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Sample records for acids inorganic

  1. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO3 +6M HNO3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  2. Ionisation constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution

    Perrin, D D

    2013-01-01

    Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2

  3. Water-free Alkaline Polymer-inorganic Acid Complexes with High Conductivity at Ambient Temperature

    O.V.Chervakov; M.V.Andriianova; V.V.Riabenko; A.V.Markevich; E.M.Shembel; D.Meshri

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recently increased interest is shown to proton conducting materials based on the alkaline polymer-inorganic acid complexes that is caused by a possibility of their application as the high-temperature electrolyte systems for various electrochemical devices (fuel cells,sensors,lithium power sources etc.).Complexes of inorganic acids with the alkaline polymers (polybenzimidazoles[1],polyvinylpyridines[2]) are characterized by high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures (up to 10-2 Ω-1·cm-1) a...

  4. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic proton conductors

    He, Ronghuan; Qingfeng, Li; Gang, Xiao;

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) and PBI composite membranes have been prepared in the present work. The PBI composites contain inorganic proton conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2·nH2O), phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40·nH2O) and silicotungstic acid (Si...

  5. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic protontic conductors

    Li, Qingfeng

    2003-01-01

    contain inorganic protonic conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2. nH2O); phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40. nH2O); and silicotungstic acid (SiWA), (H4SiW12O40 . nH2O). The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped PBI and PBI composite membranes was found to be dependent on the acid...

  6. Nitrate reductase and acid phosphatase activities as affected by inorganic phosphate in corn roots

    Marie Kummerova; Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    The deficieny of inorganic phosphate in nutrient solution reduces by about 50 per cent NO3- absorption in corn seedlings, it decreases both in vitro and in vivo nitrate reductase (NR) activity, as well the potential and actual NR level and has a very weak effect on NR induction. Acid phosphatases activities increase in corn roots when the plants are grown in nutrient solution without phosphorus. We suggest that inorganic phosphate is required mainly for maintenance of NR activity rather, than...

  7. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-Yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much ...

  8. Genetic variability for phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous in Indian Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) landraces

    Ashok Badigannavar, G. Girish and T.R. Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    Majority of the phosphorous in the seeds of higher plant is stored as phytic acid. Phytate ‘P’ interfere in the protein digestion and chelate nutritionally essential elements, such as Ca, Zn and Fe. Breeding for low phytic acid would help in improving the nutritional quality of sorghum. In the present study, genetic variability for phytic acid (PAP) and inorganic ‘P’(IP) was determined among 92 sorghum landraces and 20 varieties.. The ANOVA showed significant differences for grain yield, 100-...

  9. Solvent extraction of scandium by TBP from inorganic acid solutions

    Studied has been the distribution of scandium between the 100% TBP and the aqueous solutions of the nitric and hydrochloric acids with the various concentrations of scandium and acids. A relationship has been determined between the concentration constants of the scandium extraction from the solutions of the nitric, hydrochloric, sulfuric and chlorous acid solutions, the hydration energies of the extracting ions and the stability constants of the complexes, comprising scandium and anions

  10. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    M. Frosch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  11. Effects of Inorganic acid catalysts on liquefaction of wood In phenol

    Zhang Qiuhui; Zhao Guangjie; Chen Jinpeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the effects of acid catalysts on wood liquefaction in phenol, we investigated the liquefaction of wood powder from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr) in the presence of phenol with the following weak inorganic acids as catalysts: phosphoric acid (85%),sulfuric acid (36%),hydrochloric acid (37%)and oxalic acid (99.5%).Results show that phosphoric acid (85%) and sulfuric acid (36%) are better than the other catalysts.It was found that lower residue ratios can be obtained under defined reaction conditions: phenol/wood ratio is 4,a 10% catalyst based on the weight of phenol,a temperature of 150℃ for 2 h and phosphoric or sulfuric acid.The residue ratios are 3.2% and 4.0%,respectively.

  12. Photochemical alkylation of inorganic selenium in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids.

    Guo, Xuming; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltán; Gardner, Graeme J

    2003-12-15

    Using a flow-through photochemical reactor and a low pressure mercury lamp as a UV source, alkyl selenium species are formed from inorganic selenium(IV) in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids (LMW acids). The volatile alkyl Se species were cryogenically trapped and identified by GC-MS and GC-ICP-MS. In the presence of formic, acetic, propionic and malonic acids, inorganic selenium(IV) is converted by UV irradiation to volatile selenium hydride and carbonyl, dimethylselenide and diethylselenide, respectively. Se(IV) was successfully removed from contaminated agricultural drainage waters (California, U.S.A.) using a batch photoreactor system Se. Photochemical alkylation may thus offer a promising means of converting toxic selenium salts, present in contaminated water, to less toxic dimethylselenide. The LMW acids and photochemical alkylation process may also be key to understanding the source of atmospheric selenium and are likely involved in its mobility in the natural anaerobic environment. PMID:14717175

  13. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with K

  14. Effect of dietary phytic acid and inorganic iron on the quality of chilled pork.

    Renilda Terezinha Monteiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing inorganic iron and phytic acid to the diet for finishing pigs on meat quality after 24 hours and 7 days of refrigeration. Forty castrated male finishing pigs of a commercial genotype, with an initial mean weight of 64.34 ± 6.64 kg and age of 108 days, were used. The animals were weighed and housed individually in brick pens with an area of three m2 and compact floor, receiving water and ration ad libitum for 30 days. A randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme was used, corresponding to diets supplemented or not with inorganic iron and with two levels of phytic acid, high (4.85% and low (2.98%. The animals were slaughtered when they had reached a mean weight of 100.76 ± 6.54 kg and longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the analysis of meat quality. The following parameters were analyzed in the samples: pH, color, marbling, water loss through pressure, shear force, iron composition, and lipid oxidation. No differences in the variables analyzed were observed between factors, except for muscle iron concentration, which was higher for the diet with inclusion of inorganic iron. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by the presence or absence of phytic acid and inorganic iron. The results show that diets with elevated phytic acid levels supplemented or not with inorganic iron can be used for finishing pigs without compromising meat quality during the refrigeration phase.

  15. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  16. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Beleze Fábio A.; Zarbin Aldo J. G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA) and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V) present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic...

  17. Interactions between uptake of amino acids and inorganic nitrogen in wheat plants

    E. Gioseffi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne amino acids may constitute a source of nitrogen (N for plants in various terrestrial ecosystems but their importance for total N nutrition is unclear, particularly in nutrient-rich arable soils. One reason for this uncertainty is lack of information on how the absorption of amino acids by plant roots is affected by the simultaneous presence of inorganic N forms. The objective of the present study was to study absorption of glycine (Gly and glutamine (Gln by wheat roots and their interactions with nitrate (NO3 and ammonium (NH4+ during uptake. The underlying hypothesis was that amino acids, when present in nutrient solution together with inorganic N, may lead to down-regulation of the inorganic N uptake, thereby resulting in similar total N uptake rates. Amino acids were enriched with double-labelled 15N and 13C, while NO3 and NH4+ acquisition was determined by their rate of removal from the nutrient solution surrounding the roots. The uptake rates of NO3 and NH4+ did not differ from each other and were generally about twice as high as the uptake rate of organic N when the different N forms were supplied separately in concentrations of 2 mM. Nevertheless, replacement of 50% of the inorganic N with organic N was able to restore the N uptake to the same level as that in the presence of only inorganic N. Co-provision of NO3 did not affect glycine uptake, while the presence of glycine down-regulated NO3 uptake. The ratio between 13C and 15N were lower in shoots than in roots and also lower than the theoretical values, reflecting higher C losses via respiratory processes compared to N losses. It is concluded that organic N can constitute a significant N-source for wheat plants and that there is an interaction

  18. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author)

  19. SNL-1, a highly selective inorganic crystalline ion exchange material for Sr2+ in acidic solutions

    A new inorganic ion exchange material, called SNL-1, has been prepared at Sandia National Laboratories. Developmental samples of SNL-1 have been determined to have high selectivity for the adsorption of Strontium from highly acidic solutions (1 M HNO3). This paper presents results obtained for the material in batch ion exchange tests conducted at various solution pH values and in the presence of a number of competing cations. Results from a continuous flow column ion exchange experiment are also presented

  20. Effect of dietary phytic acid and inorganic iron on the quality of chilled pork.

    Renilda Terezinha Monteiro; Caio Abercio Silva; Ana Maria Bridi; Alexandre Obra; Arturo Pardo Lozano; Louise Manha Peres; Aliny Ketilim Novais; Eduardo Raele Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing inorganic iron and phytic acid to the diet for finishing pigs on meat quality after 24 hours and 7 days of refrigeration. Forty castrated male finishing pigs of a commercial genotype, with an initial mean weight of 64.34 ± 6.64 kg and age of 108 days, were used. The animals were weighed and housed individually in brick pens with an area of three m2 and compact floor, receiving water and ration ad libitum for 30 days. A ra...

  1. Effects of inorganic components in acid rain on tube elongation of Camellia pollen

    Masaru, N.; Katsuhisa, F.; Sankichi, T.; Yutaka, W.

    1980-01-01

    Pollen grains of Camellia japonica were cultivated in culture plates containing individual inorganic components found in acid rain (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, H/sup +/, Pb/sup +2/, Mg/sup +2/ or Mn/sup +2/). In the case of three acids (HNO/sub 3/, HCl or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), a promotion of pollen tube elongation due to nitric acid or hydrogen chloride occurred in the range 0-0.5 millimole/litre and a marked inhibition was observed when the acid concentrations were above 0.6 millimole/litre (pH<3.2). Sulphuric acid promoted tube elongation in the range 0-0.2 millimole/litre and markedly inhibited tube elongation above 0.3 millimole/litre (pH<3.2). Nitric acid promoted tube elongation more than hydrogen chloride and sulphuric acid. However, individual inhibitions due to the three acids were similar to each other. In the case of three metallic salts (Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ or Mn(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/), those of lead and manganese showed a slight promotion of tube elongation at low concentrations (0.005-0.015 millimole/litre). However, the salt of magnesium had no effect in this range. Interaction of various combinations of three acids (HNOHNO/sub 3/, HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) or three ammonium salts (NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/Cl and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) were studied. A marked inhibition of tube elongation occurred above 0.47 millimole/litre (pH<3.2) with a combination of the three acids. However, no inhibition occurred in the same concentration range with a combination of the three ammonium salts.

  2. Genetic variability for phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous in Indian Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor landraces

    Ashok Badigannavar, G. Girish and T.R. Ganapathi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the phosphorous in the seeds of higher plant is stored as phytic acid. Phytate ‘P’ interfere in the protein digestion and chelate nutritionally essential elements, such as Ca, Zn and Fe. Breeding for low phytic acid would help in improving the nutritional quality of sorghum. In the present study, genetic variability for phytic acid (PAP and inorganic ‘P’(IP was determined among 92 sorghum landraces and 20 varieties.. The ANOVA showed significant differences for grain yield, 100-seed weight, PAP and IP among these genotypes. Wide range values were observed for grain yield (2.5-76.5 g/plant, 100-seed weight (2.06-4.1 g, PAP (0.015-4.450 mg/g and IP (0.006-1.320 mg/g. Land race Malkhed-1 recorded high yield (69.03 g with the lowest PAP values for phytic acid (0.015mg/g and 0.67 mg/g of IP with IP/PAP ratio of 43.94. Correlation studies indicated that PAP and IP were negatively correlated (r = - 0.34. Cluster analysis based on the grain yield and seed ‘P’ traits grouped 112 genotypes into five clusters. Landrace Tengalli-6 was found highly diverse compared to rest of the genotypes. High yielding genotypes with low phytic acid identified in this study would be helpful in increased bioavailability of mineral nutrients.

  3. Separation of cesium from acid ILW-Purex solutions by sorption on inorganic ion exchangers

    The separation of cesium by use of the inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdatophosphate from nitric acid solutions of intermediate level waste (ILW) from reprocessing of spent fuel elements according to the PUREX PROCESS has been demonstrated. Other inorganic exchange materials have shown high sorption values only for certain pH ranges: ammonium hexacyano cobaltous ferrate (pH 12, 35 g Cs/kg), potassium hexacyano nickel ferrate (pH 10, 30 g Cs/kg), zirconium phosphate (pH 7, 100 g Cs/kg), titanium phosphate (pH 7, 15 g Cs/kg), antimony pentoxide (pH 2, 30 g Cs/kg) and titanium oxide (pH 7, 1 g Cs/kg). Except for high salt loading of 3.6 M NaNO3, a significant loss of capacities usually occurs; this does not allow the use of these exchangers. However, ammonium molybdatophosphate shows excellent performance with high salt loadings and in a broad pH-range from pH 9 to conc. HNO3 with a breakthrough-capacity of 60 g Cs/kg. (orig.)

  4. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2009-01-01

    Surface contaminants as a result of thermo-mechanical processing of magnesium alloys, e.g. sheet rolling, can have a negative effect on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Especially contaminants such as Fe, Ni and Cu, left on the surface of magnesium alloys result in the formation...... of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...... cleaning the AZ31 sheet. However, to obtain reasonable corrosion resistance at least 5 mu m of the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet have to be removed....

  5. Brief report on screening maize mutants with high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid content

    Four and two mutants with high inorganic phosphorus (IP) and low phytic acid (LP) content were identified from 'Huang C' and 'X178', the parents of the leading commercial hybrid maize cultivar 'Nongda 108', when the dry seeds were irradiated by 200 Gy Cobalt-60 gamma rays. The mutation frequencies for 'Huang C' and 'X178' in panical basis were 8.04 x 10-4 and 10.48 x 10-4, respectively. Compared to the wild type, the contents of total phosphorus (TP) were basically unchanged, phytic acid phosphorus (PAP) were detected with 79.09%, 66.06%, 47.58%, 43.94%, 70.00%, 48.28% decreases, and IP with 11.22, 9.91, 7.04, 6.43, 6.43, 4.33 times increases in six mutants, H-lpa1, H-lpa2, H-lpa3, H-lpa4, X-lpa1, X-lpa2, respectively. (authors)

  6. Size distributions of nano/micron dicarboxylic acids and inorganic ions in suburban PM episode and non-episodic aerosol

    Hsieh, Li-Ying; Kuo, Su-Ching; Chen, Chien-Lung; Tsai, Ying I.

    The distribution of nano/micron dicarboxylic acids and inorganic ions in size-segregated suburban aerosol of southern Taiwan was studied for a PM episode and a non-episodic pollution period, revealing for the first time the distribution of these nanoscale particles in suburban aerosols. Inorganic species, especially nitrate, were present in higher concentrations during the PM episode. A combination of gas-to-nuclei conversion of nitrate particles and accumulation of secondary photochemical products originating from traffic-related emissions was likely a crucial cause of the PM episode. Sulfate, ammonium, and oxalic acid were the dominant anion, cation, and dicarboxylic acid, respectively, accounting for a minimum of 49% of the total anion, cation or dicarboxylic acid mass. Peak concentrations of these species occurred at 0.54 μm in the droplet mode during both non-episodic and PM episode periods, indicating an association with cloud-processed particles. On average, sulfate concentration was 16-17 times that of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid was nevertheless the most abundant dicarboxylic acid during both periods, followed by succinic, malonic, maleic, malic and tartaric acid. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of oxalic acid was 0.77 μm with a bi-modal presence at 0.54 μm and 18 nm during non-episodic pollution and an MMAD of 0.67 μm with mono-modal presence at 0.54 μm in PM episode aerosol. The concomitant formation of malonic acid and oxalic acid was attributed to in-cloud processes. During the PM episode in the 5-100 nm nanoscale range, an oxalic acid/sulfate mass ratio of 40.2-82.3% suggested a stronger formation potential for oxalic acid than for sulfate in the nuclei mode. For total cations (TC), total inorganic anions (TIA) and total dicarboxylic acids (TDA), major contributing particles were in the droplet mode, with least in the nuclei mode. The ratio of TDA to TIA in the nuclei mode increased greatly from 8.40% during the non-episodic pollution

  7. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid

    Xingxun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  8. Photochemical production of dissolved inorganic carbon from suwannee river humic acid

    WANG Xuejun; LOU Tao; XIE Huixiang

    2009-01-01

    The photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is a key process in carbon cycling. Using a Suntest CPS solar simulator, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) was photooxidated to examine the effects of O2 levels, the wavelength of incident light, and the concentration of Fe on the photoproduction of DIC. Increasing the O2 abundance enhanced photodegradation of SRHA. The rate of DIC photoproduction under air saturation in the first 24 h (4.40 μmol/(L h)) was increased by a factor of 1.56 under O2 saturation, but fell by only 36% under N2 saturation. To evaluate the relative importance of UV-B, UV-A, and visible radiation in the photodegradation, we examined the above process using Mylar-d films and UF-3 and UF-4 plexiglass filters. The results indicated that the UV-B, UV-A and visible wavelengths accounted for 31.8%, 32.6% and 25.6%, respectively, of DIC production with simulated sunlight irradiation. The above results also indicated that photoproduction of DIC could take place in natural water at depths greater than those that UV light can reach. When 20 μmol/L desferrioxamine mesylate (DFOM, a strong Fe complexing ligand) was added, the rate of DIC photoproduction fell to 55.6% that of the original SRHA samples with 5.46 μmol/L Fe.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg2+ intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); McCabe, Michael J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester NY (United States); Rosenspire, Allen, E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.

  11. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai*; Phrutiya Nilprapruck; Warapon Bunkoed; Phakatip Yodmingkhwan; Chokechai Aekatasanawan; Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC), Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA) and inorganic phosphorous (InP). These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season) to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew...

  12. Phosphorus Status, Inorganic Phosphorus Forms, and Other Physicochemical Properties of Acid Soils of Farta District, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Asmare Melese; Heluf Gebrekidan; Markku Yli-Halla; Birru Yitaferu

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidity and low availability of P limit crop production in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the P status, distribution and forms of inorganic P and relate them to selected chemical properties of eight representative acidic surface soil samples from Farta District. Soil pH (H2O) varied between 4.74 and 5.50. The moderate to high CEC suggests that besides kaolinite, the soils also contain expandable 2 : 1 clay minerals. Though the total P content was ...

  13. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  14. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ13CDIC) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ13CDIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe2+, alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ13CDIC. We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe2+ followed by Fe3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH)3(s). The extent of DIC decrease and 13C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO3- dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO3- or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe3+ hydrolysis for HCO3- dehydration. The 13C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe2+ was proportional to HCO3- concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO3- input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC in AMD impacted streams may have

  15. Validation study of a rapid colorimetric method for the determination of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorus from seeds

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytate, as an important mineral storage compound in seeds, is vital for seed/grain development; it is often considered to be an antinutritional substance. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive colorimetric method of measuring phytate and inorganic P (Pi concentrations from maize, soybean and sunflower seed/grain extracts, by combining adequate precision and simplicity, ideal for breeders interested in improving simultaneously Pi and phytate levels. The investigated extraction mediums: double distilled (DD H2O, 2.4 % HCl and 5 % trichloracetic acid (TCA were proved to be suitable for the analysis of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorus in seed extracts. The advantages of 5 % TCA over to DD H2O and 2.4 % HCl were reflected through the low limit of detection for both phytic acid and Pi and good recovery with low bias. A low detection limit for Pi is important for samples with naturally low Pi concentrations, such as soybean seeds.

  16. Synthesis,crystal structure and properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonic acid

    2009-01-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid polymers, Mn(QS)(H2O) (1) and Co(QS)(H2O)2 (2) (H2QS=8-hydroxyl-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), based on 8-hydroxylquinoline-5-sulfonate ligand, have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and their structures were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional open framework with rutile topology structure, and compound 2 is a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. These compounds were characterized by powder XRD, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, fluorescence properties and magnetism properties.

  17. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments

  18. A novel Brönsted-Lewis acidic heteropoly organic-inorganic salt: preparation and catalysis for rosin dimerization.

    Yuan, Bing; Xie, Congxia; Yu, Fengli; Yang, Xiaoying; Yu, Shitao; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    A novel Brönsted-Lewis acidic heteropoly organic-inorganic salt has been prepared via the replacement of protons in neat phosphotungstic acid with both organic and metal cations. This hybrid catalyst, Sm0.33[TEAPS]2PW12O40, exhibited satisfactory performance in the dimerization of rosin to prepare polymerized rosin Under optimum conditions (15.0 g rosin and 5.0 g Sm0.33[TEAPS]2PW12O40 catalyst in 18.0 mL toluene at 90 °C for 10 h), a polymerized rosin product with a softening point of 120.1 °C was obtained. In addition, the Sm0.33[TEAPS]2PW12O40 catalyst maintains excellent catalytic performance over five recycles. PMID:27119064

  19. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 are low in acidic media and those of Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of solidification step and cost-benefit analysis. (author)

  20. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  1. Screening of soybean germplasm for high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid

    S. Abirami, A. Kalamani and T. Kalaimagal

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid, is the major storage form of phosphorus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] which comprises 75% of total seed phosphorus. It decreases the availability of some essential elements via bonding between the negatively charged phytic acid and the positively charged elements. Thus, diets high in phytate may lead to nutrient deficiencies. So, identification of lines with low phytic acid is of paramount importance. A germplasm survey was conducted among 250 soybean accessions to identify...

  2. Correlations between the contents of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorous and downy mildew resistance of corn inbred lines

    Pantipa Na Chiangmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of corn inbred lines collected at the National Corn and Sorghum Research Center (NCSRC, Kasetsart University, were analyzed to determine the contents of phytic acid (PA and inorganic phosphorous (InP. These 28 and 29 inbred lines were cultivated at the NCSRC (in the 2008 late rainy season and 2009 early rainy season to evaluate their resistance to corn downy mildew caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi. Results showed that the values of the PA, InP contents and downy mildew infection were statistically different among these inbred lines in both seasons. However, there were no correlations between the contents of either PA or InP and downy mildew infection.

  3. Effect of organic/inorganic compounds on the enzymes in soil under acid rain stress

    LIU Guang-shen; XU Dong-mei; WANG Li-ming; LI Ke-bin; LIU Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    The main effects of pollutions including acid rain, Cu2+, atrazine and their combined products on theactivities of urease, invertin, acid phosphatase and catalase were studied by means of orthogonal test. The resultsshowed that H + and Cu2+ had significant influence on the activities of four enzymes and the ability of their inhibitingfollowed the order: H+ > Cu2+ . Al3+ and atrazine only had litter effects on the activity of urease and phosphatase,respectively. Furthermore, interaction analysis revealed that Cu2+ -H+ affected on the activity of acid phosphatasesignificantly and antagonism on invertin and urease, Cu2+ -atrazine only exhibited the synergism on the activity ofacid phosphatase. But atrazine-H+ had non-interaction within the investigated concentration range. Among fourenzymes, acid phosphatase was the most sensitive one to the contaminations.

  4. ACIDS SOILS’ PH AND NUTRIENT IMPROVEMENT WHEN AMENDED WITH INORGANIC SOLID WASTES FROM KRAFT MILL

    M ZAMBRANO; Parodi, V.; Baeza, J; Vidal, G.

    2007-01-01

    Kraft mill generates a large amount of dregs (D) and grits (G) as solid wastes due to the causticizing process. The disposal of these wastes is expensive in terms of land requirement and maintenance. On the other hand, solid wastes have alkalinity and buffer properties, which make them appropriate for use as amendments to acidic soils. The goal of this work was to determine the physical, chemical, toxicity and hazardousness characteristics of D & G. Additionally, the effect on acidic soils’ p...

  5. Incorporation of 15N-inorganic nitrogen into free-amino acids in germinating corn

    Incorporation of 15N-labeled compounds, (K15NO3) and (15NH4)2SO4, into free-amino acids was measured in germinating corn. Sterilized seeds of sweet corn (Choko No. 865) were sown on the filter papers soaked in 10 ml of the solution containing one of the labeled compounds (40 ppm N, 99 atom % excess) in petri dishes and germinated at 30 deg C. After 48 hours and 72 hours, 15N-incorporation was measured in 5 seedlings selected owing to uniform growth. A GC-MS was used for measuring the ratio of 15N isotopes present in free-amino acids. 15N incorporation into free-amino acids hardly occurred when corn was germinated in the solution containing K15NO3, which suggested that endogenous nitrogen was used during the early germination stage of corn when nitrate is present. Incorporation into amino acids was greater when corn was germinated in the medium containing (15NH4)2SO4, than the case of the solution containing K15NO3. When corn was germinated in the solution containing (15NH4)2SO4, assimilation of 15N into asparagine or aspartic acid was comparatively higher than that into the other amino acids, though the incorporation rate was low. Thus, in intact germinating corn, the hydrolyzed product of protein was utilized for germination with priority, and dependence on exogenous nitrogen was low. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. Effects of pH, organic acids, and inorganic ions on lead desorption from soils

    The desorption characteristics of lead in two variable charge soils (one developed from Arenaceous rock (RAR) and the other derived from Quaternary red earths (REQ)) were studied, and the effects of pH value, organic acid, and competitive ions were examined. Desorption of Pb2+ decreased from nearly 100.0 to 20.0% within pH 1.0-4.0 in both soils, and then the decrease diminished at pH > 4.0. Organic ligands at relatively low concentrations (≤10-3 mol L-1) slightly inhibited Pb2+ desorption, but enhanced Pb2+ desorption at higher concentrations. In this study, citric acid or acetic acid at higher concentrations (>10-3 mol L-1) had the greatest improvement of Pb2+ desorption, followed by malic acid; and the smallest was oxalic acid. Desorption of the adsorbed Pb2+ increased greatly with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+ or Zn2+. Applied Cu2+ increased Pb2+ desorption more than Zn2+ at the same loading. - The adsorption-desorption process is a basic and important reaction in soils controlling Pb2+ mobility and bioavailability

  7. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the Arctic troposphere

    Chi, J. W.; Li, W. J.; Zhang, D. Z.; Zhang, J. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Chen, J. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes in physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased, the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C- mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C- line scan further shows that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces likely determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA as reactive surfaces adsorbing inorganic and organic acidic gases can shorten acidic gas lifetime and influence the possible gaseous reactions in the Arctic atmosphere, which need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models in the Arctic troposphere.

  8. Fatty Acid Profiles of Supraspinatus, Longissimus lumborum and Semitendinosus Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Nakyinsige, K.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of 22...

  9. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    Yamagishi, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are low in acidic media and those of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of

  10. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19I, I-41121 Modena (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed.

  11. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed

  12. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  13. Anode material selection criteria for selective oxidation of inorganic compounds in nitric acid media

    Significant progress has been made since the 19606 in developing highly effective anode materials for electrochemical processes, The problem areas currently facing electrochemistry researchers include investigating new composite materials obtained by grafting or doping, improving fabrication techniques to extend the lifetime of the materials while maintaining their selectivity, studying their electrochemical properties and relating them to the material structure. Research on materials with high oxygen over-potentials-materials on which water oxidation is kinetically affected, and which open an electro-activity window on high potentials (2.0 VESH or greater) - has opened new avenues such as the use of various metallic oxide deposits. Two oxide classes were identified from a structural standpoint on the basis of their water oxidation properties: chemisorbed active oxygen anodes (e.g. PtOx, IrO2 or RuO2) and physi-sorbed active oxygen anodes (e.g. SnO2 or PbO2). Selective electrochemical generation of powerful oxidants between 1.4 and 2.0 VESH in concentrated nitric acid media is used in the context of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the potential advantages of new materials with a high oxygen over-potential-other than widely used platinum-have attracted attention. The relevant physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of such materials were therefore investigated to assess their selective oxidation performance. The study focused in particular on identifying the specific aspects of concentrated nitric acid media in the processes occurring at the electrode/solution interface, using linear and cyclic voltammetry, imposed-potential electrolysis and impedance spectroscopy. This approach allowed characterization of the electron charge transfer kinetics of the medium (nitric acid, compared with other acids such as methane sulfonic acid) and of the selected redox couple (Ag(II)/Ag(I) in this case). The tests covered a wide range of materials, including IrO2, SnO2, PbO2

  14. A lipidomic approach to understanding free fatty acid lipogenesis derived from dissolved inorganic carbon within cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    Simon R Dunn

    Full Text Available The cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis is arguably one of the most important within the marine environment in that it is integral to the formation of coral reefs. However, the regulatory processes that perpetuate this symbiosis remain unresolved. It is essential to understand these processes, if we are to elucidate the mechanisms that support growth and resource accumulation by coral host, and conversely, recently observed reduction and/or mortality of corals in response to rapid environmental change. This study specifically focused on one area of metabolic activity within the symbiosis, that of free fatty acid synthesis within both the dinoflagellate symbionts and cnidarian host. The main model system used was Aiptasia pulchella and Symbiodinium sp. in combination with aposymbiotic A. pulchella, the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora system and dinoflagellate culture. Fatty acids (FAs were selected because of their multiple essential roles inclusive of energy storage (resource accumulation, membrane structure fluidity and cell signaling. The study addressed free FA lipogenesis by using a new method of enriched stable isotopic ((13C incorporation from dissolved inorganic carbon (DI(13C combined with HPLC-MS. FAs derived from DI(13C aligned with a mixture of known lipogenesis pathways with the addition of some unusual FAs. After 120 hr, (13C-enriched FA synthesis rates were attributed to only a complex integration of both n-3 and n-6 lipogenesis pathways within the dinoflagellate symbionts. Furthermore, there was no detectible evidence of symbiont derived enriched isotope fatty acids, catabolized (13C derivatives or DI(13C being directly utilized, in host late n-6 pathway long-chain FA lipogenesis. These findings do not align with a popular mutualistic translocation model with respect to the use of translocated symbiont photoassimilates in host long-chain FA lipogenesis, which has important connotations for linking nutrient sources with

  15. DNA-strand breaks induced by dimethylarsinic acid, a metabolite of inorganic arsenics, are strongly enhanced by superoxide anion radicals.

    Rin, K; Kawaguchi, K; Yamanaka, K; Tezuka, M; Oku, N; Okada, S

    1995-01-01

    We previously reported that dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics, induced DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) both in vivo and in cultured alveolar type II (L-132) cells in vitro, possibly via the production of dimethylarsenic peroxyl radicals. Here, the interaction of superoxide anion radicals (O2-) in the induction of ssb in L-132 cells was investigated using paraquat, an O2(-)-producing agent. A significant enhancement of ssb formation was observed in the DMAA-exposed cells when coexposed to paraquat. This enhancement occurred even when post-exposed to DMAA after washing, suggesting that the DMAA exposure caused some modification of DNA such as DNA-adducts, which was recognized by active oxygens to form ssb. An experiment with UV-irradiation, which was likely to induce ssb at the modified region, supported the possibility of DNA modification by DMAA exposure. An ESR study indicated that O2- produced by paraquat in DMAA-exposed cells was more consumed than in non-exposed cells, assumingly through the reaction with the dimethylarsenic-modified region of DNA. The species of active oxygens were estimated by using diethyldithiocarbamate, aminotriazole, diethylmaleate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), gamma-irradiation and ethanol. O2- but neither H2O2 nor hydroxyl radicals was very likely to contribute to the ssb-enhancing action of paraquat. PMID:7735248

  16. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS. PMID:27327130

  17. Genotypic variation for phytic acid, inorganic phosphate and mineral contents in advanced breeding lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    A.S. Shitre, D.A. Gadekar1, V. Ramachandran, Vikas, S. Bakshi, V. Kumar, G. Vishwakarma and B.K. Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a staple food of Indian population. Its nutritional and quality parameters have gained considerable importance over past few decades. In the present study, genotypic variation was studied in 100 advanced breeding lines developed for Indian peninsular zone by measuring phytic acid (PA, inorganic phosphate (IP, iron and zinc content in seeds and hundred kernel weight (HKW. Advanced breeding lines under investigation exhibited wide variation for the characters studied. The PA content ranged from 4.97 mg/g to 15.02 mg/g (mean of 9.58 mg/g. Iron and zinc content was in the range of 0.042 to 0.098 mg/g and 0.017 mg/g to 0.029 mg/g respectively. HKW ranged from 2.99 to 5.42 g. There was significant negative correlation between PA and HKW. Iron content showed very high genotypic coefficient of variation and heritability (h2bs as compared to zinc content and other traits. Low heritability of IP content indicated the environmental influence on the trait.

  18. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    I. Trebs; Meixner, F. X.; J. Slanina; Otjes, R.; P. Jongejan; Andreae, M. O.

    2004-01-01

    We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3?), nitrite (NO2?), chloride (Cl?) and sulfate (SO42?), and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia S...

  19. Dynamics of organic and inorganic arsenic in the solution phase of an acidic fen in Germany

    Huang, J.-H.; Matzner, E.

    2006-04-01

    Wetland soils play a key role for the transformation of heavy metals in forested watersheds, influencing their mobility, and ecotoxicity. Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of release from solid to solution phase, the mobility, and the transformation of arsenic species in a fen soil. In methanol-water extracts, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenobetaine, and two unknown organic arsenic species were found with concentrations up to 14 ng As g -1 at the surface horizon. Arsenate is the dominant species at the 0-30 cm depth, whereas arsenite predominated at the 30-70 cm depth. Only up to 2.2% of total arsenic in fen was extractable with methanol-water. In porewaters, depth gradient spatial variation of arsenic species, pH, redox potentials, and the other chemical parameters along the profile was observed in June together with high proportion of organic arsenic species (up to 1.2 μg As L -1, 70% of total arsenic). Tetramethylarsonium ion and an unknown organic arsenic species were additionally detected in porewaters at deeper horizons. In comparison, the arsenic speciation in porewaters in April was homogeneous with depth and no organic arsenic species were found. Thus, the occurrence of microbial methylation of arsenic in fen was demonstrated for the first time. The 10 times elevated total arsenic concentrations in porewaters in June compared to April were accompanied by elevated concentrations of total iron, lower concentrations of sulfate and the presence of ammonium and phosphate. The low proportion of methanol-water extractable total arsenic suggests a generally low mobility of arsenic in fen soils. The release of arsenic from solid to solution phases in fen is dominantly controlled by dissolution of iron oxides, redox transformation, and methylation of arsenic, driven by microbial activity in the growing season. As a result, increased concentrations of total arsenic and potentially toxic arsenic species in fen

  20. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Paredes, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Maestre, Salvador E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es

    2006-03-15

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l{sup -1} in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l{sup -1} for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min.

  1. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l-1 in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l-1 for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min

  2. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture

    Véronique Martin-Jézéquel; Guillaume Calu; Leo Candela; Zouher Amzil; Thierry Jauffrais; Véronique Séchet; Pierre Weigel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth...

  3. Variation of photoautotrophic fatty acid production from a highly CO2 tolerant alga, Chlorococcum littorale, with inorganic carbon over narrow ranges of pH.

    Ota, Masaki; Takenaka, Motohiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard L; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Photoautotrophic fatty acid production of a highly CO2 -tolerant green alga Chlorococcum littorale in the presence of inorganic carbon at 295 K and light intensity of 170 µmol-photon m(-2) s(-1) was investigated. CO2 concentration in the bubbling gas was adjusted by mixing pure gas components of CO2 and N2 to avoid photorespiration and β-oxidation of fatty acids under O2 surrounding conditions. Maximum content of total fatty acid showed pH-dependence after nitrate depletion of the culture media and increased with the corresponding inorganic carbon ratio. Namely, [HCO3 (-) ]/([CO2 ]+n[ CO32-]) ratio in the culture media was found to be a controlling factor for photoautotrophic fatty acid production after the nitrate limitation. At a CO2 concentration of 5% (vol/vol) and a pH of 6.7, the fatty acid content was 47.8 wt % (dry basis) at its maximum that is comparable with land plant seed oils. PMID:25919350

  4. Studies on inorganic ion-exchangers. Part I : application of polyantimonic acid for the polishing of uranium product of reprocessing stream

    A systematic study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of applying various inorganic exchangers to specific problems in nuclear fuel reprocessing industry and related spheres of activity. An investigation has been carried out to select a suitable exchanger for the polishing of tail-end uranium product of reprocessing stream free of residual plutonium activity. It includes determination of distribution ratios of uranium and plutonium on the exchangers like zirconium phosphate (ZrP), ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP), ammonium phosphotungstate (APW), polyantimonic acid (PA), polyphosphoantimonic acid (PPA) and breakthrough capacities of plutonium on some of these exchangers. The inhibition studies of sodium on plutonium uptake on polyantimonic acid and the effective decontamination factors achieved using uranium tanker solution from the plant for recycling work have been described. These results indicated the usefulness of the polyantimonic acid exchanger for this purpose. (author)

  5. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae in Culture

    Véronique Martin-Jézéquel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine. Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment.

  6. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture.

    Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Calu, Guillaume; Candela, Leo; Amzil, Zouher; Jauffrais, Thierry; Séchet, Véronique; Weigel, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine). Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment. PMID:26703627

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon evolution and stable carbon isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage contaminated streams: Insights from a laboratory study

    Samples of groundwater, spring water and stream water contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD), and uncontaminated stream water were collected and allowed to evolve in contact with air in the laboratory for 15-88 days. The objective of this study was to (1) document temporal changes in dissolved inorganic C (DIC) concentrations and stable isotopic composition (δ13CDIC) and (2) to determine the reaction mechanism and resulting isotopic fractionation (13C/12C) accompanying the chemical evolution of AMD. The contaminated spring and stream samples and one groundwater sample (with no HCO3-) showed temporal decreases in pH, Fe2+, alkalinity, and DIC, and enrichment in δ13CDIC. One contaminated groundwater sample (with HCO3- between 529 and 630 mg/L) showed a temporal increase in pH despite observed decreases in Fe2+, alkalinity and DIC, and enrichment in δ13CDIC. The uncontaminated stream samples showed a continuous temporal increase in pH, relatively constant alkalinity and DIC, and enrichment in δ13CDIC. The results suggest that proton production related to Fe2+ transformation is the driving force for DIC loss in AMD-contaminated samples, and that DIC loss can be described by first order kinetics. The C isotope enrichment rates associated with DIC loss in the contaminated samples varied between 1.0 per mille and 1.8 per mille for stream water, 2.1 per mille and 2.6 per mille for the spring, 1.0 per mille and 1.2 per mille for groundwater with no HCO3-, and 7.6 per mille and 9.3 per mille for groundwater with high HCO3-. Variations in 13C enrichment in the contaminated samples are attributed to differences in the initial Fe2+:HCO3- ratio. The effect of proton production on 13C enrichment in the AMD-contaminated samples was modeled as a Rayleigh-type distillation, whereby isotope fractionation was constant and occurred in an 'equilibrium closed system'. In the uncontaminated stream samples, C exchange between DIC and atmospheric CO2 resulted in an overall enrichment

  8. Renal, hepatic, pulmonary and adrenal tumors induced by prenatal inorganic arsenic followed by dimethylarsinic acid in adulthood in CD1 mice

    Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic, an early life carcinogen in humans and mice, can initiate lesions promotable by other agents in later life. The biomethylation product of arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), is a multi-site tumor promoter. Thus, pregnant CD1 mice were given drinking water (0 or 85 ppm arsenic) from gestation day 8 to 18 and after weaning male offspring received DMA (0 or 200 ppm; drinking water) for up to 2 years. No renal tumors occurred in controls or DMA alone treated mice while gestati...

  9. Metabolic responses, performance, and reticuloruminal pH of early-lactating cows fed concentrates treated with lactic acid, with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    Khol-Parisini, A; Humer, E; Harder, H; Mickdam, E; Zebeli, Q

    2016-08-01

    Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum. Cows were fed 3 total mixed rations differing in supplementation of inorganic phosphorus and treatment of concentrates. The control (CON) and LA (+P) diets included a concentrate mixture containing 0.8% monocalcium phosphate, and the LA (-P) diet contained no inorganic phosphorus source. The concentrates of the LA (+P) and LA (-P) diets were treated with 5% LA for 24h before feeding, and the concentrate of the CON diet was not treated. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk composition and blood variables were determined on several occasions during the trial. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous measurement during the experimental period. Data showed depressed dry matter intake in cows receiving LA-treated concentrates, but milk yield, body weight, and body weight changes remained similar among treatment groups. Cows receiving the LA-treated diets had lower concentrations of serum nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, and insulin, and they tended to have higher serum phosphorus levels. On the other hand, reticuloruminal pH was lower and duration of the pH being metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and liver variables, as well as the tendency for greater systemic phosphorus circulation, suggest that diets including concentrates treated with 5% LA may allow for savings of inorganic phosphorus supplementation in dairy cows. Treatment with 5% LA enhanced cows' risk of

  10. Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil.

    Tang, Xianjin; Li, Xia; Liu, Xingmei; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic (phosphate rock, single superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate) and organic amendments (peat, straw manure and pig manure) on the uptake of lead (Pb) and trace elements by Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis) grown in an acidic red soil. The application of all organic amendments increased the soil pH while inorganic amendments such as single superphosphate did not. Both inorganic and organic amendments decreased the availability and uptake of Pb while the organic amendments were superior to the inorganic (phosphate) amendments in reducing the availability of the more labile (soluble and exchangeable Pb) forms of soil Pb. More Pb was taken up by roots than shoots with all soil amendments. Among the organic amendments, straw manure and pig manure caused the largest decrease in Pb availability at 456.5 and 457.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, when a high level of 30 g organic amendments kg(-1) was applied. The organic amendments greatly increased the fraction D targeted to Fe-Mn oxides bound Pb, and decreased the fraction A (water-soluble), B (exchangeable), and C (carbonate-bound), thereby decreasing the solubility and mobility of Pb in soil. The organic amendments also significantly improved the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil and shoots (except Fe in shoots and/or roots), which are essential for plant nutrition. The organic amendments of straw and pig manure lowered the availability and uptake of Pb but not that of other trace metals. Thus, these amendments have the potential to remediate Pb-contaminated soils in situ. PMID:24992219

  11. Chemical characterization of the inorganic fraction of aerosols and mechanisms of the neutralization of atmospheric acidity in Athens, Greece

    E. T. Karageorgos

    2007-06-01

    + and Cl, while SO42−, Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major ionic components of the fine fraction. In the fine particles, a low molar ratio of NH4+/SO42− indicated an ammonium-poor ambient air, and together with inter-ionic correlations suggested that atmospheric ammonia is the major neutralizing agent of sulfate, while being insufficient to neutralize it to full extend. The formation of NH4NO3 is therefore not favored and additional contribution to the neutralization of acidity has been shown to be provided by Ca2+ and Mg2+. In the coarse particle fraction, the predominantly abundant Ca2+ has been found to correlate well with NO3 and SO42−, indicating its role as important neutralizing agent in this particle size range. The proximity of the location under study to the sea explains the important concentrations of salts with marine origin like NaCl and MgCl2 that were found in the coarse fraction, while chloride depletion in the gaseous phase was found to be limited to the fine particulate fraction. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic was found to be ranging between approximately 25–33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35–42% of the total fine particle mass.

  12. Polycarboxylic acids as network modifiers for water durability improvement of inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate low-melting glasses

    We investigated the water durability of the inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate glasses Me2SiO-SnO-P2O5 (Me designs the organic methyl group) doped with organic acids (salicylic acid (SA), tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (Canada) and butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)) containing one or more of carboxylic groups per molecule. The structure, thermal properties and durability of the final glasses obtained via a non-aqueous acid-base reaction were discussed owing to the nature and the concentration of the acid added. 29Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 31P MAS NMR spectra, respectively, showed clearly a modification of the network in the host glass matrix of the Me2SiO-SnO-P2O5 system. The polycondensation enhancement to form -P-O-Si-O-P- linkages (PSP) and the increase of the Q 2 unit (two bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) over the Q 3 unit (three bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) as a function of the acid in the order SA2SiO-SnO-P2O5 matrix. In addition, this structural change is accompanied by a decrease of the coefficient of thermal expansion and an increase of the water durability of the glasses with the acids containing a large number of carboxylic groups per molecule. The presence of carboxylic groups of the acid acting as network modifier may retard the movement of water molecules through the glasses due to the steric hindrance strengthening the PSP connections in a chain-like structure

  13. Validation study of a rapid colorimetric method for the determination of phytic acid and inorganic phosphorus from seeds

    Dragičević Vesna D.; Sredojević Slobodanka D.; Perić Vesna A.; Nišavić Anika R.; Srebrić Mirjana B.

    2011-01-01

    Phytate, as an important mineral storage compound in seeds, is vital for seed/grain development; it is often considered to be an antinutritional substance. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive colorimetric method of measuring phytate and inorganic P (Pi) concentrations from maize, soybean and sunflower seed/grain extracts, by combining adequate precision and simplicity, ideal for breeders interested in improving simultaneously Pi and phytate levels. The inv...

  14. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate and production of organic acids by bacteria isolated from a Moroccan mineral phosphate deposit

    Mardad, Illham; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Three efficient inorganic-phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were isolated from a phosphate rock deposit of a Moroccan mine. The phosphate solubilization index of these isolates, determined in National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate (NBRIP) medium supplemented with tribasic calcium phosphate, ranging from 2.8 to 4.4. The medium pH dropped from 7.0 to 3.5 units after growth under continuous agitation for seven days. PSB6, the most efficient PSB, closely related to Enterobacter hor...

  15. Research Progress of Surface Modification of Inorganic Powder Modified by Stearic Acid in China%国内硬脂酸对无机粉体表面改性的研究进展

    樊斌斌

    2011-01-01

    介绍了硬脂酸改性无机粉体的机理,综述了近年来硬脂酸在无机粉体改性中的研究进展,最后展望了硬脂酸在无机粉体改性中的发展前景。%The stearic acid and the mechanism of stearic acid modified inorganic powder materials was introduced. Researches of stearic acid on the surface modification of inorganic powder were reviewed, and the development trend of surface modification was put forward.

  16. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 1: sampling hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO₃) from a test gas atmosphere.

    Howe, Alan; Musgrove, Darren; Breuer, Dietmar; Gusbeth, Krista; Moritz, Andreas; Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy; Dorotte, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Historically, workplace exposure to the volatile inorganic acids hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO(3)) has been determined mostly by collection on silica gel sorbent tubes and analysis of the corresponding anions by ion chromatography (IC). However, HCl and HNO(3) can be present in workplace air in the form of mist as well as vapor, so it is important to sample the inhalable fraction of airborne particles. As sorbent tubes exhibit a low sampling efficiency for inhalable particles, a more suitable method was required. This is the first of two articles on "Evaluation of Sampling Methods for Measuring Exposure to Volatile Inorganic Acids in Workplace Air" and describes collaborative sampling exercises carried out to evaluate an alternative method for sampling HCl and HNO(3) using sodium carbonate-impregnated filters. The second article describes sampling capacity and breakthrough tests. The method was found to perform well and a quartz fiber filter impregnated with 500 μL of 1 M Na(2)CO(3) (10% (m/v) Na(2)CO(3)) was found to have sufficient sampling capacity for use in workplace air measurement. A pre-filter is required to remove particulate chlorides and nitrates that when present would otherwise result in a positive interference. A GSP sampler fitted with a plastic cone, a closed face cassette, or a plastic IOM sampler were all found to be suitable for mounting the pre-filter and sampling filter(s), but care has to be taken with the IOM sampler to ensure that the sampler is tightly closed to avoid leaks. HCl and HNO(3) can react with co-sampled particulate matter on the pre-filter, e.g., zinc oxide, leading to low results, and stronger acids can react with particulate chlorides and nitrates removed by the pre-filter to liberate HCl and HNO(3), which are subsequently collected on the sampling filter, leading to high results. However, although there is this potential for both positive and negative interferences in the measurement, these are unavoidable

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions and soil mineral nitrogen status following application of hog slurry and inorganic fertilisers to acidic soils under forage grass

    This paper examined the influence of hog slurry and inorganic fertilizers on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) composition. Factors controlling N2O production were also identified. The study was comprised of 3 field experiments conducted during the summer months of 2005 on 2 acidic soils seeded with forage grass at a site in Nova Scotia. Treatments included hog slurry; ammonium sulphate; potassium nitrate; and an unamended control site. Emissions were measured using vented polyvinyl chloride static chambers. Gas fluxes and NO2 measurements were analyzed using gas chromatography. Data were then subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). N2O flux and soil mineral N data from each sampling day were analyzed separately. Cumulative N2O losses were also calculated. Results demonstrated that the addition of hog slurry resulted in lower N2O emissions than the samples containing potassium nitrate fertilizer. The study also demonstrated that nitrate (NO3) production drives NO2 production in acidic soils. It was concluded that further research is needed to verify results obtained during the study. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  18. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of 137 Cesium from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions 2: Bench-Scale Column Experiments, Modeling, and Preliminary Process Design

    Troy J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4?3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales.

  19. Speciation of selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium by ion exchange HPLC with mass spectrometric detection and its application to yeast and algae

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, M.; Fan, T.;

    2001-01-01

    Cation and anion exchange HPLC were used to separate a mixture of 12 selenium species comprising selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium. The cationic species were separated from each other and from the co-injected anions using a cation exchange column with gradient elution...... by aqueous pyridinium formate at pH similar to 3 as the mobile phase. The anionic species were separated using an anion exchange column with isocratic elution by an aqueous salicylate-TRIS mobile phase at pH 8.5. The separated selenium species were detected as Se-80 by ICP-dynamic reaction cell (DRC...... acid extract of Chlorella algae contained dimethylselenonium propionate (DMSeP), which was verified by HPLC-ES-MS. Se-allylselenocysteine and selenoethionine was detected at the low ng g(-1) concentration level based on co-chromatography with the standard substances spiked to the algal extract....

  20. Study of the influence of humic acids (in solution or bound to a silica gel) on the migration of europium in a porous medium. Comparison with inorganic colloids

    After having been reprocessed, radioactive wastes are stored in conditions which depend on the toxicity of the radioelements. In particular, for the actinides, the packaging has to be sure for several thousands years. In the case of a defective storage, phenomena which favour or diminish the migration of radioelements in the environment have to be identified. In water, organic or inorganic colloids able to bind radioelements can migrate. Among these colloids, are found the humic acids (HA), macromolecules (poly-electrolytes and poly-dispersed) known for their affinity towards some radioelements. These HA are either present on a soluble state or bound to mineral supports. Humic acids have then been studied in these two states and their influence on the europium migration in dynamical system have been observed (ion exchange and affinity chromatography). When HA are bound by covalent bonds to silica gel, they strongly retain the radioelement, whatever be the conditions of pH, flow rate or ionic strength, and either if phosphate ions are present. The study of HA in solution has shown that, on the one hand the formation of a Eu-HA complex alters the adsorption of the radioelement on sand and that the influence of the humic acids on the europium retention is superior to those of the inorganic colloids (silicon oxide, bentonite). On the other hand, the study has revealed that a solution containing HA desorbs almost entirely the europium beforehand bound to the sand. This desorption depends on the pH and on the flow rate but not on the presence of competitive ions as for instance phosphate ions. (O.M.)

  1. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3- aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Allen, Hannah M.; Draper, Danielle C.; Ayres, Benjamin R.; Ault, Andrew P.; Bondy, Amy L.; Takahama, S.; Modini, Robert; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Knote, Christoph; Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing; Fry, Juliane L.

    2015-09-25

    The inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 1 June to 15 July 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA), an ion chromatograph coupled with a wet rotating denuder and a steam-jet aerosol collector for monitoring of ambient inorganic gas and aerosol species, revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3 ) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of coarse mode mineral or sea spray aerosol species, particularly Na+ and Ca2+, and with a shift towards aerosol with larger (1 to 2.5 um) diameters. We suggest this nitrate aerosol forms by multiphase reactions of HNO3 and particles, reactions that are facilitated by transport of mineral dust and sea spray aerosol from a source within the United States. The observed high aerosol acidity prevents the formation of NH4NO3, the inorganic nitrogen species often dominant in fine-mode aerosol at higher pH. Calculation of the rate of the heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 on mineral aerosol supports the conclusion that aerosol NO3 is produced primarily by this process, and is likely limited by the availability of mineral dust surface area. Modeling of NO3 and HNO3 by thermodynamic equilibrium models (ISORROPIA II and E-AIM) reveals the importance of including mineral cations in the southeastern United States to accurately balance ion species and predict gas/aerosol phase partitioning.

  2. Surfactant mediated synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted xanthan gum and its efficient role in adsorption of soluble inorganic mercury from water.

    Pal, Abhijit; Majumder, Kunal; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Noble copolymers from xanthan gum (XG) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesised through surfactant mediated graft copolymerization. The copolymers were applied as a biosorbent for inorganic Hg(II) at higher concentration level (300ppm). The copolymers were characterized using different analytical techniques which showed, the grafting principally occurred across the amorphous region of XG. Measurement of zeta potential and hydrodynamic size indicated, the copolymers were strong polyanion and possessed greater hydrodynamic size (almost in all cases) than XG, despite a strong molecular degradation that took place simultaneously during grafting. In the dispersed form, all grades of the copolymer displayed higher adsorption capability than XG, however, the grade with maximum grafting produced the highest efficiency (68.03%). Manipulation produced further improvement in efficiency to 72.17% with the same copolymer after 75min at a pH of 5.0. The allowable biosorbent dose, however, was 1000ppm as determined from the experimental evidences. PMID:27516248

  3. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    I. Trebs

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3, nitrite (NO2, chloride (Cl and sulfate (SO42−, and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil. This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate. Sampling was performed from 12 September to 14 November 2002, extending from the dry season (extensive biomass burning activity, through the transition period to the wet season (background conditions. Measurements were made continuously using a wet-annular denuder in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC followed by suitable on-line analysis. A detailed description and verification of the inlet system for simultaneous sampling of soluble gases and aerosol compounds is presented. Overall measurement uncertainties of the ambient mixing ratios usually remained below 15%. The limit of detection (LOD was determined for each single data point measured during the field experiment. Median LOD values (3σ-definition were ≤0.015 ppb for acidic trace gases and aerosol anions and ≤0.118 ppb for NH3 and aerosol NH4+. Mixing ratios of acidic trace gases remained below 1ppb throughout the measurement period, while NH3 levels were an order of magnitude higher. Accordingly, mixing ratios of NH4+ exceeded those of other inorganic aerosol contributors by a factor of 4 to 10. During the wet season, mixing ratios decreased by nearly a factor of 3 for all compounds compared to those observed when intensive biomass burning

  4. Real-time measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species at a rural site in the Amazon Basin

    I. Trebs

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and the corresponding water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, nitrite (NO2-, chloride (Cl- and sulfate (SO42-, and their diel and seasonal variations at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil. This study was conducted within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate. Sampling was performed from 12 September to 14 November 2002, extending from the dry season (extensive biomass burning activity, through the transition period to the wet season (background conditions. Measurements were made continuously using a wet-annular denuder (WAD in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC followed by suitable on-line analysis. A detailed description and verification of the inlet system for simultaneous sampling of soluble gases and aerosol compounds is presented. Overall measurement uncertainties of the ambient mixing ratios usually remained below 15%. The limit of detection (LOD was determined for each single data point measured during the field experiment. Median LOD values (3σ-definition were ≤0.015ppb for acidic trace gases and aerosol anions and ≤0.118ppb for NH3 and aerosol NH4+. Mixing ratios of acidic trace gases remained below 1ppb throughout the measurement period, while NH3 levels were an order of magnitude higher. Accordingly, mixing ratios of NH4+ exceeded those of other inorganic aerosol contributors by a factor of 4 to 10. During the wet season, mixing ratios decreased by nearly a factor of 3 for all compounds compared to those observed when intensive biomass burning took place. Additionally, N-containing gas and aerosol species featured pronounced diel variations. This is attributed to strong

  5. Combining pH and electrical conductivity measurements to improve titrimetric methods to determine ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acids and inorganic carbon concentrations.

    Charnier, C; Latrille, E; Lardon, L; Miroux, J; Steyer, J P

    2016-05-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), inorganic carbon (IC) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) are key variables in the current context of anaerobic digestion (AD). Accurate measurements like gas chromatography and infrared spectrometry have been developed to follow the concentration of these compounds but none of these methods are affordable for small AD units. Only titration methods answer the need for small plant monitoring. The existing methods accuracy was assessed in this study and reveals a lack of accuracy and robustness to control AD plants. To solve these issues, a new titrimetric device to estimate the VFA, IC and TAN concentrations with an improved accuracy was developed. This device named SNAC (System of titration for total ammonia Nitrogen, volatile fatty Acids and inorganic Carbon) has been developed combining the measurement of electrical conductivity and pH. SNAC were tested on 24 different plant samples in a range of 0-0.16 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.01-0.21 mol.L(-1) IC and 0-0.04 mol.L(-1) VFA. The standard error was about 0.012 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.015 mol.L(-1) IC and 0.003 mol.L(-1) VFA. The coefficient of determination R(2) between the estimated and reference data was 0.95, 0.94 and 0.95 for TAN, IC and VFA respectively. Using the same data, current methods based on key pH points lead to standard error more than 14.5 times higher on VFA and more than 1.2 times higher on IC. These results show that SNAC is an accurate tool to improve the management of AD plant. PMID:27010787

  6. Nitric acid-based partial-digestion method for selective determination of inorganic arsenic in hijiki and application to soaked hijiki.

    Hamano-Nagaoka, Megumi; Hanaoka, Ken'ichi; Usui, Masakatsu; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Maitani, Tamio

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a great difference between the toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) and organic As in food, the JECFA has set a PTWI value for inorganic As (iAs) rather than for total As. The difference in As toxicity makes it necessary to extract iAs completely from food samples for toxicological analysis, but complete extraction of As from most foods including seaweed has not been achieved to date. We developed a partial-digestion method that uses nitric acid as a solvent in order to extract almost all arsenicals from the solid matrix of hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme, a brown alga) samples. In this method, organic As species were not converted into iAs. HPLC/ICP-MS was then used to determine the concentration of iAs. Total As was measured by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. The adopted conditions for 0.1 g of ground fine powder sample were: 2 mL of 0.3 mol/L nitric acid; heating, 80 degrees C for 1 hr. Intra-laboratory validation of the method showed good precision and accuracy. The repeatability and intermediate precision for iAs were 1.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ for iAs were 0.14 and 0.46 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Recovery studies performed by spiking 0.5 mg/kg dry weight as the LOQ level and by spiking 3 mg/kg dry weight as the iAs concentration of an un-spiked hijiki sample showed good accuracy. The method was applied to hijiki samples after a water soaking process and a water soaking and simmering process. The results suggested that the As concentration in hijiki after both processes was lower than that before the treatments and that the water soaking and simmering process reduced the iAs concentration much more effectively than the water soaking process. PMID:18503244

  7. Pattern of accumulation of inorganic elements in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) plants subjected to salt stress and exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

    Influence of a potential plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the pattern of accumulation of some key inorganic elements in salt-stressed sunflower plants was observed under greenhouse conditions. Two cultivars of sunflower viz., Hysun-33 and S-278 were grown under non-saline and saline (150 mM NaCl) regimes in sand culture. After two weeks of salt treatment, all plants were subjected to four (0 (no spray), 20, 50 and 80 mg L/sup -1/) levels of 5-ALA as a foliar spray for 14 days. Shoot fresh and dry matter of both sunflower cultivars was markedly reduced due to salt stress. Of different inorganic ions, Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ in leaf, stem and root tissues increased markedly while, K/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2+/ in all these tissues reduced under the saline regime. However, salt stress did not alter the leaf, stem or root P as well as root K/sup +/ /Na//sup +/ ratio. Foliar-applied ALA improved growth under normal (non-saline) and saline conditions, and 20 and 80 mg L/sup -1/ levels of 5-ALA were relatively more effective than the other levels used in this study. Of nutrient accumulation, 5-ALA altered only root Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ and root K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio e.g., root Na/sup +/ was lower at 50 mg L/sup -1/, while root K/sup +/and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio were higher at 80 mg L/sup -1/. In contrast, accumulation of all other ions in plant organs remained unaffected. Overall, foliar-applied 5-ALA did not alter the accumulation of different nutrients in different plant parts except root Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio in both sunflower cultivars. (author)

  8. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. PMID:25506677

  9. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  10. Mechanical properties of PET composites using multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by inorganic and itaconic acids

    A. May-Pat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were oxidized by two different acid treatments and further functionalized with itaconic acid (IA. The functionalized MWCNTs were used to fabricate Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites by melt mixing. The presence of functional groups on the surface of the treated MWCNTs was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The MWCNTs oxidized with a concentrated mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 exhibited more oxygen containing functional groups (OH, COOH but also suffer larger structural degradation than those oxidized by a mild treatment based on diluted HNO3 followed by H2O2. PET composites were fabricated using the oxidized-only and oxidized followed by functionalization with IA MWCNTs. PET composites fabricated with MWCNT oxidized by mild conditions showed improved tensile strength and failure strain, while harsh MWCNT oxidation render them overly brittle.

  11. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated polysulfone/polyvinyltriazole after doping with inorganic acids

    Serkan Sevinç; Sevim Ünügür Çelik; Ayhan Bozkurt

    2015-04-01

    As anhydrous proton conductive membranes, sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) and polyvinyl triazole were studied as binary matrices. The sulfonation of polysulfone was performed with trimethylsilylchlorosulfonate and high degree of sulfonation (140%) was obtained. Ion exchange capacity of SPSU was determined as 3.05 mmol−1/g. The polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared by blending of sulfonated polysulfone with polyvinyl triazole and phosphoric acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the sulfonation of the polysulfone and the ionic interaction between sulfonic acid and triazole units. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polymer electrolyte membranes are thermally stable up to at least 150° C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the homogeneity of the ternary composites. The maximum proton conductivity has been measured as 3.63 × 10−4S cm−1 at 150° C.

  12. Recovery of vanadium from spent catalysts of sulfuric acid plant by using inorganic and organic acids: Laboratory and semi-pilot tests.

    Erust, Ceren; Akcil, Ata; Bedelova, Zyuldyz; Anarbekov, Kuanysh; Baikonurova, Aliya; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2016-03-01

    Catalysts are used extensively in industry to purify and upgrade various feeds and to improve process efficiency. These catalysts lose their activity with time. Spent catalysts from a sulfuric acid plant (main elemental composition: 5.71% V2O5, 1.89% Al2O3, 1.17% Fe2O3 and 61.04% SiO2; and the rest constituting several other oxides in traces/minute quantities) were used as a secondary source for vanadium recovery. Experimental studies were conducted by using three different leaching systems (citric acid with hydrogen peroxide, oxalic acid with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid with hydrogen peroxide). The effects of leaching time, temperature, concentration of reagents and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1:25 S/L ratio, 0.1M citric acid, 0.1M hydrogen peroxide, 50°C and 120min), 95% V was recovered in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in citric acid leaching. PMID:26711187

  13. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Li, J.

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  14. A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer: application to the measurement of gas-phase organic and inorganic acids

    T. H. Bertram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new field-deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-TOFMS for the direct measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. We apply the technique to the measurement of gas-phase inorganic and organic acids via negative-ion proton transfer, using acetate as the reagent ion. A novel high pressure interface, incorporating two RF-only quadrupoles is used to efficiently focus ions through four stages of differential pumping before analysis with a compact TOFMS. The high ion-duty cycle (>20% of the TOFMS, coupled to efficient production and transmission of ions in the high pressure interface results in a highly sensitive (>300 ions s−1 pptv−1 instrument capable of the fast measurement of atmospheric gases at trace levels. We demonstrate the efficient transfer and detection of both bare ions and ion-molecule clusters, and characterize the instrument during field measurements aboard the R/V Atlantis as part of the CalNex campaign during the spring of 2010. The in-field short-term precision is better than 5% at 1 pptv (pL/L, for 1-second averages. The detection limit (3σ, 1-second averages of the current version of the CI-TOFMS, as applied to the in situ detection of gas-phase acids, is limited by the magnitude and variability in the background determination and was determined to be 4 pptv.

  15. 玉蜀黍叶中氨基酸及无机元素的含量测定%Determination of Amino Acids and Inorganic Elements in the leaves of Zea mays L.

    刘银燕; 杨晓虹; 陈滴; 王文娜; 孙琦; 杨锦竹

    2012-01-01

    对玉蜀黍叶中氨基酸和无机元素进行研究.采用日立835-50型氨基酸分析仪和ICP - AES法对玉蜀黍叶中氨基酸和无机元素进行了研究.结果表明,玉蜀黍叶中含有17种氨基酸和12种人体必需的无机元素.本研究为玉蜀黍叶的药用开发提供了参考依据.%To determine amino acids and inorganic elements in the leaves of zea mays L., amino acids in leaves of zea mays L. Were determined by the amino acid analyzer, and inorganic elements in leaves of zea mays L. Were determined by ICP-AES. The result showed thai there were 17 amino acids and 12 kind of inorganic elements in leaves of zea mays L., and it provide a basis for the medical exploitation oi the leaves of zea mays L..

  16. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  17. Inorganic Sunscreens

    Inorganic sunscreens, based on TiO2 and ZnO, are a rapidly growing segment of the overall UV protection market. They offer the advantages of high SPF, broad-spectrum coverage and reduced potential irritancy to users. Lack of transparency has traditionally been a drawback regarding acceptance of these products. Recent development work has therefore prioritised the achievement of transparency through superior control of particle size, shape and particle size distribution. The properties of TiO2 and ZnO are discussed as sunscreen actives, and the key factors affecting efficacy and cosmetic elegance. The pros and cons of different product forms (powders and dispersions) are discussed. physical sunscreens can be used either as the sole active in a formulation, or in combination with each other or with organic sunscreens; the relative benefits of these approaches are assessed. The paper concludes with a review of work undertaken to achieve transparency along with developments to improve efficacy (SPF and UVA coverage) and photostability. (author)

  18. Inorganic Sunscreens

    Dransfield, G.P

    2000-07-01

    Inorganic sunscreens, based on TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, are a rapidly growing segment of the overall UV protection market. They offer the advantages of high SPF, broad-spectrum coverage and reduced potential irritancy to users. Lack of transparency has traditionally been a drawback regarding acceptance of these products. Recent development work has therefore prioritised the achievement of transparency through superior control of particle size, shape and particle size distribution. The properties of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO are discussed as sunscreen actives, and the key factors affecting efficacy and cosmetic elegance. The pros and cons of different product forms (powders and dispersions) are discussed. physical sunscreens can be used either as the sole active in a formulation, or in combination with each other or with organic sunscreens; the relative benefits of these approaches are assessed. The paper concludes with a review of work undertaken to achieve transparency along with developments to improve efficacy (SPF and UVA coverage) and photostability. (author)

  19. Non-Isothermal Cold-Crystallization Behavior and Kinetics of Poly(l-Lactic Acid/WS2 Inorganic Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate the crystallization of poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA biopolymer and enhance its crystallizability, biocompatible and environmentally friendly tungsten disulphide inorganic nanotubes (INT-WS2 were introduced into the polymer matrix. The non-isothermal cold-crystallization and subsequent melting behaviour of pure PLLA and PLLA/INT-WS2 nanocomposites were investigated in detail by varying both the heating rate and INT-WS2 loading. The kinetic parameters of the cold-crystallization process of PLLA chains under confined conditions, successfully described using Liu model, shows that the addition of INT-WS2 significantly increased the crystallization rate and reduced the total cold-crystallinity of PLLA, while the crystallization mechanism and crystal structure of PLLA remained unchanged in spite of the INT-WS2 loading. Similarly, the final crystallinity and melting behaviour of PLLA were controlled by both the incorporation INT-WS2 and variation of the heating rate. The differential isoconversional method of Friedman was applied to estimate the dependence of the effective activation energy on the relative crystallinity and temperature for PLLA and PLLA/INT-WS2. On the other hand, the double-melting peaks, mainly derived from melting-recrystallization-melting processes upon heating, and their dynamic behaviour is coherent with a remarkable nucleation-promoting effect of INT-WS2 involved in accelerating the cold-crystallization of PLLA. These observations have considerable practical significance for the future sustainable, economic and effective technological utilisation of PLLA, as it will enable the development of novel melt-processable biopolymer nanocomposite materials.

  20. Separate vaporisation of boric acid and inorganic boron from tungsten sample cuvette-tungsten boat furnace followed by the detection of boron species by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-AES).

    Kataoka, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Ito, Kazuaki

    2008-03-10

    Utilising extremely different vaporisation properties of boron compounds, the determination procedures of volatile boric acid and total boron using tungsten boat furnace (TBF) ICP-MS and TBF-ICP-AES have been investigated. For the determination of volatile boric acid by TBF-ICP-MS, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, Me(4)NOH) was used as a chemical modifier to retain it during drying and ashing stages. As for the total boron, not only non-volatile inorganic boron such as boron nitride (BN), boron carbide (B(4)C), etc. but also boric acid (B(OH)(3)) was decomposed by a furnace-fusion digestion with NaOH to produce sodium salt of boron, a suitable species for the electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) procedure. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of various standard reference materials. The analytical results for various biological and steel samples are described. PMID:18291127

  1. Separate vaporisation of boric acid and inorganic boron from tungsten sample cuvette-tungsten boat furnace followed by the detection of boron species by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-AES)

    Kataoka, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Satoshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashihiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Fujiwara, Terufumi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashihiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan)], E-mail: tfuji@sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ito, Kazuaki [School of Engineering, Kinki University, Takaya, Higashihiroshima, 739-2116 (Japan)

    2008-03-10

    Utilising extremely different vaporisation properties of boron compounds, the determination procedures of volatile boric acid and total boron using tungsten boat furnace (TBF) ICP-MS and TBF-ICP-AES have been investigated. For the determination of volatile boric acid by TBF-ICP-MS, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, Me{sub 4}NOH) was used as a chemical modifier to retain it during drying and ashing stages. As for the total boron, not only non-volatile inorganic boron such as boron nitride (BN), boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), etc. but also boric acid (B(OH){sub 3}) was decomposed by a furnace-fusion digestion with NaOH to produce sodium salt of boron, a suitable species for the electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) procedure. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of various standard reference materials. The analytical results for various biological and steel samples are described.

  2. Separate vaporisation of boric acid and inorganic boron from tungsten sample cuvette-tungsten boat furnace followed by the detection of boron species by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-AES)

    Utilising extremely different vaporisation properties of boron compounds, the determination procedures of volatile boric acid and total boron using tungsten boat furnace (TBF) ICP-MS and TBF-ICP-AES have been investigated. For the determination of volatile boric acid by TBF-ICP-MS, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, Me4NOH) was used as a chemical modifier to retain it during drying and ashing stages. As for the total boron, not only non-volatile inorganic boron such as boron nitride (BN), boron carbide (B4C), etc. but also boric acid (B(OH)3) was decomposed by a furnace-fusion digestion with NaOH to produce sodium salt of boron, a suitable species for the electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) procedure. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of various standard reference materials. The analytical results for various biological and steel samples are described

  3. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3− aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    H. M. Allen; D. C. Draper; B. R. Ayres; A. Ault; A. Bondy; Takahama, S; Modini, R. L.; K. Baumann; Edgerton, E.; Knote, C.; Laskin, A.; Wang, B; Fry, J. L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA) revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3−) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of supermicron crustal and sea ...

  4. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  5. Chemical composition and acidity of size-fractionated inorganic aerosols of 2013-14 winter haze in Shanghai and associated health risk of toxic elements

    Behera, Sailesh N.; Cheng, Jinping; Huang, Xian; Zhu, Qiongyu; Liu, Ping; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-12-01

    The severe winter haze episode that occurred in Shanghai from December 2013 to January 2014, characterized by elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), received considerable international attention because of its impacts on public health and disruption of day-to-day activities. To examine the characteristics of PM during this haze episode and to assess the chemistry behind formation of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and associated health impacts due to exposure of toxic elements, we characterized eight water soluble inorganic (WSI) ions and twenty four trace elements in twelve size-fractionated PM (10 nm-9.9 μm). The average mass concentrations of coarse (1.8 μm events increased significantly (P < 0.05) to 69 ± 18 × 10-6 compared to non-hazy days (34 ± 10 × 10-6). The qualitative source attribution analysis suggested that the occurrence of haze could be due to a combination of increased emissions of PM from multiple anthropogenic sources followed by its accumulation under unfavourable meteorological conditions with lower mixing heights and less wind speeds and the formation of secondary aerosols.

  6. Spatial and seasonal variability of PM2.5 acidity at two Chinese megacities: insights into the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols

    Z. Shi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol acidity is one of the most important parameters influencing atmospheric chemistry and physics. Based on continuous field observations from January 2005 to May 2006 and thermodynamic modeling, we investigated the spatial and seasonal variations in PM2.5 acidity in two megacities in China, Beijing and Chongqing. Spatially, PM2.5 was generally more acidic in Chongqing than in Beijing, but a reverse spatial pattern was found within the two cities, with more acidic PM2.5 at the urban site in Beijing whereas the rural site in Chongqing. Ionic compositions of PM2.5 revealed that it was the higher concentrations of NO3− at the urban site in Beijing and the lower concentrations of Ca2+ within the rural site in Chongqing that made their PM2.5 more acidic. Temporally, PM2.5 was more acidic in summer and fall than in winter, while in the spring of 2006, the acidity of PM2.5 was higher in Beijing but lower in Chongqing than that in 2005. These were attributed to the more efficient formation of nitrate relative to sulfate as a result of the influence of Asian desert dust in 2006 in Beijing and the greater wet deposition of ammonium compared to sulfate and nitrate in 2005 in Chongqing. Furthermore, simultaneous increase of PM2.5 acidity was observed from spring to early summer of 2005 in both cities. This synoptic-scale evolution of PM2.5 acidity was accompanied by the changes in air masses origins, which were influenced by the movements of a subtropical high over the northwestern Pacific in early summer. Finally, the correlations between [NO3−]/[SO42−] and [NH4+]/[SO42−] suggests that under conditions of high aerosol acidity, heterogeneous reactions became one of the major pathways for the formation of nitrate at both cities. These findings provided new insights in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol acidity in Beijing and Chongqing, as well as those reported in other cities in China.

  7. Comparing the effects of inorganic nitrate and allopurinol in renovascular complications of metabolic syndrome in rats: role of nitric oxide and uric acid

    Essawy, Soha S.; Abdel-Sater, Khaled A.; Elbaz, Amani A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and correlates with elevation in serum uric acid and marked increase in total fructose intake. Fructose raises uric acid and the latter inhibits nitric oxide bioavailability. We hypothesized that fructose-induced hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in metabolic syndrome and treatment of hyperuricemia or increased nitric oxide may improve it. Material and methods Two experiments were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rat...

  8. Artificial cytoskeletal structures within enzymatically active bio-inorganic protocells.

    Kumar, Ravinash Krishna; Li, Mei; Olof, Sam N; Patil, Avinash J; Mann, Stephen

    2013-02-11

    The fabrication of enzymatically active, semi-permeable bio-inorganic protocells capable of self-assembling a cytoskeletal-like interior and undergoing small-molecule dephosphorylation reactions is described. Reversible disassembly of an amino acid-derived supramolecular hydrogel within the internalized reaction space is used to tune the enzymatic activity of the nanoparticle-bounded inorganic compartments. PMID:23027575

  9. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  10. Layered inorganic solids

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275. ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  11. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  12. Separating cesium 137 from liquid radioactive wastes by using inorganic exchangers using static and dynamic procedures at various concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate

    Cesium 137 was separated from liquid wastes by ion exchange using ammonium molybdenum phosphate, potassium hexa cyano cobalt ferrate, zirconium hydro phosphate and antimony penta oxy hydrate ion exchangers. The investigation was done by static and dynamic procedures. In static procedure required time for reaching the system to equilibrium or ion exchange completion, the measurement of each exchanger, the effect of nitric acid and concentration of sodium nitrate on the capacity of ion exchangers was investigated. Also in dynamic procedure nitric acid and sodium nitrate concentration ratio on the power of and thereof the capacity of each ion exchanger was determined

  13. 工业级己二酸无机杂质元素的光谱研究%Study on Determination of Inorganic Impurity Elements in Industrial Grade Adipic Acid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    马宁; 谢华林; 欧竞; 符靓

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method for determination of Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in industrial grade adipic acid by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was established. The adipic acid was dissolved with HNO3, then the above 12 inorganic impurity elements in the solution were analyzed directly by ICP-OES. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. Appropriate analysis line of various elements was selected. Y as internal standard element was used to compensate matrix effect and signal drift. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits was 0.56~18.20µg/L, the recoveries of standard addition was in the range of 92.96%~107.90%and the RSD was 0.8%~3.3%. This method was simple, sensitive and precise, and was suitable for the determination of inorganic impurity elements in industrial grade adipic acid.%建立工业级己二酸中多个无机杂质元素的快速光谱分析方法。己二酸样品经硝酸溶解后直接用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱(ICP-OES)法测定其中的Na、Mg、Al、K、Ca、V、Cr、Mn、Fe、Cu、Zn、Pb等12种无机杂质元素。通过优化仪器工作参数,选择最佳的分析波长,并以Y为内标元素消除了测定过程中的光谱干扰和基体效应。在优化的实验条件下,方法的检出限为0.56~18.20µg·L-1,各元素的加标回收率为92.96%~107.90%,RSD为0.8%~3.3%。方法可实现工业级己二酸中无机杂质元素的快速准确测定。

  14. Inorganic contaminants attenuation in acid mine drainage by fly ash and fly ash-ordinary Portland cement (OPC) blends : column experiments

    The infiltration of acid mine drainage (AMD) material into mine voids is one of the environmental impacts of underground coal mining. In this study, the mitigation of AMD in a mine void was simulated in laboratory conditions. Various mixtures of fly ash, solid residues, and Portland cement were added to packed columns over a 6-month period. The fly ash additions generated near-neutral to alkaline pH levels, which in turn induced precipitation, co-precipitation, and adsorption contaminant attenuation mechanisms. A modelling study demonstrated that the precipitation of ferrihydrite, Al-hydroxides, Al-oxyhydroxysulphates, gypsum, ettringite, manganite, and rhodochrosite lowered contaminant levels. Results of the study indicated that the pH regime and acidity level of the AMD strongly influenced both the leaching of the toxic trace elements as well as the attenuation of the AMD. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  16. Simulation and analysis of the loss of inorganic ions from foliage under the influence of acid precipitations and air pollutants. Final report. Simulation und Analyse des Verlustes anorganischer Ionen aus Blaettern unter dem Einfluss von sauren Niederschlaegen und Luftschadstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Riederer, M.

    1989-05-01

    The project had the objective to simulate the loss of inorganic nutrients from leaves under controlled conditions and to analyse processes during the transport of ions through the cuticles. To be considered were both uninfluenced conditions and the changes possibly brought about by acid precipitations or the effects of toxic substances on the cuticles. Making use of isolated cuticular membranes of Citrus aurantium and slices of leaves of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Robinia pseudoacacia, leaching of K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+} was simulated under controlled conditions. The steady-state flow of cations through the cuticles depended on the proton concentration in the rinsing solution. Consequently, this is a counter-ion-exchange process. In addition, a ph-independent process was observed by which ions that diffused through the cuticles during periods free of precipitation are rendered soluble. Ozone in high doses entailed an increase in cation flow rates. (orig./MG).

  17. First Principles Calculations of Aqueous pKa Values for Organic and Inorganic Acids Using COSMO-RS Reveal an Inconsistency in the Slope of the pKa Scale.

    Klamt, Andreas; Eckert, Frank; Diedenhofen, Michael; Beck, Michael E

    2003-11-01

    The COSMO-RS method, a combination of the quantum chemical dielectric continuum solvation model COSMO with a statistical thermodynamics treatment for more realistic solvation (RS) simulations, has been used for the direct prediction of pKa constants of a large variety of 64 organic and inorganic acids. A highly significant correlation of r(2) = 0.984 with a standard deviation of only 0.49 between the calculated values of the free energies of dissociation and the experimental pKa values was found, without any special adjustment of the method. Thus, we have a theoretical a priori prediction method for pKa, which has the regression constant and the slope as only adjusted parameters. Such a method can be of great value in many areas of physical chemistry, especially in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industry. To our surprise, the slope of pKa vs ΔGdiss is only 58% of the theoretically expected value of 1/RTln(10). A careful analysis with respect to different contributions as well as a comparison with the work of other authors excludes the possibility that the discrepancy is due to weaknesses of the calculation method. Hence, we must conclude that the experimental pKa scale depends differently on the free energy of dissociation than generally assumed. PMID:26313337

  18. Prolonged oral treatment with two monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for depleting inorganic mercury retention in suckling rats

    Two monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mi-ADMS) and mono-n-hexyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mn-HDMS) were compared to DMSA in their efficiency to mobilize 203Hg in mercury-laden suckling rats. Seven-day-old pups were given 203Hg (18.5 kBq) with a dose of 0.5 mg Hg/kg/day as HgCl2 for five days. Seven days after the beginning of Hg loading a ten-day oral treatment with DMSA, Mi-ADMS, or Mn-HDMS was administered at a dose of 0.25 mmol/kg/day. At the end of experiment, radioactivity was measured in the whole body, liver, both kidneys, and brain. Monoesters of DMSA were superior to DMSA in decreasing body and organ Hg retention. The highest reduction in comparison to controls in groups treated with DMSA, Mi-ADMS, or Mn-HDMS occurred in the kidneys (48%, 97%, and 96%), followed by reduction in the liver (24%, 84%, and 83%), and in the brain (8%, 23%, respectively). For both, Mi-ADMS and Mn-HDMS, the reductions in the whole body and organs were significantly greater than in controls or DMSA-treated rats. No difference between the efficiency of the two DMSA-monoesters was found. (au) 20 refs

  19. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W...

  20. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  2. 无机金属盐对微波辅助酸预处理毛竹酶解的影响%Effect of Inorganic Salts on Enzymatic Saccharification of Moso Bamboo Pretreated by Microwave-Dilute Acid

    李志强; 费本华; 江泽慧

    2014-01-01

    采用加入无机金属盐的稀酸溶液预处理毛竹,分析预处理后底物的化学组成、预处理后的废液组成、糖降解发酵抑制物的生成量等。结果表明:稀酸预处理主要以脱除半纤维素为主,而对木质素的脱除没有明显效果。当硫酸用量为2%( w/w)、预处理温度为180℃时,竹材中绝大部分半纤维素已被脱除,底物纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率可达52.72%。加入硫酸铁催化后的稀酸预处理能提高底物的酶水解性能,可使纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率提高到72.15%。硫酸钠、硫酸亚铁、硫酸铜和硼砂等催化后的稀酸预处理底物的酶水解性能均有不同程度的下降,其中以硫酸铜催化预处理底物的酶水解性能最差。铜离子在预处理中可以被竹材底物吸附,并且在酶水解过程中可以脱附进入水解液中。%Global warming and energy shortage are the main challenges and puzzles that government and the public around the world are facing. It is believed that one of the solutions is to use biomass as a potential renewable energy resource for producing liquid fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Bamboo,with cellulose and hemicellulose as its main components,is a kind of fast growth and cheap renewable resource for bioethanol production. In the study,inorganic salts were studied as promoter in the dilute acid pretreatment of moso bamboo for the enzymatic saccharification. The chemical composition of the substrates and spent liquors,the enzymatic hydrolyability of substrates were analyzed. The results showed that dilute acid pretreatment ( DA) enhances the digestibility of lignocellulose mainly by dissolving hemicellulose and partially prehydrolyzing cellulose. DA has no delignified. The cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield of 2% sulfuric acid( w/w) pretreated substrate was 52. 72%. Sulfuric acid with Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 pretreated substrate had the higher cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield

  3. Ionic Transfer in Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Membranes

    A.B.Yaroslavtsev; I.A.Stenina; A.S.Shalimov

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In last years increasing interest has been devoted to the development and research of transport properties of hybrid organic/inorganic membranes. Traditionally, these membranes are used as electrolyte in fuel cells. However a number of their properties allow considering them as perspective materials for water treatment and substance purification. In this work transport properties of some ion exchange membranes modified by inorganic nanoparticles (hydrated oxides or solid acids) are discussed. ...

  4. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Reshef Tenne; Enyashin, Andrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF) and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT) combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects...

  5. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  6. Selective inorganic thin films

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  7. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  8. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  9. Cancer risk from inorganics

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  10. Selective inorganic thin films

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  11. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC N-CHLORAMINES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Aqueous solutions or organic and inorganic N-chloramines as well as hypochlorite were examined by cyclic voltammetry at DH 8 and in strong acid (pH<2) with platinum and glassy carbon electrodes. The inorganic N-chloramines were characterized in 1 M HC104. NHC12 is reduced at abou...

  12. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    J Gopalakrishnan; Rohini Mani

    2009-05-01

    There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology. Thus, we need new magnetic and metallic/semiconducting materials for spintronics, new low-loss dielectrics for telecommunication, new multi-ferroic materials that combine both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism for memory devices, new piezoelectrics that do not contain lead, new lithium containing solids for application as cathode/anode/electrolyte in lithium batteries, hydrogen storage materials for mobile/transport applications and catalyst materials that can convert, for example, methane to higher hydrocarbons, and the list is endless! Fortunately for us, chemistry - inorganic chemistry in particular - plays a crucial role in this quest. Most of the functional materials mentioned above are inorganic non-molecular solids, while much of the conventional inorganic chemistry deals with isolated molecules or molecular solids. Even so, the basic concepts that we learn in inorganic chemistry, for example, acidity/basicity, oxidation/reduction (potentials), crystal field theory, low spin-high spin/inner sphere-outer sphere complexes, role of -electrons in transition metal chemistry, electron-transfer reactions, coordination geometries around metal atoms, Jahn-Teller distortion, metal-metal bonds, cation-anion (metal-nonmetal) redox competition in the stabilization of oxidation states - all find crucial application in the design and synthesis of inorganic solids possessing technologically important properties. An attempt has been made here to illustrate the role of inorganic chemistry in this endeavour, drawing examples from the literature as well as from the research work of my group.

  13. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  14. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  15. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  16. Exposure to inorganic arsenic in pregnancy and metabolism-nutrition interaction

    Li, Li

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is metabolized by most mammals, including humans, via alternating reduction and oxidative methylation with S-adenosylmethionine as main methyl donor. Thus, it seems likely that it is influenced by the availability of methyl groups. The main arsenic metabolites excreted in human urine are monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), besides un-methylated inorganic arsenic (arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)]). The aim of the present study wa...

  17. Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites by intimately tethering conjugated polymers to inorganic tetrapods

    Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-04-01

    Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were judiciously crafted by placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with inorganic tetrapods via click reaction. CdSe tetrapods were first synthesized by inducing elongated arms from CdSe zincblende seeds through seed-mediated growth. The subsequent effective inorganic ligand treatment, followed by reacting with short bifunctional ligands, yielded azide-functionalized CdSe tetrapods (i.e., CdSe-N3). Finally, the ethynyl-terminated conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (i.e., P3HT-&z.tbd;) was tethered to CdSe-N3 tetrapods via a catalyst-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition, forming intimate semiconducting P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites. Intriguingly, the intimate contact between P3HT and CdSe tetrapod was found to not only render the effective dispersion of CdSe tetrapods in the P3HT matrix, but also facilitate the efficient electronic interaction between these two semiconducting constituents. The successful anchoring of P3HT chains onto CdSe tetrapods was substantiated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, the absorption and photoluminescence studies further corroborated the intimate tethering between P3HT and CdSe tetrapods. The effect of the type of bifunctional ligands (i.e., aryl vs. aliphatic ligands) and the size of tetrapods on the device performance of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells was also scrutinized. Interestingly, P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites produced via the use of an aryl bifunctional ligand (i.e., 4-azidobenzoic acid) exhibited an improved photovoltaic performance compared to that synthesized with their aliphatic ligand counterpart (i.e., 5-bromovaleric acid). Clearly, the optimal size of CdSe tetrapods ensuring the effective charge transport in conjunction with the good dispersion of CdSe tetrapods rendered an improved device performance. We envision that the click-reaction strategy enabled by

  18. 2D-network of inorganic-organic hybrid material built on Keggin type polyoxometallate and amino acid: [L-C2H6NO2]3[(PO4)Mo12O36].5H2O

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material based on polyoxometallate, [L-C2H6NO2]3[(PO4)Mo12O36].5H2O, has been successfully synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential thermal analysis techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P21/c, with a = 12.4938 (8) A, b = 19.9326 (12) A, c = 17.9270 (11) A, β = 102.129 (1)o, V = 4364.8 (5) A3, Z = 4 and R1(wR2) = 0.0513, 0.0877. The most remarkable structural feature of this hybrid can be described as two-dimensional inorganic infinite plane-like (2D/∞ [(PO4)Mo12O36]3-) which forming via weak Van der Waals interactions along the z axis. The characteristic band of the Keggin anion [(PO4)Mo12O36]3- appears at 210 nm in the UV spectrum. Thermal analysis indicates that the Keggin anion skeleton begins to decompose at 520 deg. C

  19. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  20. Recent developments in Inorganic polymers: A Review with focus on Si-Al based inorganic polymers

    Shrray Srivastava; Ravindra Gadhave

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic polymers are a unique classification of polymers. They contain inorganic atoms in the main chain. Hybrids with organic polymers as well as those chains that contain metals as pendant groups are considered in a special sub-classification as organo-metallic polymers. The networks containing only inorganic elements in main chain are called inorganic polymers. The silicone rubber is the most commercial inorganic polymer. The organo-metallic and inorganic polymers have a different set of...

  1. Recent developments in Inorganic polymers: A Review with focus on Si-Al based inorganic polymers

    Shrray Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic polymers are a unique classification of polymers. They contain inorganic atoms in the main chain. Hybrids with organic polymers as well as those chains that contain metals as pendant groups are considered in a special sub-classification as organo-metallic polymers. The networks containing only inorganic elements in main chain are called inorganic polymers. The silicone rubber is the most commercial inorganic polymer. The organo-metallic and inorganic polymers have a different set of applications. The current paper is a review of current applications of polymers with inorganic back-bone networks, especially focusing on Si and Al based inorganic polymeric materials.

  2. Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes

    York, Andrew P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.

  3. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak;

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion...

  4. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  5. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong

    2007-01-01

    The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.

  6. Inorganic ion exchangers. Application to liquid effluent processing

    Main inorganic ion exchangers used for radioactive liquid effluents presented in this report are: synthetic and natural zeolites, in titanium oxides, titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, some insoluble salts of zirconium, molybdenum and tin, heteropolyacids and polyantimonic acid. Properties of these ion exchangers are described: structure, adsoption, radiation effects and thermal stability, application to waste processing, radioactive waste storage uranium and cesium 137 recovery are evoked

  7. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplement supplies in northern Mexico.

    García-Rico, Leticia; Tejeda-Valenzuela, Lourdes

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements composed of herbal plants and seaweed, and to determine the potential toxicological risk. Total arsenic was determined by dry ashing and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, and inorganic arsenic was determined by acid digestion, solvent extraction, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Total and inorganic arsenic in the supplements ranged from 0.07 to 8.31 mg kg(-1) dry weight and from 0.14 to 0.28 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Daily intake of total arsenic ranged from 0.05 to 12.46 μg day(-1). Inorganic arsenic intake ranged from 0.21 to 0.83 μg day(-1), values that are below the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit recommended by the Word Health Organization. Therefore, there appears to be a low risk of adverse effects resulting from excess inorganic arsenic intake from these supplements. This is the first study conducted in Mexico that investigates total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements. Although the results do not suggest toxicological risk, it is nonetheless important considering the toxicity of inorganic arsenic and the increasing number consumer preferences for dietary supplements. Moreover, it is important to improve and ensure the safety of dietary supplements containing inorganic arsenic. PMID:23196407

  9. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  10. Separation of radionuclides from spent decontamination solutions onto selective inorganic-organic composite absorbers

    The experiments were performed to verify the possibility of the direct separation of radionuclides from a liquid decontamination waste. The solutions tested were an acidic decontamination solution from the modified AP-Citrox process and a model solution simulating liquid waste from electrochemical decontamination. The efficiency of a set of inorganic absorbers was tested in both batch and dynamic column sorption tests. For the comparison, a strongly acidic cation exchanger (OSTION KS 806) was also tested. From the results obtained it was concluded that neither composite inorganic absorbers nor strongly acidic cation exchanger can be used for the direct separation of radionuclides from either of both the solutions tested. (author)

  11. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  12. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  13. Thorium inorganic gels and phosphoric complexes

    To get a better understanding of inorganic transparent gels formation in phosphonitric aqueous solutions obtained by mixing a thorium nitrate solution (10-2 to 5 x 10-1 M) with a phosphoric acid solution (1.33 more concentrated) at pH 0.5 to 1, we investigated the complexing of thorium in this medium. As nitrate ions are very weak complexing agents, only phosphate ions have been studied in the thorium phosphate complexes formation. The phosphoric medium have been defined by two independant parameters CTh and pH. The actual H3PO4 concentration at the equilibrium: [H3PO4] determines, with the pH conditions, the thorium complexes formation. Nevertheless, this free phosphoric acid concentration is less than 0.5 M, which corresponds to the upper value that could be reach by [H3PO4] if thorium ions were not complexed at pH 1.5. Thorium complexes have been identified and their equilibrium constant formation have been calculated from extrapolated data obtained at tracers scale with a radioactive thorium isotope: Th-227. These data have been obtained in phosphoric medium defined by [H3PO4]=2 M and 0.7Th and pH values

  14. The essential activated carboxyl group of inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    Avaeva, S M; Bakuleva, N P; Baratova, L A; Nazarova, T I; Fink, N Y

    1977-05-12

    1. A carboxyl group of high reactivity has been found in inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.1) from yeast. This group interacts with agents which react neither with carboxyl groups of low molecular weight compounds nor with other carboxyl groups of the protein. 2. The reaction of this activated carboxyl group with inorganic phosphate, hydroxylamine, N-methyl- and O-methylhydroxylamines, and glycine methyl ester has been studied. 3. Homoserine and homoserine lactone were found in the hydrolyzate of phosphorylated and NaBH4-reduced pyrophosphatase, indicating that an aspartyl residue is phosphorylated. 4. Hydroxylamine and other nucleophilic agents cause inactivation of pyrophosphatase as a result of interaction with a carboxyl group. Both diaminobutyric and diaminopropionic acids were seen in the acid hydrolyzate of the protein treated with hydroxylamine and subjected to rearrangement in the presence of carbodiimide. 5. The ways in which the activation of a carboxyl group in the enzyme is achieved and the presumed mechanism of action of inorganic pyrophosphatase are discussed. PMID:16652

  15. Influence of inorganic acids on the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over AlCl3 catalyst%无机酸对 AlCl3催化果糖脱水制备5-羟甲基糠醛的影响

    李振斌; 顾运江; 王维; 魏作君; 刘迎新

    2014-01-01

    The dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the research hotspot of the compre-hensive utilization of biomass resources. Using AlCl3 as the catalyst,the influence of reaction conditions on the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural,especially the addition of different inorganic acids on the catalytic performance of AlCl3 was investigated. Using inorganic acid and AlCl3 as the co-catalyst, the effects of different solvents(1,4-dioxane,N,N-dimethylformamide,2-dimethyl sulfoxide),reaction temperature and the mass ratio of sulphuric acid to phosphoric acid(1: 2、2: 3、3: 2、2: 1)were tested. The results showed that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural yield of 92. 1% was attained under the condition as follows:N,N-dimethylformamide as the solvent,AlCl3 dosage 7. 5 mmol,sulphuric acid concentration 20 mmol·L -1 , phosphoric acid concentration 30 mmol·L - 1 and reaction temperature 120 ℃.%果糖脱水降解为5-羟甲基糠醛是生物质资源综合利用的研究热点。以 AlCl3为催化剂,考察反应条件对果糖脱水制备5-羟甲基糠醛的影响,重点研究不同无机酸对 AlCl3催化果糖降解生成5-羟甲基糠醛反应的影响。以 AlCl3和无机酸为共催化剂,考察在不同溶剂(1,4-二氧六环、N,N -二甲基甲酰胺、2-甲基亚砜)、反应温度和硫酸与磷酸质量比(1:2、2:3、3:2、2:1)条件下对果糖脱水降解制5-羟甲基糠醛的影响。结果表明,以温和的 N,N -二甲基甲酰胺为溶剂,在反应温度120℃、AlCl3用量为7.5 mmol、硫酸为20 mmol·L -1和磷酸为30 mmol·L -1共催化剂条件下,5-羟甲基糠醛收率达92.1%。

  16. Inorganic Phosphor Materials for Lighting.

    Lin, Yuan-Chih; Karlsson, Maths; Bettinelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This chapter addresses the development of inorganic phosphor materials capable of converting the near UV or blue radiation emitted by a light emitting diode to visible radiation that can be suitably combined to yield white light. These materials are at the core of the new generation of solid-state lighting devices that are emerging as a crucial clean and energy saving technology. The chapter introduces the problem of white light generation using inorganic phosphors and the structure-property relationships in the broad class of phosphor materials, normally containing lanthanide or transition metal ions as dopants. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation mechanisms are briefly described. Phosphors emitting light of different colors (yellow, blue, green, and red) are described and reviewed, classifying them in different chemical families of the host (silicates, phosphates, aluminates, borates, and non-oxide hosts). This research field has grown rapidly and is still growing, but the discovery of new phosphor materials with optimized properties (in terms of emission efficiency, chemical and thermal stability, color, purity, and cost of fabrication) would still be of the utmost importance. PMID:27573146

  17. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  18. 酒石酸为催化剂合成无机高分子材料硅气凝胶%Synthesis of Inorganic Polymer Material Silica Aerogels Using Tartaric Acid as Catalyst

    刘祖武; 李群林; 张平; 黄舸

    2001-01-01

    Silica aerogels of crackfree and low density were synthesized by differential-drying method with tartaric acid as catalyst in normal condition. The adulterating experiments were also proceeded with Ni2+, Cu2+ etc.%以洒石酸为催化剂,采用微分干燥法,在通常条件下合成了无裂纹、低密度的无机高分子材料硅气凝胶,并进行了Ni2+、Cu2+等的掺杂试验,使气凝胶的电阻明显降低.

  19. Welcome to Inorganics: a new open access, inclusive forum for inorganic chemistry

    Gregory, Duncan H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a ...

  20. Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials

    Bergamonti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials The research has focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood. The wood preservatives synthesized and tested for biocidal activity are polyamidoamines functionalized with hydroxyl and siloxane groups, while the coatings applied on the stones are water based TiO2 nanosols with ...

  1. Lysis of Streptococcus mutans by hen egg white lysozyme and inorganic sodium salts.

    Goodman, H; Pollock, J J; Katona, L I; Iacono, V J; Cho, M I; Thomas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans BHT was grown in a synthetic medium containing radioactive thymidine to monitor deoxyribonucleic acid release. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that although lysozyme alone could not liberate deoxyribonucleic acid, cellular deoxyribonucleic acid was liberated from lysozyme-treated cells by addition of low concentrations of inorganic sodium salts. When the salts were tested for their ability to dislodge cell-bound tritiated lysozyme, the extent of the initial release of en...

  2. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  3. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  6. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  7. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  8. Single and multi-component adsorptive removal of bisphenol A and 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions with transition metal modified inorganic-organic pillared clay composites: Effect of pH and presence of humic acid.

    Ortiz-Martínez, Krisiam; Reddy, Pratap; Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2016-07-15

    Pillared clay based composites containing transition metals and a surfactant, namely MAlOr-NaBt (Bt=bentonite; Or=surfactant; M=Ni(2+), Cu(2+)or Co(2+)), were prepared to study selectivity and capacity toward single and multiple-component adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-diclorophenol (DCP) from water. Tests were also performed to account for the presence of natural organic matter in the form of humic acid (HA). Equilibrium adsorption capacities for single components increased as follows: NaBtmetal brought an increase of nearly two-fold in adsorption capacity over the materials modified only with surfactant. The MAlOr-NaBt adsorbents displayed remarkable selectivity for BPA. Multi-component fixed-bed tests, however, revealed competition between the adsorbates, with the exception of the CuAlOr-NaBt beds. Inclusion of HA, surprisingly, enhanced the phenols adsorption capacity. Preliminary regeneration tests suggested that the adsorbent capacity can be recovered via thermal treatment or by washing with alkaline solutions. The former strategy, however, requires surfactant replenishment. More complex schemes would be needed to deal with absorbed HA. PMID:27037481

  9. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nanoscale magnetic drug-inorganic composites

    SUN Hui; ZHANG Hui; David G. Evans; DUAN Xue

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis by direct coprecipitation and characterization of captopril (Cpl) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) intercalated ZnAl layered double hydroxides coated on MgFe2O4 magnetic core particles are reported. Powder XRD analysis shows the well-defined crystallite structure of the composites. TEM and XPS results reveal that a core-shell structure involving a drug-LDHs layer coated on MgFe2O4 particles is formed through Zn-O-Mg and/or Al-O-Mg linkages. VSM measurements demonstrate that the novel magnetic drug-inorganic composites possess considerable magnetization.

  11. Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.

  12. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications

    Dietmüller, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) have been realized and investigated. A photo-induced charge transfer could be demonstrated in composites made of silicon nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) via light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. With bulk heterojunction solar cells made of P3HT/Si-nc composites in a sandwich structure, open-circuit voltages of up to 0....

  13. Tritium release from neutron irradiated lithium inorganic compounds

    Tritium release from irradiated lithium inorganic compounds Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, LiA10/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/, LiNbO/sub 3/ was studied in isochronic and isothermal conditions in the temperature range 200-9000C. The samples were prepared by outgassing at 600-6500 in quartz ampules, sealed and then irradiated under thermal neutron flux about 1.10/sup 13/n cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ with tritium concentration ≅3.7 10/sup 8/-3.7 10/sup 9/Bq/g. The initial stage of the tritiated water recovery from complex lithium inorganic compounds is characterized by a rapid tritium release accompanied by defect annealing and release energy accumulated by a solid state during irradiation. The two temperature ranges were observed as a result of the OT' groups formation which are in two energy states due to the formation of bonds M-O-T(H) (where M-Si, A1, Ti, Nb...) and Li-O-T(h). Symbol H emphasizes the importance of the residual content of the OH groups in the initial materials which should be considered as an inorganic polymers having the properties of solid acids and bases. The process of tritium release from irradiated lithium inorganic compounds is a many stage process including the following steps: tritium (ion) diffusion inside a crystal lattice; formation of OT groups on the surface of oxygen compounds, recombination of OT and OH groups to form a water molecule that is detected in a gas phase as a product of the annealing process

  14. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  15. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  16. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  17. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  18. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  19. Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules

    J.H.Choy

    2007-01-01

    1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...

  20. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  1. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  2. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  3. Inorganic carbon acquisition in some synurophyte algae.

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2008-05-01

    Some characteristics of photosynthesis of three synurophyte algae, Synura petersenii, Synura uvella and Tessellaria volvocina were investigated to determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake. All three species were found to have no external carbonic anhydrase, no capacity for direct bicarbonate uptake and a low whole-cell affinity for C(i). The internal pH of S. petersenii determined using (14)C-benzoic acid and [2-(14)C]-5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione was pH 7.0-7.5, over an external pH range of 5.0-7.5. Thus, the pH difference between the cell interior of S. petersenii and the external medium was large enough, over the alga's growth range, to allow the accumulation of C(i) by the diffusive uptake of CO(2). Monitoring O(2) evolution and CO(2) uptake by suspensions of S. petersenii at pH 7.0 by mass spectrometry did not indicate a rapid uptake of CO(2), and the final CO(2) compensation concentration reached was 24 +/- 0.7 microM. Furthermore, when the cells were darkened, a brief burst of CO(2) occurred before a steady rate of dark respiration was established, suggesting a loss of CO(2) by photorespiration. An examination of the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in homogenates of cells of S. petersenii, S. uvella and Mallomonas papillosa showed that values of the K(m) (CO(2)) were 28.4, 41.8 and 18.2 microM, respectively. These species lack the characteristics of cells with a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism because the cell affinity for C(i) appears to be determined by the relatively high CO(2) affinity of the Rubisco of these algae. PMID:18298411

  4. Inorganic protocells: Gated access to microreactors

    Keating, Christine D.

    2013-06-01

    A pH-responsive inorganic membrane has been devised that acts as a gatekeeper for the transport of charged solutes into and out of its interior volume. This behaviour was further used to regulate an enzymatic reaction.

  5. Inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide

    Present work is devoted to application of inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide. The elaboration of method is conducted under controlled concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from 1.00 til 0.01 mg/l.

  6. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  7. Utility of inorganic oxidants for the spectrophotometric determination of ganciclovir in dosage forms

    Ayman A. Gouda; Amin, Alaa S.

    2011-01-01

    Eight direct spectrophotometric methods for determination of ganciclovir has been developed and validated. These methods were based on the oxidation of the drug by different inorganic oxidants: ceric ammonium sulphate, potassium permanganate, ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanadate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate and potassium periodate. The oxidation reaction were performed in perchloric acid medium for ceric ammonium sulphate and in sulfuric acid medium for the ...

  8. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  9. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  10. Inorganic Janus particles for biomedical applications

    Isabel Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent developments regarding the synthesis and design of Janus nanoparticles, they have attracted increased scientific interest due to their outstanding properties. There are several combinations of multicomponent hetero-nanostructures including either purely organic or inorganic, as well as composite organic–inorganic compounds. Janus particles are interconnected by solid state interfaces and, therefore, are distinguished by two physically or chemically distinct surfaces. They may be, for instance, hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other, thus, creating giant amphiphiles revealing the endeavor of self-assembly. Novel optical, electronic, magnetic, and superficial properties emerge in inorganic Janus particles from their dimensions and unique morphology at the nanoscale. As a result, inorganic Janus nanoparticles are highly versatile nanomaterials with great potential in different scientific and technological fields. In this paper, we highlight some advances in the synthesis of inorganic Janus nanoparticles, focusing on the heterogeneous nucleation technique and characteristics of the resulting high quality nanoparticles. The properties emphasized in this review range from the monodispersity and size-tunability and, therefore, precise control over size-dependent features, to the biomedical application as theranostic agents. Hence, we show their optical properties based on plasmonic resonance, the two-photon activity, the magnetic properties, as well as their biocompatibility and interaction with human blood serum.

  11. RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE

    YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.

  12. IR studies of EDTA alkaline salts interaction with the surface of inorganic oxides

    Ryczkowski, J.

    2005-10-01

    The adsorption of alkaline salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on inorganic supports characterized by the different value of the isoelectric point of the surface (IEPS) has been investigated by transmission and photoacoustic (PA) FT-IR. The IR spectra in the 1800-1200 cm -1 region of the supported complexones are different from those of the unsupported compounds. The results obtained imply that the observed changes in the properties of adsorbed complexones are mainly due to interaction of the carboxyl groups of chelate molecule with inorganic oxide hydroxyl groups. The models of those interactions have been proposed. The IEPS value has a noticeable influence on the nature of the interactions observed. Based on the experimental data the ability of inorganic oxide interaction with the chelate molecule can be presented as follows: V 2O 5 < SiO 2 < TiO 2 < MgO < Al 2O 3 < ZrO 2-La < ZrO 2.

  13. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  14. Inorganic nanocarriers for platinum drug delivery

    Ping’an Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays platinum drugs take up almost 50% of all the clinically used anticancer drugs. Besides cisplatin, novel platinum agents including sterically hindered platinum (II drugs, chemically reductive platinum (IV drugs, photosensitive platinum (IV drugs, and multinuclear platinum drugs have been developed recently, with a few entering clinic trials. Rapid development of nanobiotechnology makes targeted delivery of anticancer platinum agents to the tumor site possible, while simultaneously minimizing toxicity and maximizing the drug efficacy. Being versatile drug carriers to deliver platinum drugs, inorganic nanovehicles such as gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous nanosilica, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, have been extensively studied over the past decades. In contrast to conventional polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles based drug carriers are peculiar as they have shown excellent theranostic effects, revealing themselves an indispensable part of future nanomedicine. Here, we will elaborate recent research advances on fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles for platinum drug delivery.

  15. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed

  16. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  17. Inorganic caesium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Eperon, GE; Paterno', GM; Sutton, RJ; Zampetti, A.; Haghighirad, A; Cacialli, F.; Snaith, H.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of perovskite solar cell research has focused on organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites. Herein, we present working inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite solar cells for the first time. CsPbI3 normally resides in a yellow non-perovskite phase at room temperature, but by careful processing control and development of a low-temperature phase transition route we have stabilised the material in the black perovskite phase at room temperature. As such, we have fabricated solar cell dev...

  18. Utilising inorganic nanocarriers for gene delivery.

    Loh, Xian Jun; Lee, Tung-Chun; Dou, Qingqing; Deen, G Roshan

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of genetic materials into cells to elicit cellular responses has been extensively studied by biomaterials scientists globally. Many materials such as lipids, peptides, viruses, synthetically modified cationic polymers and certain inorganic nanomaterials could be used to complex the negatively charged plasmids and deliver the formed package into cells. The recent literature on the delivery of genetic materials utilising inorganic nanoparticles is carefully examined in this review. We have picked out the most relevant references and concisely summarised the findings with illustrated examples. We further propose alternative approaches and suggest future pathways towards the practical use of multifunctional nanocarriers. PMID:26484365

  19. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced......Direct plant uptake of organic nitrogen (N) is often studied using the dual-labeling approach (15N + 13C or 15N + 14C). However, the method might be hampered by uptake of labeled inorganic carbon (C) produced by mineralization of labeled organic compounds. Here we report the results from a triple...... labeling experiment (15N + 13C + 14C) investigating whether root uptake of labeled inorganic C can bias the results obtained in studies of organic N uptake using dual-labeled amino acids (15N, 13C). In a rhizosphere tube experiment we investigated 13C and 14C uptake by maize either supplied with labeled...

  20. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  1. Correlating single-molecule and ensemble-average measurements of peptide adsorption onto different inorganic materials.

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Mochizuki, Masahito; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The coating of solid-binding peptides (SBPs) on inorganic material surfaces holds significant potential for improved surface functionalization at nano-bio interfaces. In most related studies, the goal has been to engineer peptides with selective and high binding affinity for a target material. The role of the material substrate itself in modulating the adsorption behavior of a peptide molecule remains less explored and there are few studies that compare the interaction of one peptide with different inorganic substrates. Herein, using a combination of two experimental techniques, we investigated the adsorption of a 16 amino acid-long random coil peptide to various inorganic substrates - gold, silicon oxide, titanium oxide and aluminum oxide. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments were performed in order to measure the peptide binding affinity for inorganic solid supports at the ensemble average level, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were conducted in order to determine the adhesion force of a single peptide molecule. A positive trend was observed between the total mass uptake of attached peptide and the single-molecule adhesion force on each substrate. Peptide affinity for gold was appreciably greater than for the oxide substrates. Collectively, the results obtained in this study offer insight into the ways in which inorganic materials can differentially influence and modulate the adhesion of SBPs. PMID:27174015

  2. New developments in radionuclide separation using inorganic materials

    Selective ion media, e.g. inorganic adsorbents and ion exchangers, are increasingly used for the removal of key radionuclides such as 60Co, 90Sr, and 137Cs from nuclear waste effluents due to their radiation stability, high processing capacity, and high decontamination efficiency. The applications of materials that are commercially available (e.g. zeolites, titanates, silicotitanates, hexacyanoferrates) will be reviewed in the first part of the presentation. New ways of the inorganic materials use in special contactors (Cartridge filters, Funda filters) as fine powders, to increase radionuclide uptake rate, will also be described. Such novel application has been used, e.g., in UK (Sellafield) and in several nuclear power plants in the USA. Main emphasis is on materials (CsTreat, SrTreat and CoTreat) developed at the University of Helsinki. Many commercial materials available have limitations, e.g., poor performance in acidic solutions and in the presence of Ca ions. In the second part, development of new materials that overcome these problems will be described. These materials include mixed oxide pyrochlores, which can be tailored for special separation tasks. (author)

  3. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Nematode Reproduction and Biochemical Alterations on Tomato

    Ahmed A. FARAHAT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic amendments, compost, neem and poultry as well as inorganic fertilizer, N P K and nematicide Nemacur 10% G applied singly at two different doses were effective in reducing M. incognita number of galls, nematode reproduction and fecundity. Also, they ameliorated growth criteria of treated tomato plants. The effectiveness seemed to be material origin and concentration dependent. Neem, compost 1, 3 at higher doses (5 g/pot gave the best results. Yet, achieved results were less than those of nemacur 10% G which overmatched all the organic and inorganic fertilizers. Nematode infection reduced total soluble sugars in roots but the opposite was the case in all treatments. Nematode infection supported root contents of amino acids, total phenols and tannins but they were diminished as a result of almost all treatments. Total soluble sugars and total carbohydrates in shoots decreased as a result of nematode infection but they were regained only by application of inorganic fertilizer. Total amino acids increased in shoots of infected plants and more increase was observed in almost all treatments. Nematode infection impaired tomato uptake of N P K; organic and inorganic fertilizers provoked plants up take, however nemacur improved plants up take of nitrogen only.

  4. Molecular architecture of organic-inorganic polymers

    Matějka, Libor

    Dresden : Max Planck Institute for the Physic of Complex Systems, 2005. [MPG-MOEL– Symposium: Science and Art in Europe, Polymers: Materials in Nature and in Advanced Technologies. 23.5.2005-25.5.2005, Dresden] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2252 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymers * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. Thermoplastic Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.

  6. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1961

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1961. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  7. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  8. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1964

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1964. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  9. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1982

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1982. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  10. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1981

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1981. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  11. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  12. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1965

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1965. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  13. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1983

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1983. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  14. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1963

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1963. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  15. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  16. Reactivity Network: Secondary Sources for Inorganic Reactivity Information.

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an eclectic annotated bibliography of secondary sources for inorganic reactivity information of interest to reactivity network review authors and to anyone seeking information about simple inorganic reactions in order to develop experiments and demonstrations. Gives 119 sources. (MVL)

  17. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    A. A. Zardini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity. We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/citric acid and in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid cases. However, we observe significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  18. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Single crystals of [C10H26N2][(UO2)(SeO4)2(H2O)](H2SeO4)0.85(H2O)2 (1), [C10H26N2][(UO2)(SeO4)2] (H2SeO4)0.50(H2O) (2), and [C8H20N]2[(UO2)(SeO4)2(H2O)] (H2O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO7 and SeO4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO2(SeO4)2(H2O)]2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH3(CH2)10NH3]2+ molecules, H2O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H2SeO4) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO2(SeO4)2]2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H2SeO4) groups but is based upon alternating [UO2(SeO4)2(H2O)]2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH3(CH2)7CH3]+. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into an organic substructure is necessary; (c) the inclination angle of the amine chains may vary in order to modify

  19. UV-C photolysis of endocrine disruptors. The influence of inorganic peroxides

    Norfloxacin, doxycycline and mefenamic acid have been photolysed with UV-C radiation (254 nm) in the presence and absence of inorganic peroxides (hydrogen peroxide or sodium monopersulfate). Quantum yields in the range (1.1-4.5) x 10-3 mol Einstein-1 indicate the low photo-reactivity of these pharmaceuticals. Inorganic peroxides considerably enhanced the contaminants conversion, although no appreciable mineralization could be obtained. A simplistic reaction mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide promoted experiments allowed for a rough estimation of the rate constant between hydroxyl radicals and norfloxacin (k > 1 x 109 M-1 s-1), doxycycline (k > 1.5 x 109 M-1 s-1) and mefenamic acid (k > 11.0 x 109 M-1 s-1).

  20. UV-C photolysis of endocrine disruptors. The influence of inorganic peroxides

    Rivas, Javier, E-mail: fjrivas@unex.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gimeno, Olga; Borralho, Teresa; Carbajo, Maria [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Norfloxacin, doxycycline and mefenamic acid have been photolysed with UV-C radiation (254 nm) in the presence and absence of inorganic peroxides (hydrogen peroxide or sodium monopersulfate). Quantum yields in the range (1.1-4.5) x 10{sup -3} mol Einstein{sup -1} indicate the low photo-reactivity of these pharmaceuticals. Inorganic peroxides considerably enhanced the contaminants conversion, although no appreciable mineralization could be obtained. A simplistic reaction mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide promoted experiments allowed for a rough estimation of the rate constant between hydroxyl radicals and norfloxacin (k > 1 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), doxycycline (k > 1.5 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and mefenamic acid (k > 11.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}).

  1. Information-Analytical System for Design of New Inorganic Compounds

    Kiselyova, Nadezhda; Stolyarenko, Andrey; Ryazanov, Vladimir; Podbel’skii, Vadim

    2008-01-01

    The principles of design of information-analytical system (IAS) intended for design of new inorganic compounds are considered. IAS includes the integrated system of databases on properties of inorganic substances and materials, the system of the programs of pattern recognition, the knowledge base and managing program. IAS allows a prediction of inorganic compounds not yet synthesized and estimation of their some properties.

  2. The application of inorganic ion exchangers to the decontamination of radioactive liquid effluents

    A generic programme of work at Harwell has been investigating the potential application of inorganic exchangers in effluent treatment. Hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide titanium and zirconium phosphates, polyantimonic acid and copper hexacyanoferrate were selected for experimental investigation. An extensive experimental programme has examined the performance of these six materials for the removal of a variety of radionuclides from a wide range of different simulated waste effluents. (author)

  3. Preparation of peat samples for inorganic geochemistry used as palaeoenvironmental proxies

    G. Le Roux

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief review of protocols used in peat inorganic geochemistry. We emphasise the key issues that could lead to inter-comparison problems. For each section (drying, grinding, non-destructive analyses, acid digestions and destructive analyses, recommendations are provided to guide the reader through an idealised protocol, which is the only workable approach for studies incorporating long-term comparisons.

  4. Blue laser dye spectroscopic properties in solgel inorganic-organic hybrid films

    Saraidarov, Tsiala; Reisfeld, Renata; Kazes, Miri; Banin, Uri

    2006-02-01

    A blue solid-state laser material based on 4,4‧ dibenzyl carbamido stilbene-2,2‧ disulfonic acid incorporated into solgel zirconia and inorganic-organic hybrid matrices is presented. The absorption maxima of the dye in various matrices are around 339-361 nm, and the broad fluorescence peaks are at 411-413 nm. Optical gain measurements using the variable stripe method show amplified spontaneous emission peaking at 437 nm.

  5. Preliminary Tests Concerning Zero-Valent Iron Efficiency in Inorganic Pollutants Remediation

    Silvia Fiore; Maria C.   Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was aimed to a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of granular Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) to the on site remediation of groundwater polluted by inorganic contaminants by means of a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB). A particular interest was devoted to groundwater impacted by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) that was caused by the oxidation of metal sulphide minerals contained in mine wastes, especially iron disulphide pyrite. Although AMD consequences were particular...

  6. Inorganic molecular sieves: Preparation, modification and industrial application in catalytic processes

    Martínez Sánchez, Mª Cristina; Corma Canós, Avelino

    2011-01-01

    The increasing environmental concern and promotion of “green processes” are forcing the substitution of traditional acid and base homogeneous catalysts by solid ones. Among these heterogeneous catalysts, zeolites and zeotypes can be considered as real “green” catalysts, due to their benign nature from an environmental point of view. The importance of these inorganic molecular sieves within the field of heterogeneous catalysis relies not only on their microporous structure and the related shap...

  7. The variation of phytic and inorganic phosphorus in leaves and grain in maize populations

    Dragićević Vesna; Kovačević Dragan; Sredojević Slobodanka; Dumanović Zoran; Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    The phytate function in plants is still not completely understood: it is the primary storage P form in seeds that is utilized during germination and early seedling development. Approaches to resolve problem of the bad nutritive quality of grain phytate include engineering of crops with reduced levels of seed phytic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability and correlation of phytic (Pphy) and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and solu...

  8. Inorganic phosphate in the development and treatment of cancer: A Janus Bifrons?

    Sapio, Luigi; NAVIGLIO, SILVIO

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient to living organisms. It is required as a component of the energy metabolism, kinase/phosphatase signaling and in the formation and function of lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids and, at systemic level, it plays a key role for normal skeletal and dentin mineralization. Pi represents an abundant dietary element and its intestinal absorption is efficient, minimally regulated and typically extends to approximately 70%. Maintenance of proper P...

  9. Hygroscopic properties of organic and inorganic aerosols[Dissertation 17260

    Sjoegren, N.O.Staffan

    2007-07-01

    The atmosphere contains gases and particulate matter (aerosol). Organic material is present both in the gas phase and in the aerosol phase. Biogenic sources such as vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as biomass burning, fossil fuel use and various industries contribute to their emissions. The study of organic compounds in aerosol particles is of importance because they affect the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of inorganic aerosol, and hence the radiation budget of the Earth through the direct and indirect aerosol effects. The hygroscopicity of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles produced in the laboratory was characterized. This work reports on the following substances, and mixtures of them with ammonium sulfate (AS): adipic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), glutaric acid (GA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA). The AA and NaHA mixtures with AS were found to require up to tens of seconds for equilibrium water content to be reached. Therefore, measurements carried out on timescales shorter than a few seconds underestimate the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) with up to 10%, for samples containing a solid phase. Conversely, the GA and CA mixtures with AS were found to take up water readily and were well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The distinct deliquescence and efflorescence points of AS could be seen to gradually disappear as the CA content was increased. Furthermore mineral dust (standard Arizona test dust) was investigated, as well as the influence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) uptake thereon. Mineral dust is hydrophobic, but after processing with HNO{sub 3} turns slightly hygroscopic. Large amounts of dust are injected to the atmosphere (largely from the Sahara and the Gobi deserts, but also from human land-use). Mineral dust is important as ice nuclei, and due to its larger sizes it can also contribute as cloud condensation nuclei. Mineral dust also offers surface for heterogeneous chemistry, and can play an important role

  10. Inorganic and hybrid insulation materials for ITER

    Insulation systems are a critical component in superconducting fusion magnet systems, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Past cryogenic magnet systems have often relied on organic composite (e.g., glass/epoxy) materials for insulation. Concerns regarding reliability, radiation resistance, and electrical properties of organic systems have prompted the search for alternate materials, particularly hybrids which incorporate an inorganic barrier. Fabricability, mechanical, and electrical performance of various inorganic and hybrid materials are investigated. Materials include mica based sheets, plasma-sprayed and porcelain-enamel ceramic coatings, polyimide films and coatings, reinforced cement, and polymer conversion ceramic prepregs. Radiation resistance of selected candidate material systems will be evaluated in subsequent investigations

  11. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  12. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  13. NUTRITIONAL AND BAKING QUALITY OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT

    Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic ...

  14. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Nozière, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Córdova, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32-, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C-C and C-O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  15. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    B. Nozière

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32−, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C–C and C–O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  16. Application of inorganic scintillator for neutron detector

    Niki, N; Nakayama, S; Fushimi, K

    2003-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor institution, the neutron monitoring is indispensable in order to find an unusual neutron event which may be the signal of an accident or damage of a reactor. In this work, the possibility of a neutron monitor by means of an inorganic scintillator was researched. The detection efficiency and the intrinsic background of GSO scintillator and its sensitivity for neutrons have been studied.

  17. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  18. Inorganic Photovoltaics - Planar and Nanostructured Devices

    Ramanujam, J.; Verma, A.; González-Díaz, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; García-Tabarés, E.; Rey-Stolle Prado, Ignacio; Granek, F.; Korte, L.; Tucci, M.; Rath, J.; Singh, U. P.; Todorov, T.; Gunawan, O.; Rubioara, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1950s, semiconductor solar cell technology has evolved in great leaps and bounds. Solar power is now being considered as a serious leading contender for replacing fossil fuel based power generation. This article reviews the evolution and current state, and potential areas of near future research focus, of leading inorganic materials based solar cells, including bulk crystalline, amorphous thin-films, and nanomaterials based solar cells. Bulk crystalline silicon sola...

  19. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek

    2010-01-01

    Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...

  20. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel; Weaver, Jonathan; Binks, Bernard; Mann, Stephen.

    2013-01-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covale...

  1. Graphene and inorganic analogous of graphene

    Ecorchard, Petra; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Henych, Jiří

    Praha : Ústav fyzikální chemie J. Heyrovského AV ČR, v.v.i, 2014. RP12. ISBN 978-80-87351-32-1. [Pokroky anorganické chemie /1./. 22.6.2014-26.6.2014, Třešť] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphene * analogues of graphene Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  2. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  3. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices. PMID:27093096

  4. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties. PMID:21271042

  5. Inorganic nanomaterials for tumor angiogenesis imaging

    Tumor angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer development and metastasis. Noninvasive detection of angiogenic activities is thus of great importance in cancer diagnosis as well as evaluation of cancer therapeutic responses. Various angiogenesis-related molecular targets have been identified and used in tumor vasculature targeting and imaging. Recently, inorganic nanomaterials with various unique intrinsic physical properties have attracted growing interest in biomedical imaging applications. This article will review current progresses in the applications of inorganic nanoprobes in molecular angiogenesis imaging. Several types of nanomaterials with various optical properties, including semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, have been used as novel optical probes to image angiogenic events. Besides optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of angiogenesis using magnetic nanoparticles has also been intensively investigated. Moreover, nanomaterials provide unique platforms for the integration of various imaging modalities together with therapeutic functionalities for multi-modality imaging and therapy. Although the application of inorganic nanomaterials in clinical imaging and diagnosis is still facing many challenges, the unique properties and functions of these novel nanoprobes make them very promising agents in angiogenesis imaging and could bring great opportunities to this fast-growing field. (orig.)

  6. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  7. Influence of additives (inorganic/organic on the clouding behavior of amphiphilic drug solutions: Some thermodynamic studies

    Malik Abdul Rub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide a detailed result about the effect of various additives, viz. inorganic salts, quaternary ammonium bromides (QABs and amino acids on clouding behavior of amphiphilic drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT. The continuous increase in the cloud point (CP of drug by increase in inorganic salt concentration and the magnitude of increases rely upon the position of the salts in Hofmeister series and hydrated radii. The QABs also influence continuous increase in the CP, which is illustrated in terms of the alkyl chain length of peculiar QAB. The effect of amino acids on CP of the drug solution is dependent upon the characteristics (acidic, basic, polar or nonpolar of particular amino acids. The overall behavior of additives has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of electrostatic repulsion or interaction, micellar growth, and mixed micelle formation between the ingredients. In addition to this, thermodynamic parameters are also evaluated.

  8. Bioefficacy comparison of organic manganese with inorganic manganese for eggshell quality in Hy-Line Brown laying hens.

    Xiao, J F; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Ji, F; Qi, G H

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the bioefficacy of organic compared with inorganic manganese (Mn) for eggshell quality. An amino acid-Mn complex or Mn sulfate monohydrate was used as the organic or inorganic Mn source. A total of six hundred forty-eight 50-wk-old layers (Hy-Line Brown) were divided into 9 groups; each group consisted of 6 replicates with 12 layers each. The feeding trial lasted 12 wk. During the first 4 wk of the feeding trial, the groups were fed a basal diet, which met the nutrient requirements of the layers, except for Mn. During the following 8 wk, 9 levels of Mn (inorganic Mn: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg; organic Mn: 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were used to supplement, respectively, in the basal diet on an equimolar basis. An exponential regression model was applied to calculate the bioefficacy of organic Mn compared with the inorganic Mn. Dietary supplementation with either organic or inorganic Mn did not influence egg production and feed efficiency of (P > 0.05), and eggshell quality did not exhibit a significant response to dietary supplementation with Mn sources at 56 and 58 wk (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with either organic Mn or inorganic Mn significantly enhanced the thickness, breaking strength, and elastic modulus of the eggshells compared with the control group at the end of 62 wk (P organic Mn was 357% (shell thickness), 406% (breaking strength), 458% (elastic modulus), and 470% (eggshell Mn), as efficacious as inorganic Mn at equimolar levels. This study suggests that organic Mn enhances eggshell quality in aged laying hens compared with inorganic Mn. PMID:26047673

  9. Conjunctive and mineralization impact of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizer on lysimeter and pot studies.

    Khalid, Iqbal; Nadeem, Amana; Ahmed, Rauf; Husnain, Anwer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the present study were to investigate the physico-chemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW)-enriched compost and its effect on nutrient mineralization and subsequent plant growth. The enrichment of MSW compost by inorganic salts enhanced the humification rate and reduced the carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio in less time than control compost. The chemical properties of compost, C/N ratio, humic acid, fulvic acid, degree of polymerization and humification index revealed the significant correlation amid properties. A laboratory-scale experiment evaluated the conjunctive effect of MSW compost and inorganic fertilizer on tomato plants in a pot experiment. In the pot experiment five treatments, Inorganic fertilizer (T1), enriched compost (T2), enriched compost 80% + 20% inorganic fertilizer (T3), enriched compost 60% + 40% inorganic fertilizer (T4) were defined including control (Ts), applied at the rate of 110 kg-N/ha and results revealed that all treatments significantly enhanced horticultural production of tomato plant; however T4 was most effectual as compared with control, T1, T2 and T3. Augmentation in organic matter and available phosphorus (P) potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) were also observed in compost treatments. The leachability and phytoavailability of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) from sandy soil, amended with enriched, control compost and inorganic fertilizer at rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg-N/ha were evaluated in a lysimeter study. Results illustrated that concentration of mineral nitrogen was elevated in the leachate of inorganic fertilizer than enriched and control composts; therefore compost fortifies soil with utmost nutrients for plants' growth. PMID:24600889

  10. Fouling of inorganic membrane and flux enhancement in membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor

    Yoon, S.H.; Kang, I.J.; Lee, C.H. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1999-03-01

    The fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was studied during the operation of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) when alcohol distillery wastewater was used as a digester feed. It was observed that the fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was significantly different from that of conventional membrane filtration processes. The main foulant was identified to be an inorganic precipitate, struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O), rather than anaerobic microbial flocs. Struvite appears to be precipitated not only on the membrane surface but also inside the membrane pores. The amount of struvite generated during the bioreaction was estimated to be about 2 g/L alcohol distillery wastewater. The inorganic foulant was not easily removed by general physical cleaning such as depressurization, lumen flushing, and backflushing. Based on these findings, the membrane fouling was alleviated and thus flux was enhanced by adopting a backfeeding mode which has dual purpose of feeding and backflushing with particle-free acidic wastewater used as the feed for anaerobic digestion.

  11. Interfacial Templating of Inorganic Nanostructures Using Rationally Designed Peptide Molecules

    Leon Gibbons, Lorraine

    In nature, biological molecules form interfaces that assemble patterns of chemical functionality with exceptional precision. The role of dynamics during the assembly of biological molecules appears to be important for mineralization processes. The work presented in this dissertation applies model sheet-forming peptides at interfaces to explore the dynamics of assembly in order to template mineral growth. The peptide molecules are rationally designed to have amphiphilic properties and a propensity for sheet-like secondary structure. These designed peptides are deposited at the air/water interface to explore the dynamics of their self-assembly and investigate their 2D order. To characterize the phase behavior, techniques such as Langmuir Blodgett and Brewster Angle Microscopy are used. In addition, we verify the hypothesized sheet-forming propensity using both Circular Dichroism and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, while the characterization of the inorganic phase is done using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Thermodynamic analysis of structure formation with increasing pressure allows us to understand the nature of self-assembly with iterative changes in the peptide sequence. Additionally, we look at the dynamics of the self-assembled state, where the organic phase switches between short- and long-range order as a function of surface pressure. We use this model system to explore the influence of electrostatic interactions on self-assembly, and additionally, the influence of short- and long-range order on the nucleation and growth of inorganic material. This is in contrast to a system that starts with a well-ordered preformed template that defines the epitaxial growth of the mineral phase. Two versions of our model peptides are constructed by substituting histidine for glutamic acid in order to nucleate Au nanocrystals in both the short and long range ordered organic matrix, to

  12. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  13. Fractionation of inorganic arsenic by adjusting hydrogen ion concentration.

    Oliveira, Andrea; Gonzalez, Mario Henrique; Queiroz, Helena Müller; Cadore, Solange

    2016-12-15

    The inorganic fraction of arsenic species, iAs=∑[As(III)+As(V)] present in fish samples can be quantified in the presence of other arsenic species also found in fishes, such as: monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB). The toxic arsenic fraction was selected taking into account the dissociation constants of these arsenic species in different hydrogen ions concentration leading to the arsine formation from iAs compounds detected as As(III) by HG AAS. For thus, a microwave assisted extraction was carried out using HCl 1molL(-1) in order to maintain the integrity of the arsenic species in this mild extraction media. Recovery experiments were done for iAs fraction, in the presence of other arsenic species. The recovery values obtained for iAs fraction added were quantitative about 87-107% (for N=3, RSD⩽3%). The limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ), were 5μgkg(-1) and 16μgkg(-1) respectively. PMID:27451157

  14. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  15. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  16. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  17. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  18. Cytotoxic effects of S-(dimethylarsino)-glutathione: A putative intermediate metabolite of inorganic arsenicals

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in the metabolism of arsenite and arsenate by generating arsenic-glutathione complexes. Although dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) is the major metabolite of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) in urine, it is not clear how DMAV is produced from iAs. In the present study we report that S-(dimethylarsino)-glutathione (DMAIII(SG)), a putative precursor of dimethylarsinic acid DMAV, was unstable in the culture medium without excess GSH and generated volatile substances which were highly cytotoxic for both rat heart microvascular endothelial cells and HL60, a human leukemia cell line. Cytotoxicity of DMAIII(SG) was higher than that of iAs and its LC5 value was calculated to be 7.8 μM in the endothelial cells. To our surprise DMAIII(SG) effectively killed cells in the neighbor wells of the same multi-well dish, indicating that volatile toxic compounds generated from DMAIII(SG) in the culture medium. High performance lipid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) analyses suggested that the freshly generated volatile compounds dissolved into aqueous solution and formed an unstable arsenic compound and the unstable compound was further converted to DMAV. These results suggested that DMAIII(SG) exerts its cytotoxicity by generating volatile arsenicals and is implicated in the metabolic conversion of inorganic arsenicals into DMAV, a major final metabolite of inorganic arsenicals in most mammals

  19. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  1. Inorganic-organic composites by sol-gel techniques

    Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1990-01-01

    The sol-gel process opens the possibility of combining inorganic and organic units to new hybrid polymers. Organic units can be used for structural modification of the inorganic backbone, for creating new functions within an inorganic network and for building up organic polymeric chains. The materials show interesting perspectives with respect to structural (surface hardness, strength) and functional properties (e.g. diffusion, photocuring, incorporation of dyes, optical properties). A review...

  2. Test Research for Basic Mechanics Performance of Inorganic Polymer Concrete

    Huihong Liu; Zhean Lu; Ziqiang Peng

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the basic mechanics properties (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and splitting tensile strength) of inorganic polymer concrete whose mix proportion is ripe recipe and try to provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for application of inorganic polymer concrete in the practical engineering. In this study, the basic mechanics properties of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied by test. At the same time,...

  3. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  4. Retention of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs on inorganic ion exchangers

    The aim of the study is the treatment of radioactive wastes produced in plutonium fuel fabrication or in spent fuel reprocessing by inorganic ion exchangers for ultimate storage. This rapport, gives the distribution coefficients of 60Co, 85Sr, 137Cs (in sodium nitrate medium at different concentration of sodium: .23g/l, 1 g/l, 10 g/l) obtained with different inorganic exchangers: titanium oxyde, sodium titanate, sodium zirconate, sodium niobate, sodium tantalate, titanium phosphate, zirconium phosphate, ammonium phosphotungstate in zirconium phosphate, polyantimonic acid amorphous aluminosilicate and several zeolites (ZBS 15 from OXYMIN, ZEOLON 400, ZEOLON 500, ZEOLON 900 from Norton, IE 96, A 51, 13 X from Union Carbide)

  5. One-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Templates

    Wei Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT as templates for the preparation of 1D porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites. The in situ deposited SWCNT were sputter coated with Sn metal and thermally oxidized in air to form a SnO2/SWCNT nanowire framework on SiO2/Si substrate. Poly(acrylic acid (PAA was coated onto this scaffold through UV light-induced radical polymerization, which resulted in the final formation of hybrid composites. The structures of hybrid composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that PAA was successfully coated and the structural advantage of nanowire was fairly maintained, which indicates that this framework is very stable for organic functionalization in solution. The simplicity of this method for the formation of porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites provides a potential application for nanoelectronic devices.

  6. Competitive sorption between glyphosphate and inorganic phosphate on clay minerals and low organic matter soils

    Inorganic phosphate may influence the adsorption of glyphosate to soil surface sites. It has been postulated that glyphosphate sorption is dominated by the phosphoric acid moiety, therefore, inorganic phosphate could compete with glyphosate for surface sorption sites. Sorption of glyphosate is examined in low organic carbon systems where clay minerals dominate the available adsorption sites using 32P-labeled phosphate and 14C-labeled glyphosate to track sorption. Glyphosate sorption was found to be strongly dependent on phosphate additions. Isotherms were generally of the L type, which is consistent with a limited number of surface sites. Most sorption on whole soils could be accounted for by sorption observed on model clays of the same mineral type as found in the soils. (author)

  7. Changes in the inorganic status and enzyme activities in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Chandrashekkhar V. Murumkar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the level of some inorganic constituents and the activities of some important enzyme systems in senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been studied. In senescent leaves, a marked decline in the potassium and phosphorus contents was evident which was accompanied by the accumulation of calcium, silicon, chloride and manganese. Leaf senescence was accompanied by a great increase in hydrolytic processes, as revealed by the increase in the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ATPase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and 3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of nitrogen metabolism enzymes, namely nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase and alanine aminotransferase, and of photorespiratory enzymes -- phosphoglycolate phosphatase, glycolate oxidase and catalase, were lower in senescent leaves. Leaf senescence was further associated with an increase in the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, a considerable depression in pyruvate kinase activity, and a slight elevation in aldolase activity.

  8. Effect of lime, organic and inorganic fertilizer on nodulation and yield of soybean (Glycine max varieties in Ultisol soils

    Suryantini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the effect of soil ameliorant and inorganic fertilizers on nodulation and yield of some soybean varieties. Study was conducted under greenhouse condition in acid soils. Results revealed that all the tested varieties were compatible with native rhizobium at both study areas and showing the formation of nodules. A positive correlation was reported between the number of nodules and soybean grain yield. The number of nodules and final yield production was higher in the area where soybean cultivated regularly as compare to the new area of soybean production. Inorganic fertilizers increased nodulation and grain yield but the highest yields were generally obtained in the treatment of inorganic fertilizer combined with lime or manure. Soybean variety Kaba and Sinabung showed the highest nodulation and grain yield and it was followed by Panderman and Anjasmoro

  9. A new neutron activation technique for simultaneous determination of inorganic and total mercury contents in human hair

    A simple method for simultaneous determination of inorganic and total mercury contents in human hair by neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed. The method is based on the selective extraction of methylmercury from hair by hydrochloric acid. Thus, the residual phase containing inorganic mercury can be determined by NAA. Further, the methylmercury contents in hair samples are easily calculated by subtracting the inorganic mercury contribution from the total Hg simultaneously given by INAA. Several reference materials of human hair, including IAEA hair RM 085 and 086, Chinese hair RMs GBW 09101 and 07601, were analyzed by this method. Our results show that the method is reliable. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Part 6: The Literature of Inorganic Chemistry, Revised.

    Douville, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a list of resources on inorganic chemistry that includes general surveys, nomenclature, dictionaries, handbooks, compilations, and treatises. Selected for use by academic and student chemists. (DDR)

  11. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble a

  12. Radionuclide separations in the nuclear fuel cycle development and application of micro and meso porous inorganic ion-exchangers

    Full text: Full text: From the mining of uranium-containing ores to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, separations technologies play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and viability of the nuclear fuel cycle. With respect to proposed Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC), the integral role of separations is no different with solvent extraction and pyroelectrometalurgical processing dominating efforts to develop a sustainable and publicly acceptable roadmap for nuclear power in the next 100 years. An often forgotten or overlooked separation technology is ion-exchange, more specifically, inorganic ion-exchangers. This is despite the fact that these materials offer the potential advantages of process simplicity; exceptional selectivity against high background concentrations of competing ions; and the possibility of a simple immobilization route for the separated radionculides. ANSTO's principal interest in inorganic ion-exchange materials in recent years has been the development of an inorganic ion-exchanger for the pretreatment of acidic legacy 9 Mo production waste to simultaneously remove radiogenic cesium and strontium. Radiogenic cesium and strontium comprise the majority of activity in such waste and may offer increased ease in the downstream processing to immobilise this waste in a Synroc wasteform. With the reliance on separations technologies in all current ANFC concepts, and the recent admission of ANSTO to the European Commissions EUROPART project, the development of new inorganic ion-exchangers has also expanded within our group. This presentation will provide a background of the fundamentals of inorganic and composite inorganic-organic ion-exchange materials followed by specific discussion of some selected inorganic and composite ion-exchange materials being developed and studied at ANSTO. The detailed structural and ion-exchange chemistry of these materials will be discussed and note made of how such materials could benefit any of the

  13. Common Inorganic Salts Catalyze the Transformations of Organic Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols

    Noziere, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Cordova, A.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation reports the discovery that inorganic salts that are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosols are efficient catalysts for the transformations of organic compounds in these aerosols, by reactions such as aldol condensation or acetal formation.1 For some of these salts, these catalytic properties were not even known in chemistry.2 Kinetic and product studies of these reactions will be presented for carbonyl compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetone, and glyoxal,1,3 and compared with previously known catalysts such as the recently discovered amino acids.4,5 These studies show that these salts make the reactions as fast in typical tropospheric aerosols as in concentrated sulfuric acid. These reactions produce secondary "fulvic" compounds that absorb light in the near UV and visible and would affect the optical properties of aerosols.1,5 They would also account for the depletion of glyoxal recently reported in Mexico city.3 Thus, while acid catalysis is several orders of magnitudes too slow to be significant in tropospheric aerosols, this work identifies new processes that should be ubiquitous in these aerosols and important for atmospheric chemistry. Refs. 1Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Common inorganic ions catalyze chemical reactions of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols, Submitted, 2008. 2 Noziere, B., Cordova, A., A novel catalyst for aldol condensation reaction, patent pending 02/10/2007. 3Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by inorganic ions, Submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008. 4Noziere, B., and Cordova, A., A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the Amino Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde in Aqueous and Salt Solutions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, 2827, 2008. 5Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., and Cordova, A., The Formation of Secondary Light-Absorbing "fulvic-like" Oligomers: A Common Process in Aqueous and Ionic Atmospheric Particles?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34

  14. Measurement of inorganic pyrophosphate levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Ahmad, N.; Cooperman, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in microorganisms has been shown to reach quite high levels, with profound implications for many aspects of cellular metabolism. They have modified the method of Heinonen et al., developed for studies on E. coli and based on selective precipitation of PPi by added Ca/sup 2 +/ and F/sup -/, to measure PPi levels in S. cerevisiae. Cells were lysed in acidic medium containing known amounts of added /sup 32/PPi by vortexing with glass beads. Yields of isolated PPi were calculated on the basis of recovered radioactivity. Measurement of the protein content of the lysate allowed a correction to be made for variability in the efficiency of cell lysis. The results show a remarkable variation in PPi levels along the growth curve. For cells grown with aeration on 2% glucose, the peak value, corresponding to an internal concentration of at least 5mM, is attained in mid- to late-log phase. Concentrations of PPi in early-log phase are at least 10-fold lower.

  15. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  16. Ball-like inorganic ion exchangers

    Presented are the results of works aimed at developing the method of obtaining ball-shaped inorganic ion exchangers with suitable exchange and mechanical properties. Satisfactory results have been obtained at using the sol-gel method, which is characterized by its product of spherical particles. The preparation method of hydrooxidic gels of aluminium, chromium, iron, silicon, germanium, titanium, zirconium, tin, niobium, tantalum, thorium and uranium has been mastered. By the gel conversion of hydrooxidic character, low-soluble compounds, possessing ion exchange properties have been prepared. Among them, phosphates, ferrocyanides, sulfides, molybdates, vanadates are of special significance. Cesium capture on zirconium phosphate, possessing interesting properties from the veiwpoint of nuclear technique, has been considered in detail

  17. Modeling of cooperative properties of inorganic compounds

    When modeling cooperative phenomena, the approach based on the study of certain diamagnetodiluted compounds with increasing concentration of magnetic complexes has been realized sequentially. It has been shown that in the systems with a strong electron-phonon interaction the study of properties of isolated and interacting complexes permits a correct prediction of the structure and magnetic properties of the concentrated compounds. Examples of the study of CuL6 complexes Jahn-Teller effect in various classes of inorganic compounds by the ESR method are considered. The detection and study of the dynamic Jahn-Teller complexes in solid solutions La2-ySryAl1-xCuxO4 permitted suggesting a model dynamic structure of CuO2 basic layer in high-Tc materials

  18. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  19. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  20. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    Miller, Kenneth J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  1. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  2. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter, thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  3. Species and distribution of inorganic selenium in the Bohai Sea

    2006-01-01

    For studying geochemical behavior of selenium, a marine investigation was conducted in September 1998 cruise in the Bohai Sea. Horizontal and vertical distributions of inorganic selenium and selenite were studied. The inorganic selenium varied from 0.73 to 2.41 nmol/L, with an average of 1.31 nmol/L; while selenite varied from 0.18 to 0.72 nmol/L with an average of 0.47 nmol/L. The average ratio of selenite to selenate was 0.68, and selenate was the predominant species of inorganic selenium in the most study area. Concentrations of inorganic selenium and selenite decreased with distance from the coast. No apparent variations of the concentration between surface and bottom was shown. There were two water masses in the area, one from the Huanghe (Yellow) River and other from the Yellow Sea. Of the two,Huanghe River was the major source of inorganic selenium.

  4. End-Grafted Polymer Chains onto Inorganic Nano-Objects

    Demetra S. Achilleos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic nanohybrid materials have attracted particular scientific and technological interest because they combine the properties of the organic and the inorganic component. Inorganic nanoparticles exhibit interesting electrical, optical, magnetic and/or catalytic properties, which are related with their nano-scale dimensions. However, their high surface-to-volume ratio often induces agglomeration and leads to the loss of their attractive properties. Surface modification of the inorganic nano-objects with physically or chemically end-tethered polymer chains has been employed to overcome this problem. Covalent tethered polymer chains are realized by three different approaches: the “grafting to”, the “grafting from” and the “grafting through” method. This article reviews the synthesis of end-grafted polymer chains onto inorganic nanoparticles using “controlled/living” polymerization techniques, which allow control over the polymer characteristics and the grafting density of the end-tethered polymer chains.

  5. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  6. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  7. Water uptake of multicomponent organic mixtures and their influence on hygroscopicity of inorganic salts.

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yucong; Li, Junling; Tong, Shengrui; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-07-01

    The hygroscopic behaviors of atmospherically relevant multicomponent water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) and their effects on ammonium sulfate (AS) and sodium chloride were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) in the relative humidity (RH) range of 5%-90%. The measured hygroscopic growth was compared with predictions from the Extended-Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method. The equal mass multicomponent WSOCs mixture containing levoglucosan, succinic acid, phthalic acid and humic acid showed gradual water uptake without obvious phase change over the whole RH range. It was found that the organic content played an important role in the water uptake of mixed particles. When organic content was dominant in the mixture (75%), the measured hygroscopic growth was higher than predictions from the E-AIM or ZSR relation, especially under high RH conditions. For mass fractions of organics not larger than 50%, the hygroscopic growth of mixtures was in good agreement with model predictions. The influence of interactions between inorganic and organic components on the hygroscopicity of mixed particles was related to the salt type and organic content. These results could contribute to understanding of the hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent aerosol particles. PMID:27372129

  8. Luminescence of novel terbium complex/inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials based on sol–gel technology

    Highlights: ► A new kind of ternary rare earth/inorganic/organic polymeric hybrid materials with covalent bonds was prepared. ► Polyvinyl alcohol was introduced into the hybrids through the polycondensation reactions. ► The rare-earth complex and polymer were connected by the Si-O bonds. ► It is possible to provide an excellent route to obtain optical functional hybrid materials. - Abstract: In this paper, a new terbium complex/inorganic/polymeric molecular hybrid material was prepared and its optical properties were studied. At first, 4-nitrobenzoic acid was modified by (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane to form a precursor and coordinated with terbium ion. Then it was polymerized with inorganic host tetraethoxysilane or polymer host polyvinyl alcohol and formed hybrid material. 1H NMR Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope and TGA were applied to characterize the structure of the precursor. UV–vis spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectra were applied to characterize the photophysical properties of the obtained hybrid material. The strong luminescence of Tb3+ substantiates optimum energy couple and effective intramolecular energy transfer between the triplet state energy of modified ligand bridge and emissive energy level of Tb3+.

  9. Luminescence of novel terbium complex/inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials based on sol-gel technology

    Zhao Limin, E-mail: zhaolimin@lcu.ecu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Shao Xin; Yin Yibin; Li Wenzhi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of ternary rare earth/inorganic/organic polymeric hybrid materials with covalent bonds was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl alcohol was introduced into the hybrids through the polycondensation reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rare-earth complex and polymer were connected by the Si-O bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is possible to provide an excellent route to obtain optical functional hybrid materials. - Abstract: In this paper, a new terbium complex/inorganic/polymeric molecular hybrid material was prepared and its optical properties were studied. At first, 4-nitrobenzoic acid was modified by (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane to form a precursor and coordinated with terbium ion. Then it was polymerized with inorganic host tetraethoxysilane or polymer host polyvinyl alcohol and formed hybrid material. {sup 1}H NMR Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope and TGA were applied to characterize the structure of the precursor. UV-vis spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectra were applied to characterize the photophysical properties of the obtained hybrid material. The strong luminescence of Tb{sup 3+} substantiates optimum energy couple and effective intramolecular energy transfer between the triplet state energy of modified ligand bridge and emissive energy level of Tb{sup 3+}.

  10. Organic and Inorganic Dietary Phosphorus and Its Management in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Nazanin Noori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phosphorus control is often a main strategy in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dietary protein is a major source of phosphorus intake. Recent data indicate that imposed dietary phosphorus restriction may compromise the need for adequate protein intake, leading to protein-energy wasting and possibly to increased mortality. The two main sources of dietary phosphorus are organic, including animal and vegetarian proteins, and inorganic, mostly food preservatives. Animal-based foods and plant are abundant in organic phosphorus. Usually 40% to 60% of animal-based phosphorus is absorbed; this varies by degree of gastrointestinal vitamin-D-receptor activation, whereas plant phosphorus, mostly associated with phytates, is less absorbable by human gastrointestinal tract. Up to 100% of inorganic phosphorus in processed foods may be absorbed; ie, phosphorus in processed cheese and some soda (cola drinks. A recent study suggests that a higher dietary phosphorus-protein intake ratio is associated with incremental death risk in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Hence, for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease, in addition to absolute dietary phosphorus content, the chemical structure (inorganic versus organic, type (animal versus plant, and phosphorus-protein ratio should be considered. We recommend foods and supplements with no or lowest quantity of inorganic phosphorus additives, more plant-based proteins, and a dietary phosphorus-protein ratio of less than 10 mg/g. Fresh (nonprocessed egg white (phosphorus-protein ratio less than 2 mg/g is a good example of desirable food, which contains a high proportion of essential amino acids with low amounts of fat, cholesterol, and phosphorus.

  11. Totally inorganic protective coatings for magnesium alloys based on nanoparticles and sol-gel sealant; Rein anorganische Schutzschichten fuer Magnesiumlegierungen bestehend aus Nanopartikeln und Sol-Gel-Versiegelungen

    Feil, Florian; Fuerbeth, Wolfram [Dechema e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Karl-Winnacker-Instiut

    2011-07-15

    Starting out with aqueous, commercially available silica nanoparticle dispersions and additives, totally inorganic thin protective coatings were formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ91. By repeating the coating process several times followed by thermal sealing at moderate temperatures, coatings of up to 1.5{mu}m thickness could be formed. Using various test electrolyte solutions, these coatings provided localised corrosion protection for several days, although a significant underlying wide area corrosion was observed. As a result of residual porosity, electrolytes were able to diffuse through the coating and form corrosion products. Coatings based on acid-catalysed or acid-stabilised polymer solutions are in general less porous than coatings formed from particulate containing solutions. Sealing of dispersion coatings with purely inorganic polymer liquors provides a superior protective action for a given coating thickness. Long-term stability is improved by the use of inorganic corrosion inhibitors. (orig.)

  12. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as μg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe

  13. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  14. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Meharg, Andrew A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.uk; Sun, Guoxin [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as {mu}g/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe.

  15. First implementation of secondary inorganic aerosols in the MOCAGE version R2.15.0 chemistry transport model

    Guth, J.; Josse, B.; Marécal, V.; Joly, M.; Hamer, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop a secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) module for the MOCAGE chemistry transport model developed at CNRM. The aim is to have a module suitable for running at different model resolutions and for operational applications with reasonable computing times. Based on the ISORROPIA II thermodynamic equilibrium module, the new version of the model is presented and evaluated at both the global and regional scales. The results show high concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols in the most polluted regions: Europe, Asia and the eastern part of North America. Asia shows higher sulfate concentrations than other regions thanks to emission reductions in Europe and North America. Using two simulations, one with and the other without secondary inorganic aerosol formation, the global model outputs are compared to previous studies, to MODIS AOD retrievals, and also to in situ measurements from the HTAP database. The model shows a better agreement with MODIS AOD retrievals in all geographical regions after introducing the new SIA scheme. It also provides a good statistical agreement with in situ measurements of secondary inorganic aerosol composition: sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. In addition, the simulation with SIA generally gives a better agreement with observations for secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (nitric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia), in particular with a reduction of the modified normalized mean bias (MNMB). At the regional scale, over Europe, the model simulation with SIA is compared to the in situ measurements from the EMEP database and shows a good agreement with secondary inorganic aerosol composition. The results at the regional scale are consistent with those obtained from the global simulations. The AIRBASE database was used to compare the model to regulated air quality pollutants: particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Introduction of the SIA in MOCAGE provides a reduction in the PM2.5 MNMB of 0.44 on a

  16. Tuberculosis: An Inorganic Medicinal Chemistry Perspective.

    Viganor, Livia; Skerry, Ciaran; McCann, Malachy; Devereux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) which is caused by the resilient pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has re-emerged to become a leading public health problem in the world. The growing number of multi-drug resistant MTB strains and the more recently emerging problem with the extensively drug resistant strains of the pathogen are greatly undermining conventional anti-TB therapeutic strategies which are lengthy and expose patients to toxicity and other unwanted side effects. The search for new anti-TB drugs essentially involves either the repurposing of existing organic drugs which are now off patent and already FDA approved, the synthesis of modified analogues of existing organic drugs, with the aim of shortening and improving drug treatment for the disease, or the search for novel structures that offer the possibility of new mechanisms of action against the mycobacterium. Inorganic medicinal chemistry offers an alternative to organic drugs through opportunities for the design of therapeutics that target different biochemical pathways. The incorporation of metal ions into the molecular structure of a potential drug offers the medicinal chemist an opportunity to exploit structural diversity, have access to various oxidation states of the metal and also offer the possibility of enhancing the activity of an established organic drug through its coordination to the metal centre. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the antitubercular capability of metal complexes, their mechanisms of action and speculate on their potential applications in the clinic. PMID:25850770

  17. Liquid effluent treatment using inorganic absorbers

    The use of inorganic absorbers for the removal of a number of specified elements from aqueous waste streams has been studied. A worldwide review of the literature on the subject has been carried out and a number of processes identified at various stages of development, from the experimental to the fully developed industrial scale. The processes have been reduced to two major types; precipitation techniques, both seeded and unseeded and ion exchange. The chemical aspects of the use of such materials have been examined with regard to the processes and the nuclides in question. A comparative costing exercise has been carried out on typical processes examining plant, process and disposal costs, and has shown that one of the over-riding factors in deciding the economics of precipitation processes is the subsequent dewatering stage; because of the relatively low amounts of waste produced ion-exchange processes involving the use of columns have been found to have the lowest overall costs. Finally, a number of gaps in the present state of knowledge in this field have been identified and a number of recommendations are made. (author)

  18. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd3 (Al, Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6LiCaAlF6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3He. (author)

  19. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming;

    2015-01-01

    improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigated the effect of band offset between inorganic HTM/absorber layers. The solar cell simulation program adopted in this work is named wxAMPS, an updated version of the AMPS tool (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure).......Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...

  1. Studies on inorganic exchangers - manganese dioxide

    As a part of investigation of separation processes for long lived fission products from fuel reprocessing solution, manganese dioxide has been studied as an ion exchanger for cerium using 137Cs, 106Ru, 141Ce, sup(85,89)Sr, 95Zr and 95Nb as tracers. For different concentrations of HNO3, distribution ratios and breakthrough capacities were determined. Cerium was eluted by manganese sulphate and nitric acid. Results show that : (1) at all acidities cerium is adsorbed with almost no uptake of other rare earths, sodium, uranium and plutonium, (2) Ce (IV) gives better adsorption than Ce(III), (3) a combination of manganese sulphate (1 mg/ml) and 3M nitric acid elutes 99% cerium in 5-6 column volumes and (4) as for effect of absorption-elution cycles on MnO2 column, initially there is a decrease in capacity of cerium uptake but thereafter the capacity remains constant. (M.G.B.)

  2. Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds theory and applications in inorganic chemistry

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The Sixth Edition of this classic work comprises the most comprehensive and current guide to infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and coordination compounds. From fundamental theories of vibrational spectroscopy to applications in a variety of compound types, this has been extensively updated. New topics include the theoretical calculations of vibrational frequencies (DFT method), chemical synthesis by matrix co-condensation reactions, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and more. This volume is a core reference for chemists and medical professionals working with infrared or Raman spectroscopies and an excellent textbook for graduate courses.

  3. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Principles and examples

    This text-book consist of eighteen parts: (1) Classification and nomenclature of elements; (2) Classification and nomenclature of chemical compounds; (3) Nomenclature systems; (4) Classification of chemical formulas; (5) Codified numerical prefixes; (6) General principles of nomenclature; (7) Binary compounds; (8) Neutral and cationic atomic groups terminated with -YL; (9) Acids; (10) Polynuclear acids; (11) Double salts and mixed forms of oxides and hydroxides; (12) Adducts; (13) Intermetallic compounds; (14) Isotopically modified compounds; (15) Coordination compounds; (16) Organometallic compounds and their derivatives; (17) Appendixes; (18) Used and recommended literature. This text-book is assigned for university students of the chemistry and related sciences.

  4. DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Yijing; Yang, Xiangyu; Kim, Young-Hwa; Zhang, Huimin; Jia, Rui; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Jin, Albert; Lin, Jing; Aronova, Maria; Leapman, Richard; Nie, Zhihong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit cancer development. Unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing oligonucleotides (CpG), a class of potent adjuvants that activate the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) located in the endolysosome of many antigen-presenting cells (APCs), are promising for cancer immunotherapy. However, clinical application of synthetic CpG confronts many challenges such as suboptimal delivery into APCs, unfavorable pharmacokinetics caused by limited biostability and short in vivo half-life, and side effects associated with leaking of CpG into the systemic circulation. Here we present DNA-inorganic hybrid nanovaccines (hNVs) for efficient uptake into APCs, prolonged tumor retention, and potent immunostimulation and cancer immunotherapy. hNVs were self-assembled from concatemer CpG analogs and magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg2PPi). Mg2PPi renders hNVs resistant to nuclease degradation and thermal denaturation, both of which are demanding characteristics for effective vaccination and the storage and transportation of vaccines. Fluorophore-labeled hNVs were tracked to be efficiently internalized into the endolysosomes of APCs, where Mg2PPi was dissolved in an acidic environment and thus CpG analogs were exposed to hNVs. Internalized hNVs in APCs led to (1) elevated secretion of proinflammatory factors, and (2) elevated expression of co-stimulatory factors. Compared with molecular CpG, hNVs dramatically prolonged the tissue retention of CpG analogs and reduced splenomegaly, a common side effect of CpG. In a melanoma mouse model, two injections of hNVs significantly inhibited the tumor growth and outperformed the molecular CpG. These results suggest hNVs are promising for cancer immunotherapy.Cancer evolves to evade or compromise the surveillance of the immune system, and cancer immunotherapy aims to harness the immune system in order to inhibit

  5. Feasibility studies on the decontamination of caesium-137 in purex process streams by use of inorganic ion exchanger ammonium molybdo phosphate

    In the purex process condensate streams it is essential to bring down the gamma activity due to 137Cs to an acceptable limit prior to its discharge. Application of the inorganic ion exchanger micro cystal salt of heteropoly acid ammonium molybdo phosphate has been investigated. (author). 7 refs

  6. Some Reactions of Recoil Atoms in Solid Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds

    In connection with our interest in the recoil chemistry of radiophosphorus it was considered worthwhile to investigate systems in which tritium recoils can be produced and subsequently react with inorganic anions of phosphorus. One purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility for tritium recoils to replace (''displace'') either an oxygen or a hydrogen atom bound to phosphorus. For instance, oxygen replacement in an orthophosphate ion (PO4)-3 could lead to a (TPO3)-2 ion (phosphite), hydrogen replacement in hypophosphite could lead to (HTPO2). A number of lithium salts of orthophosphoric, phosphorous and hypophosphorous acid were irradiated with neutrons, the nuclear reaction Li6 (n, α)H3 serving as the source for the energetic tritium atoms. Through a step-wise oxidation procedure tritium bound to phosphorus was converted into HTO and radio-assayed by means of liquid scintillation counting. The results indicate that replacement of oxygen by tritium in orthophosphates is highly unlikely. When phosphites and hypophosphites are the target material, an appreciable percentage of the tritium recoils end up bound to phosphorus. The second purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the labelling of the tripolyphosphate - P32 anion, formed by recoiling P32 particles in a number of crystalline phosphates, deviates from a uniform distribution. A number of phosphates were irradiated with neutrons. The tripolyphosphate - P32 formed was separated by precipitation as the tris (ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) salt. By means of a step-wise degradation into orthophosphate the distribution of the P32 among the two possible positions in the anion was measured. One result of this study is that when anhydrous orthophosphates are the target material, there is as predicted, a strong preference for the tripolyphosphate - P32 formed to be labelled at the centre. These and other results are discussed in the light of current concepts of ''hot

  7. On line pre-concentration for simultaneous determination of low molecular weight organic acids and inorganic anions in Amazonian river water samples employing ion chromatography with conductivity detection Pré-concentração em linha para a determinação simultânea de ácidos carboxílicos de baixo peso molecular e ânions inorgânicos em amostras de rios da Amazônia empregando cromatografia de íons com detecção por condutividade elétrica

    Cristiane Azevedo Tumang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An ion chromatography procedure, employing an IonPac AC15 concentrator column was used to investigate on line preconcentration for the simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and organic acids in river water. Twelve organic acids and nine inorganic anions were separated without any interference from other compounds and carry-over problems between samples. The injection loop was replaced by a Dionex AC15 concentrator column. The proposed procedure employed an auto-sampler that injected 1.5 ml of sample into a KOH mobile phase, generated by an Eluent Generator, at 1.5 mL min-1, which carried the sample to the chromatographic columns (one guard column, model AG-15, and one analytical column, model AS15, with 250 x 4mm i.d.. The gradient elution concentrations consisted of a 10.0 mmol l-1 KOH solution from 0 to 6.5 min, gradually increased to 45.0 mmol l-1 KOH at 21 min., and immediatelly returned and maintained at the initial concentrations until 24 min. of total run. The compounds were eluted and transported to an electro-conductivity detection cell that was attached to an electrochemical detector. The advantage of using concentrator column was the capability of performing routine simultaneous determinations for ions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg l-1 organic acids (acetate, propionic acid, formic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid, pyruvate, tartaric acid, phthalic acid, methanesulfonic acid, valeric acid, maleic acid, oxalic acid, chlorate and citric acid and 0.01 to 5.0 mg l-1 inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, bromide, sulfate and phosphate, without extensive sample pretreatment and with an analysis time of only 24 minutes.A metodologia analítica foi desenvolvida empregando coluna pré-concentradora AC15 em linha na cromatografia iônica na determinação simultânea de ânions orgânicos e inorgânicos, com uso de coluna de guarda AG15 e analítica AS15, 250 x 4 mm i.d. (Dionex Corp.. O gradiente de concentração do eluente

  8. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    , the partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render was studied. In this study the partitioning constants of benzoisothiazolinone, carbendazim, dichlorooctylisothiazolinone, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, irgarol, mecoprop, methylisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn...

  9. Sol-gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    chemistry and photocatalysis, provides an opportunity to teach valuable laboratory skills and to introduce students to the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of inorganic materials. This laboratory activity is adaptable to a range of educational levels and to various instrumental techniques....

  10. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  11. Incorporation of inorganic carbon by Antarctic cryptoendolithic fungi

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Fungi isolated from the cryptoendolithic community of the Ross Desert are capable of fixing inorganic carbon. Results suggest that lichen mycobionts and parasymbionts are adapted to different water regimes in the cryptoendolithic environment.

  12. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  13. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    Weckhuysen, B. M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  14. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  15. Crystallization at Inorganic-Organic Interfaces: Biominerals and Biomimetic Synthesis

    Mann, Stephen; Archibald, Douglas D.; Didymus, Jon M.; Douglas, Trevor; Heywood, Brigid R.; Meldrum, Fiona C.; Reeves, Nicholas J.

    1993-09-01

    Crystallization is an important process in a wide range of scientific disciplines including chemistry, physics, biology, geology, and materials science. Recent investigations of biomineralization indicate that specific molecular interactions at inorganic-organic interfaces can result in the controlled nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. Synthetic systems have highlighted the importance of electrostatic binding or association, geometric matching (epitaxis), and stereochemical correspondence in these recognition processes. Similarly, organic molecules in solution can influence the morphology of inorganic crystals if there is molecular complementarity at the crystal-additive interface. A biomimetic approach based on these principles could lead to the development of new strategies in the controlled synthesis of inorganic nanophases, the crystal engineering of bulk solids, and the assembly of organized composite and ceramic materials.

  16. Organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake in lichens.

    Dahlman, Lena; Persson, Jörgen; Palmqvist, Kristin; Näsholm, Torgny

    2004-07-01

    In order to learn more about nitrogen (N) acquisition in lichens, and to see whether different lichens differ in their affinity to various N sources, N uptake was measured in 14 various lichen associations ("species"). These species represented various morphologies (fruticose or foliose), contrasting microhabitat preferences (epiphytic or terricolous), and had green algal, cyanobacterial or both forms of photobionts. N was supplied under non-limiting conditions as an amino acid mixture, ammonium, or nitrate, using 15N to quantify uptake. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used to separate active and passive uptake. Thallus N, amino acids, soluble polyol concentrations, and the biont-specific markers chlorophyll a and ergosterol were quantified, aiming to test if these metabolites or markers were correlated with N uptake capacity. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater and to a higher extent passive, relative to the other two N sources. Nitrate uptake differed among lichen photobiont groups, cyanobacterial lichens having a lower uptake rate. All lichens had the capacity to assimilate amino acids, in many species at rates equal to nitrate uptake or even higher, suggesting that organic N compounds could potentially have an important role in the N nutrition of these organisms. There were no clear correlations between N uptake rates and any of the measured metabolites or markers. The relative uptake rates of ammonium, nitrate and amino acids were not related to morphology or microhabitat. PMID:15060826

  17. High temperature inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Effort has continued to accumulate data on the transport of gases over the temperature range from room temperature to 275{degrees}C with inorganic membranes having a range of pore radii from approximately 0.25 nm to 3 mn. An experimental alumina membrane having an estimated mean pore radius of 0.25 nm has been fabricated and tested. Extensive testing of this membrane indicated that the separation factor for helium and carbon tetrafluoride at 250{degrees}C was 59 and the extrapolated high temperature separation factor was 1,193. For safety reasons, earlier flow measurements concentrated on helium, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrafluoride. New data have been acquired with hydrogen to verify the agreement with the other gases. During the measurements with hydrogen, it was noted that a considerable amount of moisture was present in the test gas. The source of this moisture and its effect on permeance was examined. Improvements were implemented to the flow test system to minimize the water content of the hydrogen test gas, and subsequent flow measurements have shown excellent results with hydrogen. The extrapolation of separation factors as a function of temperature continues to show promise as a means of using the hard sphere model to determine the pore size of membranes. The temperature dependence of helium transport through membranes appears to be considerably greater than other gases for the smallest pore sizes. The effort to extend temperature dependence to the hard sphere model continues to be delayed, primarily because of a lack of adequate adsorption data.

  18. Autonomous Sensing of Particulate Inorganic Carbon Dynamics

    Weiss, G. A.; Bishop, J. K.; Strubhar, W. D.; Wood, T.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) is produced by coccolithophore phytoplankton and shelled foraminifera and pterpod microzooplankton. These calcite and aragonite particles contribute to excess density of aggregate particles enabling carbon export from surface waters; they are sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification. Concentrations in surface waters range from below 100 nM in oligotrophic waters to 40 uM in the North Atlantic. Very limited ship observations in the Oyashio and subarctic NE Pacific show short term PIC variability of more than one order of magitude over 10 days and 3 months, respectively. At depth concentrations can drop to near zero in waters deeper than the carbonate saturation horizon. Seasonal variations of a factor of two or more at 1000 m depth have been observed. Near surface variability is impossible to follow from ships. We are working on the development of a robust PIC sensor capable of deployment on platforms ranging from CTD's to floats and thus address the gap in observations. The sensor, which uses cross polarized optics, detects the photons that have interacted with birefringent minerals (of which calcite dominates) in the water column. The detection of this very weak signal - which can be 10-6 of the primary beam energy is a daunting task. Here we report results from incomparison deployments of a 'next gen' and prototype sensor during recent expeditions to California coastal and offshore waters (NE Pacific Gyre, Santa Barbara Basin (June 2009); Santa Catalina Basin (October 2010), Santa Cruz Basin (May 2011), California Current and Coastal Waters (July 2011; September 2011). In addition we report calibrations the sensors based on particulate samples filtered from 1L samples and analyzed by HR-ICP-MS.

  19. Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates.

    Rost, Björn; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Riebesell, Ulf; Hansen, Per Juel

    2006-05-01

    Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom-forming dinollagellates-Prorocentrum minimum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum. In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O2 evolution, CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14C-disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K1/2) for photosynthetic O2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO3- uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affinity for HCO3- and maximum uptake rates increased under higher pH. The strong preference for HCO3- was also confirmed by the 14C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of carbon acquisition were consistent with the 13C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific difference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters. PMID:17087465

  20. Controlled structuration and functionalization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials obtained by sol-gel process are very interesting materials. Indeed, these materials have both the properties of the organic phase and those of the inorganic matrix. Two functionalization and structuration ways are presented here: 1)the meso-porous hybrid materials formed in presence of structuring surfactant and the lamellar hybrid materials obtained by auto-assembling. (O.M.)

  1. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  2. Factors influencing the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in humans

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena

    2007-01-01

    p>Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a naturally occurring drinking water contaminant, is a potent human carcinogen and toxicant. It is believed that in humans, as well as in most mammals, inorganic arsenic is biotransformed via reduction and methylation using one-carbon metabolism with S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as methyl donor, and is excreted mainly in urine as dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA) as well as some unmethylated iAs (arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III))....

  3. Human Exposure Assessment of Engineered Inorganic Nanoparticles in Food

    Fabricius, Lars

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly important part of food technology is nanotechnology. Inorganic nanoparticles are added directly or indirectly to food in order to create new tastes, appetizing looks or to preserve it longer. Exposure to these nanoparticles is fairly unknown, and there is a need to evaluate the dose that humans are exposed to. In this master thesis, two inorganic substances have been chosen. The first one is silver nanoparticles, commonly known as an antimicrobial agent and added to plastic fo...

  4. Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Angsten, Thomas; Jain, Anubhav; Notestine, Randy; Gamst, Anthony; Sluiter, Marcel; Ande, Chaitanya Krishna; Zwaag, Sybrand van der; Plata, Jose J.; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Asta, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits the ability of materials scien...

  5. Determination of some inorganic and organic pollutants in water

    Gabrijel Cotič, Barbka

    2012-01-01

    The main topic of this diploma thesis is to determine the quality of the surface waters. Extensive use of the fertilisers (artificial and natural) and pesticides, all this in the main goal of higher yield, can pollute surface waters and environment in general and therefore affects the quality of life. In this diploma thesis, I determined inorganic pollutants in selected samples of surface waters and compare them with the maximum values legally allowed. The presence of selected inorganic i...

  6. Progress of Novel Inkjet Technique for Inorganic Materials Preparation

    WANG Zhuo,LI Yong-Xiang,YANG Qun-Bao

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, inkjet technique has attracted great attention for its use as a form-free fabrication method for building 3-D structure of inorganic materials and combinatorial material chips. This article reviews the progress of inorganic materials prepared by inkjet technique, including the development of inkjet printing system, the properties of different ink, applications, challenges and the hot of recent research. The fabrication of conducting circuits and setup of an electromagne...

  7. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  8. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  9. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  10. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them.Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and

  11. Effects of mineral dust on the semivolatile inorganic aerosol components in a polluted Megacity

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosols play a significant role in the atmosphere having adverse impacts on human health and directly affecting air quality, visibility and climate change. One of the most challenging tasks for models is the prediction of the partitioning of the semivolatile inorganic aerosol components (ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, etc) between the gas and particulate phases. Moreover, the effects of mineral aerosols in the atmosphere remain largely uncertain. As a result, most current models have serious difficulties in reproducing the observed particulate nitrate and chloride concentrations. The improved aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA II (Fountoukis and Nenes, 2007) simulating explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts has been linked to the regional chemical transport model PMCAMx (Gaydos et al., 2007). PMCAMx also includes the CMU inorganic aerosol growth module (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a) and the VSRM aqueous-phase chemistry module (Fahey and Pandis, 2001). The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modeling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in the coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium, while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. PMCAMx is applied to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The emission inventory has been improved and now includes more accurate dust and NaCl emissions. The April 2003 (MCMA Campaign) and the March 2006 (MILAGRO campaign) datasets are used to evaluate the inorganic aerosol module of PMCAMx in order to test our understanding of inorganic aerosol. The results from the new modeling framework are also compared with the results from the previous version of PMCAMx in order to investigate the influence of each of the added features to the formation of the semivolatile inorganic components. References Fountoukis, C. and Nenes, A., (2007). ISORROPIA II: a computationally efficient

  12. Arsenic and selenium mobilisation from organic matter treated mine spoil with and without inorganic fertilisation

    Organic matter amendments are applied to contaminated soil to provide a better habitat for re-vegetation and remediation, and olive mill waste compost (OMWC) has been described as a promising material for this aim. We report here the results of an incubation experiment carried out in flooded conditions to study its influence in As and metal solubility in a trace elements contaminated soil. NPK fertilisation and especially organic amendment application resulted in increased As, Se and Cu concentrations in pore water. Independent of the amendment, dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the most abundant As species in solution. The application of OMWC increased pore water dissolved organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations, which may explain the observed mobilisation of As, Cu and Se; phosphate added in NPK could also be in part responsible of the mobilisation caused in As. Therefore, the application of soil amendments in mine soils may be particularly problematic in flooded systems. Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic amendments were added to a mine soil in flooding conditions. ► Olive mill waste compost (OMWC) provoked As, Se and Cu solubilisation. ► Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the predominant As species in pore water. ► Selenium volatilisation from soils was intense. - The addition of organic amendment and/or inorganic fertiliser to a trace element contaminated soil in flooded conditions led to As, Cu and Se solubilisation.

  13. Evaluation of organic and inorganic adsorbents for the removal of uranium and plutonium from process streams

    Herald, W.R.; Koenst, J.W.; Luthy, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    Mound Laboratory is evaluating macroporous, ion exchange resins for the removal of plutonium, uranium, and various colloids from process waste treatment effluents. A number of organic ion exchange resins were evaluated for removal of /sup 238/Pu(IV), /sup 238/Pu(VI), and /sup 233/U(VI) from water using batch isotherm tests. The capacity and equilibrium distribution coefficients were compared with each other and with bone char, an inorganic adsorbent consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP). The various types of adsorbents showed that the extent of removal and the equilibrium coefficients (Kd) were functions of pH. For removal of polymeric plutonium, /sup 238/Pu(IV), the best results were achieved using the inorganic adsorbent, bone char (hydroxyapatite), at pH 7. However, macroporous, weak base, anion exchange resins also showed reasonable Kd values at pH 7. Therefore, the best removal of polymeric plutonium can be achieved using chemisorption or weak base anionic exchange, indicating strongly ionized anions. Excellent results for removal of /sup 238/Pu(VI) were achieved using macroporous, strong base, anion exchange resins and macroporous, strong acid, cation exchange resins. For removal of ionic /sup 233/U(VI), the strongly acidic cation exchangers gave the better results; the Kd values were on the order of 10/sup 2/ better than bone char. Again, performance was strongly dependent upon pH. Adsorbent resins which remove constituents by physical adsorption did not perform well for uranium removal.

  14. Test Research for Basic Mechanics Performance of Inorganic Polymer Concrete

    Huihong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the basic mechanics properties (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and splitting tensile strength of inorganic polymer concrete whose mix proportion is ripe recipe and try to provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for application of inorganic polymer concrete in the practical engineering. In this study, the basic mechanics properties of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied by test. At the same time, the same tests researches are made for the common Portland cement concrete for comparison. Through the comparison research, it can be found that the compressive bearing capacity of inorganic polymer concrete is stronger and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio is slightly bigger than those of common concrete and that the splitting tensile strength is as poor as those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. In order to investigate its long-term performance, the shrinkage and creep tests of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied as well. The change rules of shrinkage and creep in inorganic polymer concrete with time are obtained. It is that initial deformation is bigger and late deformation gradually becomes small and stable. These rules are basic similar as common Portland cement concrete.

  15. Implementation of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to inorganic aerosol modeling of observations from the MCMA-2003 campaign ? Part II: Model application to the CENICA, Pedregal and Santa Ana sites

    San Martini, F. M.; E. J. Dunlea; R. Volkamer; Onasch, T. B.; J. T. Jayne; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; C. E. Kolb; J. H. Shorter; S. C. Herndon; M. S. Zahniser; D. Salcedo; Dzepina, K.; Jimenez, J. L; Ortega, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model for integrating the observations of inorganic species with a thermodynamic equilibrium model was presented in Part I of this series. Using observations taken at three ground sites, i.e. a residential, industrial and rural site, during the MCMA-2003 campaign in Mexico City, the model is used to analyze the inorganic particle and ammonia data and to predict gas phase concentrations of nitric and hydrochloric acid. In general, the model is able to accurately pred...

  16. Implementation of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to inorganic aerosol modeling of observations from the MCMA-2003 campaign – Part II: Model application to the CENICA, Pedregal and Santa Ana sites

    San Martini, F. M.; Dunlea, E. J.; R. Volkamer; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Shorter, J. H.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; D. Salcedo; Dzepina, K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ortega, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    A Markov Chain Monte Carlo model for integrating the observations of inorganic species with a thermodynamic equilibrium model was presented in Part I of this series. Using observations taken at three ground sites, i.e. a residential, industrial and rural site, during the MCMA-2003 campaign in Mexico City, the model is used to analyze the inorganic particle and ammonia data and to predict gas phase concentrations of nitric and hydrochloric acid. In general, the mode...

  17. Simulating the SOA formation of isoprene from partitioning and aerosol phase reactions in the presence of inorganics

    R. L. Beardsley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by the photooxidation of isoprene with and without inorganic seed is simulated using the Unified Partitioning Aerosol Phase Reaction (UNIPAR model. Recent work has found the SOA formation of isoprene to be sensitive to both aerosol acidity ([H+] and aerosol liquid water content (LWC with the presence of either leading to significant aerosol phase organic mass generation and large growth in SOA yields (YSOA. Classical partitioning models alone are insufficient to predict isoprene SOA formation due to the high volatility of the photooxidation products and the sensitivity of their mass yields to variations in inorganic aerosol composition. UNIPAR utilizes the chemical structures provided by a near-explicit chemical mechanism to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the gas phase products, which are lumped based on their calculated vapor pressure (8 groups and aerosol phase reactivity (6 groups. UNIPAR then determines the SOA formation of each lumping group from both partitioning and aerosol phase reactions (oligomerization, acid catalyzed reactions, and organosulfate formation assuming a single homogeneously mixed organic–inorganic phase as a function of inorganic composition and VOC / NOx. The model is validated using isoprene photooxidation experiments performed in the dual, outdoor UF APHOR chambers. UNIPAR is able to predict the experimental SOA formation of isoprene without seed, with H2SO4 seed gradually titrated by ammonia, and with the acidic seed generated by SO2 oxidation. Oligomeric mass is predicted to account for more than 65 % of the total OM formed in all cases and over 85 % in the presence of strongly acidic seed. The model is run to determine the sensitivity of YSOA to [H+], LWC, and VOC / NOx, and it is determined that the SOA formation of isoprene is most strongly related to [H+] but is dynamically related to all three parameters. For VOC / NOx > 10, with increasing NOx both

  18. Simulating the SOA formation of isoprene from partitioning and aerosol phase reactions in the presence of inorganics

    Beardsley, Ross L.; Jang, Myoseon

    2016-05-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by the photooxidation of isoprene with and without inorganic seed is simulated using the Unified Partitioning Aerosol Phase Reaction (UNIPAR) model. Recent work has found the SOA formation of isoprene to be sensitive to both aerosol acidity ([H+], mol L-1) and aerosol liquid water content (LWC) with the presence of either leading to significant aerosol phase organic mass generation and large growth in SOA yields (YSOA). Classical partitioning models alone are insufficient to predict isoprene SOA formation due to the high volatility of photooxidation products and sensitivity of their mass yields to variations in inorganic aerosol composition. UNIPAR utilizes the chemical structures provided by a near-explicit chemical mechanism to estimate the thermodynamic properties of the gas phase products, which are lumped based on their calculated vapor pressure (eight groups) and aerosol phase reactivity (six groups). UNIPAR then determines the SOA formation of each lumping group from both partitioning and aerosol phase reactions (oligomerization, acid-catalyzed reactions and organosulfate formation) assuming a single homogeneously mixed organic-inorganic phase as a function of inorganic composition and VOC / NOx (VOC - volatile organic compound). The model is validated using isoprene photooxidation experiments performed in the dual, outdoor University of Florida Atmospheric PHotochemical Outdoor Reactor (UF APHOR) chambers. UNIPAR is able to predict the experimental SOA formation of isoprene without seed, with H2SO4 seed gradually titrated by ammonia, and with the acidic seed generated by SO2 oxidation. Oligomeric mass is predicted to account for more than 65 % of the total organic mass formed in all cases and over 85 % in the presence of strongly acidic seed. The model is run to determine the sensitivity of YSOA to [H+], LWC and VOC / NOx, and it is determined that the SOA formation of isoprene is most strongly related to [H

  19. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  20. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo......H. In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris...

  1. Rumen Microorganisms Decrease Bioavailability of Inorganic Selenium Supplements.

    Galbraith, M L; Vorachek, W R; Estill, C T; Whanger, P D; Bobe, G; Davis, T Z; Hall, J A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the availability of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study was to determine whether rumen microorganisms (RMO) alter the bioavailability of Se sources commonly used in Se supplements. Rumen microorganisms were isolated from ewes (n = 4) and incubated ex vivo with no Se (control), with inorganic Na selenite or Na selenate, or with organic selenomethionine (SeMet). Total Se incorporated into RMO and the amount of elemental Se formed were determined under equivalent conditions. Incorporation of Se from Na selenite, Na selenate, or SeMet into RMO was measured as fold change compared with control (no added Se). Incorporation of Se into microbial mass was greater for SeMet (13.2-fold greater than no-Se control) compared with inorganic Se supplements (P = 0.02); no differences were observed between inorganic Na selenate (3.3-fold greater than no-Se control) and Na selenite (3.5-fold greater than no-Se control; P = 0.97). Formation of non-bioavailable, elemental Se was less for RMO incubated with SeMet compared with inorganic Se sources (P = 0.01); no differences were observed between Na selenate and Na selenite (P = 0.09). The clinical importance of these results is that the oral bioavailability of organic SeMet should be greater compared with inorganic Se sources because of greater RMO incorporation of Se and decreased formation of elemental Se by RMO. PMID:26537117

  2. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C7-C9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  3. Novel complexes of Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ with N-(phosphonomethyl)aminosuccinic acid

    Trunova, O. K.; Shovkova, G. V.; Gerasimchuk, A. I.; Večerníková, Eva; Bezdička, Petr; Šubrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2014), s. 697-706. ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Carboxyphosphonate * N-(phosphonomethyl)aminosuccinic acid * Thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014

  4. Self-assembled hierarchically structured organic-inorganic composite systems.

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Designing bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composite materials is one of the most popular current research objectives. Due to the high complexity of biocomposite structures found in nacre and bone, for example, a one-pot scalable and versatile synthesis approach addressing structural key features of biominerals and affording bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composites with advanced physical properties is highly challenging. This article reviews recent progress in synthesizing organic-inorganic composite materials via various self-assembly techniques and in this context highlights a recently developed bio-inspired synthesis concept for the fabrication of hierarchically structured, organic-inorganic composite materials. This one-step self-organization concept based on simultaneous liquid crystal formation of anisotropic inorganic nanoparticles and a functional liquid crystalline polymer turned out to be simple, fast, scalable and versatile, leading to various (multi-)functional composite materials, which exhibit hierarchical structuring over several length scales. Consequently, this synthesis approach is relevant for further progress and scientific breakthrough in the research field of bio-inspired and biomimetic materials. PMID:27175790

  5. Determination of inorganic anions in papermaking waters by ion chromatography

    DARJA ŽARKOVIĆ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A suppressed ion chromatography (IC method for the determination of inorganic anions in process water from paperboard production was developed and validated. Common inorganic anions (Cl-, NO3-, PO43- and SO42- were detected in fresh and process water samples collected from a paperboard production system at 16 characteristic points. It was shown that the use of an IonPac®-AS14 column under isocratic conditions with Na2CO3/NaHCO3 as the eluent and a suppression device proved to be a reliable analytical solution for the separation of the inorganic anions present in papermaking waters. This IC method is quite satisfactory concerning selectivity and sensitivity, and enables the determination of several inorganic anions over a wide concentration range. According to the obtained results, the total amount of analyzed inorganic anions was below 0.1 g/L, i.e., below the critical value which may trigger operational problems in paper production.

  6. Absorption-edge calculations of inorganic nonlinear optical crystals

    Wu, Kechen; Chen, Chuangtian

    1992-03-01

    A theoretical model suitable for calculating absorption edges of inorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals is introduced. This model is proved to be useful to elucidate the relationship between electronic structures of NLO-active groups and macroscopic properties of absorption edges on the UV side of most of the inorganic nonlinear optical crystals. A systematic calculation of absorption edges on the UV side for several important inorganic NLO crystals is carried out by means of DV-SCM-Xα method and all calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data. These inorganic NLO crystals include LiB3O5(LBO), β-BaB2O4(BBO), KB5, KDP, Na2SbF5, Ba2TiSi2O8, iodate and NaNO2. The calculated energy level structures of LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 crystals are compared with the measured XPS spectra. The unusual transparent spectra of KB5 and KDP crystals are partly explained from the microstructure point of view. The effect of lone electron pair in iodate and NaNO2 crystals on their absorption edges are discussed. All these results show that Anionic Group Theory of Nonlinear Optical Crystals is useful to evaluate the absorption edges of the inorganic nonlinear optical crystal and is a powerful tool in a Molecular Engineering approach to search for new nonlinear optical materials.

  7. Solubility estimation of inorganic salts in supercritical water

    Highlights: • A pragmatic approach to estimate solubility of inorganic salts in SCW is employed. • R-HKF, Density and SAA models are used to evaluate chemical equilibrium constant. • Models predictability in estimating solubility of inorganic salts is evaluated. • A simplified SAA model competes well with a complex R-HKF in solubility estimation. - Abstract: Presence of minute amount of inorganic salts in supercritical water (SCW) can cause equipment scaling, erosion and corrosion, reaction disturbance and process malfunctions. Thermodynamic modeling reduces experimental measurements; hence, solubility of several inorganic salts with available empirical solubility data (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and MgSO4) within temperature and pressure ranges of (623–823) K and (9.0–25.0) MPa, respectively, is estimated following determination of the dissociation constant, K, in SCW using three known models, namely, R-HKF, Sue–Adschiri–Arai (SAA) and Density model. Results obtained are compared with the experimental data to assess the suitability of the models in predicting the solubility of these inorganic salts in SCW, which indicate that R-HKF model is satisfactorily capable of correlating solubility for these salts. In almost every case except NaCl, SAA has provided similar estimation to R-HKF model. The Density model however, has offered the least accurate estimation in all cases

  8. Chemical Species of Aluminum Lons in Acid Soils

    XURENKOU; JIGUOLIANG

    1998-01-01

    Soil samples collected from several acid soils in Guangdong,Fujian,Zhejiang and Anhui provinces of the southern China were employded to characterize the chemical species of aluminum ions in the soils.The proportion or monoeric inorganic Al to total Al in soil solution was in the range of 19% to 70%,that of monomeric organlic Al (Al-OM) to total Al ranged from 7.7% to 69%,and that of the acid-soluble Al to total Al was generally smaller and was lower than 20% in most of the acid soils studied ,The Al-OM concentration in soil solution was postively correlated with the content of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and aslo affected by the concentration of Al3+,The complexes of aluminum with fluoride(Al-F) were the predominant forms of inorganic Al,and the proportion of Al-F compexes to total inorganic Al increased with pH.Under strongly acid ondition,Al3+ was also a mjaor form of inorganic Al,and the proportio of Al3+ to total inorganic Al decreased with increasing pH.The,proportions of Al-OH and Al-SO4 complexes to total inorganic Al were small and were not larger than 10% in the most acid soils.The concentration of inorganic Al in solution depended largely on pH and the concentration of total F in soil solution,The concentrations of Al-OM,Al3+,Al-F and Al-OH complexes in topsoil were higher than those in subsoil and decreased with the increase in soil depth,The chemical species of aluminum ions were influenced by pH,The concentrations of Al-OM, Al3+,Al-F complexes and Al-OH complexes decreased with the increase in pH.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Application of Inorganic Fertilizers on Biochemical Properties of a Rice-Planting Red Soil

    ZHONG Wen-Hui; CAI Zu-Cong; ZHANG He

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment was set up in Yingtan of Jiangxi Province to investigate the effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on the biochemical properties of a rice-planting soil derived from Quaternary red earth. Noncultivated soils are extremely eroded and characterized by a low pH and deficiencies in available nutrients, in particular P and N. After 13 years of inorganic fertilization in cultivation for double-cropped rice, the biochemical properties of the soil were changed. The nitrification potential and urease activity were higher in the treatments with N application than those without N application. Acid phosphatase activity and dehydrogenase activity were also higher in the treatments with P application than in those without P application. The dehydrogenase activity correlated well with the concentrations of both total P and hydrolysable N and with rice crop yield, suggesting that dehydrogenase activity might be a suitable indicator for improvement in soil fertility.

  10. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Inorganic arsenic contents in rice-based infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for total (t-As) and inorganic As (i-As) using ICP-MS and HPLC–ICP-MS, respectively. Besides, pure infant rice from China, USA, UK and Spain were also analysed. The i-As contents were significantly higher in gluten-free rice than in cereals mixtures with gluten, placing infants with celiac disease at high risk. All rice-based products displayed a high i-As content, with values being above 60% of the t-As content and the remainder being dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Approximately 77% of the pure infant rice samples showed contents below 150 μg kg−1 (Chinese limit). When daily intake of i-As by infants (4–12 months) was estimated and expressed on a bodyweight basis (μg d−1 kg−1), it was higher in all infants aged 8–12 months than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults (assuming 1 L consumption per day for a 10 μg L−1 standard). Highlights: ► Inorganic As was higher in rice-based foods than in items based on other cereals. ► Total As was very high in fish-based foods but As was present as non-toxic species. ► The maximum daily intake of i-As was found between 8 and 12 months of age. ► Pure infant rice samples from Spain presented relatively low i-As contents. ► Infants with the celiac disease are exposed to elevated levels of i-As. - Infants with the celiac disease are exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic because of their high consumption of rice-based foods.

  12. Improved performance of polymer solar cells by using inorganic, organic, and doped cathode buffer layers

    Taohong, Wang; Changbo, Chen; Kunping, Guo; Guo, Chen; Tao, Xu; Bin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The interface between the active layer and the electrode is one of the most critical factors that could affect the device performance of polymer solar cells. In this work, based on the typical poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) polymer solar cell, we studied the effect of the cathode buffer layer (CBL) between the top metal electrode and the active layer on the device performance. Several inorganic and organic materials commonly used as the electron injection layer in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were employed as the CBL in the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. Our results demonstrate that the inorganic and organic materials like Cs2CO3, bathophenanthroline (Bphen), and 8-hydroxyquinolatolithium (Liq) can be used as CBL to efficiently improve the device performance of the P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM devices employed various CBLs possess power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.0%-3.3%, which are ca. 50% improved compared to that of the device without CBL. Furthermore, by using the doped organic materials Bphen:Cs2CO3 and Bphen:Liq as the CBL, the PCE of the P3HT:PCBM device will be further improved to 3.5%, which is ca. 70% higher than that of the device without a CBL and ca. 10% increased compared with that of the devices with a neat inorganic or organic CBL. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61204014), the “Chenguang” Project (13CG42) supported by Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Education Development Foundation, China, and the Shanghai University Young Teacher Training Program of Shanghai Municipality, China.

  13. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters

    Julshamn, K.; Nilsen, B. M.; Frantzen, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Arctic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast...... of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography–ICP-MS following microwave......-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg–1 wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (...

  14. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF2 nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications

  15. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    Chen, Shi [CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Gaume, Romain, E-mail: gaume@ucf.edu [CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  16. Bulk synthesis of polymer-inorganic colloidal clusters.

    Perro, Adeline; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2010-12-21

    We describe a procedure to synthesize colloidal clusters with polyhedral morphologies in high yield (liter quantities at up to 70% purity) using a combination of emulsion polymerization and inorganic surface chemistry. We show that the synthesis initially used for silica-polystyrene hybrid clusters can be generalized to create clusters from other inorganic and polymer particles. We also show that high yields of particular morphologies can be obtained by precise control of the inorganic seed particle size, a finding that can be explained using a hard-sphere packing model. These clusters can be further chemically modified for a variety of applications. Introducing a cross-linker leads to colloidal clusters that can be index matched in an appropriate solvent, allowing them to be used for particle tracking or optical studies of colloidal self-assembly. Also, depositing a thin silica layer on these colloids allows the surface properties to be controlled using silane chemistry. PMID:21080658

  17. Physical and thermochemical properties for inorganic mercury compounds

    In order to estimate the radiation safety for the spallation target system using mercury, it is necessary to provide physical and thermochemical data of inorganic mercury compounds formed with elements including spallation products. The numbers of selected inorganic mercury compounds are 208 in the solid state, 9 in the liquid state and 22 in the gaseous state, respectively. This report presents main properties of the inorganic mercury compounds such as density, melting and boiling points, standard enthalpy of formation, standard Gibbs energy of formation, constant-pressure heat capacity, vapor pressure and solubility in mercury. Especially, the temperature dependency of the heat capacity was reestimated by using the Kelley equation. Vapor pressures were estimated with the Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Software HSC using above thermochemical data. The interaction between mercury and other elements was shown in the form of binary phase diagram. (author)

  18. One-pot biosynthesis of polymer–inorganic nanocomposites

    A biological method is demonstrated to fabricate the polymer–inorganic nanocomposites (PINCs) utilizing bacterium as an efficient and versatile biofactory. Gluconacetobacter xylinum that can produce bacterial cellulose is incubated in the culture medium containing titanium or silica precursor. The PINCs can be acquired under the elaborate control of the culturing condition of G. xylinum, in which the formation of inorganic nanoparticles about several tens of nanometers in size synchronizes the fabrication of reticulated bacterial cellulose membrane composed of dense and finely branched nanofibers about 60–120 nm in diameter. The composition and chemical states, morphology, thermal stability of the inorganic nanoparticles, and nanocomposites were extensively characterized. A tentative mechanism for the formation of PINCs is proposed. It is hoped that this study may establish a generic platform toward facile and green synthesis of nanocomposite materials.

  19. Synchrotron radiation studies of inorganic-organic semiconductor interfaces

    Evans, D A; Vearey-Roberts, A R; Bushell, A; Cabailh, G; O'Brien, S; Wells, J W; McGovern, I T; Dhanak, V R; Kampen, T U; Zahn, D R T; Batchelor, D

    2003-01-01

    Organic semiconductors (polymers and small molecules) are widely used in electronic and optoelectronic technologies. Many devices are based on multilayer structures where interfaces play a central role in device performance and where inorganic semiconductor models are inadequate. Synchrotron radiation techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW) provide a powerful means of probing the structural, electronic and chemical properties of these interfaces. The surface-specificity of these techniques allows key properties to be monitored as the heterostructure is fabricated. This methodology has been directed at the growth of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor interfaces involving copper phthalocyanine as the model organic material and InSb and GaAs as the model inorganic semiconductor substrates. Core level PES has revealed that these interfaces are abrupt and chemically inert due to the weak bonding between t...

  20. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  1. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    Gwan-Hyoung Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN and MoS2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS2/WSe2/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  2. One-pot biosynthesis of polymer-inorganic nanocomposites

    Geng Jiaqing [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Yang Dong [Tianjin University, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Zhu Yong; Cao Lichao; Jiang Zhongyi, E-mail: zhyjiang@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Sun Yan [Tianjin University, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2011-06-15

    A biological method is demonstrated to fabricate the polymer-inorganic nanocomposites (PINCs) utilizing bacterium as an efficient and versatile biofactory. Gluconacetobacter xylinum that can produce bacterial cellulose is incubated in the culture medium containing titanium or silica precursor. The PINCs can be acquired under the elaborate control of the culturing condition of G. xylinum, in which the formation of inorganic nanoparticles about several tens of nanometers in size synchronizes the fabrication of reticulated bacterial cellulose membrane composed of dense and finely branched nanofibers about 60-120 nm in diameter. The composition and chemical states, morphology, thermal stability of the inorganic nanoparticles, and nanocomposites were extensively characterized. A tentative mechanism for the formation of PINCs is proposed. It is hoped that this study may establish a generic platform toward facile and green synthesis of nanocomposite materials.

  3. Polyphosphazenes - New polymers with inorganic backbone atoms

    Allcock, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Unique and useful properties of the class of nonhydrocarbon, nonhalocarbon, nonsilicone polymers known as polyphosphazenes are discussed at length. These polymers, with molecular weights to 4 million (degree of polymerization 15,000), can be fabricated as tubes, fibers, woven fabrics, flexible films, or plates, and many variants are stable to attack by water, bases, aqueous acids, jet fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, gasoline, or other hydrocarbons. Rubbery polymers with these properties can be fashioned into flexible hose, fuel hose, gaskets, or O-rings. Since they do not provoke clotting reactions in blood, and reveal no carcinogenic effects to date, they are considered for internal prosthetic applications (replacement bone, temporary skin, heart valves), as biodegradable suturing material, as carriers for slow release of drugs, and as carriers for chemotherapeutic agents against cancers.

  4. Production of mutants with high inorganic phosphorus content in seeds by germplasm reselection and mutation technique in wheat

    Phytic acid or phytate is commonly regarded as the major anti-nutritional component in cereal and legume grains. Development of low phytic acid or high inorganic phosphorus (HIP) crops has recently been considered as a potential way to increase nutritional quality of crop products. 399 genotypes of winter wheat germplasm including the currently cultivated varieties were colorimetric assayed for inorganic phosphorus content using Chen's reagent. The results showed significant difference in inorganic phosphorus content among different genotypes, and fifteen genotypes (accounting for 3.8%) with high inorganic phosphorus content varying from 0.93μg/mg to 1.39μg/m were selected. Two winter wheat genotypes Zhongyou9507 and Zhongyuan9 were also used to induce HIP mutations by mixed particle field with high energy, 60Co γ- rays and 7Li ion beams. Dry seeds were irradiated by mixed particle field and 60Co γ-rays with doses of 195Gy and 284Gy, and 7Li ion beams with the doses of 50Gy, 100Gy and 150Gy, respectively. The results showed that the frequencies of HIP mutations and homozygous HIP mutations induced by 195Gy 60Co γ-rays and 284Gy mixed particle field were similar between the two genotypes, while the frequencies of HIP and homozygous HIP mutation in Zhongyou9507 were higher than that in Zhongyuan9 in all the other treatments, revealing the more high radiation sensitivity of Zhongyou9507 than that of Zhongyuan9. Three homozygous HIP mutants from Zhongyou9507 and one from Zhongyuan9 were identified. Characterization of the homozygous HIP mutants in respect of agronomic, biochemical and molecular levels were also conducted. (author)

  5. Study of matrix effects produced by inorganic species in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with several spray chambers

    In the present work, the influence of the spray chamber design on the matrix effects was investigated in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study was carried out in terms of aerosol drop size distribution and emission signal. Solutions of two inorganic acids and salts were employed to characterize the extent of the matrix effects throughout this work. Several spray chambers. a double-pass (Scott - type), a conventional cyclonic, and two low-volume cyclonic - type spray chambers (i.e., Cinnabar, and Genie) were used in order to evaluate the matrix effects produced by nitric and sulphuric acid solutions. A glass concentric pneumatic micro nebulizer (Atom Mist) was used in conjunction with all four chambers. When nitric or sulphuric acid solutions were nebulized, the double pass spray chamber registered noticeable changes in the drop size distribution. The low-volume spray chambers, in turn, afforded changes in the aerosol drop size distributions similar to the conventional cyclonic one. The matrix effects on the signal were reduced with all three cyclonic spray chambers with respect to the double pass one. Concerning the effect of inorganic salts, the results obtained with a High Efficiency Nebulizer (HEN) coupled to a double pass spray chamber and to a cyclonic type one revealed several issues: (i) the matrix effects were more severe at low liquid and gas flow rates; (ii) as for inorganic acids, the use of a cyclonic spray chamber led to a mitigation of the matrix effects with respect to a double pass spray chamber. (author)

  6. Recycling of bleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.; TOPICAL

    Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of

  7. Complexes of polyvinyl alcohol with insoluble inorganic compounds

    Prosanov, I. Yu.; Bulina, N. V.; Gerasimov, K. B.

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid materials of polyvinyl alcohol-hydroxides/oxides of Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, B, Al, Cr, and Fe have been obtained. The studies have been carried out by the methods of optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. Interpretation of experimental data is presented, presuming that, in systems with zinc, boron, aluminum, chromium, and iron hydroxides/oxides, interpolymeric complexes of polyvinyl alcohol with corresponding polymeric inorganic compounds are formed. They belong to a new class of materials with unusual structure containing chains of inorganic polymers isolated in the organic matrix.

  8. Organic and inorganic osmolytes at lipid membrane interfaces

    Westh, P.; Peters, Günther H.j.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interactions of organic osmolytes and membranous interfaces, and the effects of these interactions on the properties of the membrane. It also includes a treatment of inorganic ions at the membrane interface since osmolyte effects involve a balance between organic...... and inorganic components. Before turning to the physicochemical discussion of interfacial interactions, the chapter outlines some central parts of the biology and biotechnology of organic osmolytes. It reviews the central relationships in preferential interaction theory, which we use in subsequent paragraphs...

  9. Inorganic electret with enhanced charge stability for energy harvesting

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    We report a new surface treatment of inorganic electret materials which enhances the charge stability. Coating the surfaces with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) makes the electret surface more hydrophobic which improves the surface charge stability under high humidity condit...... conditions. Thermal tests show that the thermal stability of charge in the inorganic electrets is also much better than that of polymer materials such as CYTOP. A demonstrator device with SiO2 electrets shows promising results for energy harvesting applications....

  10. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  11. Thin-layer chromatography in analysis of inorganic substances

    The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and determination of inorganic compounds is briefly considered. Universal character of the method, its simplicity, rapidness, high efficiency, clear separation and visual demonstration of results are pointed out, which permits to use TLC extensively for solving scientific and practical problems related to the determination of trace amounts of inorganic substances. TLC method permits to work with nano- and microgram amounts of substances and ensures the absolute limit of determination in the optimal conditions, which is 10-2-10-7 g. Techniques of chromatographic determination of Te, rare earths, Y, Pu in various objects and their metrological characteristics are presented

  12. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    I. Trebs

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble aerosol species, ammonium (NH,,1), nitrate (NO3 ), nitrite (NO,), chloride (CI) and sulfate (SO,") were measured at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondónia, Brazil). Sampling was performed from...

  13. Identification of novel rice low phytic acid mutations via TILLING by sequencing

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) accounts for 75-85% of the total phosphorus in seeds. Low phytic acid (lpa) mutants exhibit decreases in seed InsP6 with corresponding increases in inorganic P which, unlike phytic acid P, is readily utilized by humans and monogastric ...

  14. Reduced inorganic sulfur in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    KANG Xuming; LIU Sumei; ZHANG Guoling

    2014-01-01

    Cold diffusion methods are used to separate and quantify the three reduced inorganic sulfur species into acid volatile sulfide (AVS), pyrite-S and element sulfur (ES) in the sediments of the Yellow and East China Seas. The results show that up to 25.02μmol/g of AVS, 113.1μmol/g of pyrite-S and 44.4μmol/g of ES are observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Pyrite-S is the predominant sulfide mineral in the sediments, while the concentration of AVS is quite low at most stations in the study area. The amounts and reactivity of organic matter are the primary limited factor for the sulfide formation, while an iron limi-tation and a sulfate limitation are not observed in the sediments of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The irregular profiles of the three reduced inorganic sulfur species also reflected the comprehensive influence of sediment composition and sedimentation rates.

  15. The formation of organic (propolis films)/inorganic (layered crystals) interfaces for optoelectronic applications

    Drapak, S. I.; Bakhtinov, A. P.; Gavrylyuk, S. V.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Lytvyn, O. S.

    2008-10-01

    Propolis (honeybee glue) organic films were prepared from an alcoholic solution on the surfaces of inorganic layered semiconductors (indium, gallium and bismuth selenides). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize structural properties of an organic/inorganic interfaces. It is shown that nanodimensional linear defects and nanodimensional cavities of various shapes are formed on the van der Waals (VDW) surfaces of layered crystals as a result of chemical interaction between the components of propolis (flavonoids, aminoacids and phenolic acids) and the VDW surfaces as well as deformation interaction between the VDW surfaces and propolis films during their polymerization. The nanocavities are formed as a result of the rupture of strong covalent bonds in the upper layers of layered crystals and have the shape of hexagons or triangles in the (0001) plane. The shape, lateral size and distribution of nanodimensional defects on the VDW surfaces depends on the type of crystals, the magnitude and distribution of surface stresses. We have obtained self-organized nanofold structures of propolis/InSe interface. It is established that such heterostructures have photosensitivity in the infrared range hν<1.2 eV (the values of energy gap are 1.2 eV for InSe and 3.07 eV for propolis films at room temperature).

  16. Fluxes of inorganic and organic arsenic species in a Norway spruce forest floor

    Huang, J.-H. [Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)], E-mail: jenhow.huang@uni-bayreuth.de; Matzner, Egbert [Department of Soil Ecology, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    To identify the role of the forest floor in arsenic (As) biogeochemistry, concentrations and fluxes of inorganic and organic As in throughfall, litterfall and forest floor percolates at different layers were investigated. Nearly 40% of total As{sub total} input (5.3 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) was retained in Oi layer, whereas As{sub total} fluxes from Oe and Oa layers exceeded the input by far (10.8 and 20 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively). Except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fluxes of organic As decreased with depth of forest floor so that <10% of total deposition (all <0.3 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) reached the mineral soil. All forest floor layers are sinks for most organic As. Conversely, Oe and Oa layers are sources of As{sub total}, arsenite, arsenate and DMA. Significant correlations (r {>=} 0.43) between fluxes of As{sub total}, arsenite, arsenate or DMA and water indicate hydrological conditions and adsorption-desorption as factors influencing their release from the forest floor. The higher net release of arsenite from Oe and Oa and of DMA from Oa layer in the growing than dormant season also suggests microbial influences on the release of arsenite and DMA. - The forest floor layers are generally a source for inorganic arsenic species but a sink for most organic arsenic species under the present deposition rate.

  17. Preliminary Tests Concerning Zero-Valent Iron Efficiency in Inorganic Pollutants Remediation

    Silvia Fiore

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was aimed to a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of granular Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI to the on site remediation of groundwater polluted by inorganic contaminants by means of a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB. A particular interest was devoted to groundwater impacted by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD that was caused by the oxidation of metal sulphide minerals contained in mine wastes, especially iron disulphide pyrite. Although AMD consequences were particularly evident in surface waters, the percolation through mine wastes may heavily alter the groundwater quality, therefore is particularly important the development of a restrained cost remediation technique for groundwater polluted by AMDs. Approach: In this study the degradation efficiency of Brown size 8/50 ZVI (Peerless Powders and Abrasive Inc., Detroit, US was evaluated performing a leaching column test and analyzing the Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP, metals, nitrates, chlorides and sulphates profiles along the column. Results: This test allowed simulating the solid-liquid contact characteristic of a real PRB behavior that proved to be a possible solution for the remediation of inorganic pollutants in groundwater. Conclusion: The considered material showed efficiency above 99% in metals removal, although further tests, involving biotic processes and more reducing conditions, are necessary to improve the degradation of sulphates and nitrates.

  18. Controlled Microstructure and Photochromism of Inorganic-organic Thin Films by Ultrasound

    2007-01-01

    A series of inorganic-organic thin films based on uniformly dispersed nanoparticles of polyoxometalates (POM)entrapped in polyacrylamide (PAM) matrix were prepared by ultrasonic method with different irradiation time.The microstructure, photochromic behavior and mechanism of the films were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-VIS) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).The microstructure and photochromic properties of the hybrid thin films could be controlled by ultrasound.TEM image revealed that the average size of phosphotungstic acid (PWA) nanoparticles decreased from 20 to 10 nm with the ultrasound irradiation time from 30 to 60 min. After irradiated with ultraviolet light,the transparent films changed from colorless to blue and showed reversible photochromism. The hybrid film, with ultrasound irradiation for 60 min had higher photochromic efficiency and faster bleaching reaction than the one with ultrasound irradiation for 30 min. FT-IR spectra showed that the Keggin geometry of heteropolyoxometalate was still preserved inside the composites, and the interactions between polyanions and polymer matrix increased as the ultrasound time prolonged. It is suggested that the mechanism of the different photochromic properties for the inorganic-organic thin films is the variation of the microstructure and interfacial interactions induced by ultrasound.

  19. Biodegradable Inorganic Nanovector: Passive versus Active Tumor Targeting in siRNA Transportation.

    Park, Dae-Hwan; Cho, Jaeyong; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2016-03-24

    The biodegradable inorganic nanovector based on a layered double hydroxide (LDH) holds great promise for gene and drug delivery systems. However, in vivo targeted delivery of genes through LDH still remains a key challenge in the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro delivery system for Survivin siRNA (siSurvivin) assembled with passive LDH with a particle size of 100 nm or active LDH conjugated with a cancer overexpressing receptor targeting ligand, folic acid (LDHFA), conferring them an ability to target the tumor by either EPR-based clathrin-mediated or folate receptor-mediated endocytosis. When not only transfected into KB cells but also injected into xenograft mice, LDHFA/siSurvivin induced potent gene silencing at mRNA and protein levels in vitro, and consequently achieved a 3.0-fold higher suppression of tumor volume than LDH/siSurvivin in vivo. This anti-tumor effect was attributed to a selectively 1.2-fold higher accumulation of siSurvivin in tumor tissue compared with other organs. Targeting to the tumor with inorganic nanovector can guide and accelerate an evolution of next-generation theranosis system. PMID:26879376

  20. Fluxes of inorganic and organic arsenic species in a Norway spruce forest floor

    To identify the role of the forest floor in arsenic (As) biogeochemistry, concentrations and fluxes of inorganic and organic As in throughfall, litterfall and forest floor percolates at different layers were investigated. Nearly 40% of total Astotal input (5.3 g As ha-1 yr-1) was retained in Oi layer, whereas Astotal fluxes from Oe and Oa layers exceeded the input by far (10.8 and 20 g As ha-1 yr-1, respectively). Except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fluxes of organic As decreased with depth of forest floor so that -1 yr-1) reached the mineral soil. All forest floor layers are sinks for most organic As. Conversely, Oe and Oa layers are sources of Astotal, arsenite, arsenate and DMA. Significant correlations (r ≥ 0.43) between fluxes of Astotal, arsenite, arsenate or DMA and water indicate hydrological conditions and adsorption-desorption as factors influencing their release from the forest floor. The higher net release of arsenite from Oe and Oa and of DMA from Oa layer in the growing than dormant season also suggests microbial influences on the release of arsenite and DMA. - The forest floor layers are generally a source for inorganic arsenic species but a sink for most organic arsenic species under the present deposition rate

  1. Fabrication and Characterisation of Polyaniline/Laponite based Semiconducting Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Material

    Walt V.K. Wheelwright

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel organic-inorganic semiconducting hybrid material is developed by chemically grafting polyaniline (PANI onto an inorganic template, Laponite. The surface active silanol groups of the Laponite sheets were silylated with an aniline functionalised 3-phenylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (PAPTMOS coupling agent followed by deposition of PANI onto the silylated surface. The method includes the reaction of Laponite with PAPTMOS dissolved in a very small amount of methanol at 110 °C for 44 h in a vacuum oven, interaction of the silylated product with PANI via in situ polymerisation of aniline and one-step isolation process by means of the removal of the non-connected PANI with N-methylpyrrolidinone-diethylamine binary solvent. After isolation and re-doping with methane sulfonic acid the Laponite-PAPTMOS-PANI hybrid becomes electrically conductive. The chemical attachment of PANI with silylated Laponite in the hybrids were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 193-197, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.7185

  2. Tile adhesive production by Inorganic materials

    Fasil Alemayehu Hayilu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern construction, ceramic tile and mosaic which are used for finishing and decoration are attached to the surface by using tile adhesives. It was a long way for tiling technology to arrive at the current cement based modified adhesive. The development in additives and modifier are the paramount factor to improve workability, higher flexibility, and better adhesion. In this document tile adhesive has been produced for economical and high performance formulation. These products have been produced by considering the effect of aggregate. These two products with different size of aggregate have been compared and tested. The test made was slip, bending, and compression test. Economical formulation consists of components like cement, quartz sand, cellulose ether and tartaric acid. But high performance consists of limestone and cellulose fiber in addition to these components. The modifier added has enhanced the final product resistance to sliding, bending and compression strength. In terms of compression strength test about 17.27% high performance is stronger than economical formulation. And in addition high performance is stronger than economical formulation by about 16.89% in terms of bending strength. The other thing is the effect of grain size, the component that has low grain size have shown great strength and resistant to slide.

  3. Review of inorganic nitrogen transformations and effect of global climate change on inorganic nitrogen cycling in ocean ecosystems

    Kim, Haryun

    2016-03-01

    Inorganic N transformations (nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, denitrification, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) are regulated by various biogeochemical factors linked either by the supply of electron acceptors and donors or by competition for electron acceptors. This review considers both the microbial community related to each process and the technical methods used to measure each process rate. With this background knowledge, this article summarizes how global climate change through increased pCO2, ocean acidification, deoxygenation and anthropogenic N deposition will alter oceanic N cycling, and finally emphasizes the need for comprehensive research on inorganic N transformation in marine ecosystems.

  4. Inorganic-organic electrolyte materials for energy applications

    Fei, Shih-To

    emphasizes the flammability studies. Chapter 4 expands the application of the ethyleneoxy phosphazene system to dye sensitized solar cell systems, and uses this material as a model for the study of electrode-electrolyte interfaces. We report here the results of our study on polymer electrolyte infiltration and its effect on dye-sensitized solar cells. In-depth studies have been made to compare the effects of different cell assembly procedures on the electrochemical properties as well as infiltration of electrolytes into various electrode designs. The first part of the study is based on the use of thermoplastic phosphazene electrolytes and how the overall fabrication procedure affects electrochemical performance, and the second is the use of cross-section microscopy to characterize the degree of electrolyte infiltration into various nanostructured titanium dioxide electrode surfaces. The results of this study should eventually improve the efficiency and longevity of thermally stable polymer dye solar cell systems. In Chapter 5 the effect of pendant polymer design on methanol fuel cell membrane performance was investigated. A synthetic method is described to produce a proton conductive polymer membrane with a polynorbornane backbone and inorganic-organic cyclic phosphazene pendent groups that bear sulfonic acid units. This hybrid polymer combines the inherent hydrophobicity and flexibility of the organic polymer with the tuning advantages of the cyclic phosphazene to produce a membrane with high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover at room temperature. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), the water swelling behavior of the polymer, and the effect of gamma radiation crosslinking were studied, together with the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of these materials. A typical membrane had an IEC of 0.329 mmolg-1 and had water swelling of 50 wt%. The maximum proton conductivity of 1.13x10 -4 Scm-1 at room temperature is less than values reported for some

  5. Multifunctional Inorganic Nanoparticles: Recent Progress in Thermal Therapy and Imaging

    Kondareddy Cherukula

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles. The main heating sources for heat-induced therapies are the surface plasmon resonance (SPR in the near infrared region and alternating magnetic fields (AMFs. The different families of inorganic nanoparticles employed for SPR- and AMF-based thermal therapies and imaging are described. Furthermore, inorganic nanomaterials developed for multimodal therapies with different and multi-imaging modalities are presented in detail. Finally, relevant clinical perspectives and the future scope of inorganic nanoparticles in image-guided therapies are discussed.

  6. Modern applications of polarography and voltammetry to inorganic analysis

    This report summarized developments in polarography and voltametry up to 1982. Modern electronic equipment and scanning waveforms are explained briefly. Extensive tables of recent inorganic applications, mainly in the geochemical and metallurgical fields, are included, and show results based on the new approaches

  7. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  8. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 6. INORGANIC PICKLING LIQUOR WASTE

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organi...

  9. Tritium recoil reactions in inorganic solid compounds. Chapter 22

    The behavior of recoil tritium produced in inorganic solid compounds is an esoteric chapter of the already esoteric field of Hot Atom Chemistry. A very small group of investigators have devoted their attention to this problem. The author summarizes the results of their studies. (Auth.)

  10. Self organization of organic-inorganic hybrid polymers

    Matějka, Libor; Janata, Miroslav; Donato, Ricardo Keitel; Pleštil, Josef; Schrekker, H. S.

    Zhenjiang : Jiangsu University, 2013. B24. [International Congress on Advanced Materials /2./ - AM2013. 16.05.2013-19.05.2013, Zhenjiang] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1459 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolymers * organic- inorganic polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. Copolymers with linear inorganic and with mesogenic bulding blocks

    Rodzen, Krzysztof; Strachota, Adam

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2013. L4. ISBN 978-80-85009-76-7. [Workshop "Career in Polymers " /5./. 12.07.2013-13.07.2013, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * organic inorganic hybrid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. Inorganic electret with enhanced charge stability for energy harvesting

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We report a new surface treatment of inorganic electret materials which enhances the charge stability. Coating the surfaces with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H - perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) makes the electret surface more hydrophobic which improves the surface charge stability under high humidity condit...

  13. Rapid inorganic ion analysis using quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    Vrouwe, Elwin X.; Lüttge, Regina; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2006-01-01

    Rapid quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) for online monitoring of drinking water enabling inorganic ion separation in less than 15s is presented. Comparing cationic and anionic standards at different concentrations the analysis of cationic species resulted in non-linear calibratio

  14. Efficiency of adsorption concentration of single-charged inorganic anions

    Results of adsorption concentration of inorganic anions Br-, I-, SCN- from diluted aqueous solutions using of N-alkylpyridinium chlorides (alkyl C13-C16) are presented. It is ascertained that interaction between extracted anion and surfactant cation, determining the efficiency of foam flotation of the anions investigated, increases with the decrease in anion hydration in the series Br-, I-, SCN-

  15. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    L. Reijnders

    2014-01-01

    For persistent inorganic and carbon nanomaterials, considerable scope exists for a form of recycling called ‘resource cascading’. Resource cascading is aimed at the maximum exploitation of quality and service time of natural resources. Options for resource cascading include engineered nanomaterials

  16. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  17. Hybrid materials from organic polymers and inorganic salts

    Köberle, Peter; Laschewsky, André

    2008-01-01

    The prepaparation of amorphous, homogeneous blends of zwitterionic polymers and transition metal salts was investigated. Homogeneous miscibility was achieved in many cases up to equimolar amounts of salt, depending on the anion and cation chosen. Various analytical techniques point to a solid state solution of the inorganic ions in the polymer matrix.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF INORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE REMEDIATION

    This research is concerned with the development of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers for the removal of primarily Cs+ and Sr2+ from nuclear tank waste and from groundwater. In this study, we will probe the, origins of selectivity through detailed structural studies and th...

  19. Diversity and Periodicity: An Inorganic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    Huheey, James; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching inorganic chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified science. Contents include: (1) "Periodicity: A Chemical Calendar"; (2)…

  20. Influence of electron irradiation on optical properties of inorganic materials

    Influence of electron radiation on optical properties and structure parameters of compound inorganic compositions (silicon nitrides, bor carbide, mono aluminates of rare-earth elements, high-temperature superconducting ceramics) was investigated. Mechanism of radiation defect formation was determined as a consequent development of lattice disorders and diffusion mass transfer of the substance

  1. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  2. Spectroscopic characterizations of organic/inorganic nanocomposites

    Govani, Jayesh R.

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, pure and 0.3 wt%, 0.4 wt%, as well as 0.5 wt% L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown using solution growth techniques and further subjected to infrared (IR) absorption and Raman studies for confirmation of chemical group functionalization for investigating the incorporation mechanism of the L-arginine organic material into the KDP crystal structure. Infrared spectroscopic analysis suggests that structural changes are occurring for the L-arginine molecule as a result of its interaction with the KPD crystal. Infrared spectroscopic technique confirms the disturbance of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, suggesting successful incorporation of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. Raman analysis also reveals modification of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, implying successful inclusion of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. With the help of Gaussian software, a prediction of possible incorporation mechanisms of the organic material was obtained from comparison of the simulated infrared and Raman vibrational spectra with the experimental results. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of L-arginine doping on the thermal stability of the grown KDP crystal by employing Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggests that increasing the level of L-arginine doping speeds the decomposition process and it weakens the KDP crystal, which indicates successful doping of the KDP crystals with L-arginine amino acid. Urinary stones are one of the oldest and most widely spread diseases in humans, animals and birds. Many remedies have been employed through the ages for the treatment of urinary stones. Recent medicinal measures reflect the modern advances, which are based on surgical removal, percutaneous techniques and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Although these procedures are valuable, they are quite expensive for most people. Furthermore, recurrence of these diseases is awfully frequent with

  3. Amino acids

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  4. Evaluation of inorganic matrixes as supports for immobilization of microbial lipase

    Castro H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida rugosa was immobilized by physical adsorption on several inorganic supports using hexane as coupling medium. The enzymatic activities of the different derivatives were determined by both hydrolysis of olive oil and esterification of n-butanol with butyric acid. The results were compared to previous data obtained by using a controlled porous silica matrix. The goal was to contribute in searching inexpensive supports for optimum lipase performance. All supports examined exhibited good properties for binding the enzyme lipase. Zirconium phosphate was the best support, giving the highest percentage of protein fixation (86% and the highest retention of lipase activity after immobilization (34%. The operational stability performance for niobium oxide derivative was improved by previously activated the support with silane and glutaraldehyde. Thermal stabilities were also examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TG.

  5. Fluxes of inorganic and organic arsenic species in a Norway spruce forest floor.

    Huang, Jen-How; Matzner, Egbert

    2007-09-01

    To identify the role of the forest floor in arsenic (As) biogeochemistry, concentrations and fluxes of inorganic and organic As in throughfall, litterfall and forest floor percolates at different layers were investigated. Nearly 40% of total As(total) input (5.3g Asha(-1)yr(-1)) was retained in Oi layer, whereas As(total) fluxes from Oe and Oa layers exceeded the input by far (10.8 and 20g Asha(-1)yr(-1), respectively). Except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fluxes of organic As decreased with depth of forest floor so that /=0.43) between fluxes of As(total), arsenite, arsenate or DMA and water indicate hydrological conditions and adsorption-desorption as factors influencing their release from the forest floor. The higher net release of arsenite from Oe and Oa and of DMA from Oa layer in the growing than dormant season also suggests microbial influences on the release of arsenite and DMA. PMID:17624646

  6. Mössbauer study of the inorganic sulfur removal from coals

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) was applied to study the occurrence and behavior of the iron-sulfur-containing minerals in coal and coal fractions obtained by different separation methods: hydrocyclonic, flotation and chemical removal process. Samples of one high sulfur coal from Guachinte mine (Valle, Colombia) and three low sulfur coals from the El Salitre zone (Paipa-Boyacá, Colombia) were analyzed. MS evidenced only the presence of pyrite in Esmeralda and Las Casitas coals, while it identified pyrite and siderite on Cerezo coal. MS and SEM- EDX confirm the inorganic sulfur removal on Guachinte coal submitted to hydrocyclonic removal process. MS of the precipitated coal fraction from Las Casitas mine obtained by flotation in water showed the presence of ferrous sulfate because of coal-weathering process. Treatment with hot diluted HNO3 equal to 27 acid on raw coal sample from Las Casitas mine showed that almost all of the pyrite in raw coal was removed.

  7. Are Strong Bronsted Acids Necessarily Strong Lewis Acids?

    Sen-Gupta, K; Roy, D R; Subramanian, V

    2006-01-01

    The Broensted and Lowry acid base theory is based on the capacity of proton donation or acceptance (in the presence or absence of a solvent) whereas the Lewis acid base theory is based on the propensity of electron pair acceptance or donation. We explore through DFT calculation the obvious question whether these two theories are in conformity with each other. We use pKa as the descriptor for the Broensted and Lowry acidity. The DFT descriptors like ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and global electrophilicity are computed for 58 organic and inorganic acids. The fractional electron transfer, del(N) and the associated energy change, del(E) for the reaction of these acids with trimethyl amine (a strong base) are used as the possible descriptors for the Lewis acidity. A near exponential decrease in del(N) and (-del(E)) values is observed in general with an increase in pKa values. The findings reveal that a stronger Broensted acid in most cases behaves as a stronger Lewis acid as...

  8. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of a new inorganic ion exchange material: zirconium(IV) iodooxalate

    A new three component inorganic ion exchange material zirconium (IV) iodooxalate (ZIO) has been synthesized by adding a mixture of O.1M potassium iodate and O.1M oxalic acid to O.1M zirconium oxychloride in different volume ratios at pH 1. Among several samples synthesized, ZIO-6 is selected for detailed studies owing to its highest ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. The material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition, pH-titration, FTIR and thermogravimetric studies. The ion exchange capacity of the material for Na+ ion has been found to be 2.70 meq g-l dry exchanger. The ion exchange capacity varies and is found to depend upon the crystal ionic radius of exchanging cations. The chemical stability of the material has been tested in acidic, neutral and basic media. The sorption studies of some metal ions have been made in distilled water and nitric acid. (author)

  9. L-缬氨酸产生菌JVHK597的选育及无机盐对其产酸量的影响%Breeding of of L-valine Producing Strain JVHK597 and Influence of Inorganic Salt on Its Acid Production

    刘焕民; 葛向阳; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选L-缬氨酸高产菌株并研究其发酵条件.[方法]以黄色短杆菌(Brebvibacterium flavum)突变株ZGH61.28为出发菌株,采用紫外线(UV)、硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)3种诱变剂进行诱变处理,通过摇瓶培养筛选出L-缬氨酸高产突变菌株.[结果]经过UV、DES和NTG3种诱变剂处理菌株ZGH6128,逐步获得菌株JVHK597,并具有Leu营养缺陷、Ile营养缺陷、Met营养缺陷、α-AB抗性、2-TA抗性5种遗传标记.在未优化的条件下,菌株JVHK597摇瓶发酵72 h的产酸量达41.2 g/L.8次传代试验结果表明,菌株JVHK597的产酸能力稳定,经鉴定,菌株JVHK597的基因型为(Leu-,Ile-,Met-,α-ABr,2 -TAr),遗传标记具有稳定性.发酵培养基中硫酸镁( MgSO4·7H2O)和磷酸二氢钾的含量分别为0.6和1.4 g/L时,最有利于菌株生产L-缬氨酸.[结论]试验筛选出了L-缬氨酸高产菌株JVHK597,并为其发酵培养提供了指导.%[Objective]The aim was to screen superior strain of L-valine and study its fermentation condition. [ Method] With the mutant strain ZGH6128 of Brebvibacterium flavum as initial strain, 3 kinds of mutagens of ultraviolet (UV), diethyl sulfate (DES) and nitrosoguani-dine (NTG) were used in its mutagene treatments, its superior mutant strain of L-valine was screened out through shaking culture. [ Result] The strain ZGH6128 was treated with 3 kinds of mutagens of UV, DES and NTG and the mutant strain JVHK597 was obtained progressively. This mutant strain possessed 5 genetic marks of Leu auxotroph, Ile auxotroph, Met auxotroph, a-AB resistance and 2-TA resistance. Under non-optimized condition, the production of acid from the strain JVHK597 reached 41.2 g/L after fermentation for 72 h. The experimental results of 8 passages showed that the acid producing ability of the strain JVHK597 was stable and its genotype was identified to be (Leu-, Ile-, Met-, α-AB', 2-TA') and its genetic marks had stability. When the contents of bitter salt (Mg

  10. Determination of total inorganic arsenic in potable water through spectroscopy of atomic absorption with generation of hydride

    This study developed a method for the cuantitative analysis of arsenic in potable water , through the spectrophotometric technique of atomic absorption. It used an automatic system of injection of flux for the generation of hydrides. It studied the effect produced by reducer agents, in the prereduction of arsenic in water, obtaining the best result with the use of potasium iodide 1.5% and ascorbic acid 0.25% in hydrochloric acid 3.7%, for the direct determination of total inorganic arsenic. It observed the effect produced by cadmium and selenium to the half of the concentration of arsenic, chromium, lead and silver at the same concentration, and barium at a ten times higher concentration, in the recuperation of total inorganic arsenic. It also used sodium borohydride 0.3% in sodium hydroxide 0.05% (5mL/min), for the formation of the volatile hydrides. It used hydrochloric acid 3.7% (12 mL/min) as disolution of transport; argon as inert gas, and a flame air-acetylene, for the atomization of the hydrides. This method was applied to 19 samples of potable water, and the result was no detectable for all of them. (S. Grainger)

  11. Synthesis and properties of inorganic pigments based on pyrochlore compounds with different lanthanides

    Stránská, L.; Šulcová, P.; Vlček, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2013), s. 127-135. ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : inorganic pigments * pyrochlore compounds * solid state reaction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.206, year: 2013

  12. Speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental waters using magnetic solid phase extraction and preconcentration followed by ICP-MS

    A new method was developed for the speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental water by using selective magnetic solid-phase extraction followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is found that As(V) selectively adsorbed on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in the pH range from 3 to 8, while As(III) is not be retained. The As(V)-loaded MNPs can be separated easily from the aqueous sample solution by simply applying an external magnetic field. The adsorbed As(V) was quantitatively recovered from the MNPs using using 1 M nitric acid. Total inorganic As was extracted after the permanganate oxidation of As(III) to As(V). Parameters affecting the separation were investigated systematically, and the optimal separation conditions were established. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection is 0.21 ng L-1, and the precision is 6.8% (at 10 ng L-1, for n = 7). The method was applied to the speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental water of tobacco growing area. (author)

  13. Comparative evaluation and effect of organic and inorganic fluoride dentifrices on enamel microhardness: An in vitro study

    Shetty, Krishna Prasad; Satish, S. V.; Gouda, Veerbhadra; Badade, Abhishek Rajpal; Gouda, Basavana; Patil, Snehalata

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare and evaluate the microhardness of enamel surface after the application of organic fluoride and inorganic fluoride dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted premolars were collected and decoronation of all the teeth was done at cementoenamel junction. The crowns were sectioned mesiodistally into two halves with the help of diamond disc, and then the subsequent forty samples kept in 1% citric acid for the demineralization and divided into two groups by simple randomization, that is, Group A (inorganic sodium fluoride dentifrice) and Group B (organic amine fluoride dentifrice). They were treated using same protocol for 3 min, daily twice for 7 days. Those samples preserved in artificial saliva in between treatment. The enamel surface microhardness evaluated using Vickers hardness test at base level, after demineralization, as well as after remineralization. Statistical analysis of surface microhardness obtained at different stages done by Student's t-test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The samples which were treated with sodium fluoride (Group A) could not restore the mean microhardness after treatment to that of preoperative level whereas amine fluoride (Group B) treated samples showed a statistically significant increase in mean surface microhardness from baseline. Conclusion: Organic fluoride (amine fluoride) remineralization was more effective in restoring enamel microhardness than inorganic fluoride (sodium fluoride) remineralization. PMID:27114952

  14. Organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membrane based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole

    Pan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pu, Hongting; Chang, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    A new series of organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared using sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole (SPIBIs) and glycidyl ether of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (G-POSS). SPIBIs were synthesized using 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole (APBIA) and 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2‧-disulfonic acid (ODADS). The organic-inorganic cross-linked membranes can be prepared by SPIBIs with G-POSS by a thermal treatment process. The cross-linking density of the membranes was evaluated by gel fractions. The water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property, thermal behavior, proton conductivity, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the cross-linked organic-inorganic membranes were intensively investigated. All the cross-linked membranes exhibit high cross-linking density for the gel fraction higher than 70%. Compared to pristine membranes (SPIBIs) and membranes without benzimidazole groups (SPI), the anti-free-radical oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The anti-free-oxidative stability of SPIBI-100-P (cross-linked SPIBI membrane with 100% degree of sulfonation) is nearly four-fold higher than that of SPIBI-100. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes ranges from 10-3 S cm-1 to 10-2 S cm-1 depending both on the degree of sulfonation (DS) of the SPIBI and temperature.

  15. Structure and properties of polybenzimidazole/silica nanocomposite electrolyte membrane: influence of organic/inorganic interface.

    Singha, Shuvra; Jana, Tushar

    2014-12-10

    Although increased number of reports in recent years on proton exchange membrane (PEM) developed from nanocomposites of polybenzimidazole (PBI) with inorganic fillers brought hope to end the saga of contradiction between proton conductivity and variety of stabilities, such as mechanical, thermal,chemical, etc.; it still remains a prime challenge to develop a highly conducting PEM with superior aforementioned stabilities. In fact the very limited understanding of the interactions especially interfacial interaction between PBI and inorganic filler leads to confusion over the choice of inorganic filler type and their surface functionalities. Taking clue from our earlier study based on poly(4,4'-diphenylether-5,5'-bibenzimidazole) (OPBI)/silica nanocomposites, where silica nanoparticles modified with short chain amine showed interfacial interaction-dependent properties, in this work we explored the possibility of enhanced interfacial interaction and control over the interface by optimizing the chemistry of the silica surface. We functionalized the surface of silica nanoparticles with a longer aliphatic chain having multiple amine groups (named as long chain amine modified silica and abbreviated as LAMS). FTIR and (13)C solid-state NMR provided proof of hydrogen bonding interactions between the amine groups of modifier and those of OPBI. LAMS nanoparticles yielded a more distinguished self-assembly extending all over the OPBI matrix with increasing concentrations. The crystalline nature of these self-assembled clusters was probed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies and the morphological features were captured by transmission electron microscope (TEM). We demonstrated the changes in storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the membranes, the fundamental parameters that are more sensitive to interfacial structure using temperature dependent dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). All the nanocomposite membranes displayed enhanced mechanical, thermal

  16. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  17. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  18. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    2010-05-26

    ... AGENCY Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft... draft ecological risk assessment for the registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon... occur for all inorganic nitrates- nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide uses, as well as gas...

  19. Transport of thiol-conjugates of inorganic mercury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) is a prevalent environmental contaminant to which exposure to can damage rod photoreceptor cells and compromise scotopic vision. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) likely plays a role in the ocular toxicity associated with Hg2+ exposure in that it mediates transport of substances to the photoreceptor cells. In order for Hg2+ to access photoreceptor cells, it must first be taken up by the RPE, possibly by mechanisms involving transporters of essential nutrients. In other epithelia, Hg2+, when conjugated to cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine (Hcy), gains access to the intracellular compartment of the target cells via amino acid and organic anion transporters. Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that Cys and Hcy S-conjugates of Hg2+ utilize amino acid transporters to gain access into RPE cells. Time- and temperature-dependence, saturation kinetics, and substrate-specificity of the transport of Hg2+, was assessed in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the following S-conjugates of Hg2+: Cys (Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys), Hcy (Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy), N-acetylcysteine (NAC-S-Hg-S-NAC) or glutathione (GSH-S-Hg-S-GSH). We discovered that only Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys and Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy were taken up by these cells. This transport was Na+-dependent and was inhibited by neutral and cationic amino acids. RT-PCR analyses identified systems B0,+ and ASC in ARPE-19 cells. Overall, our data suggest that Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys and Hcy-S-Hg-S-Hcy are taken up into ARPE-19 cells by Na-dependent amino acid transporters, possibly systems B0,+ and ASC. These amino acid transporters may play a role in the retinal toxicity observed following exposure to mercury

  20. Separation of radionuclides from spent decontamination solutions onto selective inorganic-organic composite absorbers

    The possibility of direct radionuclide separation from liquid decontamination waste was explored. Acidic waste from the AP-Citrox process ('KDR solution') and simulated liquid waste from electrochemical decontamination ('Electrolysate') were used. The efficiency of a set of promising inorganic sorbents was tested in batch experiments. The distribution coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated and the chemical stability of the absorbers and precipitation of iron hydroxides (if any) were monitored visually throughout the experiments. The experiments revealed a limited chemical stability of the absorbers. Generally, the KD values were highest (for the chemically stable absorbers) at the lowest pH (pH = 1.37), whereas pH 3.5 represented the least favourable conditions for the separation. At pH 7, only the sodium titanate absorber exhibited good sorption properties (high KD). In view of the above results, nickel hexacyanoferrate, synthetic zeolite, and ferrous sulphide were selected for subsequent experiments. In dynamic sorption experiments, NiFC-PAN, Na-Y-PAN and FeS-PAN composite absorbers were used for the KDR solution at the initial pH (1.37). A relatively early radionuclide breakthrough was observed on all the three absorbers. It is concluded that the main limitation of the composite absorbers consists in an insufficient chemical stability of their active components. The breakthrough of the radionuclides when using a standard strongly acidic cation exchanger (OSTION KS806) was somewhat lower. Similar results were obtained for the electrolysate solution in both the batch and dynamic experiments. The observed KD values were generally low at the initial pH (mean log KD < 2). In dynamic experiments, the breakthrough of all the radionuclides occurred rather early on both the NaY-PAN composite absorber and the standard strongly acidic cation exchanger (OSTION KS806). It is concluded that neither composite inorganic absorbers nor strongly acidic cation exchangers

  1. Study of the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents. Part 1. Preliminary experimental work on absorber preparation and performance

    A programme of work is in progress to examine the use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. This report presents the results obtained so far from studies of absorption kinetics for individual actinides (Pu, Am and Np) and for mixtures of actinides and fission products over a range of experimental conditions. The preparation of various forms of titanium phosphate and polyantimonic acid is described and the exchange performance of the different forms is compared. (author)

  2. Day–Night Changes of Energy-rich Compounds in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Species Utilizing Hexose and Starch

    Chen, Li-Song; NOSE, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-d...

  3. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric, fe...... chemistry; inorganic chemistry; solid state chemistry; solid state physics; materials chemistry; and mineralogy; and so they will not be repeated here. To this respect, the various footnotes refer the reader to a selection of relevant texts.......The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric......, ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them...

  4. Immobilized Microbial Cellulases in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Monica Dragomirescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aspergillus niger cellulase was immobilized by entrapment in natrium alginate gels and in natrium alginate/silica gel hybrid materials. The silica gels were obtained using two different precursors, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS, by sol-gel method. Comparing the enzymatic activities of the immobilized products, it was noticed that the CMCase activities obtained in natrium alginate were 1.12-1.17 times higher than those obtained by entrapment in mixed organic – inorganic gels, for similar enzyme loadings. The operational stability was tested in the substrate presence. The cellulase entrapped in the three types of organic-inorganic gel matrices mentioned above retains about 13% of its activity after 4 cycles. After one hour of storage at 37ºC, pH 3.0, the relative activity of the immobilized Aspergillus niger CMCase was more than 98% of initial.

  5. Survey of inorganic polymers. [for composite matrix resins

    Gerber, A. H.; Mcinerney, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    A literature search was carried out in order to identify inorganic, metallo-organic, and hybrid inorganic-organic polymers that could serve as potential matrix resins for advanced composites. The five most promising candidates were critically reviewed and recommendations were made for the achievement of their potential in terms of performance and cost. These generic polymer classes comprise: (1) Poly(arylsil sesquioxanes); (2) Poly(silyl arylene siloxanes); (3) Poly(silarylenes); (4) Poly(silicon-linked ferrocenes); and (5) Poly(organo phosphazenes). No single candidate currently possesses the necessary combination of physicomechanical properties, thermal stability, processability, and favorable economics. The first three classes exhibit the best thermal performance. On the other hand, poly (organo phosphazenes), the most extensively studied polymer class, exhibit the best combination of structure-property control, processability, and favorable economics.

  6. Theoretical Design of Coupled Organic-Inorganic Systems

    Mattioli, G.; Filippone, F.; Giannozzi, P.; Caminiti, R.; Amore Bonapasta, A.

    2008-09-01

    Metallo-organic molecules with highly conjugated π-electrons, like phthalocyanines (Pc’s), are widely investigated for usage in electronic and electro-optic devices. However, their weak coupling with semiconductors is an obstacle to technological applications. Here we report a first-principle theoretical study of some fundamental features of the Pc-semiconductor interaction. Our results shed light on the general problem of organic-inorganic coupling and show that an effective coupling can be achieved by a careful choice of the Pc-substrate system and the semiconductor doping. Our results also reveal a universal alignment of the Pc electronic levels to the semiconductor band gap and suggest a general procedure for designing efficiently coupled organic-inorganic systems.

  7. Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Rafaelle, Ryne P.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly amorphous silicon and (polycrystalline) copper indium selenide. Some of the advanced concepts discussed include multi-junction III-V (and thin-film) devices, utilization of nanotechnology, specifically quantum dots, low-temperature chemical processing, polymer substrates for lightweight and low-cost solar arrays, concentrator cells, and integrated power devices. While many of these technologies will eventually be used for utility and consumer applications, their genesis can be traced back to challenging problems related to power generation for aerospace and defense. Because this overview of inorganic materials is included in a monogram focused on organic photovoltaics, fundamental issues and metrics common to all solar cell devices (and arrays) will be addressed.

  8. Thermoluminescent characteristics of inorganic dust from black pepper spice

    Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi 21020, Ispra VA (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The irradiation of spices is normally used for its sterilization, allowing this procedure to extend the storage time ir different needs, i.e. transportation over large distances from the production places to distribution points for commercialization. The irradiated food allows studying the behaviour and the characteristics of its inorganic content, i.e. minerals. The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of the inorganic dust extracted from Black pepper spice. TL responses as a function of the delivered gamma dose, fading at room temperature, effect of W irradiation are reported. The thermoluminescent kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been accurately analysed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method and results are discussed. (Author)

  9. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  10. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Laura C. Preiss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  11. Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries

    This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are suitable, with appropriate modifications for other inorganic pollutants. For example, the collection of samples for mercury may require modifications of handling procedures. River water samples are collected at the most down-river point where no estuarine influences effect results. Samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and separated into aqueous and particulate phases for pollutant analysis. As is the case of all trace pollutant analyses, meticulous care is required to prevent pollution of the sample and in addition to the precautions described in this method, great personal attention is required to minimize sample handling, pollution by smoke, hands, hair, dust, talc from gloves, etc., and to avoid all contact of the samples and reagents with skin and metallic objects. 1 ref., 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. General synthesis of inorganic single-walled nanotubes

    Ni, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Wang, Peng-Peng; He, Jie; Wang, Xun

    2015-10-01

    The single-walled nanotube (SWNT) is an interesting nanostructure for fundamental research and potential applications. However, very few inorganic SWNTs are available to date due to the lack of efficient fabrication methods. Here we synthesize four types of SWNT: sulfide; hydroxide; phosphate; and polyoxometalate. Each type of SWNT possesses essentially uniform diameters. Detailed studies illustrate that the formation of SWNTs is initiated by the self-coiling of the corresponding ultrathin nanostructure embryo/building blocks on the base of weak interactions between them, which is not limited to specific compounds or crystal structures. The interactions between building blocks can be modulated by varying the solvents used, thus multi-walled tubes can also be obtained. Our results reveal that the generalized synthesis of inorganic SWNTs can be achieved by the self-coiling of ultrathin building blocks under the proper weak interactions.

  13. Methylation of inorganic arsenic by murine fetal tissue explants.

    Broka, Derrick; Ditzel, Eric; Quach, Stephanie; Camenisch, Todd D

    2016-07-01

    Although it is generally believed that the developing fetus is principally exposed to inorganic arsenic and the methylated metabolites from the maternal metabolism of arsenic, little is known about whether the developing embryo can autonomously metabolize arsenic. This study investigates inorganic arsenic methylation by murine embryonic organ cultures of the heart, lung, and liver. mRNA for AS3mt, the gene responsible for methylation of arsenic, was detected in all embryonic tissue types studied. In addition, methylated arsenic metabolites were generated by all three tissue types. The fetal liver explants yielded the most methylated arsenic metabolites (∼7% of total arsenic/48 h incubation) while the heart, and lung preparations produced slightly greater than 2% methylated metabolites. With all tissues the methylation proceeded mostly to the dimethylated arsenic species. This has profound implications for understanding arsenic-induced fetal toxicity, particularly if the methylated metabolites are produced autonomously by embryonic tissues. PMID:26446802

  14. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  15. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  16. Photoluminescence characterization and morphology control of inorganic phosphor particles

    Minami, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the photoluminescence characterization and morphologic control of inorganic phosphor particles. Both solid/dense and porous particles of europium-doped yttrium oxide (Y_2O_3:Eu^), and newly synthesized carbon-based boron oxynitride (BCNO) phosphors were selected as model materials. The major conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows. Chapter 1 discusses the background, previous research, methods used to investigate photoluminesc...

  17. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., ...

  18. Phosphorescent columnar hybrid materials containing polyionic inorganic nanoclusters.

    Nayak, S K; Amela-Cortes, M; Neidhardt, M M; Beardsworth, S; Kirres, J; Mansueto, M; Cordier, S; Laschat, S; Molard, Y

    2016-02-21

    The ternary polyionic inorganic compound Cs2Mo6Br14 and 18-crown-6 ethers bearing two o-terphenyl units have been combined to design phosphorescent columnar liquid crystalline hybrid materials. The obtained host-guest complexes are very stable even at high temperatures. Depending on their surrounding atmosphere, these hybrids switch reversibly from a high-to-low luminescence state and show a very stable emission intensity up to 140 °C. PMID:26806469

  19. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on epoxy matrix

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Donato, R. K.

    Ljubljana : Center for Experimental Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Institute for Sustainable Innovative Technologies, 2014. s. 44. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers /8./ - MoDeSt 2014. 31.08.2014-04.09.2014, Portorož] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy * organic- inorganic hybrid * ionic liquids Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  20. In vivo evaluation of chemical biopersistence of nonfibrous inorganic particles.

    Kreyling, W; Brain, Joseph David; Godleski, John Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The lung's response to deposited particles may depend upon the physical-chemical properties of the particles, the amount initially deposited, and the persistence of the particles. Clearance involves mucociliary transport as well as the action of phagocytic cells in nonciliated regions of the lung. Depending on the animal species studied, particle type, and particle load, inorganic materials are ingested by macrophages on alveolar surfaces with half-times of 0.6 to 7 hr. Particle-lade...

  1. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Yuanhang Ren; Meiyin Wang; Xueying Chen; Bin Yue; Heyong He

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous c...

  2. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications. PMID:23339685

  3. Planar organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell by electrospray

    Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell has attracted great attention due to the easy processing and rapid developed power conversion efficiency. The tri-halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx possessing excellent optical and electronic properties, such as absorption hands span the visible region, long charge carrier diffusion lengths, and appropriate direct band gap, makes them ideal active layer material for photovoltaic devices. In this thesis, electrohydrodynamic spraying is used...

  4. Inorganic polymers based on alkali activated fly-ash

    Benešová, Lenka; Koloušek, D.; Kotek, Jiří

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2012. P19. ISBN 978-80-85009-73-6. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /4./. 29.06.2012-30.06.2012, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1980 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : inorganic polymers * fly -ash Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  5. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings containing organically modified layered silicates

    Špírková, Milena; Duchek, P.; Kotek, Jiří; Strachota, Adam

    Belgrade : Institut of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences & Arts, 2009 - (Uskokovic, D.). s. 139 [Annual Conference Yucomat 2009 /11./. 31.08.2009-04.09.2009, Herceg Novi] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanocomposite * organic-inorganic coating * layered silicite * sol-gel process Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Chapter 2: Physiology of Microorganisms Immobilized into Inorganic Polymers

    Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, J.

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2010 - (Morrison, D.), s. 53-101 ISBN 978-1-61668-010-7. - (Chemistry Research and Applications) R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 121; GA MŠk ME 892; GA MŠk ME 893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : immobilization * encapsulation * inorganic matrices Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=11219

  7. Inorganic nitrogen in soil green manured with biocidal crops

    Marchetti, Rosa; Casadei, Nerio; Marino, Antonio; Sghedoni, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of the dynamics of inorganic N in soil may help to establish the most suitable timing for green manure (GM) incorporation, which leads to the improvement of crop N use efficiency in conventional as well as organic agriculture. The practice of green manuring with crop species belonging to the Brassicaceae family has recently expanded, in Italy and abroad, due to their demonstrated biocidal effect against soil-borne pathogens. In this plot-scale study we monitored the release of s...

  8. Biocompatible inorganic nanocrystals for fluorescence and CT imaging

    Hezinger, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of existing and development of new nanoparticular probes is a promising field of research, emanating from the increasing demand on nanoparticular contrast agents for luminescence and CT imaging. The first developed system is an ultra small inorganic semiconductor based nanoparticle with unique optical properties, ranging from size tunable emission to very high photostability. The second investigated nanoparticulate system is a lot less prominent on the field of molecular imagi...

  9. Enzyme molecular choreography : studies on soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases

    Oksanen, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases, EC 3.6.1.1) hydrolyse pyrophosphate in a reaction that provides the thermodynamic 'push' for many reactions in the cell, including DNA and protein synthesis. Soluble PPases can be classified into two families that differ completely in both sequence and structure. While Family I PPases are found in all kingdoms, family II PPases occur only in certain prokaryotes. The enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is very well characterised both ki...

  10. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Preiss, Laura C; Katharina Landfester; Rafael Muñoz-Espí

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i) biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth...

  11. Removal of inorganic and trace organic contaminants by electrodialysis

    Banasiak, Laura Joan

    2010-01-01

    With the continual concern over the presence of naturally occurring and anthropogenic inorganic and trace organic contaminants in the aquatic environment there is a growing need for the implementation of innovative treatment processes for the elimination of these contaminants from natural waters and wastewater effluents. While conventional treatment methods are ineffective in the removal of emerging contaminants such as steroidal hormones and pesticides, membrane technology, ...

  12. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  13. Inorganic anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    Inorganic anion exchangers are evaluated for Tc, I and S isotope removal from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities were examined. Selected exchangers were examined in detail for their selectivities, kinetics and mechanism of the sorption process (especially in NO3-, OH- and BO3- environments). Cement encapsulation and leaching experiments were made on the exchangers showing most promise for 'radwaste' treatment. (author)

  14. CONFINING CONDUCTING POLYANILINE IN A STABLE INORGANIC NETWORK

    Yan-ju Wang; Nian-jiang Liu; Jin-long Lu; Jian Liu; Ji Li; Xia-bin Jing; Fo-song Wang; Xian-hong Wang

    2003-01-01

    Water soluble conducting polyaniline with electrical conductivity of 10-1-10-2 S/cm was prepared employing dopant induced water solubility technology. The water resistance of the conducting film was significantly improved employing sol-gel hybrids method, especially when the conductive polyaniline loading was below 30 wt%. The reason for the improvement is that the conducting polyaniline chains are confined in a stable inorganic network.

  15. Inorganic Matter in Coal Particles of Coal Waste Piles

    Klika, Z.; Fojtíková, M.; Matějka, V.; Kolomazník, I.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Martinec, Petr; Šulc, Alexandr

    Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 2010, s. 404-405. ISBN 978-3-86012-397-3. [Second International Conference on Coal Fire Research ICCFR2. Berlin (DE), 19.05.2010-21.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal waste s * inorganic matter * phase analysis Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling

  16. Does the determination of inorganic arsenic in rice depend on the method?

    de la Calle, Maria Beatriz; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P.J.;

    2011-01-01

    , on the determination of total and inorganic arsenic (As) in rice. The main aim of this PT was to judge the state of the art of analytical capability for the determination of total and inorganic As in rice. For this reason, participation in this exercise was open to laboratories from all over the world. Some 98...... laboratories reported results for total As and 32 for inorganic As. The main conclusions of IMEP-107 were that the concentration of inorganic As determined in rice does not depend on the analytical method applied and that introduction of a maximum level for inorganic As in rice should not be postponed because...

  17. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  18. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a γ-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  19. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2α/. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with [3H]norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle

  20. Spontaneous Aerosol Ejection: Origin of Inorganic Particles in Biomass Pyrolysis.

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Gantt, Rachel; Joseph, Kristeen E; Maduskar, Saurabh; Paulsen, Alex D; Krumm, Christoph; Zhu, Cheng; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    At high thermal flux and temperatures of approximately 500 °C, lignocellulosic biomass transforms to a reactive liquid intermediate before evaporating to condensable bio-oil for downstream upgrading to renewable fuels and chemicals. However, the existence of a fraction of nonvolatile compounds in condensed bio-oil diminishes the product quality and, in the case of inorganic materials, catalyzes undesirable aging reactions within bio-oil. In this study, ablative pyrolysis of crystalline cellulose was evaluated, with and without doped calcium, for the generation of inorganic-transporting aerosols by reactive boiling ejection from liquid intermediate cellulose. Aerosols were characterized by laser diffraction light scattering, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and high-speed photography. Pyrolysis product fractionation revealed that approximately 3 % of the initial feed (both organic and inorganic) was transported to the gas phase as aerosols. Large bubble-to-aerosol size ratios and visualization of significant late-time ejections in the pyrolyzing cellulose suggest the formation of film bubbles in addition to the previously discovered jet formation mechanism. PMID:27125341

  1. In vivo degeneration and the fate of inorganic nanoparticles.

    Feliu, Neus; Docter, Dominic; Heine, Markus; Del Pino, Pablo; Ashraf, Sumaira; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Macchiarini, Paolo; Nielsen, Peter; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence; Stauber, Roland H; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-05-01

    What happens to inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), such as plasmonic gold or silver, superparamagnetic iron oxide, or fluorescent quantum dot NPs after they have been administrated to a living being? This review discusses the integrity, biodistribution, and fate of NPs after in vivo administration. The hybrid nature of the NPs is described, conceptually divided into the inorganic core, the engineered surface coating comprising of the ligand shell and optionally also bio-conjugates, and the corona of adsorbed biological molecules. Empirical evidence shows that all of these three compounds may degrade individually in vivo and can drastically modify the life cycle and biodistribution of the whole heterostructure. Thus, the NPs may be decomposed into different parts, whose biodistribution and fate would need to be analyzed individually. Multiple labeling and quantification strategies for such a purpose will be discussed. All reviewed data indicate that NPs in vivo should no longer be considered as homogeneous entities, but should be seen as inorganic/organic/biological nano-hybrids with complex and intricately linked distribution and degradation pathways. PMID:26862602

  2. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  3. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values ≥126 mg/100 ml (≥7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 μg/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic

  4. Spectroscopic Studies of Azul Maya: Novel Organic/Inorganic Complexes

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Torres, Brenda; Polette, Lori; Chianelli, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Maya pigments are novel organic/inorganic hybrid materials with multiple technological applications. The materials are surface compounds formed by heating an organic molecule such as indigo with an inorganic compound such as palygorskite, which is a common clay. The organic molecule upon heating forms a strong interaction with the clay surface stabilizing both entities. This strong interaction is exhibited through a color change from deep blue to the well-known Maya Blue indicating an exchange of electron density at the surface. Analysis by infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate the disappearance of nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonding, as the indigo molecule incorporates into the inorganic palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Carbon and oxygen studies at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory by X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), respectively, suggest possible cationic (Al^+3) bonding of the organic molecule to palygorskite compound.

  5. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  6. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  7. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In laboratory animals, it is dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], a major arsenic metabolite in the urine of inorganic arsenic-exposed people, that increases transitional cell carcinoma, namely in F344 r...

  8. Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Cross-Linked Silica, Organic Polyimide, and Inorganic Aluminosilicate Aerogels

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Guo, Haiquan N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs. Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments. Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced (hybrid) silica-based aerogels, polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined.

  9. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites.

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-28

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed. PMID:26705549

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrids constructed by Anderson-type polyoxoanions and copper coordination complexes

    Four organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on Anderson-type polyoxoanions, namely, {[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)3]2[Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}{[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)Cl][Cu(2,2'-bpy) (H2O)(NO3)][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}.18H2O (1), [Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2Cl]{[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]}.4H2O (2), (H3O){[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2]2[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)]2}[Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]3.36H2O (3), and (H3O){[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)2]2[Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)]2}[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]3.33H2O (4), were isolated by conventional solution method, and crystal structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among them, compound 1 displays a discrete supramolecular structure, compound 2 shows a chainlike structure with chloro-copper complexes as counteranions, and compounds 3 and 4 are isomorphic and exhibit unique 3D open frameworks with lattice water molecules residing in the channels. The compounds 3 and 4 represent the first example of 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compounds in the TMs/2,2'-bpy/POMs system. Investigation of the reaction conditions reveals that the geometry and size of the anions together with its coordinating abilities to the metal centers have a decisive influence on both the composition and the dimensionality of the final compounds. - Graphical Abstract: Four organic-inorganic hybrids based on Anderson-type polyoxoanions have been synthesized. Compound 1 displays a discrete structure, 2 shows a chainlike structure, 3 and 4 are isomorphic and exhibit unique 3D open frameworks with lattice waters residing in the channels. The different structures suggest that the overall structures of the compounds are influenced by the nature of the acidic anions

  11. Recycle of Inorganic Nutrients for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Incineration of Inedible Biomass

    Bubenheim, David L.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams is essential for future implementation and reliance on a regenerative life support system. The major waste streams of concern are from human activities and plant wastes. Carbon, water and inorganics are the primary desired raw materials of interest. The goal of resource recovery is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. Today, reagent grade nutrients are used to make nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture and these solutions are frequently changed during the life cycle or sometimes managed for only one crop life cycle. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration in all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match control, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions are formulated using only ash following-incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with nutrients to establish the same balance as in the control, growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals

  12. Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle

    Fuerstenau, D. W.; Huang, P.; Ravikumar, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was two-fold: first, to identify and test inorganic water-repellent materials that would be hydrophobic even after thermal cycling to temperatures above 600 C and, second, to develop a model that would link hydrophobicity of a material to the chemical properties of its constituent atoms. Four different materials were selected for detailed experimental study, namely, boron nitride, talc, molybdenite, and pyrophyllite, all of which have a layered structure made up of ionic/covalent bonds within the layers but with van der Waals bonds between the layers. The materials tested could be considered hydrophobic for a nonporous surface but none of the observed contact angles exceeded the necessary 90 degrees required for water repellency of porous materials. Boron nitride and talc were observed to retain their water-repellency when heated in air to temperatures that did not exceed 800 C, and molybdenite was found to be retain its hydrophobicity when heated to temperatures up to 600 C. For these three materials, oxidation and decomposition were identified to be the main cause for the breakdown of water repellency after repeated thermal cycling. Pyrophyllite shows the maximum promise as a potential water-repellent inorganic material, which, when treated initially at 900 C, retained its shape and remained hydrophobic for two thermal cycles where the maximum retreatment temperature is 900 C. A model was developed for predicting materials that might exhibit hydrophobicity by linking two chemical properties, namely, that the constituent ions of the compound belong to the soft acid-base category and that the fractional ionic character of the bonds be less than about 20 percent.

  13. Recycling of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production following incineration of inedible biomass

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Wignarajah, K.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of resource recovery in a regenerative life support system is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration is all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match the control treatment, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions were formulated using only ash following incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in a suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with reagent grade chemicals to establish the same balance as in the control - growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals but matching the quality of the ash only treatment resulted in similar growth to that of the ash only treatment. The ash product resulting from incineration of inedible biomass appears to be a suitable form for recycle of inorganic nutrients to crop production.

  14. Determination of total inorganic arsenic in potable water through spectroscopy of atomic absorption with generation of hydride

    Arsenic is an element that has been studied in the analysis of environmental samples for its toxicity showed in very low concentrations. The objective of this work is the validation of a method for the determination of total inorganic arsenic in drinking water. Through the spectrophotometric technique of atomic absorption an automatic system of flow injection for the generation of hydrides is used. The prereduction of Arsenic was made with potasium iodide 1,5% m/v and ascorbic acid 0.25% m/v dissolved in hydrochloric acid 3,7% m/v. The recuperation percentage of the method was 97 ± 3% in a dynamic range to 30 μg/L. The detection limit was 0,7 μg/L established over 0,5 mL of sample. The samples analyzed were found under the set limits of normative in Costa Rica of 10 μg/L. (author)

  15. Assimilation of organic and inorganic nutrients by Erica root fungi from the fynbos ecosystem.

    Bizabani, Christine; Dames, Joanna Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Erica dominate the fynbos ecosystem, which is characterized by acidic soils that are rich in organic matter. The ericaceae associate with ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi for survival. In this study fungal biomass accumulation in vitro was used to determine nutrient utilisation of various inorganic and organic substrates. This is an initial step towards establishment of the ecological roles of typical ERM fungi and other root fungi associated with Erica plants, with regard to host nutrition. Meliniomyces sp., Acremonium implicatum, Leohumicola sp., Cryptosporiopsis erica, Oidiodendron maius and an unidentified Helotiales fungus were selected from fungi previously isolated and identified from Erica roots. Sole nitrogen sources ammonium, nitrate, arginine and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) were tested. Meliniomyces and Leohumicola species were able to utilise BSA effectively. Phosphorus nutrition was tested using orthophosphate, sodium inositol hexaphosphate and DNA. Most isolates preferred orthophosphate. Meliniomyces sp. and A. implicatum were able to accumulate significant biomass using DNA. Carbon utilisation was tested using glucose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, pectin and tannic acid substrates. All fungal isolates produced high biomass on glucose and cellobiose. The ability to utilize organic nutrient sources in culture, illustrates their potential role of these fungi in host nutrition in the fynbos ecosystem. PMID:26895865

  16. Crude oil in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer—I. Hydrogeology and inorganic geochemistry

    Bennett, P.C.; Siegel, D.E.; Baedecker, M.J.; Hult, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of inorganic solutes in a shallow ground water contaminated by crude oil document a series of geochemical reactions initiated by biodegradation of the oil. Upgradient of an oil body floating on the water table, oxidation of oil to carbonic acid dissolves carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. In this oxidized zone pH is depressed ∼1 pH unit, and the concentrations of Ca, Mg and HCO3− increase to more than twice that of the native ground water. In the anoxic zone beneath the oil body concentrations of dissolved SiO2, Sr, K, Fe and Mn increase significantly. Here, Fe is mobilized by microbial reduction, pH is buffered by the carbonate system, and silicates weather via hydrolysis and organic-acid-enhanced dissolution. Farther down-gradient the ground water is reoxygenated and Fe precipitates from solution, possibly as iron hydroxide or iron carbonates, while SiO2 precipitates as amorphous silica. Other solutes, such as Mg, are transported more conservatively down-gradient where contaminated and native ground water mix.

  17. Study of fouling and scaling in capacitive deionisation by using dissolved organic and inorganic salts.

    Mossad, Mohamed; Zou, Linda

    2013-01-15

    In this work, fouling, scaling and cleaning of the capacitive deionisation (CDI) with activated carbon electrodes were systematically investigated for the first time. Electrode fouling caused by dissolved organic matter using sodium salt of humic acid as a model foulant (measured by total organic carbon concentration, TOC) and inorganic salt (NaCl, MgCl(2), CaCl(2) and FeCl(3)) in the CDI feed solutions was investigated in a series of controlled fouling experiments. After each CDI experiment, a series of cleaning steps was performed to understand the reversibility of fouling accumulated on the electrode surface by analysing the cleaning solutions. The higher the TOC concentration in the CDI feed solution, the more the reduction of salt removal efficiency, declination in the production rate and energy consumption. Dissolved organic matter is the main cause of electrode fouling, as it blocks the activated carbon pores and reduces their electrosorption capacitance. Ca and Mg have no noticeable effect on the CDI treatment performance. However, Fe seemed to have a greater effect on CDI electrode fouling. Alkaline and acid cleaning solutions were able to restore the recovery of the CDI performance from fouling. Pre-treatment to reduce the dissolved organic matter levels is recommended to achieve sustainable treatment performance. PMID:23274796

  18. Study on the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents

    This report summarises some of the results from an ongoing experimental programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. The effect of irradiation up to a total dose of 10 M Gy on the absorption of fission products and actinides over a range of experimental conditions by selected ion exchangers is described. The ion exchangers tested were polyantimonic acid, hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide, potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II, titanium phosphate and zirconium phosphate. Manganese dioxide and potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II were unaffected by irradiation. Polyantimonic acid showed a decreasing performance with increasing total dose. Zirconium phosphate, titanium phosphate and oxide showed a decreasing performance up to a total dose of 2.19 M Gy with an apparent recovery in performance on increasing the total dose to 10 M Gy. The effect of conditioning time on some of the irradiated absorbers could have influenced the uptake data above 1.25 M Gy. (author)

  19. Thermochemical study of some inorganic and organic salts of cobalt, nickel and copper

    Differential enthalpy analysis has been carried out on a certain number of inorganic (halides, halide oxy-acid salts, nitrates and sulfates) and organic (alkanoates, and dicarboxylates) of cobalt, nickel and copper using a Tian-Calvet high-temperature microcalorimeter. Other investigational methods such as thermo-crystallography, thermogravimetry, spectroscopy and gas-phase chromatography have been used to complete this work. An intrinsic study of the microcalorimeter covering thermal leakage, the sensitivity and the aging of the batteries, the deviation of the experimental zero, has been carried out. A satisfactory experimental device has been developed which corresponds to optimum conditions of analysis. We have shown which are the most important factors affecting differential thermal analysis and have detected certain phenomena; we have also demonstrated that intermediate hydrates exist and shown the possibilities of thermal recrystallization. Various enthalpies of transformation have been evaluated. The various possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. The normal formation enthalpies of several series of alkanoates and dicarboxylates have been measured. A graphical method has been devised for evaluating the kinetic parameters of heterogeneous dissociations from the thermograms obtained. Finally, we have developed a simple method for estimating the normal formation enthalpies of carboxylates and oxy-acid salts, both anhydrous and hydrated. The agreement with available experimental data is satisfactory. (author)

  20. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    The enticing electro-optical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, CdS nanocrystals and ZnO nanowrie bring new vigor into the innovation of photovoltaics. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel nano-structured materials for low cost solar cell applications. Fabrication, characterization, and solar cell application of organic-inorganic hybrid structures are the main focus of this research. Polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite films were synthesized by an electrochemical polymerization of aniline with airbrushed MWNTs on ITO substrates. It was found that the incorporation of MWNTs in PANI effectively increase the film conductivity with a percolation threshold of 5% of nanotubes in the composite. The solar cell performance strongly depends on the conductivity of the composite films, which can be tuned by adjusting nanotube concentration. A higher conductivity resulted in a better cell performance, resulting from an efficient charge collection. This study indicates that PANI/MWNT composite films with optimized conductivity are potentially useful for low-cost hybrid solar cell applications. CdS nanocrystal-sensitized solar cells (NCSSCs) were investigated by using polyaniline (PANI) as a replacement for conventional platinum counter electrode. The growth time of the nanocrystals significantly affects the solar cell performance. At an optimum growth, the NCSSCs exhibit 0.83% of the conversion efficiency in comparison to 0.13% for the identical cells without CdS nanocrystals. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer in the solar cells with CdS nanocrystals was improved. The enhanced overall energy conversion efficiency by nanocrystals is attributed to improved light absorption and suppressed recombination rate of interfacial charges at the injection, resulting in significantly improved charge transfer and electron lifetime. In addition, the PANI electrodes

  1. Thermal behaviour of ground and unground acid leached vermiculite

    Pérez-Maqueda, L. A.; Maqueda, C.; Pérez-Rodríguez, J. L.; Šubrt, Jan; Černý, Zbyněk; Balek, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 2 (2012), s. 431-438. ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : vermiculite * grinding * acid leaching * DTA * TG * EGA * emanation thermal analysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  2. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  3. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  4. Semi-organic salts of aniline with inorganic acids: prospective materials for the second harmonic generation

    Matulková, Irena; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal; Pojarová, Michaela; Vaněk, Přemysl; Kroupa, Jan; Šála, Michal; Krupková, Radmila; Němec, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2011), s. 4131-4138. ISSN 1466-8033 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09044; GA ČR GA203/09/0878 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nonlinear optical properties * vibrational spectra * phase transition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2011

  5. The oxidation of aniline with inorganic oxidants in environment of different acidity

    Bláha, Michal; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    Linz: Johannes Kepler University Linz, 2015 - (List, M.; Paulik, C.; Major, Z.; Teasdale, I.; Brüggemann, O.). s. 96 ISBN 978-3-99033-491-1. [Danube Vltava Sava Polymer Meeting - DVSPM 2015. 11.05.2015-13.05.2015, Gmunden] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/0911 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aniline oxidation * conductivity * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Proton conductive inorganic-organic hybrid membranes functionalized with phosphonic acid for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Umeda, Junji; Suzuki, Masashi; Kato, Masaki; Moriya, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu

    Proton conductive sol-gel derived hybrid membranes were synthesized from aromatic derivatives of methoxysilanes and ethyl 2-[3-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-oxapropyl]acrylate (EPA). Two aromatic derivatives of methoxysilanes with different number of methoxy groups were used as the starting materials. Hybrid membranes from difunctional (methyldimethoxysilylmethyl)styrene (MDMSMS(D))/EPA revealed a higher chemical stability and mechanical properties than those from monofunctional (dimethylmethoxysilylmethyl)styrene (DMMSMS(M))/EPA. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using the hybrid membranes as electrolytes worked as a fuel cell at 100 °C under saturated humidity. The DMMSMS(M)/EPA membrane-based MEA showed a larger current density than that from MDMSMS(D)/EPA. On the other hand, the MDMSMS(D)/EPA membrane-based MEA exhibited higher open circuit voltages than the DMMSMS(M)/EPA-based MEA, and was stable during fuel cell operation at 80 °C at least for 48 h.

  7. Proton conductive inorganic-organic hybrid membranes functionalized with phosphonic acid for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Umeda, Junji; Moriya, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu [Division of Nanomaterials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Masashi; Kato, Masaki [Research and Development Division, Aichi Industrial Technology Institute, Nishi-shinwari, Hitotsugi-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-0003 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Proton conductive sol-gel derived hybrid membranes were synthesized from aromatic derivatives of methoxysilanes and ethyl 2-[3-(dihydroxyphosphoryl)-2-oxapropyl]acrylate (EPA). Two aromatic derivatives of methoxysilanes with different number of methoxy groups were used as the starting materials. Hybrid membranes from difunctional (methyldimethoxysilylmethyl)styrene (MDMSMS(D))/EPA revealed a higher chemical stability and mechanical properties than those from monofunctional (dimethylmethoxysilylmethyl)styrene (DMMSMS(M))/EPA. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using the hybrid membranes as electrolytes worked as a fuel cell at 100 C under saturated humidity. The DMMSMS(M)/EPA membrane-based MEA showed a larger current density than that from MDMSMS(D)/EPA. On the other hand, the MDMSMS(D)/EPA membrane-based MEA exhibited higher open circuit voltages than the DMMSMS(M)/EPA-based MEA, and was stable during fuel cell operation at 80 C at least for 48 h. (author)

  8. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10-2M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  9. Microbiological transformations of phosphorus and sulphur compounds in acid soils

    Stamenov Dragana; Jarak Mirjana; Đurić Simonida; Jafari Hajnal Timea; Bjelić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of phosphorus and sulphur in soil is closely related to the dynamics of the biological cycle in which microorganisms play a central role. There is not much microbiological activity in acid soils because aerobes are scarce, rhizosphere is restricted to the shallow surface layer, and the biomass of microorganisms decreases with higher acidity. The aim of the research was to investigate the number of microorganisms, which decompose organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds an...

  10. Ascorbic acid study in citrus juice: effect of preservative

    This paper reports the effect of preservative on ascorbic acid extracted from freshly plucked oranges. Colorimetric method was used for the determination of ascorbic. Determination of some inorganic elements like sodium, potassium and lithium were also determined by flame photometry. The preservative was found to have a beneficial effect on the retention of ascorbic acid, particularly when used in high concentration. Metal content, particularly potassium did no alter significantly during preservation for duration of one month. (author)

  11. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  12. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  13. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  14. Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria of Acidic Mine Waters

    Wichlacz, Paul L.; Unz, Richard F.

    1981-01-01

    Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and ...

  15. Multi length-scale characterisation inorganic materials series

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the first five volumes in the Inorganic Materials Series focused on particular classes of materials (synthesis, structures, chemistry, and properties), it is now very timely to provide complementary volumes that introduce and review state-of-the-art techniques for materials characterization. This is an important way of emphasizing the interplay of chemical synthesis and physical characterization. The methods reviewed include spectroscopic, diffraction, and surface techniques that examine the structure of materials on all length scales, from local atomic structure to long-range crystall

  16. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  17. The Use of Inorganic Packing Materials during Methane Biofiltration

    Josiane Nikiema; Michèle Heitz

    2010-01-01

    The objective behind this study is to select a suitable inorganic packing material for methane biofiltration. Three packing materials are to be compared: two rock materials (average particles' sizes: 2 and 5 mm) and one porous clay particles (average particle size of 7 mm). The main parameter used to assess the efficiency of the packing material is the methane elimination capacity. The study reveals that the rock material having an average particle size around 2 mm is to be preferred. This re...

  18. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  19. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Nutullah Özdemir; Elif Öztürk; Ö.Tebessüm Kop Durmuş; İmanverdi Ekberli

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L), zeolit (Z), polyacrylamide (PAM) and biosolid (BS) on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth) soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated wi...

  20. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials: challenges for ab initio methodology.

    Draxl, Claudia; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hannewald, Karsten

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are most exciting since one can expect new properties that are absent in either of their building blocks. They open new perspectives toward the design and tailoring of materials with desired features and functions. Prerequisite for real progress is, however, the in-depth understanding of what happens on the atomic and electronic scale. In this respect, hybrid materials pose a challenge for electronic-structure theory. Methods that proved useful for describing one side may not be applicable for the other one, and they are likely to fail for the interfaces. In this Account, we address the question to what extent we can quantitatively describe hybrid materials and where we even miss a qualitative description. We note that we are dealing with extended systems and thus adopt a solid-state approach. Therefore, density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the GW approach for charged and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for neutral excitations, are our methods of choice. We give a brief summary of the used methodology, focusing on those aspects where problems can be expected when materials of different character meet at an interface. These issues are then taken up when discussing hybrid materials. We argue when and why, for example, standard DFT may fall short when it comes to the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces or where the framework of MBPT can or must take over. Selected examples of organic/inorganic interfaces, structural properties, electronic bands, optical excitation spectra, and charge-transport properties as obtained from DFT and MBPT highlight which properties can be reliably computed for such materials. The crucial role of van der Waals forces is shown for sexiphenyl films, where the subtle interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions is decisive for growth and morphologies. With a PTCDA monolayer on metal surfaces we discuss the performance of DFT in