional cues (turn-taking/back-channelling.

  5. High prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in foxes from western Austria.

    Hodžić, Adnan; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) is a canine trichuroid nematode affecting the upper respiratory airways (i.e., nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) of dogs, foxes, and wolves. In the past few years, reports in dogs and wild canids have increased from across Europe, but data on its occurrence and distribution in Austria is scanty. A total of 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the two westernmost provinces (Tyrol and Vorarlberg) of Austria were therefore examined for the presence of E. boehmi at necropsy. Eggs and adult nematodes were identified morphologically and molecularly (cox1) as E. boehmi. These nematodes were found in 26 (78.8 %) and 13 (92.9 %) foxes from Tyrol and Vorarlberg, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 83.0 % (39/47). The prevalence rate of infection recorded in this study is among the highest in Europe. These results suggest that foxes may represent an important source of infection for dogs and other canids, but further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics. PMID:27230019

  6. SynArfGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6 and localizes preferentially at post-synaptic specializations of inhibitory synapses

    Fukaya, M; Kamata, A.; Hara, Y; Tamaki, H.; Katsumata, O.; Ito, N.; Takeda, S.; Hata, Y; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, M.(Niigata University, 950-2181, Niigata, Japan); Harvey, R J; Sakagami, H.

    2011-01-01

    SynArfGEF, also known as BRAG3 or IQSEC3, is a member of the brefeldin A-resistant Arf-GEF/IQSEC family and was originally identified by screening for mRNA species associated with the post-synaptic density fraction. In this study, we demonstrate that synArfGEF activates Arf6, using Arf pull down and transferrin incorporation assays. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that synArfGEF is present in somata and dendrites as puncta in close association with inhibitory synapses, whereas immunoelec...

  7. Model-Based Development of Distributed Embedded Systems by the Example of the Scicos/SynDEx Framework

    Fischer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The embedded systems engineering industry faces increasing demands for more functionality, rapidly evolving components, and shrinking schedules. Abilities to quickly adapt to changes, develop products with safe design, minimize project costs, and deliver timely are needed. Model-based development (MBD) follows a separation of concerns by abstracting systems with an appropriate intensity. MBD promises higher comprehension by modeling on several abstraction-levels, formal verification, and automated code generation. This thesis demonstrates MBD with the Scicos/SynDEx framework on a distributed embedded system. Scicos is a modeling and simulation environment for hybrid systems. SynDEx is a rapid prototyping integrated development environment for distributed systems. Performed examples implement well-known control algorithms on a target system containing several networked microcontrollers, sensors, and actuators. The addressed research question tackles the feasibility of MBD for medium-sized embedded systems. In ...

  8. Verfahren SynBA-3K zur Analyse von Kommunikationsstörungen, Konflikten und Strategien der Konflikthandhabung in Organisationen

    Grüne, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Zur Untersuchung der Wirkung von Konflikten und Strategien der Bewältigung in Organisationen wurde ein Fragebogenverfahren auf theoretischer Grundlage des Belastungs-Beanspruchungs-Modells entwickelt. Der Fragebogen SynBA-3K (Synthetische Beanspruchungsanalyse bei Kommunikationsstörungen, Konflikten und Strategien der Konflikthandhabung in Organisationen) hat zum Ziel, Konflikte in Organisationen zu analysieren und Ansatzpunkte zur Gestaltung zu finden. Zwei Validierungsstudien, die in zwanzi...

  9. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  10. Syns man inte, finns man inte? : GANT Swedens hantering av image och relationer via Instagram och Pinterest

    Wängborg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: Syns man inte, finns man inte? GANT Swedens hantering av image och relationer via Instagram och Pinterest. Examinationsdatum: 2014-01-07 Kurs: Examensarbete inom Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, Public relations och information, 15 högskolepoäng (15 ECTS). HT2013, Kandidatkurs: Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, 30 högskolepoäng (30 ECTS). Författare: Linda Wängborg Handledare: Jonas Jonsson Examinator: Christian Christensen Nyckelord: sociala medier, public relation...

  11. Syn-thrusting polygonal normal faults exposed in the hinge of the Cingoli anticline, northern Apennines, Italy

    Petracchini, Lorenzo; Antonellini, Marco; Billi, Andrea; Scrocca, Davide

    2015-11-01

    The Cingoli arcuate anticline is part of the Apennines fold-thrust belt in Italy. The anticline involves sedimentary carbonate strata generally affected by syn-thrusting contractional structures such as bed-normal pressure solution seams, folds, and reverse faults. An exception is constituted by an outcrop in the anticline hinge, where sub-horizontal carbonate and chert beds are affected by joints and intraformational short normal faults. These faults are poorly-systematic and conceivably polygonal in map view. They cut through the carbonate beds while usually stop against the chert layers that are bent and extended along the faults themselves. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, greenish clayey residue, and micro-breccias including chert and carbonate clasts. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. The faults, in effect, are usually accompanied by bed-parallel pressure solution seams in the two contractional quadrants located at the present or past fault tips. The pressure solution features fade away departing from the faults. This evidence and others are analytically explained with fault tip stress distributions. The faults are interpreted as polygonal normal faults syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting) nucleated in response to multi-directional stretching processes occurred at the Cingoli triple-folded anticline extrados. The faults then grew through a four-stage process: (1. stop) the faults stopped at the competent chert beds; (2. shrink) faulting produced shrinkage (pressure solution) of carbonate beds at the fault compressive tips; (3. shrink and step) the faults stepped laterally at the competent chert beds; (4. shatter) the chert beds were shattered along the fault surfaces. The case presented constitutes the first reported one of syn-thrusting non-diagenetic polygonal normal faults.

  12. 基于时间序列分析的SYN Flooding源端检测方法%Detection method against SYN Flooding attacks based on source end by analysis of time series

    王朝辉; 苏旸

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于时间序列分析从源端对SYN Flooding攻击进行检测的方法.该方法是为了从源端对网络流量进行检测并预测,从而判断是否发生了SYN Flooding攻击,为受害者端及时响应提供依据;利用攻击网络流量的自相似性,采用Bloom Filter提取数据流特征信息,构造网络流量时间序列,建立自回归预报模型;通过动态预测网络流量并与设定的阈值进行比较来对攻击预警,提前作出响应.仿真实验结果表明,该方法能准确地统计出网络中数据包和新源IP数据包的出现次数,具有较好的检测率和较低的误报率,能够较准确地预测出下一时间段甚至几个时间段的网络流量,能为有效防御SYN Flooding攻击提供有力的数据支撑.%This paper proposed a method of detecting DDoS attacks based on source end by analyzing the abrupt change of time series data. By detecting and predicting the data flow in the Internet at source end, the method could judge whether SYN Flooding was occurred or not for providing the foundation for the victim end. It extracted the characteristic information of data flow by using the self-similarity of network traffic flow and Bloom Filter algorithm, so that it could construct the time series of the network traffic flow and build the auto-regressive( AR) forecasting model. By dynamically forecasting traffic flow and coin-paring with definite threshold, pre-alert was sent and response was ahead adopted. The experimental results show that the scheme can count the number of the data packages and the number of the new IP data packages with the better detection rate and lower misinformation rate, besides, it can predict the traffic flow in the next period even several periods correctly, which can provide strong support for effectively defending against SYN Flooding attacks.

  13. Sheared-type G(anti).C(syn) base-pair: a unique d(GXC) loop closure motif.

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2003-05-30

    Stable DNA loop structures closed by a novel G.C base-pair have been determined for the single-residue d(GXC) loops (X=A, T, G or C) in low-salt solution by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The closing G.C base-pair in these loops is not of the canonical Watson-Crick type, but adopts instead a unique sheared-type (trans Watson-Crick/sugar-edge) pairing, like those occurring in the sheared mismatched G.A or A.C base-pair, to draw the two opposite strands together. The cytidine residue in the closing base-pair is transformed into the rare syn domain to form two H-bonds with the guanine base and to prevent the steric clash between the G 2NH(2) and the C H-5 protons. Besides, the sugar pucker of the syn cytidine is still located in the regular C2'-endo domain, unlike the C3'-endo domain adopted for the pyrimidines of the out-of-alternation left-handed Z-DNA structure. The facile formation of the compact d(GXC) loops closed by a unique sheared-type G(anti).C(syn) base-pair demonstrates the great potential of the single-stranded d(GXC) triplet repeats to fold into stable hairpins. PMID:12758081

  14. The syntaxin protein (MoSyn8) mediates intracellular trafficking to regulate conidiogenesis and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus.

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Liu, Muxing; Dong, Yanhan; Zhu, Qian; Li, Lianwei; Li, Bing; Yang, Jie; Li, Ying; Ru, Yanyan; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-03-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate cellular membrane fusion and intracellular vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and are critical in the growth and development of pathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe oryzae which causes rice blast. Rice blast is thought to involve distinct SNARE-mediated transport and secretion of fungal effector proteins into the host to modulate rice immunity. We have previously characterized two SNARE proteins, secretory protein (MoSec22) and vesicle-associated membrane protein (MoVam7), as being important in cellular transport and pathogenicity. Here, we show that syntaxin 8 (MoSyn8), a Qc-SNARE protein homolog, also plays important roles in growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity. The MoSYN8 deletion mutant (∆Mosyn8) mutant exhibits defects in endocytosis and F-actin organization, appressorium turgor pressure generation, and host penetration. In addition, the ∆Mosyn8 mutant cannot elaborate biotrophic invasion of the susceptible rice host, or secrete avirulence factors Avr-Pia (corresponding to the rice resistance gene Pia) and Avrpiz-t (the cognate Avr gene for the resistance gene Piz-t) proteins. Our study of MoSyn8 advances our understanding of SNARE proteins in effector secretion which underlies the normal physiology and pathogenicity of M. oryzae, and it sheds new light on the mechanism of the blight disease caused by M. oryzae. PMID:26522477

  15. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia flowers

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers were stored using two methods in this investigation; first, under normally practiced conditions (NPS, i.e., the practice adopted by the flower’s collectors, and second, oven dried, powdered with liquid nitrogen, and stored at 00C (±10C in different small airtight sterilized vials labelled as laboratory processed samples (LPS. Both LPS and NPS were stored for a year i.e. from one harvesting season to the next. Experiments were carried out, at every month interval, to identify the factors responsible for spoilage of flowers during storage. LPS did not exhibit deterioration in the nutrient value throughout the year of storage, but NPS showed spoilage due to various biotic and abiotic factors comprised of moisture, temperature and microorganisms. To check postharvest spoilage various innovative storage techniques like physical and chemical treatments were experimented. Results revealed that storage at low temperature by liquid nitrogen treatment and chemical conversion to oxalic acid were the most effective techniques for a long-term storage.

  16. A 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ as an enhancer of transgene expression in dicotyledonous plants

    Kanoria Shaveta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high level of transgene expression is required, in several applications of transgenic technology. While use of strong promoters has been the main focus in such instances, 5′UTRs have also been shown to enhance transgene expression. Here, we present a 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ, which enhances gene expression in tobacco and cotton. Results The influence of synJ on transgene expression was studied in callus cultures of cotton and different tissues of transgenic tobacco plants. The study was based on comparing the expression of reporter gene gus and gfp, with and without synJ as its 5′UTR. Mutations in synJ were also analyzed to identify the region important for enhancement. synJ, enhances gene expression by 10 to 50 fold in tobacco and cotton depending upon the tissue studied. This finding is based on the experiments comparing the expression of gus gene, encoding the synJ as 5′UTR under the control of 35S promoter with expression cassettes based on vectors like pBI121 or pRT100. Further, the enhancement was in most cases equivalent to that observed with the viral leader sequences known to enhance translation like Ω and AMV. In case of transformed cotton callus as well as in the roots of tobacco transgenic plants, the up-regulation mediated by synJ was much higher than that observed in the presence of both Ω as well as AMV. The enhancement mediated by synJ was found to be at the post-transcriptional level. The study also demonstrates the importance of a 5′UTR in realizing the full potential of the promoter strength. synJ has been utilized to design four cloning vectors: pGEN01, pBGEN02, pBGEN02-hpt and pBGEN02-ALSdm each of which can be used for cloning the desired transgene and achieving high level of expression in the resulting transgenic plants. Conclusions synJ, a synthetic 5′UTR, can enhance transgene expression under a strong promoter like 35S as well as under a weak promoter like nos in

  17. Crustal processes cause adakitic chemical signatures in syn-collision magmatism from SE Iran

    Allen, Mark; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Neill, Iain

    2015-04-01

    We report new elemental and Nd-Sr isotopic analyses for Late Cenozoic intrusive and extrusive rocks emplaced in SE Iran as part of the wider syn-collision magmatic province within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. The sample sites are near the town of Dehaj in Kerman Province. Most of the rocks are from stocks and batholiths, interpreted as the roots of central volcanoes. Age controls are not precise, but the rocks are likely to be Late Miocene-Quaternary in age. Basaltic to andesitic lavas crop out nearby; their relationships to the intrusive rocks are uncertain. Geochemically, the entire range of rocks from basalt lavas through to rhyolitic intrusives ranges from 51-71 wt.% silica and isotopic signatures are similar to Bulk Earth, without any clear evidence for large-scale crustal contamination. The basaltic to andesitic lavas appear to have variable and often high La/Yb and Sr/Y such that they range from calc-alkaline arc-like rocks to adakitic compositions depending on the degree of fractionation. The intrusive rocks seem to form a separate suite, with clear indications of increasing Sr/Y and Dy/Yb with fractionation. Previous interpretations relate adakitic magmatism to Tethyan oceanic slab break-off and slab melting beneath the collision zone. However, as the 'adakitic signature' is increasingly apparent in more evolved magmas, at least in the intrusives, adakite generation is more likely to have occurred during melt evolution from an initial low Sr/Y and low La/Yb parent. This parental melt may have been similar in starting composition to proposed non-adakitic basaltic melts from elsewhere in the collision zone. The high Sr/Yb and La/Yb signatures are best explained by the suppression of plagioclase fractionation by high magmatic water contents, promoting incompatible behaviour of Sr. Conversely, Y and Yb are compatible during amphibole and garnet fractionation at crustal or uppermost mantle levels. Rather than a localised slab break-off or melting effect, the

  18. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    edifices. In particular, for the Ayaz-Akhtarma, the interferograms show the pre- and the syn-eruptive phases, reaching a maximum displacements about 5.3 cm in 70 days. In the case of the Khara Zira mud volcano eruption, the time span covered by the interferograms with good coherence values ends some months before the eruption, thus only the initial stages of the pre-eruption deformation can be observed, with a maximum uplift about 2.3 cm in 70 days. Paroxysmal phases that occasionally may interrupt the quiescent activity of mud volcanoes consist of violent release of large mud flows and flaming eruption caused by the self-ignition of the methane. The bulging observed in the interferograms connected with the pre- and syn-eruptive phases is probably due to an increase of overpressure which precedes a paroxysmal activity phase.

  19. Calculations of kinetic isotope effects in the syn-eliminations of (2-phenylethyl)dimethylamine oxides

    Transition state theory (TST) calculations of kinetic isotope effects (KIE) for the syn-elimination of (2-phenylethyl)dimethylamine oxides have been carried out for a series of transition state (TS) models encompassing both E1-like and E1cB-like regions of the E2 mechanistic spectrum. A large number of different reaction coordinates were explored for both unsolvated and for coordination of solvent dimethylsulfoxide in the cyclic transition state models. The models of reaction for both solvated and unsolvated models of proton transfer are presented. A simplified method for easier initial screening of reaction coordinate contributions is developed, discussed, and found to produce accurate approximations to the full model KIE values. Both unsolvated and solvated models show E1-like E2 mechanism and the calculated values from both models are in extremely good agreement with experimentally measured KIE. Both models were used to investigate para-substituted derivatives (Z = CL, OCH3) of the parent compound (Z = H). The transition states are related by a shift in structure parallel to the central E2 diagonal of an O'Ferrall-Jencks-Fry reaction diagram, as predicted by Thornton, indicating that in the absence of other factors, the extent to which negative charge is accumulated at C/sub β/ in the transition state is a function primarily of the leaving group. All of the structural parameters such as bond distances and bond angles were related to independent bond orders. Beta-deuterium isotope effects produced by both solvated and nonsolvated models are temperature dependent

  20. Graben width controlling syn-rift sedimentation: the Palaeogene southern Upper Rhine Graben as an example

    Hinsken, Sebastian; Ustaszewski, Kamil; Wetzel, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Eocene to Early Oligocene syn-rift deposits of the southern Upper Rhine Graben (URG) accumulated in restricted environments. Sedimentation was controlled by local clastic supply from the graben flanks, as well as by strong intra-basinal variations in accommodation space due to differential tectonic subsidence, that in turn led to pronounced lateral variations in depositional environment. Three large-scale cycles of intensified evaporite sedimentation were interrupted by temporary changes towards brackish or freshwater conditions. They form three major base level cycles that can be traced throughout the basin, each of them representing a stratigraphic sub-unit. A relatively constant amount of horizontal extension ( ΔL) in the range of 4 5 km has been estimated for the URG from numerous cross-sections. The width of the rift ( L f ), however, varies between 35 and more than 60 km, resulting in a variable crustal stretching factor between the bounding masterfaults. Apart from block tilting, tectonic subsidence was, therefore, largely controlled by changes in the initial rift width ( L 0). The along-strike variations of the graben width are responsible for the development of a deep, trough-like evaporite basin (Potash Basin) in the narrowest part of the southern URG, adjacent to shallow areas in the wider parts of the rift such as the Colmar Swell in the north and the Rhine Bresse Transfer Zone that delimits the URG to the south. Under a constant amount of extension, the along-strike variation in rift width is the principal factor controlling depo-centre development in extensional basins.

  1. Detrital zircon provenance of the Paleogene syn-rift sediments in the northern South China Sea

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Pang, Xiong; Jiang, Tao; Qiao, Peijun; Zhao, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The early rift sedimentation history of the South China Sea is still not well understood due to restricted borehole coverage of the Paleogene strata and lack of reliable stratigraphic dating. We use detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to explore the source-to-sink characteristics of syn-rift sequences in the northern South China Sea. The results reveal significant intrabasinal provenances in addition to the well-perceived terrigenous supply from the north. The Dongsha Uplift is considered to account for the dominance of the Early Cretaceous zircons in the Eocene samples. The Lower Oligocene sediments in the Qiongdongnan Basin could have been sourced from Hainan Island and local uplifts, but their distinction cannot be confirmed by the U-Pb age spectra. Contemporary sediments in the northern Pearl River Mouth Basin were most likely transported from southeastern South China with well-rounded zircon grains showing U-Pb age similarity to those from the northeastern tributaries of the Pearl River. By contrast, intrabasinal sources from the west and east are suggested to have contributed the infill of the southern part of the Pearl River Mouth Basin based on generally euhedral zircon shapes. These sedimentary source patterns appear to change very little in the Oligocene northern South China Sea. However, the newly detected Neoproterozoic zircons in the Upper Oligocene sediments from borehole L21 tend to indicate a southern source. The episodic and diachronic nature of rifting and erosion processes in the early South China Sea is the cause of complex patterns in the Paleogene provenance history.

  2. First report of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in dogs in north-western Italy, with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs

    Magi M; Guardone L.; Prati M.C.; Torracca B.; Macchioni F.

    2012-01-01

    Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faeca...

  3. Synthesis of 2,6-trans-disubstituted 5,6-dihydropyrans from (Z)-1,5-syn-endiols

    Flamme Eric M; Roush William R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Certain (Z)-1,5-syn-diols 2 may be converted into 2,6-trans-5,6-dihydropyrans by using phosphonium salt 4 or phosphorane 5 as dehydrating agents. A more general four step procedure converts the (Z)-1,5-syn-endiols into enantiomeric dihydropyrans ent-3 via regioselective silylation of the allylic alcohol unit followed by mesylate formation and base-promoted nucleophilic displacement.

  4. Stereoselective synthesis of a-hydroxy-b-amino acids: the chiral pool approach

    RADOMIR N. SAICIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the stereoselective homologation of a-amino acids into syn-a-hydroxy-b-amino acids is described, based on the conversion of stereoisomeric cyanohydrins into trans-oxazolines. The synthetic potential of the method is illustrated in the enantioselective formal synthesis of Bestatin.

  5. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population.

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM) were umc1303 (265.1 cM) on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM) on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM) on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM) on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (http://www.maizegdb.org). Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize. PMID:27031623

  6. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population.

    Shuaidong Hu

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h and optimum temperature (28°C/24h between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM were umc1303 (265.1 cM on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (http://www.maizegdb.org. Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize.

  7. Reactivation of a syn-growth unconformity during flexural-slip folding (Bóixols Anticline, Pyrenees, Spain)

    Tavani, Stefano; Granado, Pablo; Arbués, Pau; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-04-01

    The contractive growth strata of the Bóixols anticline (Spanish Pyrenees) include a major Upper Cretaceous syn-kinematic unconformity outstandingly exposed at the anticline forelimb. The unconformity divides and decouples the growth-sequence in two units of contrasting geometry. In the outer sector of the forelimb, the unconformity preserves its stratigraphic attitude, showing an angle of less than 20° and separating near-vertical to south-dipping upper and lower unit syn-kinematic strata. In the central portion of the forelimb, the multilayered lower unit acquires a near-vertical attitude, whereas layers of the upper unit become shallow-dipping. The angular unconformity there is about 90° and the unconformity is affected by meso-faults and S-C structures providing a top to the foreland shear sense. Such a shear zone is offset by high-angle reverse faults propagating from the underlying layer-parallel faults of the lower syn-kinematic unit. In the inner sector of the forelimb, strata of the lower and upper units are overturned and near-vertical, respectively. Still, the unconformable contact represents a shear zone, indicating a top to the crest shear sense. Shear senses along with relative timing and cross-sectional distribution of deformation structures, indicate flexural-slip folding in the growth sequence. Layer-parallel anisotropies oblique to each other were active at the same time and only during the later stage of folding, when layers of the lower unit were becoming orthogonal to those of the upper package, the flexural-slip mechanism arrested in the upper package. These observations point out that, regardless of its orientation, layering in the growth sequence of the Bóixols anticline promoted stress channeling, with the maximum stress keeping about parallel to beds almost for the entire folding process.

  8. N-(2,5-Dimethylphenylsuccinamic acid monohydrate

    B. S. Saraswathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H15NO3·H2O, the conformation of the N—H bond in the amide segment is syn to the ortho-methyl group and anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Further, the conformations of the amide O and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are anti to the adjacent methylene H atoms. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to one another. The structure shows an interesting hydrogen-bonding pattern with the water molecule forming hydrogen bonds with three different molecules of the compound. In the crystal, molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  9. REE Geochemistry of the uranium phases in syn-magmatic and hydrothermal- type U -mineralisation: two case histories from India

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) geochemistry of uranium-bearing phases from two genetically different types of uranium mineralisation is presented here. These include the syn-magmatic type, hosted by part of the Suryamalai or Sankarigranite in the Kullampatti area, Tamil Nadu and hydrothermal vein type, hosted by both basement granitoid and its overlying Shahabad Limestone in the Bhima basin at Gogi, Karnataka. The study is based on the Electron Microprobe (EMP) analysis of selected REEs from different U-bearing phases, viz., uraninite, its pseudomorphic altered product of gummite, pitchblende and coffinite. Those hosted by granite, compared to that in limestone, have higher contents of ΣREE. Those in syn-magmatic type contain HREE >LREE and vice-versa in hydrothermal type. The former pattern is reflected in the co-existing Y- and HREE-bearing multiple oxides of fergusonite, samarskite and betafite. Furthermore, U-bearing organic matter and smectite-illite clay at Gogi contain higher contents of LREE. Pitchblende in both granite and limestone shows perceptible positive Ce-anomaly whereas the coffinite in limestone shows negative Ce-anomaly. In the plot of ΣREE vs. chondrite-normalised LREE/HREE, except for those in the granite-hosted syn-magmatic type, the rest of U-phases as well as uraninite from other types (taken from literature) define a trend of positive correlation. The minimum-end of the ΣREE is represented by the unconformity-type of Collins Bay, Canada and Pine Creek deposits, Australia, and the maximum-end of ΣREE by hydrothermal vein type in the granite at Gogi. The syn-magmatic granite-hosted uraninite from Kullampatti, Rossing and Faraday plot close to each other, but away from the main positive trend toward a higher ΣREE. In simple oxides of uranium, LREE, MREE and HREE, appear to co-exist or substitute, respectively, for Ca, Th and U, as indicated by the corresponding increasing trends. During post-magmatic alteration of uraninite to gummite and

  10. Investigation phytochimique d'une brosse à dents africaine Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxiloides L.) (Rutaceae)

    Chaaib Kouri F.

    2004-01-01

    Résumé: Dans le but de rechercher de nouveaux composés naturels à intérêt thérapeutique, les extraits dichlorométhanique et méthanolique de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxyloides L.) (Rutaceae), une brosse à dents africaine ont été soumis à un criblage chimique et biologique. Un dépistage des activités: antifongiques contre le champignon phytopathogène Cladosporium cucumerinum et la levure commensale responsable de mycoses chez l'homme Candida albica...

  11. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Raquel O. Simões

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

  12. Diastereo- and Enantioselective Ruthenium Catalyzed Hydrohydroxyalkylation of 2-Silyl-Butadienes: Carbonyl syn-Crotylation from the Alcohol Oxidation Level

    Zbieg, Jason R.; Moran, Joseph; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of alcohols 2a-2j to 2-silyl-butadienes in the presence of ruthenium complexes modified by (R)-SEGPHOS or (R)-DM-SEGPHOS results in redox-triggered generation of allylruthenium-aldehyde pairs, which combine to form products of carbonyl crotylation 4a-4j in the absence of stoichiometric byproducts and with high levels of syn-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. In the presence of isopropanol under otherwise identical conditions, aldehydes 3a-3j are converted to an equivalent set of addu...

  13. Structure Activity Relationship of Phenolic Acid inhibitors of α-Synuclein Fibril Formation and Toxicity

    Mustafa eArdah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn is considered the key pathogenic event in many neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, giving rise to a whole category of neurodegenerative diseases known as synucleinopathies. Although the molecular basis of α-syn toxicity has not been precisely elucidated, a great deal of effort has been put into identifying compounds that could inhibit or even reverse the aggregation process. Previous reports indicated that many phenolic compounds are potent inhibitors of α-syn aggregation. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-aggregating effect of gallic acid (GA (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, a benzoic acid derivative that belongs to a group of phenolic compounds known as phenolic acids. By employing an array of biophysical and biochemical techniques and a cell-viability assay, GA was shown not only to inhibit α-syn fibrillation and toxicity but also to disaggregate preformed α-syn amyloid fibrils. Interestingly, GA was found to bind to soluble, non-toxic oligomers with no β-sheet content, and to stabilize their structure. The binding of GA to the oligomers may represent a potential mechanism of action. Additionally, by using structure activity relationship data obtained from fourteen structurally similar benzoic acid derivatives, it was determined that the inhibition of α-syn fibrillation by GA is related to the number of hydroxyl moieties and their position on the phenyl ring. GA may represent the starting point for designing new molecules that could be used for the treatment of PD and related disorders.

  14. JOINTS AND SYN-SEDIMENTARY FAULTS NETWORKS IN MARINE CLAYS AND MUDSTONES. Importance for Radwaste storage

    Arnould, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  15. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. Synthesising acid mine drainage to maintain and exploit indigenous mining micro-algae and microbial assemblies for biotreatment investigations.

    Orandi, Sanaz; Lewis, David M

    2013-02-01

    The stringent regulations for discharging acid mine drainage (AMD) has led to increased attention on traditional or emerging treatment technologies to establish efficient and sustainable management for mine effluents. To assess new technologies, laboratory investigations on AMD treatment are necessary requiring a consistent supply of AMD with a stable composition, thus limiting environmental variability and uncertainty during controlled experiments. Additionally, biotreatment systems using live cells, particularly micro-algae, require appropriate nutrient availability. Synthetic AMD (Syn-AMD) meets these requirements. However, to date, most of the reported Syn-AMDs are composed of only a few selected heavy metals without considering the complexity of actual AMD. In this study, AMD was synthesised based on the typical AMD characteristics from a copper mine where biotreatment is being considered using indigenous AMD algal-microbes. Major cations (Ca, Na, Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn and Ni), trace metals (Al, Fe, Ag, Na, Co, Mo, Pb and Cr), essential nutrients (N, P and C) and high SO(4) were incorporated into the Syn-AMD. This paper presents the preparation of chemically complex Syn-AMD and the challenges associated with combining metal salts of varying solubility that is not restricted to one particular mine site. The general approach reported and the particular reagents used can produce alternative Syn-AMD with varying compositions. The successful growth of indigenous AMD algal-microbes in the Syn-AMD demonstrated its applicability as appropriate generic media for cultivation and maintenance of mining microorganisms for future biotreatment studies. PMID:22684898

  17. Petrogenesis of granitoid rocks at the northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and evidence of syn-collisional magmatism

    Samarendra Bhattacharya; Rajib Kar; S Moitra

    2004-12-01

    The northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt against the Singhbhum craton exposes granitic rocks with enclaves from both the high-grade and low-grade belts. A shear cleavage developed in the boundary region is also observed in these granitoids. Field features and petrography indicate syn-tectonic emplacement of these granitoids. Petrology-mineralogy and geochemistry indicate that some of the granitoids are derived from the high-grade protoliths by dehydration melting. Others could have been derived from low-grade protoliths. Moreover, microstructural signatures in these granitoids attest to their syn-collisional emplacement.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Ionically Unbound Polyphenol oxidase from Cinnamomum tamala syn. Cinnamomum Leaves

    Sanjeev Kumar Diwakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (EC. 1.10.3.1 PPO an ionically unbound and thermostable enzyme was extracted from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. The enzyme was purified 2.63-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 25 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 25 kD. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50oC temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0–9.0 and temperature (30–90oC. From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-80oC, the half-life (t1/2 values of the enzyme ranged from 19 to 72 min. The inactivation energy (Ea value of PPO was estimated to be 94.5 kJ mol-1. It showed higher specificity with substrate catechol (Km=6.8mM. Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu2+ indicating its role as cofactors, Fe2+, Hg2+, protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K+, Mg2+, Co2+, kojic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, urea, sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  19. N-(4-Methyl-2-nitrophenylsuccinamic acid

    Sabine Foro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H12N2O5, the conformation of the N—H bond in the amide segment is syn to the ortho-nitro group in the benzene ring. The amide C=O and the carboxyl C=O of the acid segment are syn to each other and both are anti to the H atoms on the adjacent –CH2 groups. Furthermore, the C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are in syn positions with respect to each other. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the amide group is 36.1 (1°. The amide H atom shows bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen bonding with an O atom of the ortho-nitro group and an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of another molecule. In the crystal, the N—H...O(C hydrogen bonds generate a chain running along the [100] direction. Inversion dimers are formed via a pair of O—H...O(C interactions, that form an eight-membered hydrogen-bonded ring involving the carboxyl group.

  20. An overview of the host spectrum and distribution of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica): part 1-Muroidea.

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a worldwide-distributed species of zoonotic nematodes with a high affinity to the liver. Several rodent species of the superfamily Muroidea serve as main hosts for this pathogen. C. hepaticum has been found in Muroidean hosts in more than 60 countries in Europe; North, Central, and South America; Asia; Africa; and Oceania. C. hepaticum was documented in more than 90 Muroidean rodent species (Murinae, Deomyinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, Cricetinae, Sigmodontinae, Gerbillinae, and Cricetomyinae). Globally, the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) seems to be the main host species for this nematode. However, locally high prevalences (above 50 %) have also been observed in several other synanthropic (commensal and non-commensal) Muroidea species (e.g., Rattus tanezumi, Ondatra zibethicus, Apodemus sylvaticus). This review gives an overview of the distribution and host spectrum of C. hepaticum in Muroidea host species. PMID:24248632

  1. Syn-orocline brittle deformation in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc. Timing orocline formation.

    Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    The time-frame for the development of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) (West European Variscan Belt), as a bend of a previously more linear orogenic belt, has recently been constrained paleomagnetically as an orocline in the Cantabrian Zone, northern Iberia (the core of the arc) (Weil et al, 2001, 2010). According to the known evidence, oroclinal generation took place in the uppermost Carboniferous-lowermost Permian, between about 310 and 295 Ma, and it is interpreted to have been ultimately caused by the self-subduction of the Pangean global Plate (Gutiérrez-Alonso et al., 2008). In the core of the IAA there are a host of coal-bearing continental basins developed coevally with the alleged timing of the arc and distributed along it. Because of this timing the syn-orocline rocks should record brittle deformation coherent with the closure of the IAA. In this study, we have analyzed the brittle fractures systems (joints) present in pre-, syn- and post-orocline rocks and performed the "orocline test" (Schwartz and Van der Voo, 1983; Eldredge et al., 1985), classically used for paleomagnetic and strain data (Weil et al 2001, Weil and Yonkee, 2010). According to the analysis of the joints we conclude that each of the data sets present in the different rock groups have been originated at a different stage in relation to the IAA origin. The joints in the pre-orocline rocks (Neoproterozoic and pre- Upper Carboniferous) trace the orocline with the same geometry as the bent large scale structures that have been used to define it. In addition, the joints in the syn-orocline rocks (Upper Pennsylvanian or Stephanian, 304 to 299 Ma) depict a curved trace with less curvature than the orocline. Furthermore, post-orocline rocks (Permian) contain joints which show no rotation. The described dataset evidences that the rotation of the IAA took place in Upper Pennsylvanian in agreement with the paleomagnetic arguments as the syn-orocline continental basins have been less rotated than the

  2. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  3. Motivation : En studie om lärares och elevers syn på motivation i skolan

    Sundström, Jenny; Wiman, Malin

    2009-01-01

    I vårt examensarbete undersöker vi olika typer av motivation. Vårt syfte med arbetet var att undersöka lärares syn motivation samt elevers egen motivation i skolan. De frågeställningar vi utgick från var: 1. Vilken typ av motivation har elever i år 4 och år 5? 2. Finns det någon skillnad mellan pojkars och flickors motivation? 3. Vilken typ av motivation strävar lärare efter att elever ska erhålla och använda sig av? 4. Hur ser lärare på intrinsic (inre) motivation, extrinsic (yttre) motivati...

  4. Thermal, chemical and isotopic homogenization of syn-extensional I-type plutons and mafic microgranular enclaves

    Tatar Erkül, Sibel; Erkül, Fuat; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-04-01

    Magma mixing and mingling processes are common phenomenon in the evolution of granitoid magmas. This study deals with examination of mineral chemical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of enclaves and enclosing syn-extensional granite bodies in western Turkey to make an attempt to solve problems regarding their origin. Mafic microgranular enclaves have granodiorite, quartz monzonite, monzonite and monzodiorite compositions, are subalkaline/calc-alkaline and high-K in character and display typical mixing/mingling textures. Mafic enclaves have partially overlapping geochemical characteristics onto their host rocks in terms of mobile elements and their isotopes while distinct immobile element patterns occur within host rocks and enclaves. Contrasting geochemistry of enclaves is mainly defined by their low SiO2 and high MgO, Mg# and high Fe2O3 contents. Chondrite-normalized spidergrams of enclaves also reveal two contrasting patterns. One is relatively enriched in rare earth element content and the other is slightly enriched and displays relatively flat pattern. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd contents of enclaves imply considerable amount of crustal input. Crustally derived felsic magma coeval with mafic magma have been chemically, thermally and mechanically exchanged with each other and resulting homogenization led to compositional and isotopic equilibration of mafic and felsic magmas. Fractional crystallization, mixing and the following crustal contamination were responsible for the final composition of syn-extensional granitoids. Such processes appear to have been widely occurred in continental extensional regime that caused melting and mixing of crustal and mantle sources at MOHO depth.

  5. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM)

    Soumitra Maity; Subrata Ghosh

    2010-11-01

    An asymmetric route for the synthesis of highly functionalized 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives present in some polyketide natural products has been developed. The key step involves RCM of an appropriately constructed 1,7-dienol derived from D-mannitol to cyclohexane-1,4-diol followed by its stereoselective epoxidation.

  6. Influence of syn-sedimentary faults on orogenic structures in a collisional belt: Insights from the inner zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Brogi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the possible influence of syn-sedimentary structures on the development of orogenic structures during positive tectonic inversion in the inner Northern Apennines (Italy). Examples from key areas located in southern Tuscany provided original cartographic, structural and kinematics data for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene thrusts, organized in duplex systems, verging in the opposite direction of the foreland propagation (back-thrusts), which affected the Late Triassic-Oligocene sedimentary succession of the Tuscan Domain, previously affected by pre-orogenic structures. These latter consist of mesoscopic-to cartographic-scale Jurassic syn-sedimentary normal faults and extensional structures, which gave rise to effective stratigraphic lateral variation and mechanical heterogeneities. Structural analysis of both syn-sedimentary faults and back-thrusts were therefore compared in order to discuss the possible role of the pre-existing anisotropies in influencing the evolution of the back-thrusts. As a result, it can be reasonably proposed that back-thrusts trajectories and stacking pattern were controlled by relevant syn-sedimentary normal faults; these latter were reactivated, in some cases, if properly oriented. Such an issue adds new inputs for discussing the potential role of structural inheritance during tectonic inversions, and helps to better understand the processes suitable for the development of back-thrusts in the inner zones of orogenic belts, as it is the case of the inner Northern Apennines.

  7. Organocatalytic and enantioselective Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes. Syn/anti-selectivity control using catalysts with the same absolute backbone chirality.

    Martínez, Jose I; Uria, Uxue; Muñiz, Maria; Reyes, Efraím; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric and catalytic Michael reaction between α-nitroesters and nitroalkenes has been studied in the presence of two bifunctional catalysts both containing the same absolute chirality at the carbon backbone. The reaction performed in similar conditions allows us to control the syn or anti selectivity of the Michael adduct obtaining good yields and high enantiocontrol in all cases. PMID:26734103

  8. In vitro and in vivo studies on gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles conjugated with SynB peptide to increase drug delivery to the brain

    Tian XH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Xin-hua Tian1, Feng Wei1, Tian-xiao Wang2, Peng Wang1, Xiao-ning Lin1, Jun Wang2, Dong Wang2, Lei Ren2,31Neurosurgical Department of Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital, 2Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, 3State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Nanobiotechnology can provide more efficient tools for diagnosis, targeted and personalized therapy, and increase the chances of brain tumor treatment being successful. Use of nanoparticles is a promising strategy for overcoming the blood–brain barrier and delivering drugs to the brain. Gelatin-siloxane (GS nanoparticles modified with Tat peptide can enhance plasmid DNA transfection efficiency compared with a commercial reagent.Methods: SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles are membrane-penetrable, and can cross the blood–brain barrier and deliver a drug to its target site in the brain. The efficiency of delivery was investigated in vivo and in vitro using brain capillary endothelial cells, a cocultured blood–brain barrier model, and a normal mouse model.Results: Our study demonstrated that both SynB-PEG-GS and PEG-GS nanoparticles had a spherical shape and an average diameter of 150–200 nm. It was shown by MTT assay that SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles had good biocompatibility with brain capillary endothelial cells. Cellular uptake by SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles was higher than that for PEG-GS nanoparticles for all incubation periods. The amount of SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticles crossing the cocultured blood–brain barrier model was significantly higher than that of PEG-GS nanoparticles at all time points measured (P <0.05. In animal testing, SynB-PEG-GS nanoparticle levels in the brain were significantly higher than those of PEG-GS nanoparticles at all time points measured (P < 0.01. In contrast with localization in the brain, PEG-GS nanoparticle levels were significantly

  9. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn- thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  10. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    TAN Bin; ZHAI Zheng; LUO GuangSheng; WANG JiaDing

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn-thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  11. Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ezzouhairi, Hassan; Clausen, Sébastien; Ribeiro, M. Luisa; Solá, Rita

    2015-04-01

    The Cambrian Tamdroust and Bab n'Ali Volcanic Complexes represent two magmatic episodes developed in the latest Ediacaran-Cambrian Atlas Rift of Morocco. Their rifting pulses were accompanied by accumulation of volcanosedimentary edifices (dominated by effusive lava flows in the former and explosive acidic aprons in the latter) associated with active tilting and uplift. Sealing of their peneplaned horst-and-graben palaeotopographies led to the onset of distinct onlapping geometries and angular discordances capping eroded basements ranging from the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup to the Cambrian Asrir Formation. Previous interpretations of these discordances as pull-apart or compressive events are revised here and reinterpreted in an extensional (rifting) context associated with active volcanism. The record of erosive unconformities, stratigraphic gaps, condensed beds and onlapping patterns across the traditional "lower-middle Cambrian" (or Cambrian Series 2-3) transition of the Atlas Rift must be taken into consideration for global chronostratigraphic correlation based on their trilobite content.

  12. Pre-rift basement structure and syn-rift faulting at the eastern onshore Gulf of Corinth Rift

    Kranis, Haralambos; Skourtsos, Emmanuel; Gawthorpe, Robert; Leeder, Mike; Stamatakis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    %B We present results of recent field-based research with a view to providing information about and constraints on the initiation and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth (GoC) Rift. The onshore geology and structure of the GoC rift has been studied intensively and extensively; however most research efforts have focused on the western and partly the central parts. The last few years, efforts are being made to extend the scope of research in less-studied areas, such as the eastern southern onshore part of the GoC rift, trying to address two major issues in rift initiation and evolution, namely syn-rift faulting and pre-rift basement structure. While fault spacing and length appears to be well-constrained for the western and central parts of the GoC Rift, further east -and especially in the uplifted onshore southern part- this is thought to increase dramatically, as there are practically no mapped faults. We argue, however, that this may be a false image, owing to (i) the difficulty in identifying fault structures within a thick, fairly monotonous syn-rift sequence; (ii) the lesser attention this part has drawn; and (ii) the fact that the published summary geological and tectonic maps of the GoC area are based on the dated geological maps that cover the eastern and northern onshore shoulders of the Rift. Moreover, new field data provide new information on pre-rift structure: while only the topmost thrust sheet of the Hellenide nappe stack (Pindos Unit) was thought to crop out at the eastern southern onshore part, we mapped the underlying, non-metamorphic carbonate Unit (Tripolis Unit), which crops out within the footwall of a key intra-basin block (Xylokastro block). A minor outcrop further east, may also belong to this Unit, providing basement control, in connection with recently published offshore fault data. The mapping of these outcrops, combined with a revised stratigraphical framework for the early syn-rift deposits, allows the identification and mapping of faults

  13. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  14. Pre- and syn-Ross orogenic granitoids at Drake Head and Kartografov Island, Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica

    The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. First report of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) in dogs in north-western Italy, with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs.

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Torracca, B; Macchioni, F

    2012-11-01

    Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faecal samples (270) were examined by flotation. E. boehmi (2.2%), E. aerophilus (4.4%) and T. vulpis (12.2%) were found; identification was done with measurements and through observation of morphological characters already known. The specific identification of E. boehmi was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy: its egg shell shows a dense network with a fine mesh, surrounding small pits, on the contrary E. aerophilus eggs present a thick mesh with wide depressions, while T. vulpis eggs surface is smooth. PMID:23193529

  16. First report of Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi in dogs in north-western Italy, with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs

    Magi M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faecal samples (270 were examined by flotation. E. boehmi (2.2%, E. aerophilus (4.4% and T. vulpis (12.2% were found; identification was done with measurements and through observation of morphological characters already known. The specific identification of E. boehmi was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy: its egg shell shows a dense network with a fine mesh, surrounding small pits, on the contrary E. aerophilus eggs present a thick mesh with wide depressions, while T. vulpis eggs surface is smooth.

  17. Miniundersøgelse 18 børns syn på skolen i skoleåret 2015-2016

    Broström, Stig

    Selv om der således er variation blandt børnenes svar er der alligevel belæg for at sige, at hovedparten af børnene: - udtrykker et kritisk syn på indførelse af lektiecafeen - har begrænsede oplevelser af pædagogens virke og iværksættelse af alternative aktiviteter - kun i begrænset omfang har op...

  18. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia) flowers

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-01-01

    Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia) flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers wer...

  19. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  20. Characterization of the relA/spoT homologue slr1325 (syn-rsh) of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.PCC6803%集胞藻PCC6803中relA/spoT同源基因syn-rsh(slr1325)的鉴定

    缪小刚; 刘惠玲; 宁德刚

    2011-01-01

    [目的]四磷酸或五磷酸鸟苷(Guanosine 3′,5′-bispyrophosphate,(p)ppGpp)是细菌在遭遇环境胁迫时细胞产生应激反应的信号分子,(p)ppGpp由其合成酶RelA或具有合成酶或水解酶双重催化功能的RelA/SpoT合成.本文证明了集胞藻PCC6803(Synechocystis sp.)中唯一编码RelA/SpoT同源蛋白(命名为Syn-RSH)的基因slr1325(syn-rsh)的功能.[方法]通过互补试验证明syn-rsh表达产物的生物学功能;以纤维素薄层层析检测不同条件下Escherichia coli(p)ppGpp合成缺陷突变株及集胞藻PCC6803细胞中的(p)ppGpp.[结果]诱导Syn-RSH表达可使(p)ppGpp合成酶和水解酶基因缺失的E.coli突变株回复野生型表型,并在细胞中积累一定水平的ppGpp;在实验室培养条件下,集胞藻PCC6803细胞中可检测到低水平的ppGpp,氨基酸饥饿可诱导ppGpp水平升高并维持在相应水平.[结论]Syn-RSH具有(p)ppGpp合成酶和水解酶的双重功能,(p)ppGpp是集胞藻PCC6803在实验室生长条件下细胞生长所必需的.

  1. Syn for sagn

    Nyvang, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    representative of the early folkloristic movement, and his engagement in three different photographical projects during the years 1895—1927. Through a study of the actual pictures as well as readings of Olrik’s personal letters, applications for funding, and academic writings, two main arguments for the use of...

  2. The role of partial melting and syn-orogenic deformation in the pre-concentration of uranium and thorium. The example of the CAGE District (Northern Quebec).

    Trap, Pierre; Goncalves, Philippe; Durand, Cyril; Marquer, Didier; Feybesse, Jean-Louis; Richard, Yoann; Lacroix, Brice; Caillet, Yoann; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-01

    C and δ18O results obtained on calcite and graphite within a marble suggest temperature of 650-770°C for undeformed zones and 470-550°C in mylonitic shear zones. Within some shear zones within paragneiss, the metamorphic assemblages and disappearance of monazite suggest a possible hydrothermal alteration after the circulation of an acidic fluid under subsolidus condition. We propose a metallogenic model for remobilization of U and Th in response of syn-orogenic partial metling and deformation of a continental crust. During peak metamorphism, partial melting is responsible for a passive concentration of monazite in migmatitic paragneiss. Crystallization of anatectic melt released hydro-magmatic fluids that will move along the shear zones toward higher structural levels. These fluids are responsible for dissolution of monazite under sub-solidus conditions. The subsequent U-Th-rich fluids will precipitate U-Th along shear zone, within pegmatites, skarn or marbles. This process may act as strong pre-concentration mechanism process for world-class U-Th deposits.

  3. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model where crustal accretion is accompanied by slab retreat and lithospheric mantle

  4. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of ~ 9-11 kbar and ~ 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 °C.km- 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of ~ 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from ~ 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  5. Superimposed positive and negative inversion of the syn-rift fault network preserved in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline, Central Apennines, Italy

    Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Koopman, Anton; Mozafari, Mahtab; Solum, John; Swennen, Rudy; Taberner, Conxita

    2016-04-01

    Syn-rift tectono-sedimentary inheritance is common in thrust-related anticlines exposed in most foreland thrust-fold belts worldwide. Inherited extensional faults provide mechanical weakness zones that typically undergo positive inversion during contraction. This unavoidably has an impact on the evolution of contractional folds. Moreover, duplexing and imbrication of thrust sheets typically produce gravitational instability of inherited fault patterns and negative inversion can be triggered in the late stages of fault-fold interaction. Such polyphase evolutionary histories can deeply influence deformation and fluid flow patterns in fault-related folds and therefore can strongly influence the distribution of structurally controlled processes such as dolomitization. In this contribution we present the results obtained from a multidisciplinary study of the tectono-sedimentary pattern and paleofluid history in carbonates exposed in the Montagna dei Fiori Anticline, at the mountain front of the Central Apennines (central Italy), where the occurrence of both syn-rift fault zones and related sediments has been previously described. Detailed mapping of the central part of the anticline, bed-perpendicular logging of syn-rift and post-rift strata, structural, petrographical, geochemical, microthermometrical, and petrophysical analyses were used to reconstruct the evolution of this anticline, starting from the pre-orogenic architecture up to its subsequent orogenic reworking. These data reveal: (1) the pre-orogenic tectono-sedimentary architecture of a folded Jurassic fault network; (2) multiple superimposition of extensional and contractional episodes of deformation on the same fault zones; (3) the presence of at least one main dolomitization episode, the timing of which is still being deciphered; (4) demonstrate the causal link between faulting and dolomitization, which favoured formation of dolostones along fault zones, particularly in the intersection/abutting areas

  6. On the balance between syn- and anticlinicity in smectic phases formed by achiral hockey-stick mesogens with and without chiral dopants

    Enz, Eva; Findeisen-Tandel, Sonja; Dabrowski, Roman; Giesselmann, Frank; Weissflog, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ute; Lagerwall, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A series of achiral hockey-stick-shaped mesogens forming tilted smectic liquid crystal phases of synclinic SmC- as well as anticlinic SmCa-type was prepared and characterized. While all homologues exhibit both phases, the balance shifts from anticlinic to synclinic order upon elongation of the terminal chain at the meta-position, defining the hockey-stick shape. The elongation also leads to an increased kinetic hindrance of the transition between syn- and anticlinic phases and a decreased tra...

  7. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Eric Danielson

    Full Text Available Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis, streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free.

  8. SynPAnal: software for rapid quantification of the density and intensity of protein puncta from fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Danielson, Eric; Lee, Sang H

    2014-01-01

    Continuous modification of the protein composition at synapses is a driving force for the plastic changes of synaptic strength, and provides the fundamental molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity and information storage in the brain. Studying synaptic protein turnover is not only important for understanding learning and memory, but also has direct implication for understanding pathological conditions like aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. Proteins involved in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are typically concentrated at synapses of neurons and thus appear as puncta (clusters) in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Quantitative measurement of the changes in puncta density, intensity, and sizes of specific proteins provide valuable information on their function in synaptic transmission, circuit development, synaptic plasticity, and synaptopathy. Unfortunately, puncta quantification is very labor intensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe a software tool designed for the rapid semi-automatic detection and quantification of synaptic protein puncta from 2D immunofluorescence images generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The software, dubbed as SynPAnal (for Synaptic Puncta Analysis), streamlines data quantification for puncta density and average intensity, thereby increases data analysis throughput compared to a manual method. SynPAnal is stand-alone software written using the JAVA programming language, and thus is portable and platform-free. PMID:25531531

  9. Conditional transgenic mice expressing C-terminally truncated human α-synuclein (αSyn119 exhibit reduced striatal dopamine without loss of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons

    Flint Beal M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD. α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological inclusions of PD. Therefore, α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. To model α-synuclein-linked disease in vivo, transgenic mouse models have been developed that express wild-type or mutant human α-synuclein from a variety of neuronal-selective heterologous promoter elements. These models exhibit a variety of behavioral and neuropathological features resembling some aspects of PD. However, an important deficiency of these models is the observed lack of robust or progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that is characteristic of PD. Results We have developed conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice that can express A53T, E46K or C-terminally truncated (1–119 human α-synuclein pathological variants from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Using these mice, we have evaluated the expression of these α-synuclein variants on the integrity and viability of nigral dopaminergic neurons with age. Expression of A53T α-synuclein or truncated αSyn119 selectively in nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months fails to precipitate dopaminergic neuronal loss in these mice. However, αSyn119 expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months causes a marked reduction in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites together with other subtle neurochemical alterations. Conclusion We have developed and evaluated novel conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice with transgene expression directed selectively to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as a potential new mouse model of PD. Our data support the pathophysiological relevance of C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species in vivo. The

  10. Fluid source and pressure temperature conditions of high-salinity fluids in syn-tectonic veins from the Northeastern Apuan Alps (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Montomoli, Chiara; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Carosi, Rodolfo; Dini, Andrea; Genovesi, Marianna

    Structural studies on syn-tectonic veins cropping out in the northeastern sector of the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex (Northern Apennines, Italy) revealed two sets of veins: (1) type A fibrous veins within the “Scisti sericitici Formation”, related to a late-D1 tectonic phase; (2) B-veins, within the “Diaspri Formation” that developed between late-D1 and D2 tectonic phases. The mineralogy of the A (quartz, chlorite, hematite with minor amounts of apatite, allanite-(Ce), thorite and synchysite) and B-veins (quartz only) reflects the mineralogical composition of the host-rocks: quartz, chlorite, white mica and accessory minerals (apatite, zircon, titanite) occur in the “Scisti sericitici Formation”, while quartz is the main phase in the “Diaspri Formation”. The study of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz crystals of the syn-tectonic veins shows that the inclusions are always oversaturated in NaCl at room temperature and their salinities range from 29.5 to 37 wt.% NaCl equiv. The isochore of the earliest trapped fluid inclusions (type IA; primary inclusions in fiber quartz of A veins), coupled with mineralogical geothermometric data, constrains the pressure-temperature conditions to around 325-300 MPa and 370-380 °C during the late-D1 phase. Subsequent trapping of inclusion types IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB and VB in the two vein sets probably occurred during a pressure-temperature decrease (down to 220-245 MPa and 260-270 °C) at a lithostatic thermal gradient of 30 °C/km. Type IVB inclusions, on the other hand, were probably trapped at lower pressure (between lithostatic and hydrostatic conditions) during a transient pressure drop resulting from fault-valve action. SEM/EDS analyses on salts precipitated within opened inclusions confirmed the NaCl-rich compositions of the trapped fluids and also revealed the presence of minor amounts of Ca, K and Mn in the salts. A fluid circulation model, based on mineralogical and fluid inclusion data, was proposed for

  11. Bland målarfärg och toner : En kvalitativ studie om förskollärares syn på estetik

    Andersson, Erika; Enlund, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att, utifrån en kvalitativ ansats, undersöka nio förskollärares syn på estetik i förskolan. Genom kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer ville vi ta del av förskollärarnas personliga tankar om och erfarenheter av estetik. Vi ämnade undersöka hur de beskriver den estetiska verksamheten, deras roll och förhållnings-sätt till området. Resultatet visade att förskollärarna framhåller estetik som betydelsefullt, men att begreppet är svårtolkat. Förskollärarna redogjorde fö...

  12. A study of the distribution, structure and seismic stratigraphy of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments in the Faroe sector of the Faroe-Shetland Basin

    Olavsdottir, Jana

    older, Mesozoic structural elements controlling the sediment path way and restricting the depositional areas. The structural elements being re-activated at different times causing considerable structural complexity. Understanding older, Mesozoic, structural elements control on sedimentation is a...... potential tool understanding deviations from “normal” thermal subsidence and for predicting the prospectivity in syn- and post-rift succession in the Faroe-Shetland Basin. On top of the basalt in the Faroe-Shetland Basin there is deposited up to 3.5 km thick sedimentary package, which led into the basin......-Shetland Basin are constructed of various compositions, where Munkagrunnur Ridge, Fugloy Ridge and Faroe Platform consist of basaltic material while the NW British Platform area is composed of more stable rocks. The derived erosion products from the different adjacent areas will therefore be of diverse quality...

  13. Stereochemical probes of bovine plasma amine oxidase: evidence for mirror image processing and a syn abstraction of hydrogens from C-1 and C-2 of dopamine

    Bovine plasma amine oxidase (PAO) has previously been shown to catalyze a nonstereospecific loss of tritium from [2(R)-3H]- and [2(S)-3H]dopamines, attributed to multiple, catalytically active binding sites for substrate. Analysis of products formed from incubation of dopamine with PAO in tritiated water indicates a stereospecific, pro-R, incorporation of label at C-2. Thus, tritium washout (random) and washin (pro-R) are not the microscopic reverse of one another. We conclude that the (enamine) intermediates leading to tritium washin are nonequivalently bound. The observation of pro-R incorporation has provided a straightforward synthetic route to [1(R)-2H,2(R)-3H]- and [1(S)-2H,2(R)-3H]dopamines, which upon oxidation with PAO are expected to be processed preferentially by 1S and 1R cleavage, respectively. From previously measured isotope effects, we predict the loss of tritium from the 1(R)-2H and 1(S)-2H samples to be 74:8 for a syn relationship between cleavage at C-1 and C-2 vs. 21:90 for an anti relationship. The observation of a 68:18 ratio at 100% conversion provides strong evidence for a syn cleavage. The data support a mechanism in which a single base catalyzes a 1,3-prototrophic shift of hydrogen from C-1 of the substrate to cofactor, followed by exchange from C-2. Additionally, the results confirm the presence of alternate binding modes for dopamine at the active site of bovine plasma amine oxidase. This interaction of dopamine with plasma amine oxidase is a rare example of mirror-image catalysis in which a single substrate has two functional binding orientations on an enzyme surface

  14. Submarine, silicic, syn-eruptive pyroclastic units in the Mount Read Volcanics, western Tasmania: Influence of vent setting and proximity on lithofacies characteristics

    McPhie, Jocelyn; Allen, Rodney L.

    Lithofacies characteristics of submarine, silicic, syn-eruptive pyroclastic units in the Cambrian Mount Read Volcanics, western Tasmania, have been used to infer the source vent setting and proximity. The submarine, syn-eruptive pyroclastic units typically consist of one or more, massive to graded, very thick (a few metres to >100 m) beds and are laterally extensive (>10 km along strike). They are composed of variable proportions of rhyolitic or dacitic pumice, crystals (mainly quartz and feldspar), shards, volcanic lithic clasts and non-volcanic sedimentary clasts. Although the dominant components are juvenile pyroclasts and the units are very thick, there is no textural evidence for hot emplacement. In some cases, pumice clasts define a bedding-parallel foliation formed during diagenetic compaction. Three types of units can be defined on the basis of lithofacies characteristics: (1) graded pumice-lithic breccia-shard-rich sandstone, probably generated by submarine explosive eruptions and deposited in relatively deep water at medial to distal sites; (2) very thick, graded to massive pumice brecciashard-rich sandstone, considered to be the proximal, mainly below-wave-base submarine record of a large-magnitude (>10 cubic km), explosive eruption from an intrabasinal submarine vent; (3) very thick, crystal-rich volcanic sandstone; the high crystal abundance in this facies is attributed to interaction between subaerial pyroclastic flows and seawater, and formation of crystal-enriched, submarine, water-supported, gravity currents; in this case, it is most likely that the source vent was subaerial, and that deposition took place at proximal to medial locations in relatively shallow water (probably <200 m).

  15. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  16. Hybrid macrocycle formation and spiro annulation on cis-syn-cis-tricyclo[6.3.0.02,6]undeca-3,11-dione and its congeners via ring-closing metathesis

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple methodology to transform cis-syn-cis-triquinane derivative 2 into the diindole based macrocycle 6 involving Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM. Various spiro-polyquinane derivatives have been assembled via RCM as a key step.

  17. Syn-Rift Subsidence Deficit of the Qiongdongnan Basin and the Synchronous Rapid Uplift of South Hainan Island: Some Clues on Surface Response to the Hainan Plume, NW South China Sea

    Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Based on tomography, geochemical and petrological evidences, a mantle plume called Hainan Plume has been suggested lying under Hainan Island. Our recent studies on basin subsidence and surface topography indicated that there existed surface vertical motion response to the suggested mantle plume. Post-rift rapid subsidence in the Qiongdongnan basin, which lies south of Hainan Island, is well known and accepted phenomenon. A particular feature is that the rapid subsidence did not just follow the end of syn-rift phase at ~ 21 Ma, but began after a ~10 my relatively tectonic quiescence. Different tectonic processes have been proposed to account for this rapid subsidence event. However, all these proposed mechanisms just focus on the rapid subsidence episode since Late Miocene. Our details subsidence analyses show that its tectonic subsidence is of a two-stage anomalous character: the deficit subsidence at the end of the syn-rift phase and the well known post-rift rapid subsidence after 10.5 Ma. Numerical analyses show that the stretching factor βs based on syn-rift sequences is much less than the observed crustal stretching factor βc, and the present basement depth can be almost predictable if assuming that the lithosphere was thinned with stretching factor βc; The crustal thinning happened during the syn-rift phase (before 21 Ma), and a new rifting and lower crustal flow after 21 Ma were not supported, proposing further that the syn-rift subsidence is deficit. Our further analyses proposed that the syn-rift subsidence deficit might be caused by the dynamic support of the secondary plume, and the post-rift rapid subsidence might result from the losing support of the thermal source decaying, therefore occurred to compensate the subsidence deficit of the syn-rift phase. The cooling history of the southern Hainan deduced by low temperature chronometry data, also indicated there exist an uplift event in the Late Oligocene (Shi et al., 2011). All the samples show that

  18. Diversity and factors controlling widespread occurrence of syn-rift Ladinian microbialites in the western Tethys (Triassic Catalan Basin, NE Spain)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Arenas, Concha; Salas, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The fault-block carbonate ramps of the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Catalan Basin hosted a wide variety of microbial deposits which formed during a syn-rift stage. Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of these microbialites allow us to reconstruct two depositional models for such microbial deposits. Moreover new insights into the interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that controlled the widespread development of these microbialites are provided. Stromatolites, ooidal-muddy microbial laminites and thrombolites were analyzed on the basis of their geometry, lamination and textural attributes. These microbialites are distributed over two Transgressive-Regressive sequences and coexisted during the Fassanian (Early Ladinian) regressive stage. Later, stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites developed during the Longobardian (Late Ladinian) transgressive stage. Three types of lamina couplets reflect distinct accretion processes linked to water chemistry, sediment supply and hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombolite textures were produced by accretionary, binding and encrusting processes (microbially mediated) and pervasive cementation. The widespread occurrence of microbial deposits is explained as a consequence of a biogeochemical cascade of events (e.g., anoxic/dysoxic seawater conditions, volcanic activity, upwelling of alkaline waters, nutrient concentrations, and microbial blooms), which promoted favorable conditions for microbial growth in the Tethys during the Ladinian. Furthermore, in the Catalan Basin, syn-rift fault induced subsidence and local water energy gradients exerted an essential role in the distribution of the three types of microbialites through space and time. Thrombolites were prone to grow in the hanging wall block of a half-graben (subtidal conditions), whereas stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites flourished preferably in a foot wall block setting (intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions). However, the fact

  19. The low temperature radiolysis of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 complexes with alkaline earth metal nitrates: An evidence for energy transfer to the macrocyclic ligand

    Zakurdaeva, O. A.; Nesterov, S. V.; Shmakova, N. A.; Sokolova, N. A.; Feldman, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    Formation of paramagnetic intermediates in macrocyclic complexes of cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) with alkaline earth metal nitrates under X-rays irradiation was studied by EPR spectroscopy. NO32- dianions appear to be predominant intermediate species in the samples irradiated at 77 K at low doses (up to 40 kGy). This result was interpreted as an evidence for energy transfer within the complex from crown ether to nitrate anion. Increase in the absorbed dose from 40 kGy to 284 kGy results in built-up of a new EPR signal assigned to macrocyclic -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals produced from crown ether moieties. Thermal annealing of the irradiated macrocyclic complexes at 273 К led to fast decay of NO32- . This process was accompanied by a formation of -CH2-ĊH-O- radicals in secondary reactions. The nature of the metal cations coordinated in the macrocycle cavity had no appreciable effect on the composition of radical products and their post-radiation transformations.

  20. Amino acids

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  1. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  2. A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting: The case of the Pan-African Hook Batholith in Central Zambia

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. Occasionally, sodic granitoids have been documented. Compositions were driven to more differentiated products by fractional crystallization, while Sr-Nd isotopes exclude crustal assimilation during crystallization. Recent new U-Pb age data constrain most of the felsic magmatism between 550 and 540 Ma. Scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, testify to periodic input of mantle material, and, in some cases, to interaction with metasomatizing fluids. Crystallization ages on mafic rocks span from 570 to 520 Ma, thus indicating that they were contemporaneous with the major granitic intrusion, which was the result of a number of successive felsic batches, eventually forming a coalescing batholith. Highly radiogenic Pb isotopic values attest to the radiogenic character of the rocks. Such an anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, perhaps as result of metasomatizing fluids. Enrichment in Th-U of large portions of the crust along this part of the margin of the Congo Craton is suggested. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support the interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressure of magmatism. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was emplaced at shallow crustal depths. This study further supports the idea that A-type granites, commonly considered to be restricted to anorogenic or extension-related environments, can also occur in compressional regimes.

  3. Syn-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rio Doce region: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotopic data of the Neoproterozoic Urucum Suite (eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Bilal, Essaid [Ecole de Mines de Saint Etienne (France); Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2000-03-01

    The Urucum Suite granitoids (Rio Doce region southeastern Brazil) contains four main facies: megafeldspar granites, deformed medium-to-coarse-grained granites, tourmaline, and pegmatitic facies. they intrude both the staurolite-garnet-muscovite-biotite schist of the Sao Tome formation (Rio Doce Group) and the Galileia metaluminous suite (596{+-}4 Ma). Detailed structural studies suggest that the Urucum Suite emplaced during an important dextral strike-slip movement (D{sub 1} phase) of the Brasiliano orogeny (650-450 Ma). Modal and chemical mineralogical variations suggest an evolution from the megafeldspar facies to the pegmatitic facies. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates the peraluminous character of the Urucum suite granitoids, the evolution from the megafeldspar facies granites to pegmatite facies granites to pegmatitic facies granites and suggests the syn-collisional character of this suite. U-Pb zircon (582{+-} 2 Ma) and monazite (576-573 {+-}4 Ma) data indicate that the Urucum Suite emplaced during the Brasiliano orogeny. The peraluminous nature of the Suite and isotopic rich character in the Rb-Sr ({sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr = 0.7114 to 0.7165) and Sm Nd (eNd{sub (T)} = -7.4 and -8.2) systems indicate that it formed by partial melting of older intermediate to felsic crustal sources. Based on early Proterozoic model-ages (2.3 to 1.8 Ga) and on 2.0 ga U-Pb inherited signature, granitoids of the Suite are probably derived from a rocks with a long crustal residence (Transamazonian basement), without extensive mantle contribution. (author)

  4. Syn-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rio Doce region: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotopic data of the Neoproterozoic Urucum Suite (eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    The Urucum Suite granitoids (Rio Doce region southeastern Brazil) contains four main facies: megafeldspar granites, deformed medium-to-coarse-grained granites, tourmaline, and pegmatitic facies. they intrude both the staurolite-garnet-muscovite-biotite schist of the Sao Tome formation (Rio Doce Group) and the Galileia metaluminous suite (596±4 Ma). Detailed structural studies suggest that the Urucum Suite emplaced during an important dextral strike-slip movement (D1 phase) of the Brasiliano orogeny (650-450 Ma). Modal and chemical mineralogical variations suggest an evolution from the megafeldspar facies to the pegmatitic facies. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates the peraluminous character of the Urucum suite granitoids, the evolution from the megafeldspar facies granites to pegmatite facies granites to pegmatitic facies granites and suggests the syn-collisional character of this suite. U-Pb zircon (582± 2 Ma) and monazite (576-573 ±4 Ma) data indicate that the Urucum Suite emplaced during the Brasiliano orogeny. The peraluminous nature of the Suite and isotopic rich character in the Rb-Sr (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.7114 to 0.7165) and Sm Nd (eNd(T) = -7.4 and -8.2) systems indicate that it formed by partial melting of older intermediate to felsic crustal sources. Based on early Proterozoic model-ages (2.3 to 1.8 Ga) and on 2.0 ga U-Pb inherited signature, granitoids of the Suite are probably derived from a rocks with a long crustal residence (Transamazonian basement), without extensive mantle contribution. (author)

  5. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  6. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  7. Synthesis and Monolayer Behaviors of Novel Hybrid Corynomycolic Acids Containing Semifluoroalkyl Groups.

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Tamaki, Kazuki; Oida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, novel hybrid-type corynomycolic acids [hybrid-OH and hybrid-COOH, with semifluoroalkyl groups (Rf-(CH2)n-: Rf = C4F9, n = 6 and Rf = C6F13, n = 3) located on the carbon atoms attached to the hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups (C-OH and C-COOH), respectively] were successfully synthesized. The behaviors and formation of hybrid corynomycolic acid monolayers at the air-water interface were investigated by surface tension and surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements to clarify the effects of the Rf chain length, position of the semifluoroalkyl group, and surfactant molecule stereochemistry. Compared to dialkyl corynomycolic acid, both the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC (γCMC) of hybrid corynomycolic acids were reduced by the presence of the Rf group. With respect to the surface tension versus log concentration (γ vs. log C) isotherms, all syn-isomers of the hybrid-OH and hybrid-COOH acids showed two break points, while the anti-isomers showed only one break point. These different isotherms can be explained in terms of the steric repulsion between the two hydrophilic groups (OH and COO(-)), which depend on the stereochemistry of the surfactant. No effect of the location of the semifluoroalkyl group was observed. With respect to the formation of a monolayer film, four parameters-the lift-off area (AL), zero-pressure molecular area (A0), maximum of the Gibbs elastic modulus [EG (max)], and monolayer collapse pressure (πc)-were measured. Both AL and A0 of all hybrid corynomycolic acids were larger than the corresponding dialkyl acids due to the bulky and rigid Rf groups. Interestingly, syn- and anti-hybrids had almost identical isotherms on compression, although the values of πc of anti-hybrids were higher than those of syn-isomers. In addition, the values of EG (max) of hybrid-COOHs were slightly larger than those of the corresponding hybrid-OHs. Using the nascent soap method (agent-in-oil method), we found that

  8. Fluid Inclusion characteristics of syn-late orogenic Co-Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the Siegerland District of the Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Wohlgemuth, Christoph; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Siegerland District is located in the fold-and-thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts various syn- late orogenic vein-hosted hydrothermal mineralization types. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316 ± 10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at pT-conditions of 280 - 320 °C and 0.7 - 1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). The district is known for synorogenic siderite-quartz mineralization formed during peak-metamorphic conditions. At least 4 syn-late orogenic mineralization types are distinguished: Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au and hematite-digenite-bornite mineralization (Hellmann et al., 2012b). Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization of the Siegerland District belongs to the recently defined class of metasediment hosted synorogenic Co-Cu-Au deposits (i.e. Slack et al, 2010). Ore minerals are Fe-Co-Ni sulpharsenides, bearing invisible gold, chalcopyrite, and minor As-bearing pyrite. The gangue is quartz. The alteration mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The epigenetic quartz veins are closely related to the formation of reverse faults (Hellmann et al., 2011a). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions concerning the relationship between mineralization and microstructures have not been done so far for this deposit-class and this will be addressed here. Fluid inclusions are investigated in hydrothermally formed vein-quartz, selected from Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization bearing veins showing only minor overprints by later mineralization types. Two quartz generations are distinguished: subhedral quartz-I showing growth zonation and fine grained, recrystallized- and newly formed quartz-II grains forming irregular masses and fracture fillings in quartz-I. Co-Ni-Fe sulpharsenides and chalcopyrite are closely intergrown with quartz-II, implying their contemperaneous formation. However, fluid inclusions in quartz-II are often small, therefore fluid inclusions in quartz-I have been mostly investigated. In total, 180 inclusions from 4 different deposits have been

  9. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  10. «Fra idioti til spesialpedagogiske utfordringer» : ”Hvordan kan det idèhistoriske landskapet rundt Maria Montessori ha bidratt til å forme hennes syn på spesialpedagogiske utfordringer?»

    Haakenaasen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Formålet mitt med denne oppgaven har vært å få kunnskap om hva som kan ha bidratt til å forme Maria Montessoris syn på spesialpedagogiske utfordringer. Dette har jeg grepet fatt i ved å ta utgangspunkt i det idèhistoriske landskapet som Maria Montessori ble født inn i gjennom å presentere de tidsriktige rådende politiske, filosofiske, og religiøse strømningene. Maria Montessori var ikke fornøyd med utdanningsinstitusjonene på sin tid og så et sterkt behov for endring av et syst...

  11. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  12. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN SENYAWA FLAVONOID EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI TERONG BELANDA (Solanum betaceum, syn DALAM MENGHAMBAT REAKSI PEROKSIDASI LEMAK PADA PLASMA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR

    Ni Wayan Oktarini A.C.Dewi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan dari biji terong belanda dalam menghambat reaksi peroksidasi lemak plasma darah pada tikus dan menentukan golongan flavonoid yang aktif sebagai antioksidan. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH dan pengukuran kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar. Partisi ekstrak etanol biji menghasilkan fraksi n-heksan, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi etil asetat dan n-butanol positif mengandung senyawa flavonoid. Uji aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode DPPH menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat memiliki aktivitas antioksidan lebih besar dengan nilai IC50 1162,608 ppm. Fraksi etil asetat dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom menggunakan eluen n-heksan:etil asetat:n-butanol (6:4:0,1, diperoleh dua fraksi (Fraksi A dan fraksi B. Analisis dengan spektroskopi inframerah menunjukkan bahwa kedua isolat diduga mengandung gugus fungsi yang sama (OH, CH, C=O, C=C aromatik, C-O, CH alifatik. Analisis dengan spektroskopi UV-Vis diindikasikan bahwa fraksi A merupakan golongan dihidroflavonol dengan gugus hidroksi pada cincin A yaitu pada atom C-6, C-7 atau C-7, C-8 dan fraksi B merupakan golongan flavanon dengan gugus hidroksi pada cincin A yaitu pada atol C-7 dan C-8. Hasil analisis statistik pada pengukuran kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat dengan dosis 200 mg/kgBB mampu menurunkan kadar MDA darah tikus Wistar yang diberi aktivitas fisik maksimal. Kata kunci : Solanum betaceum, syn, malondialdehid, peroksidasi lemak, flavonoid ABSTRACT : The aims of this study are to determine the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds extracted from  Dutch eggplant seeds in inhibiting lipid peroxidation reactions in the Wistar rat blood plasma and to determine the active flavonoid compounds as antioxidants. The test of antioxidant activity was carried out with DPPH (diphenilpikril hidrazil method and measurment of MDA (malondialdehyde level of blood of the

  13. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.

    2012-12-01

    -tuned by comparison with the general probability function calculated from all individual age and error values. Monazite chemical compositions and variations, in connection with the textural and zonal setting of the analyzed spots, were used to estimate the geological relevance of the derived age clusters, along with inter-sample comparisons anchored on granitoid samples displaying well-expressed age plateaus, conspicuously related to consolidation and emplacement ages. The resultant ages are consistent with sandwiching of juvenile Variscan metamorphic units and slivers of reworked older basement fragments in structurally coherent sequences, formed by syn/late-metamorphic tectonic stacking. Differential exhumation and ensuing areal or local lower pressure overprinting initiated in early Permian lasted up until the Late Jurassic. The age distribution of the pervasive metamorphic overprints, in consistency with the variation of the metamorphic conditions recorded, requires a partial revision and an iterative adjustment between determined ages and metamorphic features, and the lithostratigraphic separations operated in several basement units of the South Carpathians. Acknowledgements Grant PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0030 by the Romanian Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI)

  14. Syn- to post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic nappes: Structure and thermobarometry of the western Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex (Lavrion, Greece)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Lanari, Pierre; Tarantola, Alexandre; Ponthus, Léandre; Photiades, Adonis; France, Lydéric

    2016-05-01

    significant increase in temperature (∼350 °C). These structural, petrologic and thermobarometric data document the tectonic evolution from construction to destruction of the Hellenic orogenic belt. The steep-dipping blueschist facies foliation, preferentially preserved at high structural level in the middle unit, is considered to reflect tectonic accretion marked by successive burial (D1M1) and syn-orogenic exhumation (D2M2) without thermal relaxation. The transposition-retrogression of the blueschist facies mineral assemblage into a shallow-dipping greenschist facies foliation associated with an increase in temperature corresponds to lateral flow of the thermally relaxed nappe stack (D3M3). The development of a low-angle detachment, accommodating post-orogenic exhumation of the orogenic root, is attributed to gravitational collapse of the Hellenic belt.

  15. Phenolic Constituents, Antioxidant and Preliminary Antimycoplasmic Activities of Leaf Skin and Flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Milagros Rico; Ramírez, Ana S; Orestes Vega-Orellana; Miguel Suárez de Tangil; Aroa López

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extracts of leaf skins and flowers of Aloe vera from the Canary Islands were analyzed for their phenolic profiles and screened for their antioxidant and antimycoplasmic activities. The use of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) allowed the identification of 18 phenolic constituents. Leaf skin extracts were characterized by the abundance of catechin, sinapic acid and quercitrin. Gentisic acid, epicatechin and quercitrin were the most prominent phenolic ...

  16. Crystal structure of the bis(cyclohexylammonium succinate succinic acid salt adduct

    Modou Sarr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt adduct, 2C6H14N+·C4H4O42−·C4H6O4, consists of two cyclohexylammonium cations, one succcinate dianion and one neutral succinic acid molecule. Succinate dianions and succinic acid molecules are self-assembled head-to-tail through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and adopt a syn–syn configuration, leading to a strand-like arrangement along [101]. The cyclohexylammonium cations have a chair conformation and act as multidentate hydrogen-bond donors linking adjacent strands through intermolecular N—H...O interactions to both the succinate and the succinic acid components. This results in two-dimensional supramolecular layered structures lying parallel to (010.

  17. Folic Acid

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  18. Trifluoroselenoacetic acid, CF(3)C(O)SeH: preparation and properties.

    Gómez Castaño, Jovanny A; Romano, Rosana M; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge; Della Védova, Carlos O

    2010-11-01

    The hitherto unknown trifluoroselenoacetic acid was prepared through the reaction of trifluoroacetic acid with Woollins' reagent. The compound was fully characterized by mass spectrometry, (1)H, (19)F, (77)Se, and (13)C NMR, UV-visible, IR and Raman spectroscopy, and the boiling point at 46 °C was estimated from the vapor pressure curve. An IR matrix isolation study revealed the presence of two different syn-anti and anti-syn conformers. The IR spectra of the two stereoisomers have been assigned, aided by DFT, and ab initio calculations. The UV photolysis of Ar matrix isolated CF(3)C(O)SeH yielded CO, OCSe, CF(3)SeH, and CHF(3). Apart from CF(3)SeH, these products were also obtained by vacuum flash-pyrolysis (310 °C) of gaseous CF(3)C(O)SeH. Instead of CF(3)SeH, CF(2)Se, and HF were detected among the pyrolysis products. The different decomposition pathways of CF(3)C(O)SeH are discussed. PMID:20879731

  19. Elevernas uppfattning om teknikämnets användbarhet : Exempel på högstadieelevers syn på teknikämnets relevans för deras vardagsliv

    Amange, Basil

    2016-01-01

    Sammanfattning Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka hur högstadieelever uppfattar teknikämnets användbarhet. Utgångspunkten är vad Skolinspektionen (2014) påpekade i sin granskning av ämnet teknik när det gäller att erbjuda teknikundervisning som grundskoleelever upplever som relevant. Fokusområden har varit elevernas syn på teknikämnets relevans för deras vardagsliv. Metoden för studien är en kvalitativ undersökning som bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer med totalt åtta ele...

  20. Olika synsätt på arbetsplatsförlagd utbildning (APU). : En studie av lokalt samarbete mellan Parkskolan - Näringslivet i Örnsköldsvik.

    Hörnfeldt, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka och analysera vilka förväntningar skolans företrädare har på APU och vad närlingslivets företrädare erbjuder eleverna under APU-perioden. Studien belyste bl a samarbetet mellan skola och näringslivet, närlingslivets organisering och dess synsätt av APU. Studien har genomförts enligt en kombination av kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod via enkäter och intervjuer av skolpersonal och personal vid de företag där elever ur Parkskolans Industriprogram utfört sin a...

  1. "Får jag också vara bebis?" : Om pedagogers roll och syn på miljöns betydelse för barns lek i förskolan

    Bellos, Natali; Arevalo, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Syftet med studien är att synliggöra pedagogernas roll i leken, samt deras uppfattning om miljöns betydelse för leken. För att kunna få en förståelse för pedagogernas roll i barns lek och sin egen syn på miljöns betydelse för leken, genomfördes fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer med två pedagoger på två förskolor. De semistrukturerade intervjuerna innebär att vi hade en frågelista över det specifika temat som skulle beröras och en intervjuguide som kompletterades av följdfrågor (Bryman, 2007)....

  2. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  3. Extending framework based on the linear coordination polymers: Alternative chains containing lanthanum ion and acrylic acid ligand

    One-dimensional alternative chains of two lanthanum complexes: [La(L1)3(CH3OH)(H2O)2].5H2O (L1=anion of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid ) 1 and [La(L2)3(H2O)2].3H2O (L2=anion of trans-3-(4-methyl-benzoyl)-acrylic acid) 2 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C31H36LaN3O17, triclinic, P-1, a=9.8279(4)A, b=11.8278(5)A, c=17.8730(7)A, α=72.7960(10)o, β=83.3820(10)o, γ=67.1650(10)-bar , Z=2, R1=0.0377, wR2=0.0746; for 2: C33H37LaO14, triclinic, P-1, a=8.7174(5)A, b=9.9377(5)A, c=21.153(2)A, α=81.145(2)o, β=87.591(2)o, γ=67.345(5)o, Z=2, R1=0.0869, wR2=0.220. 1 is a rare example of the alternative chain constructed by syn-syn and anti-syn coordination mode of carboxylato ligand arranged along the chain alternatively. La(III) ions in 2 are linked by two η3-O bridges and four bridges (two η2-O and two η3-O) alternatively. Both of the linear coordination polymers grow into two- and three-dimensional networks by packing through extending hydrogen-bond network directed by ligands

  4. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  5. [Gastric Acid].

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  6. ACID RAIN

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  7. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  8. Folic acid

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  9. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  10. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  11. Geochemistry, U–Pb geochronology, Sm–Nd and O isotopes of ca. 50 Ma long Ediacaran High-K Syn-Collisional Magmatism in the Pernambuco Alagoas Domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Francisco da Silva Filho, Adejardo; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Santos, Lucilene; Armstrong, Richard; Van Schmus, William Randall

    2016-07-01

    The Pernambuco Alagoas (PEAL) domain shows the major occurrence of granitic batholiths of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, with Archean to Neoproterozoic range of Nd TDM model ages, giving clues on the role of granites during the Brasiliano orogeny. SHRIMP U/Pb zircon geochronological data for seven granitic intrusions of the PEAL domain divide the studied granitoids into three groups: 1) early-to syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages ca. 635 Ma (Serra do Catú pluton), 2) syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages 610-618 Ma (Santana do Ipanema, Água Branca, Mata Grande and Correntes plutons) and 3) late-to post-collision granitoids with ages of ca. 590 Ma (Águas Belas, and Cachoeirinha plutons). The intrusions of group 1 and 2, except the Mata Grande and Correntes plutons, show Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 Ga, while the granitoids from group 3, and Mata Grande Pluton and Correntes plutons have Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 Ga. The studied granitoids with ages <600 Ma are high-K, calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and those with ages <600 Ma are transitional high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline. The volcanic arc signatures associated with the Paleoproterozoic Nd TDM model ages are interpreted as inherited from the source rocks. The oldest ages and lower Nd TDM model ages are recorded from granitoids intruded in the southwest part of the PEAL domain, suggesting that these intrusions are associated with slab-tearing during convergence between the PEAL and the Sergipano domains. Zircon oxygen isotopic data in some of the studied plutons, together with the available Nd isotopic data suggest that the Brasiliano orogeny strongly reworked older crust, of either Paleoproterozoic or Tonian ages. The studied granitoids are coeval with calc-alkaline granitoids of the Transversal Zone and Sergipano domains and rare high-K calc-alkaline granitoids from the Transversal Zone domain. Such large volumes of high-K granitoids with

  12. Okadaic acid

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  13. Use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) versus ACEI/ARB alone in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Luo, Ying; Yang, Shi-kun; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Ming; Tang, Dan; Liu, Fu-you; Sun, Lin; Xiao, Li

    2015-05-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis; syn. Cordyceps sinensis) has been used in clinical therapy for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) for more than 15 years. O. sinensis is a household name in china and it is available even in supermarket. However, the precise role of O. sinensis has not been fully elucidated with meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the effectiveness of O. sinensis for the treatment of DKD. We identified 60 trials involving 4288 participants. Overall, O. sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB had a better effect when compared to ACEI/ARB alone on 24 h UP (MD = -0.23 g/d, 95% CI: - 0.28 to -0.19, p sinensis combined with ACEI/ARB may have a more beneficial effect on the proteinuria, inflammatory, dyslipidemia status as compared to ACEI/ARB alone in DKD III-IV stage patients, while there is no evidence that O. sinensis could improve the hyperglycemia status. However, with regard to low-quality and significant heterogeneity of included trials, to further verify the current results from this meta-analysis, long-term and well-designed RCTs with high-quality study are warranted to ascertain the long-term efficacy of O. sinensis. PMID:25682973

  14. Syn-collisional adakitic granodiorites formed by fractional crystallization: Insights from their enclosed mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Qumushan pluton, North Qilian Orogen at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Li, Jiyong; Sun, Wenli; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Yan; Shao, Fengli

    2016-04-01

    The Qumushan (QMS) syn-collisional granodiorite, which is located in the eastern section of the North Qilian Orogen at the northern margin of the Greater Tibetan Plateau, has typical adakitic characteristics and also contains abundant mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). This recognition offers an unprecedented insight into the petrogenesis of both the adakitic host granodiorite and the enclosed MMEs. The MMEs and their host granodiorites share many characteristics in common, including identical crystallization age (~ 430 Ma), same mineralogy, similar mineral chemistry and whole-rock isotopic compositions, indicating their genetic link. The MMEs are most consistent with being of cumulate origin formed at earlier stages of the same magmatic system that produced the QMS adakitic granodiorite. Subsequent replenishment of adakitic magmas could have disturbed the cumulate piles as "MMEs" dispersed in the adakitic granodiorite host during emplacement. The geochemical data and petrogenetic modeling of trace elements suggest that the QMS adakitic host granodiorite is most consistent with fractional crystallization dominated by the mineral assemblage of the MMEs. The parental magma for the QMS granodiorite is best explained as resulting from partial melting of the ocean crust together with recycled terrigenous sediments during continental collision, which may have also experienced interaction with mantle peridotite during ascent.

  15. Mefenamic Acid

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  16. Ascorbic Acid

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  18. Stearic Acid

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  19. Solvent-Free Biginelli Condensation using Tungstate Sulfuric Acid: a Powerful and Reusable Catalyst for Selective Synthesis

    Rezvan Rezaee Nasab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA has been prepared and used as a recyclable catalyst for the Biginelli syn-thesis of some biologically active quinazolinones/thiones under solvent-free conditions. This method has advantages such as the avoidance of organic solvents, high yield of pure products, short reaction times, and operational simplicity.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rightsReceived: 28th April 2014; Revised: 15th May 2014; Accepted: 26th May 2014[ How to Cite: Nasab, R.R., Karami, B., Khodabakhshi, S. (2014. Selective Solvent‐free Biginelli Condensation using Tungstate Sulfuric Acid as Powerful and Reusable Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 142-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6794.148-154][ Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6794.148-154

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]·0.5anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2

    纪顺俊; 虞虹; 郎建平

    2002-01-01

    The reactions of [PPh4][(η5-C5Me5)WS3] with equimolar Hg2Cl2 in DMF produced syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]@0.5anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2] 1. The structure of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group Pī (No. 2) with a = 8.400(2), b = 8.729(2), c = 23.329(8) ?, α = 93.329(8), β = 93.446(2), γ = 96.673(1)°, V = 1725.1(5) ?3, Z = 2, C30H45S6W3, Mr = 1149.60, Dc = 2.213 g/cm3, F(000) = 1086, μ (MoKα) = 10.37 cm-1 and T = 193 K. With the use of 6199 observed reflections (I > 3.0σ(I)), the structure was refined to R = 0.053 and wR = 0.065. 1 consists of one syn-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2] and one-half of anti-[(η5-C5Me5)2W2(S)2(μ-S)2]. Both syn- and anti-isomer contain a four-membered W2(μ-S)2 ring. The W-W distances of the syn and anti forms are 2.8973(5) and 2.9113(8) , respectively.

  1. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  2. Preferential deprotonation and conformational stability of dicarboxylic acids: A packing effect

    Barooah, Nilotpal; Singh, W. Marjit; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2008-03-01

    Crystal structures of a series of salts of (6-carboxymethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxo-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1 H-pyrrolo[3,4- f]isoindol-2-yl)-acetic acid ( 1) and 2-carboxymethyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-isoinodole-5-carboxylic acid ( 2) with different polynuclear nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds, namely, quinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline and 8-hydroxyquinoline are determined. In the case of salt of 1 with quinolinium and 1,10-phenanthrolinium cations syn disposition between the carboxylate anion and carboxylic acid groups is observed; whereas in the case of the 8-hydroxyquinolinium salt of 1, it is the anti disposition. It is also found that the solid state structure of 1,10-phenanthrolinium salt of 2 has deprotonation at the aromatic end, whereas in 8-hydroxy-quinolinium salt of 2 is formed by deprotonation of carboxylic acid group on the aliphatic side. The dicarboxylic acid 2 forms 1:2 co-crystals with quinoline. From crystallographic study it is shown that the weak interactions become prominent in stabilising the observed conformers and also in stabilising specific deprotonated species.

  3. Understanding Acid Rain

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  4. Journalisters syn på journalistisk etik

    Roger Buch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, moral and values have gained much attention in the past decades, which also have created focus on journalism ethics, particularly because of the power and potentially negative consequences journalism can have. A survey with members of the Danish Union of Journalist show that, there is a wide spread consciousness on journalism ethics, and a rather high support for some selected ethical questions, but also that many experience ethical problems in media in general and on their own journalistic workplaces. The ethical consciousness is primarily created through own reflections and faults, dialogues with and observations of colleagues in the daily work. The leader and management level on the workplace, and the especially The Press Council plays on the contrary a very little or directly marginal role.

  5. Rapport om DanDiaSyn-projektet

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Hagedorn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9......Artiklen gør rede for hovedprincipperne bag det indsamlingsarbejde om dansk dialektsyntaks som forfatterne deltog i 2007-9...

  6. Dehydroabietic acid

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Transfer/transform relationships in continental rifts and margins and their control on syn- and post-rift denudation: the case of the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Pik, Raphael; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Denele, Yoann; Razin, Philippe; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Khanbari, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquist features in continental rifts and margins, as well as transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present the structural study of such a structure (the Hadibo Transfer Zone, HTZ) from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, in Socotra Island, Yemen. There, from field data, the HTZ is interpreted as being reactivated, obliquely to divergence, since early rifting stages. Then, from a short review of transfer/transform fault zone geometries worldwide, we derive a classification in terms of relative importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd order), geometry, and location. We suggest that the HTZ is a 1st order transfer fault zone as it controls the initiation of a 1st order oceanic transform fault zone. We then investigate the denudation history of the region surrounding the HTZ in order to highlight the interplay of normal and transfer/transform tectonic structures in the course of rift evolution. Samples belong from two distinct East and West domains of the Socotra Island, separated by the (HTZ). Tectonic denudation started during the Priabonian-Rupelian along flat normal faults and removed all the overlying sedimentary formations, allowing basement exhumation up to the surface (~ 1.2 - 1.6 km of exhumation). Forward t-T modelling of the data requires a slightly earlier date and shorter period for development of rifting in the E-Socotra domain (38 - 34 Ma), compared to the W-Socotra domain (34 - 25 Ma), which suggests that the HTZ was already active at that time. A second major event of basement cooling and exhumation (additional ~ 0.7 - 1 km), starting at about ~ 20 Ma, has only been recorded on the E-Socotra domain. This second denudation phase significantly post-dates local rifting period but appears synchronous with Ocean Continent Transition (OCT: 20 - 17.6 Ma). This late syn-OCT uplift is maximum close to the HTZ, in the wedge of hangingwall delimited by this transfer system and the steep north-dipping normal faults that accommodated the vertical

  8. Retarded acid emulsion

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  9. Acid Lipase Disease

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  10. Plasma amino acids

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  11. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  12. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of a series of 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues: new insight into the structure-activity relation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 5, 6, and 7

    Sagot, Emanuelle; Pickering, Darryl S; Pu, Xiaosui;

    2008-01-01

    ( S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) activating the plethora of ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). In this paper, we present a chemo-enzymatic strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of fi...

  15. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  16. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  17. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    ... Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other ... ACIDS are as follows:Improving mental development or growth in infants. Adding arachidonic acid (an omega-6 ...

  18. Plasma amino acids

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  20. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    ... experience a reaction during the first few days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection. Symptoms ... symptoms may begin during the first 3 days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection and ...

  1. Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Catalysis of Dinuclear Cd(Ⅱ) Complexes Bridged by Unusual (N,O,O')-Coordinated a-Amino Acids

    DENG Dong-sheng; WANG Li; PEI Ya-mei; FENG Lu; LIU Chang-lin

    2012-01-01

    Four dinuclear amino acid cadmium(Ⅱ) complexes [Cd2(tren)2(dl-alaninato)](ClO4)3·H2O(Ⅰ),[Cd2(tren)2·(l-alaninato)](ClO4)3·H2O(Ⅱ),[Cd2(tren)2(dl-phenylalaninato)](ClO4)3(Ⅲ) and [Cd2(tren)2(l-phenylalaninato)]·(ClO4)3(Ⅳ),constructed from mixed ligands of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine(tren) and racemic or natural amino acids(amino acids=dl- or l-alanine,and dl- or l-phenylalanine),have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography.The structural analysis of complexes Ⅰ and Ⅲ reveals that the cadmium centers are coordinated by one tren ligand and one amino acid molecule with the unusual (N,O,O')-bridged mode,resulting in asymmetric chromophores of CdN4O and CdN5O in complex Ⅰ,CdN4O2 and CdN5O in complex Ⅲ,respectively.The utility of the four complexes as efficient water-compatible Lewis acid catalysts for the direct aldol reaction in water was examined.The reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding β-hydroxy ketones in up to 99% yield.Moreover,the diastereoselectivity of the reaction favors the formation of the syn-isomers.

  2. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  3. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  4. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  5. Ätstörningar - högkÀnsliga flickors problem? En studie om den finlÀndska vÃ¥rdens syn pÃ¥ Àtstörningar

    Ström, Sandra Ingrid Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Ätstörningar Àr en av de vanligaste psykiska diagnoserna som stÀlls pÃ¥ unga flickor idag. I Finland Àr vÃ¥rden av Àtstörningar relativt splittrad och Àtstörningspatienter vÃ¥rdas bÃ¥de inom den offentliga och den privata vÃ¥rden pÃ¥ bland annat psykiska och somatiska avdelningar samt specialiserade kliniker. I denna avhandling undersöks den finlÀndska vÃ¥rdpersonalens syn pÃ¥ Àtstörningar. Syftet Àr att undersöka hur allmÀnlÀkare samt specialiserad vÃ¥rdpersonal som arbetar ...

  6. Högläsningens effekter på elevers läsförmåga : En kvalitativ studie om lärares syn på högläsning och hur de använder den i undervisningen

    Augustsson, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärare använder sig av högläsning i undervisning för att främja elevernas läsförmåga och hur detta syns i elevernas aktiviteter. Teorin som studien bygger på är det sociokulturella perspektivet med ursprung i Lev Vygotskijs teorier om lärande, utveckling och språk. I studien har fem lärare som arbetar i årskurserna F–3 blivit intervjuade med en semistrukturerad intervju. Lärarna har även blivit observerade under en av sina högläsningslektioner för att s...

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection assays

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  13. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  14. Nucleic acid detection kits

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  15. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  16. Bile acid sequestrants

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid and...... glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption of the...... enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  18. Fatty acids and epigenetics

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to assess the findings of recent studies on the effects of fatty acids on epigenetic process and the role of epigenetics in regulating fatty acid metabolism. Recent findings The DNA methylation status of the Fads2 promoter was increased in the liver of the offspring of mice fed an ?-linolenic acid-enriched diet during pregnancy. In rats, increasing total maternal fat intake during pregnancy and lactation induced persistent hypermethyl...

  19. The acid rain primer

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  20. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  1. Azetidinic amino acids

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  2. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  3. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  4. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth of...

  5. Characterization of acid tars

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  6. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  7. Science of acid rain

    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a...

  10. Locked nucleic acid

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  14. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...

  15. Halogenated fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    . However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  16. Canadian acid rain policy

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... of 2,5-anhydrides and not the expected 2-acetamido-2-deoxy aldose phenylhydrazones. The acetylated phenylhydrazones were found to eliminate acetic acid when heated in aqueous ethanol and 1-phenylazoalkenes could be isolated by crystallisation. By this method the 17, 20, 23 and 25 were prepared from...... aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79 and...

  18. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  19. N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid-based lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, magnetism and quantum Monte Carlo studies

    Zhuang Guilin, E-mail: glzhuang@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Wulin [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Zheng Jun [Center of Modern Experimental Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Yu Huiyou [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang Jianguo, E-mail: jgw@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers have been obtained through the hydrothermal reaction of N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid (H{sub 3}SIDA) and Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Gd, 4). Crystal structure analysis exhibits that lanthanide ions affect the coordination number, bond length and dimension of compounds 1-4, which reveal that their structure diversity can be attributed to the effect of lanthanide contraction. Furthermore, the combination of magnetic measure with quantum Monte Carlo(QMC) studies exhibits that the coupling parameters between two adjacent Gd{sup 3+} ions for anti-anti and syn-anti carboxylate bridges are -1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and -5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}, respectively, which reveals weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 4. - Graphical abstract: Four lanthanide coordination polymers with N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid were obtained under hydrothermal condition and reveal the weak antiferromagnetic coupling between two Gd{sup 3+} ions by Quantum Monte Carlo studies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four lanthanide coordination polymers of H{sub 3}SIDA ligand were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanide ions play an important role in their structural diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measure exhibits that compound 4 features antiferromagnetic property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum Monte Carlo studies reveal the coupling parameters of two Gd{sup 3+} ions.

  20. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  1. Stomach acid test

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  2. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  3. Folic acid in diet

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  4. Citric acid urine test

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  5. Azelaic Acid Topical

    ... pores and by decreasing production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of ... acid controls acne and rosacea but does not cure these conditions. It may take 4 weeks or ...

  6. Acid rain: An overview

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  7. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  8. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  9. Utilization of acid tars

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  10. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of...