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Sample records for acids improves lipid

  1. Improved Experimental Techniques for Analyzing Nucleic Acid Transport Through Protein Nanopores in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    Costa, Justin A.

    The translocation of nucleic acid polymers across cell membranes is a fundamental requirement for complex life and has greatly contributed to genomic molecular evolution. The diversity of pathways that have evolved to transport DNA and RNA across membranes include protein receptors, active and passive transporters, endocytic and pinocytic processes, and various types of nucleic acid conducting channels known as nanopores. We have developed a series of experimental techniques, collectively known as "Wicking", that greatly improves the biophysical analysis of nucleic acid transport through protein nanopores in planar lipid bilayers. We have verified the Wicking method using numerous types of classical ion channels including the well-studied chloride selective channel, CLIC1. We used the Wicking technique to reconstitute α-hemolysin and found that DNA translocation events of types A and B could be routinely observed using this method. Furthermore, measurable differences were observed in the duration of blockade events as DNA length and composition was varied, consistent with previous reports. Finally, we tested the ability of the Wicking technology to reconstitute the dsRNA transporter Sid-1. Exposure to dsRNAs of increasing length and complexity showed measurable differences in the current transitions suggesting that the charge carrier was dsRNA. However, the translocation events occurred so infrequently that a meaningful electrophysiological analysis was not possible. Alterations in the lipid composition of the bilayer had a minor effect on the frequency of translocation events but not to such a degree as to permit rigorous statistical analysis. We conclude that in many instances the Wicking method is a significant improvement to the lipid bilayer technique, but is not an optimal method for analyzing transport through Sid-1. Further refinements to the Wicking method might have future applications in high throughput DNA sequencing, DNA computation, and molecular

  2. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  3. Acute Acidification of Stratum Corneum Membrane Domains Using Polyhydroxyl Acids Improves Lipid Processing and Inhibits Degradation of Corneodesmosomes

    Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Roelandt, Truus; Schürer, Nanna; Pu, Xu; Fluhr, Joachim; Giddelo, Christina; Man, Mao-Qiang; Crumrine, Debra; Roseeuw, Diane; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora; Elias, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralization of the normally acidic stratum corneum (SC) has deleterious consequences for permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion attributable to serine proteases (SPs) activation leading to deactivation/degradation of lipid-processing enzymes and corneodesmosomes (CD). As an elevated pH compromises SC structure and function, we asked here whether SC hyperacidification would improve the structure and function. We lowered the pH of mouse SC using two polyhydroxyl acids (PH...

  4. Improved cellular activity of antisense peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cationic peptide-lipid (CatLip) domain

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Zachar, Vladimir; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    and therefore mechanisms that promote endosomal escape (or avoid the endosomal route) are required for improving bioavailability. A variety of auxiliary agents (chloroquine, calcium ions, or lipophilic photosensitizers) has this effect, but improved, unaided delivery would be highly advantageous in...... particular for future in vivo applications. We find that simply conjugating a lipid domain (fatty acid) to the cationic peptide (a CatLip conjugate) increases the biological effect of the corresponding PNA (CatLip) conjugates in a luciferase cellular antisense assay up to 2 orders of magnitude. The effect...... increases with increasing length of the fatty acid (C8-C16) but in parallel also results in increased cellular toxicity, with decanoic acid being optimal. Furthermore, the relative enhancement is significantly higher for Tat peptide compared to oligoarginine. Confocal microscopy and chloroquine enhancement...

  5. Improved insulin loading in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids

    Garcia Diaz, Maria; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The......Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading of...

  6. Acute acidification of stratum corneum membrane domains using polyhydroxyl acids improves lipid processing and inhibits degradation of corneodesmosomes.

    Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Roelandt, Truus; Schürer, Nanna; Pu, Xu; Fluhr, Joachim; Giddelo, Christina; Man, Mao-Qiang; Crumrine, Debra; Roseeuw, Diane; Feingold, Kenneth R; Mauro, Theodora; Elias, Peter M

    2010-02-01

    Neutralization of the normally acidic stratum corneum (SC) has deleterious consequences for permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion attributable to serine proteases (SPs) activation leading to deactivation/degradation of lipid-processing enzymes and corneodesmosomes (CD). As an elevated pH compromises SC structure and function, we asked here whether SC hyperacidification would improve the structure and function. We lowered the pH of mouse SC using two polyhydroxyl acids (PHA), lactobionic acid (LBA), or gluconolactone (GL). Applications of the PHA reduced the pH at all levels of SC of hairless mouse, with further selective acidification of SC membrane domains, as shown by fluorescence lifetime imaging. Hyperacidification improved permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to increased activities of two key membrane-localized, ceramide-generating hydrolytic enzymes (beta-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase), which correlated with accelerated extracellular maturation of SC lamellar membranes. Hyperacidification generated "supernormal" SC integrity/cohesion, attributable to an SP-dependent decreased degradation of desmoglein-1 (DSG1) and the induction of DSG3 expression in lower SC. As SC hyperacidification improves the structure and function, even of normal epidermis, these studies lay the groundwork for an assessment of the potential utility of SC acidification as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory dermatoses, characterized by abnormalities in barrier function, cohesion, and surface pH. PMID:19741713

  7. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Eu Chia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state. Results Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p Conclusion In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

  8. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency.

    Thurberg, Beth L; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Jones, Simon A; Schiano, Thomas D; Cox, Gerald F; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial plasma lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men.

    Background: The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the concentrations of different subclasses of VLDL, LDL and HDL particles, and their mean diameters in fasting and postprandial plasma has not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of DHA supplementation on the concentrations of a...

  10. Fusidic acid betamethasone lipid cream.

    Girolomoni, G; Mattina, R; Manfredini, S; Vertuani, S; Fabrizi, G

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues are frequent disorders. They can be primitive infections (e.g. impetigo, folliculitis) or secondary infections complicating other diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis. The most common aetiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Topical antibiotic therapy may be sufficient in many instances to control these infections. Fusidic acid is an antibiotic used topically on the skin which is very active against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, and other Gram-positive bacteria. Resistance rates to fusidic acid are stably low. A fusidic acid and betamethasone formulation in a lipid-enriched cream (lipid cream) has been recently developed in order to provide effective antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in conjunction with a powerful emollient and moisturising effect. This preparation may be especially useful in patients with atopic-infected eczema. PMID:27121235

  11. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  12. Improved cellular uptake of antisense Peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cell-penetrating Peptide and a lipid domain

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    peptides known as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is attracting wide attention for a variety of biologically active molecules. CPP-mediated delivery is typically based on the covalent conjugation of the (therapeutic) cargo to CPPs, and is particularly relevant for the delivery of noncharged RNA...... interference agents such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and morpholino oligomers. Although chemical conjugation to a variety of CPPs significantly improves the cellular uptake of PNAs, the bioavailability (and hence antisense activity) of CPP-PNA -conjugates is still highly limited by endocytotic entrapment...

  13. Enhancement of energy production by black ginger extract containing polymethoxy flavonoids in myocytes through improving glucose, lactic acid and lipid metabolism.

    Toda, Kazuya; Takeda, Shogo; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 μg/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1α. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction. PMID:26581843

  14. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of red and white European grape juices towards copper induced lipid oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were examined in vitro. LDL lipid peroxidation was assessed spectrophotometrically by monitoring the development of conjugated lipid hydroperoxides at 234 n...

  15. Specially-Made Lipid-Based Assemblies for Improving Transmembrane Gene Delivery: Comparison of Basic Amino Acid Residue Rich Periphery.

    Jiang, Qian; Yue, Dong; Nie, Yu; Xu, Xianghui; He, Yiyan; Zhang, Shiyong; Wagner, Ernst; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-06-01

    Cationic lipid based assemblies provide a promising platform for effective gene condensation into nanosized particles, and the peripheral properties of the assemblies are vital for complexation and interaction with physical barriers. Here, we report three cationic twin head lipids, and each of them contains a dioleoyl-glutamate hydrophobic tail and a twin polar head of lysine, arginine, or histidine. Such lipids were proven to self-assemble in aqueous solution with well-defined nanostructures and residual amino-, guanidine-, or imidazole-rich periphery, showing strong buffering capacity and good liquidity. The assemblies with arginine (RL) or lysine (KL) periphery exhibited positive charges (∼+35 mV) and complete condensation of pDNA into nanosized complexes (∼120 nm). In contrast, assemblies composed of histidine-rich lipids (HL) showed relatively low cationic electric potential (∼+10 mV) and poor DNA binding ability. As expected, the designed RL assemblies with guanidine-rich periphery enhanced the in vitro gene transfection up to 190-fold as compared with the golden standard PEI25k and Lipofectamine 2000, especially in the presence of serum. Meanwhile, interaction with cell and endo/lysosome membrane also revealed the superiority of RL complexes, that the guanidine-rich surface efficiently promoted transmembrane process in cellular internalization and endosomal disruption. More importantly, RL complexes also succeeded beyond others in vivo with significantly (∼7-fold) enhanced expression in HepG2 tumor xenografts in mice, as well as stronger green fluorescence protein imaging in isolated tumors and tumor frozen sections. PMID:27097286

  16. Study of methods for the improvement of the anaerobic digestion of lipids and long chain fatty acids

    Affes Salah, Rim

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process that transforms diverse categories of biomass feedstock to renewable energy, in the form of methane, and contributes to resources conservation and greenhouse gases emission mitigation. Lipid-rich waste and wastewaters have a high energy potential, however efficient methane recovery with conventional anaerobic digestion technology is not easy to achieve because of a wide assortment of operational problems mainly related to the accumulation of long...

  17. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Eu Chia; Lim Wai; Ton So; Kadir Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpenoid saponin, is th...

  18. Serum bile acids are higher in humans with prior gastric bypass: potential contribution to improved glucose and lipid metabolism

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M; Bianco, Antonio C;

    2009-01-01

    index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 +/- 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 +/- 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic...

  19. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing;

    2003-01-01

    Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) have a potential glycogen-saving effect during exercise due to rapid hydrolysis and oxidation. However, studies comparing intake of carbohydrates (CHO) plus 80-90 g MCT with intake of CHO alone have revealed different results. The present study tested performance...... after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, to prevent the adverse effects observed by MCT (pure medium-chain fatty acids) regarding gastrointestinal distress. Seven well-trained subjects cycled 3 h at 55% of...

  20. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-α-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes

    Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-α plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-α activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-α mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-α-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription

  1. Lipid fatty acid profile analyses in liver and serum in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology

    Fatty acids (FA) are essential components of lipids and exhibit important biological functions. The analyses of FAs are routinely carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after multi-step sample preparation. In this study, several key experimental factors were carefully examined, validat...

  2. Improvement of Neutral Lipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis by Overexpressing a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Ying-Fang Niu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral as structural and functional components of cellular membranes, as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. In addition, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT is a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of triacylglyceride (TAG biosynthesis. However, a comprehensive sequence-structure and functional analysis of DGAT in diatoms is lacking. In this study, an isoform of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was characterized. Surprisingly, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum stimulated more oil bodies, and the neutral lipid content increased by 35%. The fatty acid composition showed a significant increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids; in particular, EPA was increased by 76.2%. Moreover, the growth rate of transgenic microalgae remained similar, thereby maintaining a high biomass. Our results suggest that increased DGAT2 expression could alter fatty acid profile in the diatom, and the results thus represent a valuable strategy for polyunsaturated fatty acid production by genetic manipulation.

  3. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    Alicja Zajdel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid (PA has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10–20% compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  4. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    grape juice exerted prooxidant activity at 5-20 muM GAE. The antioxidant activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation of LDL in vitro, was correlated with the juices' levels of total phenols (r > 0.98, P <0.01), anthocyanins (r > 0.99, P <0.01), flavan-3-ols (r > 0.97 P <0.05), and hydroxybenzoates (r > 0...

  5. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    Alicja Zajdel; Adam Wilczok; Ludmiła Węglarz; Zofia Dzierżewicz

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the deca...

  6. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  7. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  8. Iron and hydroxyl radicals in lipid oxidation: Fenton reactions in lipid and nucleic acids co-oxidized with lipid

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals can initiate lipid peroxidation in liquids, but their high reactivity affords reaction paths so short that they are unlikely to reach lipids in membrane bilayers when formed exteriorly. EPR studies of Fenton-like reactions inducing oxidation in bulk lipids indicate that iron-dependent initiation of lipid oxidation in organelles and vesicles may result from hydroxyl radicals formed within the hydrophobic membrane interiors, where they would be inaccessible to typical hydrophilic radical scavengers. The cytotoxic or cytogenetic results of lipid peroxidation, especially in nuclear membranes, may include radiominetic chemical damage to adjacent DNA or nucleoprotein. Preliminary product analyses of nucleic acid basis cooxidized with lipids in vitro support this view.

  9. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R.; Oliva, María E.; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1) activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed. Results show that: (a) the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b) Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs) availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats. PMID:26828527

  10. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Agustina Creus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO, was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia. A reference group consumed a control diet (CD all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA and diacylglycerol (DAG contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1 activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 were analyzed. Results show that: (a the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats.

  11. Mechanisms Involved in the Improvement of Lipotoxicity and Impaired Lipid Metabolism by Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Rich Salvia hispanica L (Salba) Seed in the Heart of Dyslipemic Insulin-Resistant Rats.

    Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R; Oliva, María E; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the mechanisms underlying the altered lipid metabolism in the heart of dyslipemic insulin-resistant (IR) rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) and investigates if chia seeds (rich in α-linolenic acid 18:3, n-3 ALA) improve/reverse cardiac lipotoxicity. Wistar rats received an SRD-diet for three months. Half of the animals continued with the SRD up to month 6. The other half was fed an SRD in which the fat source, corn oil (CO), was replaced by chia seeds from month 3 to 6 (SRD+chia). A reference group consumed a control diet (CD) all the time. Triglyceride, long-chain acyl CoA (LC ACoA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (M-CPT1) activities and protein mass levels of M-CPT1, membrane fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were analyzed. Results show that: (a) the hearts of SRD-fed rats display lipotoxicity suggesting impaired myocardial lipid utilization; (b) Compared with the SRD group, dietary chia normalizes blood pressure; reverses/improves heart lipotoxicity, glucose oxidation, the increased protein mass level of FAT/CD36, and the impaired insulin stimulated FAT/CD36 translocation to the plasma membrane. The enhanced M-CPT1 activity is markedly reduced without similar changes in protein mass. PPARα slightly decreases, while the UCP2 protein level remains unchanged in all groups. Normalization of dyslipidemia and IR by chia reduces plasma fatty acids (FAs) availability, suggesting that a different milieu prevents the robust translocation of FAT/CD36. This could reduce the influx of FAs, decreasing the elevated M-CPT1 activity and lipid storage and improving glucose oxidation in cardiac muscles of SRD-fed rats. PMID:26828527

  12. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty....... In vitro studies provided a mechanistic understanding on the varied bioavailability caused by different lipid structures, the lower relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from FAEE formulation was closely related to the slower digestion rate of FAEE. Microencapsulated fish oil has often been...

  13. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  14. Quercetin improves insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro in a NAFLD cell model

    Li, Xiuli; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Qingyan; BAI, YUQIN; Bai, Yin; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Huiming; ZOU, JIHONG; Wang, Hongxia; SHI, TIEWEI

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on insulin resistance and lipid metabolic abnormalities in free fatty acid (FFA)- and insulin-induced HepG2 cell model of NAFLD, and to determine the possible underlying mechanism. Quercetin markedly improves hepatic lipid accumulation and decreases the levels of triglyceride (TG). The lipid-lower...

  15. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  16. Fatty acids from membrane lipids become incorporated into lipid bodies during Myxococcus xanthus differentiation.

    Swapna Bhat

    Full Text Available Myxococcus xanthus responds to amino acid limitation by producing fruiting bodies containing dormant spores. During development, cells produce triacylglycerides in lipid bodies that become consumed during spore maturation. As the cells are starved to induce development, the production of triglycerides represents a counterintuitive metabolic switch. In this paper, lipid bodies were quantified in wild-type strain DK1622 and 33 developmental mutants at the cellular level by measuring the cross sectional area of the cell stained with the lipophilic dye Nile red. We provide five lines of evidence that triacylglycerides are derived from membrane phospholipids as cells shorten in length and then differentiate into myxospores. First, in wild type cells, lipid bodies appear early in development and their size increases concurrent with an 87% decline in membrane surface area. Second, developmental mutants blocked at different stages of shortening and differentiation accumulated lipid bodies proportionate with their cell length with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76. Third, peripheral rods, developing cells that do not produce lipid bodies, fail to shorten. Fourth, genes for fatty acid synthesis are down-regulated while genes for fatty acid degradation are up regulated. Finally, direct movement of fatty acids from membrane lipids in growing cells to lipid bodies in developing cells was observed by pulse labeling cells with palmitate. Recycling of lipids released by Programmed Cell Death appears not to be necessary for lipid body production as a fadL mutant was defective in fatty acid uptake but proficient in lipid body production. The lipid body regulon involves many developmental genes that are not specifically involved in fatty acid synthesis or degradation. MazF RNA interferase and its target, enhancer-binding protein Nla6, appear to negatively regulate cell shortening and TAG accumulation whereas most cell-cell signals activate these

  17. A Role of Lipid Metabolism during Cumulus-Oocyte Complex Maturation: Impact of Lipid Modulators to Improve Embryo Production

    E. G. Prates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte intracellular lipids are mainly stored in lipid droplets (LD providing energy for proper growth and development. Lipids are also important signalling molecules involved in the regulatory mechanisms of maturation and hence in oocyte competence acquisition. Recent studies show that LD are highly dynamic organelles. They change their shape, volume, and location within the ooplasm as well as their interaction with other organelles during the maturation process. The droplets high lipid content has been correlated with impaired oocyte developmental competence and low cryosurvival. Yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In particular, the lipid-rich pig oocyte might be an excellent model to understand the role of lipids and fatty acid metabolism during the mammalian oocyte maturation and their implications on subsequent monospermic fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. The possibility of using chemical molecules to modulate the lipid content of oocytes and embryos to improve cryopreservation as well as its biological effects during development is here described. Furthermore, these principles of lipid content modulation may be applied not only to germ cells and embryo cryopreservation in livestock production but also to biomedical fundamental research.

  18. Pomegranate flower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model: role of lowering circulating lipids.

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2005-07-01

    Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the diabetic heart contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Punica granatum flower (PGF) is a traditional antidiabetic medicine. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of PGF extract on abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. Long-term oral administration of PGF extract (500 mg kg(-1)) reduced cardiac TG content, accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels of TG and total cholesterol in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, indicating improvement by PGF extract of abnormal cardiac TG accumulation and hyperlipidemia in this diabetic model. Treatment of ZDF rats with PGF extract lowered plasma FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of mRNAs encoding for FA transport protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2, and restored downregulated cardiac acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA expression in ZDF rats, whereas it showed little effect in Zucker lean rats. The results suggest that PGF extract inhibits increased cardiac FA uptake and oxidation in the diabetic condition. PGF extract and its component oleanolic acid enhanced PPAR-alpha luciferase reporter gene activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and this effect was completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-alpha antagonist MK-886, consistent with the presence of PPAR-alpha activator activity in the extract and this component. Our findings suggest that PGF extract improves abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism in ZDF rats by activating PPAR-alpha and thereby lowering circulating lipid and inhibiting its cardiac uptake. PMID:15880139

  19. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. PMID:24120122

  20. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  1. Combined intervention with pioglitazone and n-3 fatty acids in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: improvement of lipid metabolism

    Veleba, J.; Kopecký Jr., J.; Janovská, Petra; Kuda, Ondřej; Horáková, Olga; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Trnovská, J.; Hájek, M.; Škoch, A.; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Rossmeisl, Martin; Olza, J.; de Castro, S. G.; Calder, P. C.; Gardlo, Alžběta; Fišerová, E.; Jensen, J.; Bryhn, M.; Kopecký, Jan; Pelikánová, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, Dec 2 (2015), s. 52. ISSN 1743-7075 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13763 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : eicosapentaenoic acid * docosahexaenoic acid * indirect calorimetry * meal test * humans * hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.258, year: 2014

  2. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ceftazidime

    Devbhuti P*,1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids which is a free radical related process and responsible for thedevelopment of many diseases and disorders like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer etc. End products of lipid peroxidation aremalondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, etc. which are the ultimate mediator of toxicity. Antioxidants have the capability toinhibit lipid peroxidation. Keeping in mind this fact, the present in vitro study was carried out to evaluate lipid peroxidation induction potential of ceftazidime, a cephalosporin antibiotic and its suppression with ascorbic acid considering some laboratory markers of lipid peroxidation like MDA, 4-HNE and reduced glutathione (GSH. Goat liver was used as the lipid source. After treatment of the liver homogenate with drug and/or antioxidant the levels of 4-HNE, MDA and GSH were estimated in different samples at different hours of incubation. The results showed that the drug ceftazidime could significantly induce lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant ascorbic acid has the capability to inhibit ceftazidime-inducedlipid peroxidation.

  3. Fatty Acid and Lipid Transport in Plant Cells.

    Li, Nannan; Xu, Changcheng; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and lipids are essential - not only as membrane constituents but also for growth and development. In plants and algae, FAs are synthesized in plastids and to a large extent transported to the endoplasmic reticulum for modification and lipid assembly. Subsequently, lipophilic compounds are distributed within the cell, and thus are transported across most membrane systems. Membrane-intrinsic transporters and proteins for cellular FA/lipid transfer therefore represent key components for delivery and dissemination. In addition to highlighting their role in lipid homeostasis and plant performance, different transport mechanisms for land plants and green algae - in the model systems Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - are compared, thereby providing a current perspective on protein-mediated FA and lipid trafficking in photosynthetic cells. PMID:26616197

  4. Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid.

    Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used. PMID:24080318

  5. Fatty Acids and Bioactive Lipids of Potato Cultivars: An Overview.

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Oraby, Hesahm Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Potato tuber is a highly nutritious, wherein genotype and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size and nutritional value of potatoes. Owing to its high consumption, potato could be an ideal carrier of health-promoting phytochemicals. Potato cultivars contain many bioactive lipidic compounds such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, sterols, tocols and carotenoids, which are highly desirable in diet because of their health-promoting effects. In the scientific literature, information on the content and profile of bioactive lipidic compounds in potato cultivars are few. The concentration and stability of bioactive lipids are affected by many factors such as genotype, agronomic factors, postharvest storage, cooking and processing conditions. In this review levels and composition of bioactive lipids in terms of lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and caroteinoids distribution in different potato cultivars including genetically modified potato (GMP) were highlighted and discussed. In addition, factors affecting bioactive lipids levels, stability and health benefits are reviewed. In consideration of potential nutritional value, detailed knowledge on lipids of potato cultivars is of major importance. PMID:27250559

  6. Improved characterization of EV preparations based on protein to lipid ratio and lipid properties.

    Xabier Osteikoetxea

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved parameters to characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Here we introduce a simple 96 well plate-based total lipid assay for determination of lipid content and protein to lipid ratios of extracellular vesicle preparations from various myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blood plasma. These preparations included apoptotic bodies, microvesicles/microparticles, and exosomes isolated by size-based fractionation. We also investigated lipid bilayer order of extracellular vesicle subpopulations using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ lipid probe, and lipid composition using affinity reagents to clustered cholesterol (monoclonal anti-cholesterol antibody and ganglioside GM1 (cholera toxin subunit B. We have consistently found different protein to lipid ratios characteristic for the investigated extracellular vesicle subpopulations which were substantially altered in the case of vesicular damage or protein contamination. Spectral ratiometric imaging and flow cytometric analysis also revealed marked differences between the various vesicle populations in their lipid order and their clustered membrane cholesterol and GM1 content. Our study introduces for the first time a simple and readily available lipid assay to complement the widely used protein assays in order to better characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Besides differentiating extracellular vesicle subpopulations, the novel parameters introduced in this work (protein to lipid ratio, lipid bilayer order, and lipid composition, may prove useful for quality control of extracellular vesicle related basic and clinical studies.

  7. Effect of deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid on lipid peroxidation in cultured macrophages.

    Ljubuncic, P; Fuhrman, B.; Oiknine, J; Aviram, M.; Bomzon, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kupffer cells are essential for normal hepatic homeostasis and when stimulated, they secrete reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, eicosanoids, and cytokines. Some of these products are cytotoxic and attack nucleic acids, thiol proteins, or membrane lipids causing lipid peroxidation. Hydrophobic bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid (DCA), can damage hepatocytes by solubilising membranes and impairing mitochondrial function, as well as increasing the generation of reactive oxygen ...

  8. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  9. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: plasma data.

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aimed at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. This first report deals mainly with the fatty acid pattern of plasma lipids in male omega3-depleted rats that were non-injected or injected with either the omega3-rich emulsion or a control medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion. The results provide information on the fate of the exogenous lipids present in the lipid emulsions and injected intravenously 60 min before sacrifice. Moreover, in the uninjected omega3-depleted rats the comparison between individual plasma and liver measurements indicated positive correlations in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides. PMID:18288383

  10. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation. PMID:27173560

  11. What makes the bioactive lipids phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid so special?

    Kooijman, Edgar E; Carter, Karen M; van Laar, Emma G; Chupin, Vladimir; Burger, Koert N J; de Kruijff, Ben

    2005-12-27

    Phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid are minor but important anionic bioactive lipids involved in a number of key cellular processes, yet these molecules have a simple phosphate headgroup. To find out what is so special about these lipids, we determined the ionization behavior of phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extended (flat) mixed lipid bilayers using magic angle spinning 31P NMR. Our data show two surprising results. First, despite identical phosphomonoester headgroups, LPA carries more negative charge than PA when present in a phosphatidylcholine bilayer. Dehydroxy-LPA [1-oleoyl-3-(phosphoryl)propanediol] behaves in a manner identical to that of PA, indicating that the difference in negative charge between LPA and PA is caused by the hydroxyl on the glycerol backbone of LPA and its interaction with the phosphomonoester headgroup. Second, deprotonation of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid was found to be strongly stimulated by the inclusion of phosphatidylethanolamine in the bilayer, indicating that lipid headgroup charge depends on local lipid composition and will vary between the different subcellular locations of (L)PA. Our findings can be understood in terms of a hydrogen bond formed within the phosphomonoester headgroup of (L)PA and its destabilization by competing intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bonds. We propose that this hydrogen bonding property of (L)PA is involved in the various cellular functions of these lipids. PMID:16363814

  12. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

    Ton So

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR. With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05 of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05 in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05. Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis.

  13. Major lipid classes and their fatty acids in a parasitic nematode, Ascaridia galli.

    Ghosh, Amit; Kar, Kumkum; Ghosh, D; Dey, C; Misra, K K

    2010-04-01

    The paper presents major lipid classes and their fatty acids investigated from Ascaridia galli, a nematode parasite of country fowl. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) reveals that the percent of total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipids, and glycolipids are 1.94, 54.39, 26.95 and 18.66, respectively. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis shows that the saturated fatty acids are the major components in all the lipid fractions followed by monoenes and dienes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were present in low amount. Stearic acids (C(18)) were the chief components among all the fatty acids in all the lipid fractions. PMID:21526035

  14. Major lipid classes and their fatty acids in a parasitic nematode, Ascaridia galli

    Ghosh, Amit; Kar, Kumkum; Ghosh, D.; Dey, C.; Misra, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents major lipid classes and their fatty acids investigated from Ascaridia galli, a nematode parasite of country fowl. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) reveals that the percent of total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipids, and glycolipids are 1.94, 54.39, 26.95 and 18.66, respectively. Gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis shows that the saturated fatty acids are the major components in all the lipid fractions followed by monoenes and dienes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)...

  15. Pomegranate flower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model: role of lowering circulating lipids

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li, Yuhao

    2005-01-01

    Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the diabetic heart contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Punica granatum flower (PGF) is a traditional antidiabetic medicine. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of PGF extract on abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro.Long-term oral administration of PGF extract (500 mg kg−1) reduced cardiac TG content, accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels of TG and total cholestero...

  16. Intravenous lipid and amino acids briskly increase plasma glucose concentrations in small premature infants.

    Savich, R D; Finley, S L; Ogata, E S

    1988-07-01

    We determined the glycemic response to intravenous lipid infusion alone, lipid with amino acids, or amino acids alone in 15 very small premature infants receiving constant glucose infusion during early life. Infants who received lipid or lipid and amino acids demonstrated significant increases in glucose compared with infants who received amino acids. The combination of lipid and amino acids resulted in an earlier increase than lipid alone. Although plasma insulin did not change in all three groups, infants who received amino acids alone demonstrated an appropriate increase in glucagon. These data suggest that lipid infusion, a commonly used means of providing nutrition to premature infants, may cause significant disturbances in glucoregulation, particularly when administered with amino acids. PMID:3132930

  17. Uric acid as a modulator of glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Lima, William Gustavo; Martins-Santos, Maria Emília Soares; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2015-09-01

    In humans, uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism. The serum uric acid level is based on the balance between the absorption, production and excretion of purine. Uric acid is similarly produced in the liver, adipose tissue and muscle and is primarily excreted through the urinary tract. Several factors, including a high-fructose diet and the use of xenobiotics and alcohol, contribute to hyperuricaemia. Hyperuricaemia belongs to a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities, called metabolic syndrome, characterised by abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Hyperuricaemia reduction in the Pound mouse or fructose-fed rats, as well as hyperuricaemia induction by uricase inhibition in rodents and studies using cell culture have suggested that uric acid plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome. These studies have shown that high uric acid levels regulate the oxidative stress, inflammation and enzymes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, suggesting a mechanism for the impairment of metabolic homeostasis. Humans lacking uricase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid degradation, are susceptible to these effects. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of the effects of uric acid on the regulation of metabolism, primarily focusing on liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. PMID:26133655

  18. Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    M.L.L. Ferrarese; C. R. S. Baleroni; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    1998-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos cap...

  19. Improvement of lipid content of Chlorella minutissima MCC 5 for biodiesel production.

    Chakraborty, Sourabh; Mohanty, Debabrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Das, Debabrata

    2016-09-01

    Lipids extracted from microalgae have been considered as a potential source for the production of biodiesel. Enhancement of lipid has the limitations of low biomass productivity. So, the main objective of the present study was to deduce suitable conditions for the improvement of biomass production followed by enhancement of lipid content. After optimization, a strategy for two stage cultivation was utilized where high lipid content was obtained with a high biomass concentration. Optimization of biomass production of Chlorella minutissima MCC 5 was carried out under different intensities of light, temperatures, concentrations of nitrate and phosphate using Taguchi model. A suitable synergy of the four parameters yielded maximum biomass (1.93 g L(-1)) in airlift reactor. Temperature was found to be relatively effective than other parameters for higher biomass production. Activation energy for the cell growth was determined (47.95 kJ mol(-1)). Among the various (photo, thermal, nitrate and phosphate) stress conditions studied, nitrate limitation (1 mM) was found to be suitable for the enhancement of lipid resulting highest yield (48.26% w/w). Two stage cultivation of the microalgae yielded a maximum lipid content of 46% w/w with a biomass concentration of 2.2 g L(-1). Additionally, FAME analysis exhibited significant increase of oleic acid in the biodiesel. So, C. minutissima MCC 5 cultivated under nitrate stress could be a possible feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:26922477

  20. Skeletal Muscle Lipid Deposition and Insulin Resistance: Impact of Dietary Fatty Acids and Exercise

    Evidence has mounted indicating that elevated intramuscular triacylglycerol levels are associated with diminished insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. This lipid accumulation is most likely due to enhanced fatty acid uptake into the muscle coupled with diminished mitochondrial lipid oxidation. Th...

  1. Safety profile of the intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles.

    Conceição, Mariana; Mendonça, Liliana; Nóbrega, Clévio; Gomes, Célia; Costa, Pedro; Hirai, Hirokazu; Moreira, João Nuno; Lima, Maria C; Manjunath, N; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2016-03-01

    In a clinical setting, where multiple administrations of the therapeutic agent are usually required to improve the therapeutic outcome, it is crucial to assess the immunogenicity of the administered nanoparticles. In this data work, we investigated the safety profile of the repeated intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles (RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs). To evaluate local activation of the immune system, we performed analysis of mouse tissue homogenates and sections from cerebellum. To investigate peripheral activation of the immune system, we used serum of mice that were intravenously injected with RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. These data are related and were discussed in the accompanying research article entitled "Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado-Joseph disease neurological phenotype" (Conceição et al., in press) [1]. PMID:26958628

  2. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne;

    2015-01-01

    In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence...... of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...

  3. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  4. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    Morita Mizuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. Results To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. Conclusions We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function.

  5. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function

  6. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on fatty acid composition of plasma membrane lipids of liver cells

    Changes in the fatty acid compositon of total lipids and individual phospholipids of liver cell plasma membranes of intact and exposed (7.65 Gy) rats have been studied. The authors discuss the relationship between the degree of lipid oxidation and other lipid characteristics of the studied membrane after exposure to ionizing radiation

  8. Measurement of the incorporation of orally administered arachidonic acid into tissue lipids

    The applicability of a stable isotope method to monitor the mixing of dietary arachidonic acid with endogenous arachidonic acid in tissue lipids was evaluated. Rats were fed octadeuterated arachidonic acid during a 20-day period, and the entry of the dietary acid into lipid esters of various tissues was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of their fatty acids. The rats were maintained on a fat-free diet from weaning until 63 days old to enhance the ratio of the dietary acid to endogenous arachidonate. Three separate forms of eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids could be distinguished by GC-MS: octadeuterated arachidonic acid (recent dietary origin), unlabeled arachidonic acid (maternal origin) and unlabeled 4,7,10,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (originating from palmitoleic acid). The total eicosatetraenoic acid in the tissue lipids contained about 90% arachidonate from recent dietary origin in lung, kidney, heart and fat, 70% in muscle and liver and 27% in brain. The n-7 isomer of eicosatetraenoic acid was estimated to make up 6% or less of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in lung, kidney, brain, muscle and heart tissue lipids, but it comprised around 15% of the total eicosatetraenoic acid in liver. The unlabeled arachidonic acid of maternal origin thus comprised only about 10% of the eicosatetraenoic acid in all tissues examined except muscle and brain, where it was 24% and 70% of the eicosatetraenoic acid, respectively

  9. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Sinclair Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3 in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0 and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte LD formation, regulation of genes central to LD function and adipokine responsiveness. Cells were supplemented with 100 μM FA during 7-day differentiation. Results EPA markedly reduced LD size and total lipid accumulation, suppressing PPARγ, Cidea and D9D/SCD1 genes, distinct from other treatments. These changes were independent of alterations of lipolytic genes, as both EPA and STA similarly elevated LPL and HSL gene expressions. In response to acute lipopolysaccharide exposure, EPA-differentiated adipocytes had distinct improvement in inflammatory response shown by reduction in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and elevation in adiponectin and leptin gene expressions. Conclusions This study demonstrates that EPA differentially modulates adipogenesis and lipid accumulation to suppress LD formation and size. This may be due to suppressed gene expression of key proteins closely associated with LD function. Further analysis is required to determine if EPA exerts a similar influence on LD formation and regulation in-vivo.

  10. Effect of mycolic acid on surface activity of binary surfactant lipid monolayers.

    Chimote, G; Banerjee, R

    2008-12-15

    In pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis lies in close physical proximity to alveolar surfactant. Cell walls of the mycobacteria contain loosely bound, detachable surface-active lipids. In this study, the effect of mycolic acid (MA), the most abundant mycobacterial cell wall lipid, on the surface activity of phospholipid mixtures from lung surfactant was investigated using Langmuir monolayers and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the presence of mycolic acid, all the surfactant lipid mixtures attained high minimum surface tensions (between 20 and 40 mN/m) and decreased surface compressibility moduli acid. Mycolic acids could aggregate within surfactant lipid monolayers and result in disturbed monolayer surface activity. The extent of the effect of mycolic acid depended on the initial state of the monolayer, with fluid films of DPPC-POPC and DPPC-CHOL being least affected. The results imply inhibitory effects of mycolic acid toward lung surfactant lipids and could be a mechanism of lung surfactant dysfunction in pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:18848703

  11. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T.; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H.; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primr...

  12. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and...

  13. Subcellular distributions of lipids in cultured BHK cells: evidence for the enrichment of lysobisphosphatidic acid and neutral lipids in lysosomes.

    Brotherus, J; Renkonen, O

    1977-03-01

    Homogenates of cultured hamster fibroblasts (BHK 21 cells) were fractionated by differential centrifugation into six main fractions: nuclear, mitochondrial, light mitochondrial, microsomal, soluble, and floating. The contents of several lipids and some marker enzymes were measured. According to the enzyme distributions, lysosomes were enriched both in the floating fraction and in the light mitochondrial fraction. Lysobisphosphatidic acid was enriched in the floating fraction more than tenfold relative to phospholipid. Cholesteryl esters and triglycerides were the main constituents of the fraction (70% of total lipids). Lysobisphosphatidic acid, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters were enriched also in the light mitochondrial fraction. Their distribution patterns were different from those of the other lipids. Electron microscopy showed that the floating fraction contained numerous lipofuscin-like particles with darkly stained peripheries and with core regions staining like droplets of neutral lipids. Similar particles, frequently containing prominent multilamellar formations, were also common in intact cells. They contained cytochemically identified acid phosphatase. We conclude that lysobisphosphatidic acid was enriched in the lysosomes of the BHK cells and that the lysosomes also contained variable amounts of neutral lipids in the form of intralysosomal droplets. PMID:845501

  14. Rapid determination of lipid peroxidation using a novel pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.

    Chen, Jingnan; Cai, Danqian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel method is developed to rapidly analyze lipid peroxidation in edible oils and fatty foods at room temperature, which is called the pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid (PFOS) method. The PFOS method evaluates the lipid peroxide value colorimetrically via detecting the pyridoxamine-mediated pigment produced by 5-sulfosalicylic acid and Fe(3+) at 500nm, while the latter is converted from Fe(2+) in the presence of lipid peroxides. The optimized formulation was ethanol (70%, v/v), Fe(2+) (4mmol/L), 5-sulfosalicylic acid (40mmol/L) and pyridoxamine (18mmol/L). The limit of quantitation is 0.087mmol Fe(3+)/L with acceptable reproducibility. In addition, current method has a significant linear correlation with both conventional thiobarbituric acid (R(2)=0.9999) and ferric thiocyanate assays (R(2)=0.9675). This method offers a rapid technique for evaluating lipid peroxidation without heating and sophisticated instrumental procedures. Besides, current method provides a new option to evaluate the lipid peroxidation state and improve the reproducibility of ferrous-oxidation. PMID:27283678

  15. Digestion and absorption of lipids and bile acids in sheep fed stearic acid, oleic acid, or tristearin

    Sheep were fed diets containing 7.5% added stearic acid, oleic acid, or tristearin for 21 days. In addition, 50 microCi/kg cerium-141 was included for the last 10 days on experimental diets as an unabsorbed reference substance. In the rumen dietary triglycerides were approximately 50% hydrolyzed, and hydrogenation resulted in saturation of the free fatty acid fraction. Some net synthesis of phospholipids, presumably microbial phospholipids, occurred in the rumen. In the intestine immediately distal to the pylorus, extensive secretion of bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and lipase occurred. This resulted in doubling of fatty acid fluxes through the duodenum. These endogenous secretions were reabsorbed rapidly however, with the major site of lipid and bile acid absorption in the region .6 to 4 m distal to the pylorus. Additional but less absorption occurred in the more distal segments of the small intestine. Overall absorption of stearic acid, oleic acid, and tristearin supplements was in the range 60 to 70%, and no differences were apparent between fats. Unsaturated fatty acids were over 90% absorbed as compared with 55 to 65% for saturated fatty acids. No significant effect of any of the supplements was observed on ruminal total volatile fatty acids, ratios of volatile fatty acids, or on overall cellulose or caloric digestion

  16. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  17. Suppression by ellagic acid of 60Co-irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation in placenta and fetus of rats

    The effect of ellagic acid, a component of Eucalyptus maculata, on lipid peroxidation was examined in placenta and fetus of pregnant rats irradiated with 60Co. The increase in lipid peroxide levels by the irradiation of the placenta and fetus brain as well as those of the serum and organs of mother was suppressed by treatment of the mother rats with ellagic acid. This suppressing effect found in placenta and fetus was significantly correlated with that found in mother rats. Moreover, ellagic acid suppressed the morphological changes such as degeneration in the endothelial cells of placenta and liver cells of fetus caused by the irradiation and improved the survival rate after the irradiation. These suppressing effects of ellagic acid were approximately the same as those of α-tocopherol. (author)

  18. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  19. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  20. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning

    Yuhei Harada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG solution, called “MSG preconditioning”. However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning.

  1. Serum lipid profile and uric acid levels in preeclampsia in University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    Enaruna, Nosakhare O; Joseph O Idemudia; Aikoriogie, Paul I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Lipid abnormality and elevated serum uric acid have been reported as early features of the disease. We aimed to detect the level of serum lipid profile and uric acid abnormalities in severe preeclamptics in Benin City and to measure their clinical significance. Materials and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted with subjects presenting with se...

  2. Membrane-Bound Basic Peptides Sequester Multivalent (PIP2), but Not Monovalent (PS), Acidic Lipids

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Gambhir, Alok; Hangyás-Mihályné, Gyöngyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Rädler, Joachim; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Several biologically important peripheral (e.g., myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) and integral (e.g., the epidermal growth factor receptor) membrane proteins contain clusters of basic residues that interact with acidic lipids in the plasma membrane. Previous measurements demonstrate that the polyvalent acidic lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is bound electrostatically (i.e., sequestered) by membrane-adsorbed basic peptides corresponding to these clusters. We report he...

  3. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety. PMID:26830577

  4. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production. PMID:27038264

  5. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....

  6. Suppressive actions of eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Sinclair Andrew J; Manickam Elizabeth; Cameron-Smith David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipid droplet (LD) formation and size regulation reflects both lipid influx and efflux, and is central in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, including adipokine secretion. The length and degree of dietary fatty acid (FA) unsaturation is implicated in LD formation and regulation in adipocytes. The aims of this study were to establish the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) in comparison to SFA (STA; stearic acid, C18:0) and MUFA (OLA; oleic acid, C18:1n-9) ...

  7. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids and oleic acid on blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities

    Tholstrup, T.; Ehnholm, C.; Jauhiainen, M.;

    2004-01-01

    cholesterol, although this claim is poorly documented. Objective: We compared the effects of a diet rich in either MCFAs or oleic acid on fasting blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities in healthy men. Design: In a study with a double-blind, randomized, crossover...... design, 17 healthy young men replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 70 g MCTs (66% 8:0 and 34% 10:0) or high-oleic sunflower oil (89.4% 18:1). Each intervention period lasted 21 d, and the 2 periods were separated by a washout period of 2 wk. Blood samples were taken before and after the...... oleic acid, MCT fat unfavorably affected lipid profiles in healthy young men by increasing plasma LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. No changes in the activities of phospholipid transfer protein and cholesterol ester transfer protein were evident....

  8. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks

  9. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States); Moreau, Régis [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Hagen, Tory, E-mail: Tory.Hagen@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  10. Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans.

    Allard, J P; Kurian, R; Aghdassi, E; Muggli, R; Royall, D

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in healthy humans the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake, alone or in combination with dL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) supplements on lipid peroxidation. Eighty men were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to take daily for 6 wk either menhaden oil (6.26 g, n-3 fatty acids) or olive oil supplements with either vitamin E (900 IU) or its placebo. Antioxidant vitamins, phospholipid composition, malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid peroxides were measured in the plasma at baseline and week 6. At the same time, breath alkane output was measured. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration increased in those receiving vitamin E (P < 0.0001). In those supplemented with n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA increased in plasma phospholipids (P < 0.0001) and plasma MDA and lipid peroxides increased (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breath alkane output did not change significantly and vitamin E intake did not prevent the increase in lipid peroxidation during menhaden oil supplementation. The results demonstrate that supplementing the diet with n-3 fatty acids resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation, as measured by plasma MDA release and lipid peroxide products, which was not suppressed by vitamin E supplementation. PMID:9168460

  11. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Gu Keyu; Yi Chengxin; Tian Dongsheng; Sangha Jatinder; Hong Yan; Yin Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been...

  12. Improved method to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids

    Shih, T. S.; Chou, J. S.; Chen, C Y; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RESULTS: Optimal resul...

  13. Microalgae biomass production at different growth conditions assessing the lipid content and fatty acid profile for feed, food and energy applications

    Rinna, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential of microalgae as a source of food, feedstock and renewable energy has received considerable interest, but if microalgae production is to be economically viable and sustainable, further optimization of mass culture conditions are needed. In this work the attention was focused on the improvement of lipid productivity of two microalgae species Botryococcus braunii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and evaluation of lipid productivity and fatty acid profile of the cya...

  14. Activity of caffeic acid in different fish lipid matrices: A review

    Medina, Isabel; Undeland, Ingrid; Larsson, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic acid, a hydroxycinnamic acid common in different vegetable sources, has been employed as a natural antioxidant for inhibiting oxidation of fish lipids present in different food matrices. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms involved in the antioxidative and prooxidative eff...

  15. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  16. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers

    Yang Chu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a phenolic antioxidant compound derived from the rhizome of the turmeric plant Curcuma longa, has proven to be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis, revealing its anticancer potential. In this study, a Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (Cur-GA-PEG-NLC was prepared by the film ultrasound method to improve the tumor-targeting ability. The drug content was detected by an UV spectrophotometry method. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin in the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs was determined using a mini-column centrifugation method. The encapsulation efficiency for various Cur-GA-PEG-NLC was within the range of 90.06%–95.31% and particle size was between 123.1 nm and 132.7 nm. An in vitro MTT assay showed that Cur-GA10%-PEG-NLC had significantly high cellular uptake and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with other groups.

  17. Correlation between leptin level with lipid profile and free fatty acid in liver cirrhosis patients

    Siti Maryani; Neneng Ratnasari; Siti Nurdjanah

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common condition in liver cirrhotic patients. Leptin regulates body weightphysiologically by suppressing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin is higher in femalethan male. Studies have shown correlation between leptin with metabolic factors like body massindex (BMI) and lipid profile in cirrhotic patients. This study was conducted to investigate thecorrelation between serum leptin levels with lipid profile and free fatty acid in male patients with livercirrhosi...

  18. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  19. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC50) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL−1, respectively, while the IC50 of TaxolTM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL−1. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC

  20. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    Miao, Jing, E-mail: joemj1005@163.com, E-mail: miaojing@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng [Zhejiang University, Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Zhao, Mengdan [Zhejiang University, Women’s Hospital, College of Medicine (China); Hu, Fuqiang, E-mail: hufq@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-01-15

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC{sub 50}) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL{sup −1}, respectively, while the IC{sub 50} of Taxol{sup TM} was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL{sup −1}. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  1. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  2. Serum total sialic acid, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione reductase levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; PRIYAV, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the serum sialic acid levels, total lipid peroxidation products (MDA), and glutathione reductase activity were estimated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Serum Sialic acid is known as a parameter of inflammation. This work was undertaken to assess the potential role of sialic acid as well as oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and methods: The levels of these parameters in serum were studied in 52 subjects with rheuma...

  3. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:24922183

  4. Isolation of lipid classes from nutritional marine oils: improved extraction strategy and discrimination studies based on the positional distribution of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on triacylglycerol structures using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis

    Woldemariam, Ephrem  Tilahun 

    2014-01-01

    The consumer of the 21st century have developed an awareness of the quality of food products in their diet and the impact of these products on their health which in turn has led to an escalating consumer demand for omega-3 fatty acids rich oils, functional food, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. The analysis of omega-3 rich oils for detecting the presence of adulterants is generally carried out by using complex, time-consuming techniques and expensive and sophisticated instruments. It ...

  5. Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae

    Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

    2012-06-01

    Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

  6. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    Roselino Mariana N; Pauly-Silveira Nadiége D; Cavallini Daniela CU; Celiberto Larissa S; Pinto Roseli A; Vendramini Regina C; Rossi Elizeu A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels...

  7. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  8. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  9. Pantothenic acid and its derivatives protect Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against lipid peroxidation.

    Slyshenkov, V S; Rakowska, M; Moiseenok, A G; Wojtczak, L

    1995-12-01

    Preincubation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells at 22 or 32 degrees C, but not at 0 degree C, with pantothenic acid, 4'-phosphopantothenic acid, pantothenol, or pantethine reduced lipid peroxidation (measured by production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive compounds) induced by the Fenton reaction (Fe2+ + H2O2) and partly protected the plasma membrane against the leakiness to cytoplasmic proteins produced by the same reagent. Pantothenic acid and its derivatives did not inhibit (Fe2+ + H2O2)-induced peroxidation of phospholipid multilamellar vesicles, thus indicating that their effect on the cells was not due to the scavenging mechanism. Homopantothenic acid and its 4'-phosphate ester (which are not precursors of CoA) neither protected Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against lipid peroxidation nor prevented plasma membrane leakiness under the same conditions. Incubation of the cells with pantothenic acid, 4'-phosphopantothenic acid, pantothenol, or pantethine significantly increased the amount of cellular CoA and potentiated incorporation of added palmitate into phospholipids and cholesterol esters. It is concluded that pantothenic acid and its related compounds protect the plasma membrane of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against the damage by oxygen free radicals due to increasing cellular level of CoA. The latter compound may act by diminishing propagation of lipid peroxidation and promoting repair mechanisms, mainly the synthesis of phospholipids. PMID:8582649

  10. Nutritional strategies to improve the lipid composition of meat, with emphasis on Thailand and Asia.

    Jaturasitha, S; Chaiwang, N; Kayan, A; Kreuzer, M

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews opportunities for enriching the lipids of meat with n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), both considered beneficial to human health. Special focus is put on feeds available and research carried out in Thailand. A differentiated consideration concerning the value of different n-3 fatty acids and isomers of CLAs is necessary. In ruminants, it is difficult to enrich the meat with n-3 fatty acids due to the extensive ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids, but several possibilities to enhance the proportion of the most desired CLA isomer, rumenic acid, exist. By contrast, pork and poultry meat can be easily enriched with n-3 fatty acids. With purified CLA sources, CLAs also can be enhanced, but it is difficult to achieve this exclusively for rumenic acid. An interesting approach might consist in supplementing the CLA precursor vaccenic acid instead. Possible constraints for meat quality and in the fatty acid levels achieved are outlined. PMID:27127010

  11. Improved production of rhamno lipids by a pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant

    A pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant derived by random mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, producing high level of the rhamno lipid bio surfactants was selected on Sigmund Wagner plates. The mutant designated P. aeruginosa Persian Type Culture Collection 1637 produces rhamno lipids at concentration 10 times more than present strain. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis and surface tension measurement showed that the bio surfactants produced by the mutant were identical to those produced by the wild type strain. The bio surfactants exhibited a low surface tension of 28.0 mn m-1 and a low critical micelle concentration of 9 mg l-1. Similar to the wild type strain, the mutant produced bio surfactants at the stationary phase

  12. Studies in lipid histochemistry. XIII. The OPA (osmiumtetroxide-periodic acid-alpha-naphthylamine) method for the detection of apolar lipids.

    Elleder, M

    1975-09-29

    A new procedure for the detection of apolar lipids is described. It is a modification of the OTAN method (Adams, 1959) using periodic acid which oxidatively removes lower osmium derivatives from polar sites only, leaving those in apolar lipids intact and demonstrable with alpha-naphthylamine. Control steps for the exclusion of the possible interference of some less polar complex lipids and of lipopigments are described. The described technic is superior to the conventionally used sudan dyes due partly to the fact that only aqueous solutions are employed thus excluding any extraction of lipids, partly to the more distinct coloration. PMID:171245

  13. Entry of Bluetongue Virus Capsid Requires the Late Endosome-specific Lipid Lysobisphosphatidic Acid.

    Patel, Avnish; Mohl, Bjorn-Patrick; Roy, Polly

    2016-06-01

    The entry of viruses into host cells is one of the key processes of infection. The mechanisms of cellular entry for enveloped virus have been well studied. The fusion proteins as well as the facilitating cellular lipid factors involved in the viral fusion entry process have been well characterized. The process of non-enveloped virus cell entry, in comparison, remains poorly defined, particularly for large complex capsid viruses of the family Reoviridae, which comprises a range of mammalian pathogens. These viruses enter cells without the aid of a limiting membrane and thus cannot fuse with host cell membranes to enter cells. Instead, these viruses are believed to penetrate membranes of the host cell during endocytosis. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is largely undefined. Here we show, utilizing an in vitro liposome penetration assay and cell biology, that bluetongue virus (BTV), an archetypal member of the Reoviridae, utilizes the late endosome-specific lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid for productive membrane penetration and viral entry. Further, we provide preliminary evidence that lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid facilitates pore expansion during membrane penetration, suggesting a mechanism for lipid factor requirement of BTV. This finding indicates that despite the lack of a membrane envelope, the entry process of BTV is similar in specific lipid requirements to enveloped viruses that enter cells through the late endosome. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that a large non-enveloped virus of the Reoviridae has specific lipid requirements for membrane penetration and host cell entry. PMID:27036941

  14. Lipid-Nucleic Acid Supramolecular Complexes: Lipoplex Structure and the Kinetics of Formation

    Nily Dan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for synthetic gene therapy or gene silencing vehicles that can insert therapeutic nucleic acids (DNA or siRNA into cells (so-called transfection has focused interest on lipid-nucleic acid assemblies (lipoplexes. This paper reviews the kinetics pathways leading to lipoplex formation and structure. The process is qualitatively comparable to those of cluster nucleation and growth and to the adsorption of polyelectrolytes on colloidal particles: Initially is a rapid stage where the nucleic acid binds onto the surface of the cationic lipid aggregate (adsorption, or nucleation. This is followed by an intermediate step where the lipid/nucleic acid complexes flocculate to form larger structures (growth. The last and final step involves internal rearrangement, where the overall global structure remains constant while local adjustment of the nucleic acid/lipid organization takes place until the equilibrium lipoplex characteristics are obtained. This step can require unusually long time scales of order hours or longer. Understanding the kinetics of lipoplex formation is not only of fundamental interest as a multi-component, multi-length scale and multi-time scale process, but also has significant implications for the utilization of lipoplexes as carriers for gene delivery and gene silencing agents.

  15. Serum lipid profile and uric acid levels in preeclampsia in University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    Nosakhare O Enaruna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Lipid abnormality and elevated serum uric acid have been reported as early features of the disease. We aimed to detect the level of serum lipid profile and uric acid abnormalities in severe preeclamptics in Benin City and to measure their clinical significance. Materials and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted with subjects presenting with severe preeclampsia to the Obstetric Unit of the UBTH, Benin City. Fasting serum lipid profile and uric acid levels of 40 severe preeclamptic subjects and 80 gestation-matched normotensive controls were done at recruitment. The preeclamptic subjects were managed according to our departmental protocol which included stabilisation and delivery. Their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used to generate a database for analysis. Results: The mean serum uric acid level was 28% higher in severe preeclamptics than normotensive women (5.96 ± 2.54 mg/dl versus 4.30 ± 0.85; P = 0.005. There were statistically significant differences in levels of triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL between the preeclamptics and their normotensive controls (P = 0.006, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, respectively. Abnormal serum uric acid was associated with advanced maternal age (P = 0.000, early-onset preeclampsia (P = 0.000 and abnormal body mass index (BMI; P = 0.000. Low birth weight was more likely in preeclamptics with elevated serum uric acid levels (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Abnormality of serum uric acid in preeclampsia was significantly associated with increased frequency of complications but lipid profile abnormalities were not shown in the subjects studied. We recommend a larger scale study to determine lipid profile in normal and complicated pregnancies in our environment.

  16. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes. PMID:25966259

  17. Oxidation of intramyocellular lipids is dependent on mitochondrial function and the availability of extracellular fatty acids

    Corpeleijn, Eva; Hessvik, Nina P; Bakke, Siril S;

    2010-01-01

    were extended by comparing these processes in primary cultured myotubes established from healthy lean and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, two extremes in a range of metabolic phenotypes. ICLs were prelabeled for 2 days with 100 microM [(14)C]oleic acid (OA). ICL(OX) was studied using a (14)CO......Obesity and insulin resistance are related to both enlarged intramyocellular triacylglycerol stores and accumulation of lipid intermediates. We investigated how lipid overflow can change the oxidation of intramyocellular lipids (ICL(OX)) and intramyocellular lipid storage (ICL). These experiments...... all, a lower mitochondrial mass and lower ICL(OX) were related to a higher cell-associated OA accumulation. Second, myotubes established from obese T2D individuals showed reduced ICL(OX). ICL(OX) remained lower during uncoupling (P <0.001), even with comparable mitochondrial mass, suggesting decreased...

  18. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  19. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    Svetlana A. Murzina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  20. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate lysophosphatidic acid production and signaling in platelets: studies using chemical inhibitors of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.

    Smyth, Susan S; Sciorra, Vicki A; Sigal, Yury J; Pamuklar, Zehra; Wang, Zuncai; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D; Morris, Andrew J

    2003-10-31

    Blood platelets play an essential role in ischemic heart disease and stroke contributing to acute thrombotic events by release of potent inflammatory agents within the vasculature. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator produced by platelets and found in the blood and atherosclerotic plaques. LPA receptors on platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells regulate growth, differentiation, survival, motility, and contractile activity. Definition of the opposing pathways of synthesis and degradation that control extracellular LPA levels is critical to understanding how LPA bioactivity is regulated. We show that intact platelets and platelet membranes actively dephosphorylate LPA and identify the major enzyme responsible as lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1). Localization of LPP1 to the platelet surface is increased by exposure to LPA. A novel receptor-inactive sn-3-substituted difluoromethylenephosphonate analog of phosphatidic acid that is a potent competitive inhibitor of LPP1 activity potentiates platelet aggregation and shape change responses to LPA and amplifies LPA production by agonist-stimulated platelets. Our results identify LPP1 as a pivotal regulator of LPA signaling in the cardiovascular system. These findings are consistent with genetic and cell biological evidence implicating LPPs as negative regulators of lysophospholipid signaling and suggest that the mechanisms involve both attenuation of lysophospholipid actions at cell surface receptors and opposition of lysophospholipid production. PMID:12909631

  1. Preparation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacokinetics of nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin

    Zhang KC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kunchi Zhang, Shaowa Lv, Xiuyan Li, Yufei Feng, Xin Li, Lu Liu, Shuang Li, Yongji Li School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this work was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs loaded simultaneously with oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin. Methods: An aqueous dispersion of NLCs was prepared successfully using a film-ultrasonic method, with glycerin monostearate as the solid lipid and oleic acid as the liquid lipid. Poloxamer 188 was used as the surfactant. A central composite design was used to optimize the technologic parameters. The characteristics of the NLCs were then investigated. Results: The encapsulation efficiency was 48.34% ± 2.76%, drug loading was 8.06% ± 0.42%, particle size was 111.0 ± 1.56 nm, polydispersity index was 0.287 ± 0.01, and zeta potential was –23.8 ± 0.36 mV for the optimized NLCs. The other physicochemical properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Drug release followed first-order kinetics and release studies confirmed that oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin fitted a sustained-release model. Compared with NLCs loaded with oleanolic acid or gentiopicrin alone, NLCs loaded with both oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin produced drug concentrations which persisted for a significantly longer time in plasma, with a linear decrement following second-order kinetics. Aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly lower on exposure to NLCs loaded with both oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin than in negative controls. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin can be loaded simultaneously into NLCs. Compared with oleanolic acid and gentiopicrin loaded alone, sustained release and protective effects against hepatic injury were observed using NLCs loaded with both oleanolic acid and

  2. The role of thyroid hormones in regulating of fatty acid spectrum of brain lipids: ontogenetic aspect

    Rodynskiy A.G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In experiments on rats of three age groups the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of fatty acid spectrum of cortical and hippocampus lipids was studied. It was found that on the background of decreased thyroid status content of polyunsaturated fractions of free fatty acids, significantly changed depending on the age of the animals. In particular, in juvenile rats hypothyroidism was accompanied by a decrease almost twice the number of pentacodan acid decreased lipids viscosity in neurocortex. In old rats reduce of pentacodan acid in the cortex (38% was supplemented by significant (77% decrease in linoleic and linolenic acids. Unlike the two age groups deficiency of thyroid hormones in young animals caused accumulation of free polyunsatarated fatty acids (C18: 2.3 in the cerebral cortex by 74%, which may be associated with a decrease of this fraction in fatty acid spectrum of lipids and increase of viscosity properties of the membranes. These restruc­turing may be associated with modulation of synaptic transmission of specific neurotransmitter systems in the brain.

  3. Pulmonary lung surfactant synthetic peptide concentration-dependent modulation of DPPC and POPG acyl chain order in a DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid lipid mixture.

    Krill, S L; Gupta, S L; Smith, T

    1994-05-01

    Lung surfactant-associated protein interaction with lipid matrices and the effects on lipid thermotropic phase behavior are areas of active research. Many studies limit the lipids to a single or two-component system. The current investigation utilizes a three-lipid component matrix (DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid) to investigate the impact of a synthetic surfactant protein B fragment (SP-B 53-78 DiACM) on the dynamic surface activity of the lipid admixture as measured by a Wilhelmy surface balance. Also, the modulation of the individual lipid acyl chain order by the peptide within the lipid matrix is studied through the use of thermal perturbation FTIR spectroscopy. The data clearly demonstrate a concentration-dependent effect of the peptide on the surface activity with an improvement in the dynamic surface tension diagram characteristics (decreased surface tension and increased collapse plateau) especially at low, 0.36 M%, peptide concentrations. These effects are diminished upon further addition of the peptide. FTIR spectral data demonstrate that the peptide addition results in a significant increase in the acyl chain order of the DPPC and POPG components as measured by the position of the methylene stretching vibrational bands. DPPC is most sensitive to the peptide presence, while the palmitic acid is least affected. The transition temperatures of the individual lipids are also increased with the addition of the peptide. The presence of POPG in the matrix achieves the surface activity similarly seen with natural lung surfactant relative to a DPPC/palmitic acid lipid matrix alone. Its presence increases the sensitivity of the DPPC acyl chains to the presence of the peptide. These effects on the chain order are most probably related to the increased acyl chain fluidity which POPG imparts to the lipid matrix because of the presence of the cis double bond. The phosphatidylglycerol headgroup also adds a negative charge to the lipid matrix which enhances the peptide-lipid

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid induce changes in the physical properties of a lipid bilayer model membrane.

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Morishita, Mariko; Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Tokiwa, Shinji; Takayama, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA, 18:0), oleic acid (OA, 18:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) on a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer by determining the phase transition temperature, fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), and detergent insolubility. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acid broadened and shifted the phase transitions of the DPPC bilayer to a lower temperature. The phase transition temperature and the value of fluorescence anisotropy of DPH at 37 degrees C decreased progressively with increasing treatment amounts of unsaturated fatty acid. A large amount of the DPPC bilayer treated with unsaturated fatty acid was dissolved in Triton X-100, obtaining a low level of detergent insolubility. These modifications of the bilayer physical properties were most pronounced with DHA and EPA treatment. These data show that unsaturated fatty acids, particularly DHA and EPA, induce a marked change in the lipid bilayer structure. The composition of fatty acids in the DPPC bilayer was similar after treatment with various unsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the different actions of unsaturated fatty acids are attributed to change in the molecular structure (e.g., kinked conformation by double bonds). We further explored the change in physical properties induced by fatty acids dispersed in a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion and found that unsaturated fatty acids acted efficiently on the DPPC bilayer, even when incorporated in emulsion form. PMID:16394552

  5. Lipid production of microalga Chlorella sorokiniana CY1 is improved by light source arrangement, bioreactor operation mode and deep-sea water supplements.

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hsin-Yueh

    2016-03-01

    Microalgae-based biodiesel has been recognized as a sustainable and promising alternative to fossil diesel. High lipid productivity of microalgae is required for economic production of biodiesel from microalgae. This study was undertaken to enhance the growth and oil accumulation of an indigenous microalga Chlorella sorokiniana CY1 by applying engineering strategies using deep-sea water as the medium. First, the microalga was cultivated using LED as the immersed light source, and the results showed that the immersed LED could effectively enhance the oil/lipid content and final microalgal biomass concentration to 53.8% and 2.5 g/l, respectively. Next, the semi-batch photobioreactor operation with deep-sea water was shown to improve lipid content and microalgal growth over those from using batch and continuous cultures under similar operating conditions. The optimal replacement ratio was 50%, resulting in an oil/lipid content and final biomass concentration of 61.5% and 2.8 g/l, respectively. A long-term semi-batch culture utilizing 50%-replaced medium was carried out for four runs. The final biomass concentration and lipid productivity were 2.5 g/L and 112.2 mg/L/d, respectively. The fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipids was predominant by palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, and this lipid quality is suitable for biodiesel production. This demonstrates that optimizing light source arrangement, bioreactor operation and deep-sea water supplements could effectively promote the lipid production of C. sorokiniana CY1 for the applications in microalgae-based biodiesel industry. PMID:26632521

  6. Selective fermentation of carbohydrate and protein fractions of Scenedesmus, and biohydrogenation of its lipid fraction for enhanced recovery of saturated fatty acids.

    Lai, YenJung Sean; Parameswaran, Prathap; Li, Ang; Aguinaga, Alyssa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-02-01

    Biofuels derived from microalgae have promise as carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. However, difficulty extracting microalgae-derived lipids and the co-extraction of non-lipid components add major costs that detract from the benefits of microalgae-based biofuel. Selective fermentation could alleviate these problems by managing microbial degradation so that carbohydrates and proteins are hydrolyzed and fermented, but lipids remain intact. We evaluated selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass in batch experiments buffered at pH 5.5, 7, or 9. Carbohydrates were fermented up to 45% within the first 6 days, protein fermentation followed after about 20 days, and lipids (measured as fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) were conserved. Fermentation of the non-lipid components generated volatile fatty acids, with acetate, butyrate, and propionate being the dominant products. Selective fermentation of Scenedesmus biomass increased the amount of extractable FAME and the ratio of FAME to crude lipids. It also led to biohydrogenation of unsaturated FAME to more desirable saturated FAME (especially to C16:0 and C18:0), and the degree of saturation was inversely related to the accumulation of hydrogen gas after fermentation. Moreover, the microbial communities after selective fermentation were enriched in bacteria from families known to perform biohydrogenation, i.e., Porphyromonadaceae and Ruminococcaceae. Thus, this study provides proof-of-concept that selective fermentation can improve the quantity and quality of lipids that can be extracted from Scenedesmus. PMID:26222672

  7. Galactosylated solid lipid nanoparticles with cucurbitacin B improves the liver targetability.

    Wang, Wenyu; Zhao, Xiuli; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Dawei; Gu, Jianchun; Deng, Yihui; Sun, Jin

    2010-04-01

    This study intended to prepare liver-targeting solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with a hepatoprotective drug, cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), using a galactosylated lipid, N-hexadecyl lactobionamide (N-HLBA). The galactosyl-lipid N-HLBA was prepared via the lactone form intermediates of lactobionic acid and synthesized by anchoring galactose to hexadecylamine lipid. The Cuc B-loaded galactosylated and conventional SLNs were successfully prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method. The two SLNs showed similar physical and pharmaceutical properties, including: the particle size measured by laser diffraction was 135 nm for galactosylated SLN (GalSLN) and 123 nm for conventional SLNs (CSLN); zeta potentials were -31.6 mV (GalSLN) and -34.3 mV(CSLN); in vitro release behavior of the two SLNs was similar, and both showed the biphasic drug release pattern with burst release at the initial stage and prolonged release afterwards. In contrast, the two SLNs demonstrated a marked difference in in vitro cellular cytotoxicity and in vivo tissue distribution performances. The IC(50) values of Cuc B in the two SLNs were by far lower than those of Cuc B solution and further Cuc B-GalSLN had about half the IC(50) value of Cuc B-CSLN. These results indicated that the encapsulation of Cuc B in SLNs resulted in the enhancement of cytotoxic activity, and galactosyl ligand could further enhance the cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of Cuc B. The weighted-average overall drug targeting efficiency (Te) was used to evaluate the liver targetability. Cuc B-GalSLN gave a relatively high (Te)(liver) value of 63.6%, approximately 2.5-times greater than that of Cuc B-CSLN (25.3%) and Cuc B solution (23.8%). In summary, the incorporation of N-HLBA into SLNs significantly enhanced the liver targetability of Cuc B-loaded SLNs and GalSLN had a great potential as a drug delivery carrier for improved liver targetability. PMID:20148709

  8. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike;

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...... lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...... storage period, and off-flavors were more pronounced in SFO. The lower oxidative stability of SFO was probably related to the initially lower quality (regarding oxidation products), which is apparently a result of the long production procedure required. Addition of metal chelators did not reduce the...

  9. Production of lipids and docosahexasaenoic acid (DHA) by a native Thraustochytrium strain

    Shene, Carolina; Leyton, Allison; Rubilar, Mónica;

    2013-01-01

    /w. Under this growth condition lipids and DHA productivities were 50 and 23 mg/(L h), respectively. Practical applications: Consumption of long chain‐polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC‐PUFA) belonging to the omega‐3 family such as DHA has several positive effects on human and animal health. However, natural......Production of docosahexasaenoic acid (DHA) by a native Labyrinthulomycetes strain, Thraustochytriidae sp. TN5, whose growth characteristics present some differences to related strains, was scaled from shaken flask to a laboratory fermentor. The effect of the growth medium composition and growth...... conditions for (i) biomass production, (ii) lipid content of the biomass, and (iii) DHA content in the lipids was determined. Taguchi's design of experiments was used to study the influence of two discrete – carbon and nitrogen sources – and six continuous – concentrations of the carbon and nitrogen sources...

  10. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s......The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration......-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lysoPPC and...

  11. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  12. Relation of Plasma Uric Acid Levels and the Lipid Parameters in Han and Uygur Ethnicity

    Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P< 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P < 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P <0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.

  13. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    Eric eBoyd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings, the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly

  14. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. PMID:27208776

  15. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    Dulf Francisc V; Pamfil Doru; Baciu Adriana D; Pintea Adela

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fra...

  16. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. seed genotypes

    Dulf Francisc V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%, of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9% and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2% fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%, while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids, making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  17. The hydroperoxide moiety of aliphatic lipid hydroperoxides is not affected by hypochlorous acid

    Zschaler, Josefin; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the corresponding hydroperoxide by plant and animal lipoxygenases is an important step for the generation of bioactive lipid mediators. Thereby fatty acid hydroperoxide represent a common intermediate, also in human innate immune cells, like neutrophil granulocytes. In these cells a further key component is the heme protein myeloperoxidase producing HOCl as a reactive oxidant. On the basis of different investigation a reaction of the fatty ac...

  18. Fatty acids and algal lipids as precursors of chlorination by-products

    Yan Liang; Yuen Shan Lui; Huachang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Six common algal fatty acids (FAs) with different numbers of double bonds,lipophilic fractions and proteins extracted from the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and algal cells were chlorinated to evaluate their potential in generating disinfection by-products (DBPs).The result showed that the more double bonds in the FAs,the higher the amounts of chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) produced,but such a pattern was not observed for trichloroacetic acid (TCAA).Based on the previously reported composition of fatty acids in algal lipids,the DBP generation potentials of algal lipids were calculated.These predicted values were much lower than those measured in the chlorinated algal lipophilic fraction,suggesting unknown lipophilic fraction(s) served as potent DBPs precursors.Another calculation attempted to predict DBP production in algal cells based on algal lipid and protein composition,given quantified measured DBP production per unit algal lipid and proteins.The analysis showed that the observed DBP production was similar to that predicted (< 35% difference),suggesting that algal biochemical compositions may serve as a bioindicator for preliminary estimation of chloroform,DCAA and TCAA formation upon chlorinating algae.

  19. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    Zhu, Junying; Chen, Weixian; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xin; He, Chenliu; Rong, Junfeng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition could generate 74 and 416% (w/w) more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition is approximately 10 and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity. PMID:27148237

  20. In vivo incorporation of labeled fatty acids in rat liver lipids after oral administration

    Striking differences were found in the compartmentalization of fatty acids into liver lipid fractions. The saturated fatty acids--lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic--were incorporated into phosphoglycerides at faster rates with increasing chain lengths, while triglyceride incorporation was almost uniform. The degree of incorporation of the unsaturated fatty acids into phosphoglycerides (structural) compared to triglyceride (storage and energy) was the converse of their oxidation rates. The incorporation of oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was mainly into triglyceride, whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were preferentially incorporated into phosphoglycerides. The data suggest that distribution of each fatty acid is different depending on its destination for structural or energy function

  1. In vivo incorporation of labeled fatty acids in rat liver lipids after oral administration

    Leyton, J.; Drury, P.J.; Crawford, M.A.

    1987-08-01

    Striking differences were found in the compartmentalization of fatty acids into liver lipid fractions. The saturated fatty acids--lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic--were incorporated into phosphoglycerides at faster rates with increasing chain lengths, while triglyceride incorporation was almost uniform. The degree of incorporation of the unsaturated fatty acids into phosphoglycerides (structural) compared to triglyceride (storage and energy) was the converse of their oxidation rates. The incorporation of oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was mainly into triglyceride, whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were preferentially incorporated into phosphoglycerides. The data suggest that distribution of each fatty acid is different depending on its destination for structural or energy function.

  2. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Gu Keyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been systemically investigated. Results Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that the oil body formation in developing endosperm of jatropha seeds initially appeared at 28 days after fertilization (DAF, was actively developed at 42 DAF and reached to the maximum number and size at 56 DAF. Sixty-eight genes that encode enzymes, proteins or their subunits involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were identified from a normalized cDNA library of jatropha developing endosperm. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the 68 genes could be collectively grouped into five categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during endosperm development. Category I has 47 genes and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 28 or 42 DAF, but low expression at 14 and 56 DAF. Category II contains 8 genes and expression of the 8 genes was constantly increased from 14 to 56 DAF. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes were constitutively expressed throughout endosperm development. Category IV has 9 genes and they showed a high expression at 14 and 28 DAF, but a decreased expression from 42 to 56 DAF. Category V consists of 2 genes and both genes showed a medium expression at 14 DAF, the lowest expression at 28 or 42 DAF, and the highest expression at 56 DAF. In addition, genes encoding enzymes or proteins with similar function were

  3. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactivity: reaction conditions and the role of iron, antioxidants and lipid peroxy radicals on the quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides

    Wade, C.R.; van Rij, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Fe/sup 3 +/, lipid peroxy radicals and the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene on the 2-thiobarbituric (TBA) acid quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides were investigated. Whole plasma and plasma fractions prepared by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) protein precipitation and lipid extraction, demonstrated markedly differing TBA reactivities in the presence or absence of added Fe/sup 3 +/. Examination of the spectral profiles of the TBA reacted whole plasma and TCA precipitated fractions demonstrated the presence of interfering compounds which gave rise to an artifactual increase in lipid peroxide concentrations. In contrast the TBA reacted lipid extracts had low levels of interfering compounds that could be removed by our previously described high pressure liquid chromatographic method. Further characterization of the TBA reactivity of the lipid extract showed that Fe/sup 3 +/ at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM was necessary for the quantitative decomposition of the lipid peroxides to the TBA reactive product malondialdehyde (MDA). However the presence of Fe/sup 3 +/ resulted in further peroxidation of any unsaturated lipids present.

  4. Effect of methyl-branched fatty acids on the structure of lipid bilayers.

    Poger, David; Caron, Bertrand; Mark, Alan E

    2014-12-01

    Methyl-branched fatty acids are widespread in prokaryotic membranes. Although anteiso and iso branching (that is on the antepenultimate and penultimate carbons) and the presence of multiple methyl branches in the phytanoyl chain are known to modify the thermotropic behavior and enhance the fluidity of lipid bilayers, little is known about the effect of methyl branching on the structure of lipid bilayers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine systematically the impact of one or more methyl branches at different positions along the sn-1 palmitoyl chain on the structural properties of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer. It is found that methyl branching reduces lipid condensation, decreases the bilayer thickness, and lowers chain ordering. Branching also results in the formation of kinks at the branching point, thereby enhancing the fluidity of lipid bilayers. Furthermore, this effect varies in a methyl-position-dependent fashion. In the case of polymethylated chains, the simulations suggest that if the gap between the methyl groups is sufficient (two or three carbons), the effects of the methyl branches are additive and equivalent to the combined effect of the corresponding monomethyl-branched lipids. PMID:25380125

  5. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    Roselino Mariana N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10: GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control, GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control, GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV

  6. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Improve the Oral Bioavailability

    Narala, Arjun; VEERABRAHMA, KISHAN

    2013-01-01

    Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9%) due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Stable quetiapine fumarate...

  7. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II: Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability.

    Alves, M M; Vieira, J A; Pereira, R M; Pereira, M A; Mota, M

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50 = 137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50 = 80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving maximum methane production rates between 33 and 46 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day and maximum percentages of methanization between 85 and 98% for the range of concentrations between 500 and 900 mg oleate/l. When oleate was the sole carbon source fed to both digesters, the biomass became encapsulated with organic matter, possibly oleate or an intermediate of its degradation, e.g. stearate that was degraded at a maximum rate of 99 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day. This suggests the possibility of using adsorption-degradation cycles for the treatment of LCFA based effluents. Both tolerance to toxicity and biodegradability of oleic acid were improved by acclimatization with lipids or oleate below a threshold concentration. PMID:11257881

  8. Remodeling lipid metabolism and improving insulin responsiveness in human primary myotubes.

    Lauren M Sparks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Disturbances in lipid metabolism are strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D. We hypothesized that activation of cAMP/PKA and calcium signaling pathways in cultured human myotubes would provide further insight into regulation of lipid storage, lipolysis, lipid oxidation and insulin responsiveness. METHODS: Human myoblasts were isolated from vastus lateralis, purified, cultured and differentiated into myotubes. All cells were incubated with palmitate during differentiation. Treatment cells were pulsed 1 hour each day with forskolin and ionomycin (PFI during the final 3 days of differentiation to activate the cAMP/PKA and calcium signaling pathways. Control cells were not pulsed (control. Mitochondrial content, (14C lipid oxidation and storage were measured, as well as lipolysis and insulin-stimulated glycogen storage. Myotubes were stained for lipids and gene expression measured. RESULTS: PFI increased oxidation of oleate and palmitate to CO(2 (p<0.001, isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis (p = 0.01, triacylglycerol (TAG storage (p<0.05 and mitochondrial DNA copy number (p = 0.01 and related enzyme activities. Candidate gene and microarray analysis revealed increased expression of genes involved in lipolysis, TAG synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. PFI increased the organization of lipid droplets along the myofibrillar apparatus. These changes in lipid metabolism were associated with an increase in insulin-mediated glycogen storage (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of cAMP/PKA and calcium signaling pathways in myotubes induces a remodeling of lipid droplets and functional changes in lipid metabolism. These results provide a novel pharmacological approach to promote lipid metabolism and improve insulin responsiveness in myotubes, which may be of therapeutic importance for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Equivalent Isopropanol Concentrations of Aromatic Amino Acids Interactions with Lipid Vesicles.

    Johnson, Merrell A; Ray, Bruce D; Wassall, Stephen R; Petrache, Horia I

    2015-08-01

    We show that the interaction of aromatic amino acids with lipid bilayers can be characterized by conventional 1D [Formula: see text]H NMR spectroscopy using reference spectra obtained in isopropanol-d8/D[Formula: see text]O solutions. We demonstrate the utility of this method with three different peptides containing tyrosine, tryptophan, or phenylalanine amino acids in the presence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine lipid membranes. In each case, we determine an equivalent isopropanol concentration (EIC) for each hydrogen site of aromatic groups, in essence constructing a map of the chemical environment. These EIC maps provide information on relative affinities of aromatic side chains for either PC or PS bilayers and also inform on amino acid orientation preference when bound to membranes. PMID:25691267

  10. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid metabolic alterations in l-NAME hypertensive rats by sinapic acid-Role of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Raja, Boobalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of sinapic acid, a bioactive phenolic acid on high blood pressure associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations in N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Sinapic acid was administered to rats orally at a dosage of 40mg/kg everyday for a period of 4 weeks. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, organ weights (liver and kidney), lipid peroxidation products in tissues (liver and kidney), activities of hepatic marker enzymes and the levels of renal function markers in serum of l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment also significantly increased the level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues of l-NAME rats. Tissue damage was assessed by histopathological examination. Alterations in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, level of plasma lipoproteins and tissue lipids were corrected by sinapic acid treatment in l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in plasma and liver, whereas the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase was significantly increased in the plasma of hypertensive rats. Docking result showed the interaction between sinapic acid and HMG-CoA reductase. Sinapic acid has shown best ligand binding energy of -5.5kcal/M. Moreover, in chick embryo model, sinapic acid improved vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane. These results of the present study concludes that sinapic acid acts as a protective agent against hypertension associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations. PMID:26945821

  11. Characterization of lipids and fatty acids of the soil derived fungus Cladosporium sp.

    Verma, Shikha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Cladosporium sp. was explored for its potential ability to produce lipids, fatty acids and protein. The lipids were characterized by the quantification of acylglycerols and fatty acids. Alterations in lipid and protein accumulation were observed by changing the growth medium, carbon source type (glucose and dextrose and content, growth period and by developing salt stress through the incorporation of NaCl in the formulation of the medium. Lipid content was found to vary from 6.8 ± 0.3 to 27.3 ± 2.8%, w/w. The major fatty acids accumulated were palmitic, oleic and linoleic. The lipid fraction obtained from a Potato- dextrose medium (containing 2% dextrose and 4% NaCl accumulated 73.7 ± 3.7%, w/w, oleic acid. Some lipid fractions were found to have fatty acid ratios like saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated close to 1:1:1 w/w/w. Triacylglycerol was obtained as the major constituent of lipid fractions.El hongo Cladosporium sp. fue estudiado por a su potencial para producir lípidos, ácidos grasos y proteínas. Los lípidos fueron caracterizados por la cuantificación de acilgliceroles y ácidos grasos. Alteraciones en la acumulación de proteínas y lípidos fue observada por cambios en el medio de crecimiento, el tipo y contenido de la fuente de carbono (glucosa o dextrosa, el período de crecimiento y por desarrollo de estrés salino a través de la incorporación de NaCl en el medio de formulación. El contenido lipídico vario desde 6.8% ± 0.3 hasta 27.3% ± 2.8 %, w/w. Los principales ácidos grasos acumulados fueron ácido palmítico, oleico y linoleico. La fracción lipídica obtenida con el medio de patatadextrosa (conteniendo 2% dextrosa y 4% NaCl acumulo un 73.7% ± 3.7 w/w de ácido oleico. Algunas fracciones lipídicas encontradas tuvieron una proporción saturado: monoinsaturado: poliinsaturado cercana a 1:1:1 w/w/w. Los triglicérido fueron los principales constituyentes de la fracción lipídica.

  12. Improved Fatty Acid Profile Soybean MON 87705

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the food use of Improved Fatty Acid Profile Soybean MON 87705. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this variety according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits. The following provides a summary of the notification from Monsanto Ca...

  13. Gamma radiation effects on fattly acid composition of lipids in cotton leaves

    The mechanism of high irradiation dose (30 kR) effect on the lipid fatty acid composition of cotton leaves was studied in the ontogenesis. The experiment was carried out in vegetation vials (capacity 25 kg, humidity level - 65% of full water capacity). Before seeding, each vial was fertilized with 5g P2O5, 3g K2O and 5gN as an auxillary nutrition during vegetation. The test vials also contained 0.4 - 0.5 g CaO per kg of soil. A portion of irradiated seeds was soaked in 1.5% solution of CaO and Ca(NO3)2 before seeding. The cotton seeds were gamma-irradiated at 50 R/sec in the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Usbec SSR Academy of Sciences. The fatty acid composition of mature leaf lipids determined by gas-liquid chromatography proved to change in the blooming phase. Leaves of irradiated plants contained traces of myristic acid, higher levels of palmitic, palmitoleinic and strearinic acids and lower levels of oleinic and linoleic acids. Lower content of fatty acids with long carbon chains seemed to handicap the renewal of membranes and their components, especially in mitochondria. When irradiated seeds were soaked in calcium salt solution and CaO is added to the soil, the amount of unsaturated long chain fatty acids increased. The fact probably promotes the membrane renewal in irradiated plants

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid

  15. Culture media optimization of Porphyridium purpureum: production potential of biomass, total lipids, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Kavitha, Mysore Doddaiah; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Bhattacharya, Sila; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Porphyridium purpureum a red marine microalga is known for phycobiliproteins (PB), polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulphated exopolysaccharides. In the present study, effects of media constituents for the production of different polyunsaturated fatty acids from P. purpureum were considered using a response surface methodology (RSM). A second order polynomial was used to predict the response functions in terms of the independent variables such as the concentrations of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The response functions were production of biomass yield, total lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA 20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5). Results corroborated that maximum Biomass (0.95 gL(-1)) yield was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (14.89 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (3.93 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (0.96 gL(-1)) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.09 gL(-1)). Optimum total lipid (17.9 % w/w) and EPA (34.6 % w/w) content was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (29.98 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (9.34 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (1.86 gL(-1)). Variation in concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate for both lipid (0.01gL(-1)) and EPA content (0.20 gL(-1)) was observed. The optimum conditions for biomass, total lipid, AA and EPA varied indicating their batch mode of growth and interaction effect of the salt. PMID:27407193

  16. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  17. Effect of a bovine lung surfactant protein isolate (SP-B/C) on egg phosphatidylglycerol acyl chain order in a lipid mixture with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid.

    Krill, S L; Gupta, S L

    1994-04-01

    Dynamic surface tension measurements of films of a d62 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine:L-alpha-phosphatidyl-DL - glycerol:d31 palmitic acid (d62-DPPC:EggPG:d31-PA) lipid matrix in the presence of a bovine pulmonary surfactant protein isolate (SP-B/C) demonstrate the improved surface activity over that of the lipids alone. Thus, significant interaction of the proteins with the lipid matrix is demonstrated. The effect of SP-B/C on the acyl chain order of the negatively charged EggPG within a d62-DPPC:EggPG:d31-PA lipid matrix in D2O saline was investigated in thermal perturbation Fourier transform IR spectroscopic studies. The EggPG thermotropic phase behavior was determined independently of the other lipid components with perdeuterated lipids and D2O. The data demonstrate the high degree of EggPG acyl chain disorder in the absence of the protein isolate. A broad transition occurs between 30 and 40 degrees C. The addition of the protein isolate did not alter the acyl chain order at 0.281 and 1.46 mg/mL of protein. However, alterations in the lipid carbonyl vibrational mode were observed. PMID:8046609

  18. Methyl Substitution of a Rexinoid Agonist Improves Potency and Reveals Site of Lipid Toxicity

    Atigadda, Venkatram R.; Xia, Gang; Desphande, Anil; Boerma, LeeAnn J.; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Smith, Craig D; Brouillette, Wayne J.; Muccio, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    (2E,4E,6Z,8E)-8-(3′,4′-Dihydro-1′(2′H)-naphthalen-1′-ylidene)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid, 9cUAB30, is a selective rexinoid that displays substantial chemopreventive capacity with little toxicity. 4-Methyl-UAB30, an analogue of 9cUAB30, is a potent RXR agonist but caused increased lipid biosynthesis unlike 9cUAB30. To evaluate how methyl substitution influenced potency and lipid biosynthesis, we synthesized four 9cUAB30 homologues with methyl substitutions at the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-pos...

  19. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    HOSOMI, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding...

  20. Lipid Body Organelles within the Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi: A Role for Intracellular Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    Toledo, Daniel A. M.; Roque, Natália R.; Teixeira, Lívia; Milán-Garcés, Erix A.; Carneiro, Alan B.; Almeida, Mariana R.; Andrade, Gustavo F. S.; Martins, Jefferson S.; Pinho, Roberto R.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; D’Avila, Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells contain varying amounts of cytosolic lipidic inclusions termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets (LDs). In mammalian cells, such as macrophages, these lipid-rich organelles are formed in response to host-pathogen interaction during infectious diseases and are sites for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). Less clear are the functions of LBs in pathogenic lower eukaryotes. In this study, we demonstrated that LBs, visualized by light microscopy with different probes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), are produced in trypomastigote forms of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas’ disease, after both host interaction and exogenous AA stimulation. Quantitative TEM revealed that LBs from amastigotes, the intracellular forms of the parasite, growing in vivo have increased size and electron-density compared to LBs from amastigotes living in vitro. AA-stimulated trypomastigotes released high amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and showed PGE2 synthase expression. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated increased unsaturated lipid content and AA incorporation in stimulated parasites. Moreover, both Raman and MALDI mass spectroscopy revealed increased AA content in LBs purified from AA-stimulated parasites compared to LBs from unstimulated group. By using a specific technique for eicosanoid detection, we immunolocalized PGE2 within LBs from AA-stimulated trypomastigotes. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LBs from the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi are not just lipid storage inclusions but dynamic organelles, able to respond to host interaction and inflammatory events and involved in the AA metabolism. Acting as sources of PGE2, a potent immunomodulatory lipid mediator that inhibits many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, newly-formed parasite LBs may be implicated with the pathogen survival in its host. PMID:27490663

  1. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  2. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  3. Fatty acid composition in leaf lipids of some Carex L. (Cyperaceae species from Northeast Anatolia (Turkey

    Olgun, Arzu

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of 16 species of Carex from 15 sections are reported. The palmitic acid is the dominant fatty acid in lipid of all species and sections surveyed. The linoleic and linolenic acids were the second most abundant fatty acids. Taxonomic value and phylogenetic implications of results are discussed.Se presenta la composición en ácidos grasos de 16 especies de Carex (de 15 secciones. El ácido palmítico es el ácido graso dominante en los lípidos de todas las especies examinadas, seguidos por los ácidos linoleico y linolenico. El valor taxonómico y las implicaciones filogenéticas de los resultados son discutidos.

  4. Investigation of the roles of the substances in serum lipids and their constitutive fatty acids in chronic urticaria.

    Kobayashi, S

    1989-06-01

    The newly-generated lipid mediators include products of arachidonate metabolism, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In this study, serum lipids and fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (C20:4) were examined in 12 normal subjects (6 males and 6 females) and 23 subjects with chronic urticaria (6 males and 17 females), including 17 who made an excellent or good recovery (4 males and 13 females). The results indicated a relationship between chronic urticaria and serum lipids and fatty acids. The omega 6 (n-6) and omega 3 (n-3) series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation were suggested that may be one of the mediators in chronic urticaria. Pantethine, glutathione and ascorbic acid were effective in controlling chronic urticaria. PMID:2794222

  5. Pectin-lipid self-assembly: influence on the formation of polyhydroxy fatty acids nanoparticles.

    Susana Guzman-Puyol

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10,16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-contact AFM. The structure of these nanoparticles can be described as a lipid core with a pectin shell. Pectin facilitated the formation of nanoparticles, by inducing their aggregation in branched chains and favoring the condensation between lipid monomers. Also, pectin determined the self-assembly of cutinsomes on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG surfaces, causing their opening and forming interconnected structures. In the case of cutin monomers, the nanoparticles are fused, and the condensation of the hydroxy fatty acids is strongly affected by the presence of the polysaccharide. The interaction of pectin with polyhydroxylated fatty acids could be related to an initial step in the formation of the plant biopolyester cutin.

  6. Lipid Peroxidation Inhibitation Activity of Maillard Reaction Products Derived from Sugar-amino Acid Model Systems

    Nanjing Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the lipid peroxidation inhibitation activity of Maillard Reaction Products (MRPs derived from sugar (glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose and 18 amino acid model systems in soybean oil. MRPs were produced by heating at 130°C for 2 h. Of the 18 amino acids-fructose model systems studied, MRPs derived from fructose-leucine, fructose-methionine, fructose-phenylalanine and fructose-isoleucine model sytems showed high lipid peroxidation inhibitation activity and best performance was observed from fructose-phenylalanine MRPs. Interestingly, glucose-phenylalanine MRPs also exhibited high inhibitation activity and inhibitation activity of both glucose-phenylalanine and fructose-phenylalanine MRPs exceeded 87% even with concentration at 1.1 wt % after 8 days storage.

  7. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    ,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within......Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  8. Lipid and fatty acid digestibility in Calanus copepod and krill oil by Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)

    Colombo-Hixson, Stefanie M.; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P

    2010-01-01

    Marine zooplankton represent a significant biomass of marine lipid that could supply lipid in diets for farmed marine fish. Digestibility of lipid and fatty acids of the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus and Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba by farmed juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) was investigated. Halibut were fed diets containing one of the following test oils at 15% inclusion level: fish oil (FO), Calanus copepod oil (CO) and Euphausia krill oil (KO). KO contained the ...

  9. Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid from empty palm fruit bunches by Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

    Hong, Won-Kyung; Yu, Anna; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Ji-Won; Kondo, Akihiko; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2013-07-01

    The oleaginous microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 was cultivated in enzymatic hydrolysates of alkali-pretreated empty palm fruit bunches (EFBs), without prior detoxification process. The maximal levels of lipid and docosahexaenoic acid synthesized were 12.5 and 5.4 g L⁻¹ after cultivation for 36 h. Similar lipid levels were also obtained via simultaneous saccharification and cultivation. The results suggested that EFB is a promising source for production of useful lipids by the microalgal strain. PMID:23053417

  10. Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Mu, Huiling; Madsbad, Sten

    2009-01-01

    SMPL omega-3 FA, which is a lipid entity that influences insulin action. METHODS: Nine obese subjects (BMI = 35.7 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2)), who had completed an 8 weeks VLCD (weight-loss = -9.7 +/- 1.6 kg, P < 0.001), had obtained skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) before and after a dietician......-guided 24-weeks weight-maintenance program (-1.2 +/- 1.5 kg, P = ns). SMPL FA composition was determined by gas liquid chromatography. During the preceding VLCD, insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) and glycemic control (HbA1c) improved but no change in SMPL omega-3 FA was observed. During the weight......-maintenance program five subjects received the pancreas lipase inhibitor Orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. versus placebo. RESULTS: HOMA-IR and HbA1c stabilized and SMPL total omega-3 FA, docosahexaenoic acid and ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA increased by 24% (P < 0.01), 35% (P < 0.02) and 26% (P < 0.01), respectively...

  11. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of (lyso)phosphatidic acids, (lyso)phosphatidylserines and other lipid classes.

    Cífková, Eva; Hájek, Roman; Lísa, Miroslav; Holčapek, Michal

    2016-03-25

    The goal of this work is a systematic optimization of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation of acidic lipid classes (namely phosphatidic acids-PA, lysophosphatidic acids-LPA, phosphatidylserines-PS and lysophosphatidylserines-LPS) and other lipid classes under mass spectrometry (MS) compatible conditions. The main parameters included in this optimization are the type of stationary phases used in HILIC, pH of the mobile phase, the type and concentration of mobile phase additives. Nine HILIC columns with different chemistries (unmodified silica, modified silica using diol, 2-picolylamine, diethylamine and 1-aminoanthracene and hydride silica) are compared with the emphasis on peak shapes of acidic lipid classes. The optimization of pH is correlated with the theoretical calculation of acidobasic equilibria of studied lipid classes. The final method using the hydride column, pH 4 adjusted by formic acid and the gradient of acetonitrile and 40mmol/L of aqueous ammonium formate provides good peak shapes for all analyzed lipid classes including acidic lipids. This method is applied for the identification of lipids in real samples of porcine brain and kidney extracts. PMID:26858118

  12. Supplemental N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diet: their influence on lipid metabolism in the rat

    Rauchová, Hana; Pavelka, Stanislav; Vokurková, Martina; Tribulová, N.; Soukup, Tomáš

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, 2013, s. 140-145. ISBN 978-80-227-3959-7. [Industrial Toxicology 2013 /33./. Svit, Vysoké Tatry (SK), 19.06.2013-21.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : lipid metabolism * n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids * thyroid hormones Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Status of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

    Surapaneni Krishna; Venkataramana G

    2007-01-01

    Background : The exact pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in osteoarthritis patients is still not clear. To add a new insight to the question, changes in the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products (MDA), levels of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters); and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione - S - transferase (GST) were measured in pati...

  14. Platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation by the atherosclerotic plaque lipid lysophosphatidic acid

    Haserück, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Oxidized LDL and platelets play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a thrombogenic substance that accumulates in mildly-oxidized LDL and in human atherosclerotic lesions, and is responsible for the initial platelet activation, shape change, induced by mildly-oxidized LDL and extracts of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques (Siess et al., 1999 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999). LPA directly induced platelet shape c...

  15. Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 (FADS1) Gene Polymorphisms Control Human Hepatic Lipid Composition

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously Genome-wide Association St...

  16. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  17. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Feng, Kun; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The α-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:27220557

  18. Role of forage species and conservation method in ruminal lipid metabolism, mammary lipogenesis and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, Anni

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to develop forage-rich diets for dairy cows for altering milk fatty acid composition, with the potential to improve human health. Emphasis was placed on the potential to decrease milk fat medium chain saturated fatty acids (SFA; 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increase cis-9 18:1 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, 18:3n-3 in particular. Experiments encompassed detailed investigations of ruminal and mammary lipid metabolis...

  19. Simultaneous improvement in production of microalgal biodiesel and high-value alpha-linolenic acid by a single regulator acetylcholine

    Parsaeimehr, Ali; Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Photoautotrophic microalgae are a promising avenue for sustained biodiesel production, but are compromised by low yields of biomass and lipids at present. We are developing a chemical approach to improve microalgal accumulation of feedstock lipids as well as high-value alpha-linolenic acid which in turn might provide a driving force for biodiesel production. Results We demonstrate the effectiveness of the small bioactive molecule “acetylcholine” on accumulation of biomass, total li...

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    Bee, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    Influence de l'apport des acides linoléiques conjugués dans l'alimentation sur la composition des tissus adipeux et la lipogenèse de novo chez les porcs en finition. Plusieurs travaux ont révélé que les acides linoléiques conjugués (conjugated linoleic acids : CLA) ont une influence importante sur le métabolisme des lipides et des protéines. En revanche, les effets des CLA sur le profil des acides gras dans les tissus adipeux chez le porc sont peu connus. Dans cette étude, nous avons détermin...

  1. Short term exposure to perluoroalkyl acids causes increase of hepatic lipid and triglyceride in conjunction with liver hypertrophy

    ABSTRACT BODY: Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to extensive use of industrial and consumer products. These chemicals activate peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-alpha (PPARa) in liver and after lipid metabolism. The current stu...

  2. Vitamins C and E Improve Regrowth and Reduce Lipid Peroxidation of Blackberry Shoot Tips Following Cryopreservation

    Oxidative processes involved in cryopreservation protocols may be responsible for the reduced viability of tissues after liquid nitrogen (LN) exposure. Antioxidants that counteract these reactions should improve recovery. This study focused on oxidative lipid injury and the effects of exogenous vit...

  3. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish

    Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

    2010-07-01

    This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. Correlation between leptin level with lipid profile and free fatty acid in liver cirrhosis patients

    Siti Maryani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common condition in liver cirrhotic patients. Leptin regulates body weightphysiologically by suppressing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin is higher in femalethan male. Studies have shown correlation between leptin with metabolic factors like body massindex (BMI and lipid profile in cirrhotic patients. This study was conducted to investigate thecorrelation between serum leptin levels with lipid profile and free fatty acid in male patients with livercirrhosis. This was a cross sectional study that conducted at Gastroentero-Hepatology Clinic andInternal Ward at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were patients withliver cirrhosis > 18 years old, male, with Child-Pugh classification B and C, and provided informedconsent. The exclusion criteria were liver cirrhotic patients with comorbidity chronic kidney disease,chronic heart failure, diabetic, cancer, infection/septic, pregnancy, breast feeding, and steroid use.Data collecting was performed by anamnesis, physical examination, abdominal ultrasonographyexamination, and blood chemistry test. Pearson test was used to evaluate the correlation betweenthe serum leptin level with the lipid profile and free fatty acid. The results showed that no significantnegative correlation was observed between the serum leptin level with the total cholesterol (r= -0.052; p=0.766, high-density lipoprotein/HDL (r= -0.078; p=0.658 and triglyceride (r= -0.170; p=0.328 in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, no significant positive correlationwas observed between the serum leptin levels with the low-density lipoprotein/LDL (r= -0.013; p=0.942 and free fatty acid/FFA (r= 0.007; p=0.968. In conclusion, there was no correlationbetween serum leptin levels with lipid profile and FFA in male patients with liver cirrhosis.

  5. Elucidation and identification of amino acid containing membrane lipids using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Moore, E.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Villanueva, L; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intact polar lipids (IPLs) are the building blocks of cell membranes, and amino acid containing IPLs havebeen observed to be involved in response to changing environmental conditions in various species of bacteri a. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) has become the primary method for analysis ofIPLs. Many glycerol-free amino acid containing membrane lipids (AA-IPLs), which are structurally different thanabundant aminophospholipids, have not been char...

  6. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby; Eman M. Fakhry

    2015-01-01

    Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae), Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae) and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae) were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens) to 4.14% (U. linza) of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were a...

  7. PPARd IS A LIPID SENSOR AND A REGULATOR OF FATTY ACID OXIDATION IN PANCREATIC β-CELLS

    Ravnskjær, Kim; Nielsen, Tina; Børgesen, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne

    islets and in the insulinoma cell line INS-1E. This is reflected at the functional level in activity assays using a PPRE-driven luciferase reporter construct. The fatty acids oleic, arachidonic and linolenic acid are able to acivate this construct synergistically with the synthetic RXR agonist LG100268......-oleate oxidation. The current observations suggest that PPARd is an important lipid sensor and regulator of lipid oxidation in pancreatic b-cells....

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: lipid content and hepatic histology in healthy Wistar rats

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of the consumption of two commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixtures on lipid content and liver histology of healthy rats. The investigation was carried out using thirty rats divided into three groups: C (control, AE (AdvantEdge®CLA, and CO (CLA One®. The concentration of CLA was 2% of feed consumption, and the animals were supplemented daily for 42 days. The total lipid content of the liver was determined, and the histology of the organ was examined by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. The results of total liver lipid contents did not exhibit significant differences between the groups. With regard to hepatic histology, it was observed that although fat globules were visibly present in higher numbers and bigger size in the CLA groups, the organ histology was considered normal since both cytoplasm and organelles showed integrity. It was concluded that even though liver microscopic images indicated the presence of fat globules in the liver, from a statistical point of view, the supplementation for 42 days did not bring about lipid accumulation, nor did it alter hepatic histology.

  9. Self-assembled multicompartment liquid crystalline lipid carriers for protein, peptide, and nucleic acid drug delivery.

    Angelova, Angelina; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, Rada; Lesieur, Sylviane; Couvreur, Patrick

    2011-02-15

    Lipids and lipopolymers self-assembled into biocompatible nano- and mesostructured functional materials offer many potential applications in medicine and diagnostics. In this Account, we demonstrate how high-resolution structural investigations of bicontinuous cubic templates made from lyotropic thermosensitive liquid-crystalline (LC) materials have initiated the development of innovative lipidopolymeric self-assembled nanocarriers. Such structures have tunable nanochannel sizes, morphologies, and hierarchical inner organizations and provide potential vehicles for the predictable loading and release of therapeutic proteins, peptides, or nucleic acids. This Account shows that structural studies of swelling of bicontinuous cubic lipid/water phases are essential for overcoming the nanoscale constraints for encapsulation of large therapeutic molecules in multicompartment lipid carriers. For the systems described here, we have employed time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-resolution freeze-fracture electronic microscopy (FF-EM) to study the morphology and the dynamic topological transitions of these nanostructured multicomponent amphiphilic assemblies. Quasi-elastic light scattering and circular dichroism spectroscopy can provide additional information at the nanoscale about the behavior of lipid/protein self-assemblies under conditions that approximate physiological hydration. We wanted to generalize these findings to control the stability and the hydration of the water nanochannels in liquid-crystalline lipid nanovehicles and confine therapeutic biomolecules within these structures. Therefore we analyzed the influence of amphiphilic and soluble additives (e.g. poly(ethylene glycol)monooleate (MO-PEG), octyl glucoside (OG), proteins) on the nanochannels' size in a diamond (D)-type bicontinuous cubic phase of the lipid glycerol monooleate (MO). At body temperature, we can stabilize long-living swollen states, corresponding to a diamond cubic phase

  10. Fatty Acid Profiling of Lipid A Isolated from Indigenous salmonella typhi strain by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. Lipopolysaccharides are one of the main virulence factors of S. Typhi. Hydrophobic lipid A anchors the lipopolysaccharides into the bacterial outer membrane and also serves as the epicenter of endotoxicity, which is linked to the presence of several fatty acid chains. Fatty acid profiling is, therefore, very important to understand the endotoxicity of these pathogenic bacteria. To profile lipid A with respect to its fatty acid constituents, a S. Typhi was isolated from blood culture of a typhoid patient from the Faisalabad region of Pakistan. After its complete identification using biochemical and molecular techniques, this bacterium was cultivated in a fermentor. The cell pellet obtained was subjected to hot phenol process to extract and purify lipopolysaccharides. Acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides yielded lipid A, which was subjected to analyses using GC-MS after derivatization into their fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified on the basis of their retention times, compared with standards as well as characteristic mass fragmentation patterns of their respective mass spectra. This fatty acid profiling revealed the occurrence of dodecanoic acid (C12:0), tetradecanoic acid (C14:0), 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (3-OH C14:0) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) in the lipid A component of S. Typhi strain with the relative percentage abundances 8.5%, 12.5%, 55.9% and 23.1%, respectively. (author)

  11. Monthly Changes of Glycogen, Lipid and Free Amino Acid of Oyster

    ZHANG Zhicui; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin; LI Zhaojie; WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    Monthly difference of the chemical composition of oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was analyzed.The components analyzed included glycogen, fatty acid and free amino acid (FAA).The content of glycogen was high in January and March (2.89 and 2.82 g(100 g)- 1 on average, respectively) and low in October (2.07 g(100 g)- 1 on average).The low content of neutral lipids in October reflected a relatively poor nutritional value of oyster (1.42 g(100 g) -1 on average).The main fatty acids of oyster were palmitic acid(16:0),oleic acid(18:1),eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA,20:5w-3) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA,22:6w-3).The major FAAs of oyster were Taurine,Glutamicacid,Glycin,Alanine, Arginine and Proline.Taurine was the most abundant FAA with its content ranging from 603 mg(100 g)- 1 to 1139 mg(100 g) -1.The high contents of glycogen, polyunsaturated fatty acid and FAA showed that oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was nutritionally good in January and March.

  12. Monthly changes of glycogen, lipid and free amino acid of oyster

    Zhicui, Zhang; Changhu, Xue; Xin, Gao; Zhaojie, Li; Qi, Wang

    2006-07-01

    Monthly difference of the chemical composition of oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was analyzed. The components analyzed included glycogen, fatty acid and free amino acid (FAA). The content of glycogen was high in January and March (2.89 and 2.82 g(100g)-1 on average, respectively) and low in October (2.07 g(100g)-1 on avarage). The low content of neutral lipids in October reflected a relatively poor nutritional value of oyster (1.42 g(100 g)-1 on average). The main fatty acids of oyster were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20: 5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3). The major FAAs of oyster were Taurine, Glutamicacid, Glycin, Alanine, Arginine and Proline. Taurine was the most abundant FAA with its content ranging from 603 mg (100g)-1 to 1139 mg(100g)-1. The high contents of glycogen, polyunsaturated fatty acid and FAA showed that oyster cultured along the eastern coast of Shandong Province was nutritionally good in January and March.

  13. EFFECTS OF HARVEST STAGE ON THE TOTAL LIPID AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF FOUR CYLINDROTHECA STRAINS

    梁英; 麦康森; 孙世春

    2002-01-01

    Four strains of Cylindrotheca (B156, B164, B196, and B200) wereharvested at three phases in the growth curve and their total lipid and fatty acid composition were determined. Total lipid reached highest values in the late stationary phase in B156 (24.0%), B164 (26.6%) and B200 (17.3%), in the exponential phase in B196 (15.5%). Saturated fatty acids increased with the development of the culture in B156 and B196, and reached their highest values in the late stationary phase in B156 (41.7%) and B196 (45.1%), in the early stationary phase in B164 (45.4%) and B200 (37.6%). Monounsaturated fatty acids increased with the development of the culture in B196 and B200, and reached their highest values inthe late stationary phase in B196 (32.4%) and B200 (32.8%), in the early stationary phase in B164 (31.0%) and in the exponential phase in B156 (29.3%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in the later phases of the culture in B164, B196 and B200, and peaked in the exponential phase in B164 (29.5%), B196 (42.9%) and B200 (37.3%), and in the early stationary phase in B156 (32.0%). ``

  14. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  15. Understanding interactions of oleic acid with basic drugs in solid lipids on different biopharmaceutical levels

    Zdravka Misic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the impact of intestinal supersaturation on absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs has raised much interest among researchers. A focus has been mostly to study excipient effects on maintenance of drug supersaturation. The aim of the present study was to better understand the effects of drug-excipient interactions on the level of the anhydrous formulation, upon dispersion in simple buffer media and, in particular, regarding precipitation kinetics. A solid lipid-based formulation comprising PEG-32 stearate and oleic acid (OA (8:2 w/w was developed as a model. Loratadine (pKa = 4.33 and carvedilol (pKa = 8.74 were chosen as basic drugs. UV/FTIR spectroscopy and viscometry were used to characterize drug-OA molecular interactions in solution, while solid formulations were studied using x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and van’t Hoff solubility-temperature plots. Precipitation kinetics of drug formulations was real-time monitored in phosphate buffer (pH = 6.5 by focused beam reflectance measurements. It was found that the addition of OA in the formulations resulted in substantial drug solubility increase. Although the drug-OA interactions appeared to be partially lost upon formulation dispersion, the extent of precipitation was markedly lowered compared to the formulations without OA. A Precipitation number (Pnc was introduced as a ratio of a relevant residence time of drug in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT to the induction time (the onset time of crystalline precipitation. Without OA, Pnc was already taking critical values (>1, while the anhydrous formulation was still below saturation for both model drugs. Interestingly, the addition of OA resulted in amorphous instead of crystalline precipitates, which is advantageous for drug re-dissolution and absorption. In conclusion, this study provides an improved understanding of OA and basic drug interactions on different levels of in vitro performance for more rational oral formulation

  16. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R;

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors...... to assess reactive oxygen species production during the OGTT. Circulating glucose, insulin, and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were determined from plasma. Main Outcome: Short-term aerobic exercise training improved hepatic lipid composition in patients with NAFLD. Results: Exercise training...... after the exercise program and the increase was positively correlated with the increase in liver PUI (r = 0.52, P = .05). Body weight remained stable during the program (P > .05). Conclusion: Short-term exercise can target hepatic lipid composition, which may reduce the risk of NAFLD progression...

  17. Catanionic lipid nanosystems improve pharmacokinetics and anti-lung cancer activity of curcumin.

    Li, Songlin; Fang, Chunshu; Zhang, Jingqing; Liu, Bilin; Wei, Zhuanqin; Fan, Xiaoqing; Sui, Zheng; Tan, Qunyou

    2016-08-01

    Novel catanionic lipid nanosystems (CLNs) incorporating curcumin (CCM) were developed, and improvements in pharmacokinetics and enhanced anti-lung cancer activity were observed. CCM was present in a lipid matrix surrounded by cationic, anionic and zwitterionic surfactants, forming the core-shell nanosystems. Compared with free CCM, the CCM-CLNs had much higher oral and intravenous bioavailabilities due to enhanced absorption and reduced clearance. The CCM-CLNs exhibited greater cytotoxicity in Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells, which might have been due to increased antiproliferative, proapoptotic and anti-invasive activities and induction of cell cycle arrest. The CCM-CLNs increased the antitumor efficacy of CCM and decreased the tumor growth rate in tumor-bearing mice. This is the first report of induction of apoptosis in LLC cells by CCM through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1/Bim signaling pathway. Catanionic lipid nanocarriers show promise for the therapeutic delivery of insoluble anti-tumor drugs. PMID:26995093

  18. Perturbations in polar lipids, starvation survival and reproduction following exposure to unsaturated fatty acids or environmental toxicants in Daphnia magna.

    Sengupta, Namrata; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2016-02-01

    Acclimating to toxicant stress is energy expensive. In laboratory toxicology tests dietary conditions are ideal, but not in natural environments where nutrient resources vary in quality and quantity. We compared the effects of additional lipid resources, docosahexaenoic acid (n-3; DHA) or linoleic acid (n-6; LA), or the effects of the toxicants, atrazine or triclosan on post-treatment starvation survival, reproduction, and lipid profiles. Chemical exposure prior to starvation had chemical-specific effects as DHA showed moderately beneficial effects on starvation survival and all of the other chemicals showed adverse effects on either survival or reproduction. Surprisingly, pre-exposure to triclosan inhibits adult maturation and in turn completely blocks reproduction during the starvation phase. The two HR96 activators tested, atrazine and LA adversely reduce post-reproduction survival 70% during starvation and in turn show poor fecundity. DHA and LA show distinctly different lipid profiles as DHA primarily increases the percentage of large (>37 carbon) phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and LA primarily increases the percentage of smaller (triclosan moderately perturb a large number of different phospholipids including several phosphatidylethanolamine species. Some of these polar lipid species may be biomarkers for diets rich in specific fatty acids or toxicant classes. Overall our data demonstrates that toxicants can perturb lipid utilization and storage in daphnids in a chemical specific manner, and different chemicals can produce distinct polar lipid profiles. In summary, biological effects caused by fatty acids and toxicants are associated with changes in the production and use of lipids. PMID:26606184

  19. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  20. Improved analysis of 1H-MR spectra in the presence of mobile lipids.

    Auer, D P; Gössl, C; Schirmer, T; Czisch, M

    2001-09-01

    Focal brain lesions can be associated with proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS)-detectable mobile lipids, reflecting severe tissue degradation and necrosis. However, advanced fitting procedures, such as the LCModel, fail to adequately fit spectra in the presence of lipid resonances. To overcome this, different approaches to generate lipid model spectra were compared using a phantom, real in vivo data, and simulated data. Twenty-six in vivo short-echo time (TE) 1H-MRS from 21 malignant gliomas, four infections, and one ischemia were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the modified LCModel fit. Adding simulated aliphatic resonances at 1.3 and 0.9 ppm improved the overall fitting quality remarkably and allowed good separation of lactate and alanine. Also, a better differentiation of glioblastomas and anaplastic gliomas was achieved. In conclusion, we propose a simple way to efficiently include lipid resonances in the LCModel, allowing a better fit of in vivo short-TE 1H-MRS, and demonstrate the diagnostic potential of quantitative assessment of mobile lipids in brain tumors. PMID:11550257

  1. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  2. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast.

    Dagorn, Flore; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Kendel, Melha; Beninger, Peter G; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2016-01-01

    Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. PMID:27231919

  3. Tailored host-guest lipidic cubic phases: a protocell model exhibiting nucleic acid recognition.

    Komisarski, Marek; Osornio, Yazmin M; Siegel, Jay S; Landau, Ehud M

    2013-01-21

    A classical conundrum in origin-of-life studies relates to the nature of the first chemical system: was it a carrier of genetic information or a facilitator of cellular compartmentalization? Here we present a system composed of tailor-made nucleolipids and hydrated monoolein, which assemble at ambient temperatures to form host-guest lipidic cubic phase (LCP) materials that are stable in bulk water and can perform both functions. As such, they may represent a molecular model for a protocell in origin-of-life studies. Nucleolipids within the lipidic material sequester and bind selectively complementary oligonucleotide sequences from solution by virtue of base-pairing; noncomplementary sequences diffuse freely between the LCP material and the bulk aqueous environment. Sequence specific enrichment of nucleic acids within the LCP material demonstrates an effective mechanism for selection of genetic material in these cell-mimetic systems. PMID:23239006

  4. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  5. SMA-SH: Modified Styrene-Maleic Acid Copolymer for Functionalization of Lipid Nanodiscs.

    Lindhoud, Simon; Carvalho, Vanessa; Pronk, Joachim W; Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve

    2016-04-11

    Challenges in purification and subsequent functionalization of membrane proteins often complicate their biochemical and biophysical characterization. Purification of membrane proteins generally involves replacing the lipids surrounding the protein with detergent molecules, which can affect protein structure and function. Recently, it was shown that styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMA) can dissolve integral membrane proteins from biological membranes into nanosized discs. Within these nanoparticles, proteins are embedded in a patch of their native lipid bilayer that is stabilized in solution by the amphipathic polymer that wraps the disc like a bracelet. This approach for detergent-free purification of membrane proteins has the potential to greatly simplify purification but does not facilitate conjugation of functional compounds to the membrane proteins. Often, such functionalization involves laborious preparation of protein variants and optimization of labeling procedures to ensure only minimal perturbation of the protein. Here, we present a strategy that circumvents several of these complications through modifying SMA by grafting the polymer with cysteamine. The reaction results in SMA that has solvent-exposed sulfhydrils (SMA-SH) and allows tuning of the coverage with SH groups. Size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that SMA-SH dissolves lipid bilayer membranes into lipid nanodiscs, just like SMA. In addition, we demonstrate that, just like SMA, SMA-SH solubilizes proteoliposomes into protein-loaded nanodiscs. We covalently modify SMA-SH-lipid nanodiscs using thiol-reactive derivatives of Alexa Fluor 488 and biotin. Thus, SMA-SH promises to simultaneously tackle challenges in purification and functionalization of membrane proteins. PMID:26974006

  6. Growth Response and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Procambarus clarkii Fed Different Sources of Dietary Lipid

    WEN Xiao-bo; KU Yao-mei; ZHOU Kai-ya

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipidon weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile red swamp crawfish, Procam-barus clarkii. Six semi-purified diets containing vitamin-free casein, defatted soybean meal, 0.5% cholinechloride, 0.5 % glycine and 0.5 % cholesterol were supplemented with 6.0 % of either anchovy oil, linseed oil,soybean oil, rapeseed oil, safflower oil or pork lard. Each diet was fed to crawfish (3.07±0.21 g averageweight) in three replicate aquaria for 60 days. Survival rate, weight gain and feed conversion were best forcrawfish fed the diet containing anchovy oil. Crawfish fed the linseed oil diet had the second highest weightgain, followed by crawfish on soybean oil, repaseed oil, safflower oil and pork lard diets, respectively. Feedconversion values were a reflection of weight gain. Results showed that both n-6 and n-3 fatty acids are dietaryessential for juvenile Procambarus clarkii, although n-3 fatty acids promoted faster growth than n-6. Howev-er, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) had better growth-promoting effect than18 : 3n-3, due probably to the limited ability of crawfish to bioconvert fatty acids to polyenoic forms of longerchain length. The fatty acid composition of the crawfish generally reflected that of the dietary lipids, especial-ly for the diets containing unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm;

    2001-01-01

    attributed to its ability to chelate free metal ions and iron from egg yolk located at the oil-water interface. Gallic acid reduced the levels of both free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides but promoted slightly the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaise and influenced the profile of volatiles. Gallic......The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA was...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  8. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with [1-14C] acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro

  9. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;

    2015-01-01

    deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam....

  10. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan/ellagic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid hemostatic composite sponge

    贺庆; 敖强; 王臻; 刘伟强; 龚锴; 公衍道; 张秀芳

    2013-01-01

      背景:部分文献报道壳聚糖对严重创伤的止血效果有限,因此以壳聚糖为基础止血剂的促凝血活性还有待进一步增强。目的:制备一种新型的壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵,评价其促凝血活性和细胞毒性。方法:通过冻干法制备壳聚糖海绵和壳聚糖乙酸盐海绵,然后再通过静电吸附法制备壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵。血浆复钙时间法观察3种海绵的促凝血活性,并检测3种海绵对 SD 大鼠肝脏的止血效果及对 L929细胞的毒性。结果与结论:壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵组的血浆复钙时间、出血时间、失血量均显著少于壳聚糖海绵组和壳聚糖乙酸盐海绵组(P <0.01)。细胞实验显示壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵无细胞毒性。说明壳聚糖/鞣花酸/红细胞膜脂复合海绵具有良好的促凝血活性且无细胞毒性。%BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have indicated that the hemostatic effect of chitosan is limited when dealing with severe injuries. Therefore, the procoagulant activity of chitosan-based hemostatic agents needs to be enhanced. OBJECTIVE: To prepare a novel chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge and to evaluate its procoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.METHODS: Chitosan sponge and chitosan acetate sponge were prepared by freeze-drying method. Then chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid composite sponge was prepared by electrostatic adsorption method. Procoagulant activity of the chitosan, chitosan acetate, and chitosan/el agic acid/erythrocyte membrane lipid sponges was evaluated by the plasma recalcification time method. Hemostatic effect of these sponges was evaluated in the Sprague Dawley rat liver bleeding model, and the cytotoxicity to L929 cel line was evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The plasma recalcification time, bleeding time and blood loss of the chitosan/el agic acid

  11. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF MALONDIALDEHYDE IN PLASMA-LIPID EXTRACTS USING 1,3-DIETHYL-2-THIOBARBITURIC ACID - INFLUENCE OF DETECTION METHOD AND RELATIONS WITH LIPIDS AND FATTY-ACIDS IN PLASMA FROM HEALTHY-ADULTS

    HOVING, EB; LAING, C; RUTGERS, HM; TEGGELER, M; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the influence of different concentrations of Fe3+, phosphoric acid, butylated hydroxytoluene and glutathione on the production of the malondialdehyde-1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid adduct in plasma lipid extracts. Following organic solvent extraction the stable product was analyze

  12. Improving the lipid stability and sensory characteristics of irradiated minced beef by using natural herbal extracts

    The objective of the present work was to use natural herbal extracts to minimize lipid oxidation and improve the sensory characteristics of irradiated minced beef. Beef longissimus dorsi were minced, mixed with herbal extracts as appropriate and packed in polyethylene bags (50 g each). There were four treatment groups: (1) untreated controls, (2) irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma-rays to either 2 or 4.5 kGy, (3) addition of extracts of one of marjoram, rosemary or sage to a final concentration of 0.04 % (v/w), (4) combination treatment with either 2 or 4.5 kGy irradiation, plus herbal extract at 0.04 % (v/w) added pre-irradiation. Aerobically packaged samples were then placed into storage at 5 degree C. At specified time intervals samples were withdrawn to be analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS), sensory characteristics and psychrotrophic bacterial counts, Results demonstrated a significant benefit of the addition of herbal extracts to the minced beef prior to irradiation. All three extracts generally lowered the TBARS values in both control and irradiated samples, with marjoram being the most effective, followed by sage and rosemary in that order of efficacy. As regards radiation effected off-odour, all three extracts generally lowered the off-odour score, with marjoram and sage being most effective, and rosemary being somewhat less so. All three extracts protected against radiation effected colour loss. Addition of herbal extracts prior to irradiation resulted in significant increase (p< 0.05) in the acceptability scores for all irradiated samples in the post-irradiation period, with rosemary being somewhat less effective than sage and marjoram. Addition of herbal extracts alone to the minced meat did not affect the psychrotrophic bacterial counts of treated samples. The combination treatment with herbal extracts plus

  13. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    Duckett SK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan K Duckett, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca, Mariano Alende, Nathan M LongAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USAAbstract: Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9 acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01 weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05 in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11 acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05 in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05 (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1 at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01 in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05 in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6, and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05 GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were

  14. Age-related changes in retinoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid modulation in nuclear lipid metabolism.

    Gaveglio, Virginia L; Pascual, Ana C; Giusto, Norma M; Pasquaré, Susana J

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this work was to study how age-related changes could modify several enzymatic activities that regulate lipid mediator levels in nuclei from rat cerebellum and how these changes are modulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). The higher phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and lower diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity observed in aged animals compared with adults could augment diacylglycerol (DAG) availability in the former. Additionally, monoacylglycerol (MAG) availability could be high due to an increase in lysophosphatidate phosphohydrolase (LPAPase) activity and a decrease in monocylglycerol lipase activity. Interestingly, RA, DHA and AA were observed to modulate these enzymatic activities and this modulation was found to change in aged rats. In adult nuclei, whereas RA led to high DAG and MAG production through inhibition of their hydrolytic enzymes, DHA and AA promoted high MAG production by LPAPase and DAGL stimulation. In contrast, in aged nuclei RA caused high MAG generation whereas DHA and AA diminished it through LPAPase activity modulation. These results demonstrate that aging promotes a different nuclear lipid metabolism as well as a different type of non-genomic regulation by RA, DHA and AA, which could be involved in nuclear signaling events. PMID:27355428

  15. Lipids, curvature stress, and the action of lipid prodrugs: free fatty acids and lysolipid enhancement of drug transport across liposomal membranes.

    Jespersen, Henrik; Andersen, Jonas H; Ditzel, Henrik J; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2012-01-01

    Molecular shape and its impact on bilayer curvature stress are powerful concepts for describing the effects of lipids and fatty acids on fundamental membrane properties, such as passive permeability and derived properties like drug transport across liposomal membranes. We illustrate these relationships by studying the effects of fatty acids and lysolipids on the permeation of a potent anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, across the bilayer of a liposome in which the drug is encapsulated. Using a simple fluorescence assay, we have systematically studied the passive permeation of doxorubicin across liposomal membranes in different lipid phases: the solid-ordered phase (DPPC bilayers), the liquid-disordered phase (POPC lipid bilayers), and the liquid-ordered phase induced by high levels of cholesterol (DOPC + cholesterol lipid bilayers). The effect of different free fatty acids (FA) and lysolipids (LL), separately and in combination, on permeability was assessed to elucidate the possible mechanism of phospholipase A(2)-triggered release in cancer tissue of liposomal doxorubicin formulations. In all cases, FAs applied separately lead to significant enhancement of permeability, most pronounced in liquid-disordered bilayers and less pronounced in solid and solid-ordered bilayers. LLs applied separately had only a marginal effect on permeability. FA and LL applied in combination lead to a synergistic enhancement of permeability in solid bilayers, whereas in liquid-disordered bilayers, the combined effect suppressed the otherwise strong permeability enhancement due to the FAs. PMID:21839138

  16. Lipid metabolic dose response to dietary alpha-linolenic acid in monk parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Petzinger, Christina; Heatley, J J; Bailey, Christopher A; Bauer, John E

    2014-03-01

    Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA (Htin et al. in Arch Geflugelk 71:258-266, 2007; Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013). Therefore, the metabolic effects of including flaxseed oil, as a source of ALA, in the diet at three different levels (low, medium, and high) on the lipid metabolism of Monk parrots was evaluated through measuring plasma total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipid fatty acids. Feed intake, body weight, and body condition score were also assessed. Thus the dose and possible saturation response of increasing dietary ALA at constant linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LNA) concentration on lipid metabolism in Monk parrots (M. monachus) was evaluated. Calculated esterified cholesterol in addition to plasma TC, FC, and TAG were unaltered by increasing dietary ALA. The high ALA group had elevated levels of plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3). The medium and high ALA groups had suppressed plasma phospholipid 20:2n-6 and adrenic acid (22:4n-6, ADA) compared to the low ALA group. When the present data were combined with data from a previous study (Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013) a dose response to dietary ALA was observed when LNA was constant. Plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, DPAn-3, DHA, and total n-3 were positively correlated while 20:2n-6, di-homo-gamma-linoleic acid (20:3n-6Δ7), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), ADA, and total n-6 were inversely correlated with dietary en% ALA. PMID

  17. Effects of furfural and acetic acid on growth and lipid production from glucose and xylose by Rhodotorula glutinis

    Zhang, Guochang; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Alley, Earl; Paraschivescu, Maria [Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 9595, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic sugars to triacylglycerols (a biodiesel or renewable diesel feedstock) was investigated using the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (ATCC 15125). In the shake flask experiments, R. glutinis was first grown in a nitrogen-rich medium utilizing an artificial acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass switchgrass as the sole carbon and energy source. Once the culture had reached the stationary phase, the cells were harvested and transferred to a fresh nitrogen-free media containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars for lipid accumulation. Analysis of the data collected showed that the yeast were able to grow in the medium containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars as the carbon and energy source. The net specific Growth rate(s) indicated that the presence of acetic acid and furfural in the artificial acid hydrolysate inhibited the growth of R. glutinis on glucose, but not the growth on xylose. The lipid accumulated in the cells, determined by gravimetrical method, increased from initial 4.3%-39.0% of dry cell mass weight. The major fatty acids of the accumulated lipids were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and {gamma}-linoleic acid. These results indicate that it is feasible to convert the sugars in acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass to triacylglycerols using R. glutinis. (author)

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIPEROXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF ASCORBIC ACID ON BUSULFAN-INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION USING 4-HYDROXY-2-NONENAL AND NITRIC OXIDE AS MODEL MARKERS

    Supratim Ray

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed with an aim to evaluate the antiperoxidative potential of ascorbic acid on busulfan-induced lipid peroxidation. The study was performed in vitro using goat liver as lipid source. This evaluation was done by measuring the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and nitric oxide (NO) content of liver tissue homogenates as markers of lipid peroxidation. The study reveals the lipid peroxidation induction capacity of busulfan and the antiperoxidative potential of ascorbic acid on busulf...

  19. Improvement in the Iatroscan thin-layer chromatographic-flame ionisation detection analysis of marine lipids. Separation and quantitation of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in standards and natural samples.

    Striby, L; Lafont, R; Goutx, M

    1999-07-23

    Mono- and diacylglycerols are important intermediates in glycerolipid biodegradation and intracellular signalling pathways. A method for mass determination of these lipid classes in marine particles was developed using the Iatroscan, which combines thin layer chromatography (TLC) and flame ionisation detection (FID) techniques. We improved existing protocols by adding two elution steps: hexane-diethyl-ether-formic acid (70:30:0.2, v/v/v) after triacylglycerol and free fatty acid scan, and acetone 100% followed by chloroform-acetone-formic acid (99:1:0.2, v/v/v) after 1,2 diacylglycerols. Diacylglycerol isomers 1,2 and 1,3 were separated from each other, as well as from free sterols in standards and marine lipids from sediment trap particles. Monoacylglycerols were separated from pigments and galactosyl-lipids in the same trap samples and in a rich pigment phytoplankton extract of Dunaliella viridis. Quantitation of each class in samples was performed after calibration with 0.5 to 2 micrograms of standards. As many as 17 lipid classes can be identified and quantified in samples using this proposed six-step development. PMID:10457435

  20. Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids

    Isabel Baeza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.

  1. Myocardial Lipid Profiling During Time Course of High Fat Diet and its Relationship to the Expression of Fatty Acid Transporters

    Ewa Harasim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that increased fatty acids (FA supply causes lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. Whether the same mechanism is present in the heart is still unclear. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the content of specific myocardial lipid fractions during feeding rats a high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks. Moreover, the relation between changes in myocardial lipid content, whole body insulin resistance and the expression of fatty acid transporters in each week of HFD was established. Methods: Gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the content of lipid fractions in the left ventricle. Expression of selected proteins was estimated by Western blot technique. All measurements were made after each week of HFD. Results: As expected, lipid profile in myocardium was altered by HFD in different weeks of the study with the most intense changes in triacylglycerols, long chain fatty acid-CoA and ceramide. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of plasmalemmal (the 4th and the 5th week and mitochondrial expression (from the 3rd to the 5th week of fatty acid translocase. Conclusion: High fat diet affects myocardial lipid profile in each week of its duration and causes alternations in FA metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

  2. Influence of a subinhibitory dose of antifungal fatty acids from Sporothrix flocculosa on cellular lipid composition in fungi.

    Benyagoub, M; Willemot, C; Bélanger, R R

    1996-10-01

    Antifungal fatty acids produced by the biocontrol fungus Sporothrix flocculosa were studied on the basis of their effect on growth and cellular lipid composition of three fungi, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Fusarium oxysporum, and S. flocculosa, whose growth was decreased by 51, 33, and 5%, respectively, when exposed to 0.4 mg fatty acid per ml. The sensitivity to fatty acid antibiotics from S. flocculosa was related to a high degree of unsaturation of phospholipid fatty acids and a low proportion of sterols. The major responses of sensitive fungi to sublethal doses of antifungal fatty acids from liquid culture of S. flocculosa were: (i) a decrease in total lipid; (ii) an increase in the degree of fatty acid unsaturation (18:1 > 18:2 > 18:3); (iii) an increase in free fatty acids and phosphatidic acid and a decrease in total phospholipids; and (iv) an increase in sterol/phospholipid ratio. These modifications in lipid composition led to an increase in membrane fluidity in sensitive fungi as demonstrated by assessment of fluoresence anisotropy using liposomes and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene probe. This alteration in the physical state of lipids appears to be responsible for the previously demonstrated alteration of membrane structure and function in fungi confronted to S. flocculosa. PMID:8898307

  3. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    Lina Lindberg

    Full Text Available When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555 cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP2C 2.2× and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP2C 2.7×, when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to

  4. Comparison of fatty acid composition in total lipid of diapause and non-diapause larvae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    ABBAS KHANI; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHSEN BARZEGAR; HOSSEIN NADERI-MANESH

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid extracted from the whole body of Cydia pomonella L. larvae were determined by gas chromatography. The six most abundant fatty acids in both non-diapause and diapause larvae of codling moth were oleic (35%-39%), palmitic (23%-33%), linoleic (16%-30%), palmitoleic (5%-10%),stearic (1.5%-3.0%) and linolenic acids (1.0%-2.5%). This represents a typical complement of Lepidopteran fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of total lipid of C. pomonella larvae was related to diapause. In similarity to most other reports, the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased in diapause initiation state. The total lipid of diapause larvae contained more linoleic acid (25.8% vs. 16.1%) and less palmitic acid (24.7% vs. 33.4%),than that ofnon-diapause larvae. The weight percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2) increased from 16% to 26% from early-August through early-September during transition to diapause,while palmitic acid (C16:0) decreased from 33% to 25% at the same time. These changes resulted in an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) from 1.72 in non-diapause larvae to 2.63 in diapause larvae.

  5. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber cons...

  6. Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis

    Malur Anagha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and the PPARγ-regulated ATP binding cassette (ABC lipid transporter, ABCG1. An open label proof of concept Phase II clinical trial was conducted in PAP patients using rituximab, a chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody directed against B lymphocyte specific antigen CD20. Rituximab treatment decreased anti-GM-CSF antibody levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and 7/9 patients completing the trial demonstrated clinical improvement as measured by arterial blood oxygenation. Objectives This study sought to determine whether rituximab therapy would restore lipid metabolism in PAP alveolar macrophages. Methods BAL samples were collected from patients pre- and 6-months post-rituximab infusion for evaluation of mRNA and lipid changes. Results Mean PPARγ and ABCG1 mRNA expression increased 2.8 and 5.3-fold respectively (p ≤ 0.05 after treatment. Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2 (a key enzyme in surfactant degradation mRNA expression was severely deficient in PAP patients pre-treatment but increased 2.8-fold post-treatment. In supplemental animal studies, LPLA2 deficiency was verified in GM-CSF KO mice but was not present in macrophage-specific PPARγ KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Oil Red O intensity of PAP alveolar macrophages decreased after treatment, indicating reduced intracellular lipid while extracellular free cholesterol increased in BAL fluid. Furthermore, total protein and Surfactant protein A were significantly decreased in the BAL fluid post therapy. Conclusions Reduction in GM

  7. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  8. Ether- and ester-bound iso-diabolic acid and other lipids in members of acidobacteria subdivision 4.

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Hopmans, Ellen C; Foesel, Bärbel U; Wüst, Pia K; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A; Dunfield, Peter F; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B

    2014-09-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers that occur ubiquitously in peat, soil, lakes, and hot springs. Here, we examined the lipid composition of seven phylogenetically divergent strains of subdivision 4 of the Acidobacteria, a bacterial group that is commonly encountered in soil. Acid hydrolysis of total cell material released iso-diabolic acid derivatives in substantial quantities (11 to 48% of all fatty acids). In contrast to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, 6 out of the 7 species of subdivision 4 (excepting "Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum") contained iso-diabolic acid ether bound to a glycerol in larger fractional abundance than iso-diabolic acid itself. This is in agreement with the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), which showed the dominance of mixed ether-ester glycerides. iso-Diabolic acid-containing IPLs were not identified, because these IPLs are not released with a Bligh-Dyer extraction, as observed before when studying lipid compositions of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria. The presence of ether bonds in the membrane lipids does not seem to be an adaptation to temperature, because the five mesophilic isolates contained a larger amount of ether lipids than the thermophile "Ca. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum." Furthermore, experiments with Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes did not reveal a major influence of growth temperature over the 50 to 69°C range. PMID:24928878

  9. Engineering of lipid prodrug-based, hyaluronic acid-decorated nanostructured lipid carriers platform for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin combination gastric cancer therapy

    Qu CY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Ying Qu,1,* Min Zhou,1,* Ying-wei Chen,2 Mei-mei Chen,3 Feng Shen,1 Lei-Ming Xu11Digestive Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Digestive Department, Xinhua Hospital, School of medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The first-line chemotherapy treatment protocol for gastric cancer is combination chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and cisplatin (CDDP. The aim of this study was to engineer prodrug-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC platform for codelivery of 5-FU and CDDP to enhance therapy and decrease toxicity.Methods: First, 5-FU-stearic acid lipid conjugate was synthesized by two steps. Second, 5-FU-stearic acid prodrug and CDDP were loaded in NLC. Finally, hyaluronic acid (HA was coated onto NLC surface. Average size, zeta potential, and drug loading capacity of NLC were evaluated. Human gastric cancer cell line BGC823 (BGC823 cells was used for the testing of in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vivo antitumor activity of NLC was evaluated in mice bearing BGC823 cells model.Results: HA-coated 5-FU-stearic acid prodrug and CDDP-loaded NLC (HA-FU/C-NLC showed a synergistic effect in combination therapy and displayed the greatest antitumor activity than all of the free drugs or uncoated NLC in vitro and in vivo.Conclusion: This work reveals that HA-coated NLC could be used as a novel carrier to codeliver 5-FU and CDDP for gastric cancer therapy. HA-FU/C-NLC could be a promising targeted and combinational therapy in nanomedicine.Keywords: gastric cancer, nanostructured lipid carriers, hyaluronic acid, combination chemotherapy, lipid prodrug

  10. Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna

    Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

  11. Docosapentaenoic acid derived metabolites and mediators - The new world of lipid mediator medicine in a nutshell.

    Weylandt, Karsten-H

    2016-08-15

    Recent years have seen the description and elucidation of a new class of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. The arachidonic acid (AA)-derived compounds in this class are called lipoxins and have been described in great detail since their discovery thirty years ago. The new players are mediators derived from fish oil omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Taken together, these mediators are also called specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). As compared to the AA/EPA/DHA-derived compounds, research regarding mediators formed from the n-3 and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids (DPAn-3 and DPAn-6) is sparse. However, mono- di- and trihydroxy derivates of the DPAs have anti-inflammatory properties as well, even though mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory action have not been fully elucidated. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding the DPA-derived SPMs and their actions. PMID:26546723

  12. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the...... influence on the fatty acid profile. We fed five groups of rats semi-purified diets with varying levels of CLA and VA: control butter with low CLA (c9,t11) and VA; control butter added 5% CLA (c9,t11); control butter added 5% Tonalin [equal amount of CLA (c9,t11) and CLA (t10,c12)]; control butter added 5...

  13. Plant pentacyclic triterpenic acids as modulators of lipid membrane physical properties.

    Prades, Jesús; Vögler, Oliver; Alemany, Regina; Gomez-Florit, Manuel; Funari, Sérgio S; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Barceló, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    Free triterpenic acids (TTPs) present in plants are bioactive compounds exhibiting multiple nutriceutical activities. The underlying molecular mechanisms have only been examined in part and mainly focused on anti-inflammatory properties, cancer and cardiovascular diseases, in all of which TTPs frequently affect membrane-related proteins. Based on the structural characteristics of TTPs, we assume that their effect on biophysical properties of cell membranes could play a role for their biological activity. In this context, our study is focused on the compounds, oleanolic (3β-hydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid, OLA), maslinic (2α,3β-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid, MSL) and ursolic ((3β)-3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, URL) as the most important TTPs present in orujo olive oil. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and Laurdan fluorescence data provide experimental evidence that OLA, MSL and URL altered the structural properties of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DPPC-Cholesterol (Cho) rich membranes, being located into the polar-hydrophobic interphase. Specifically, in DPPC membranes, TTPs altered the structural order of the L(β'), phase without destabilizing the lipid bilayer. The existence of a nonbilayer isotropic phase in coexistence with the liquid crystalline L(α) phase, as observed in DPPC:URL samples, indicated the presence of lipid structures with high curvature (probably inverted micelles). In DPPC:Cho membranes, TTPs affected the membrane phase properties increasing the Laurdan GP values above 40°C. MSL and URL induced segregation of Cho within the bilayer, in contrast to OLA, that reduced the structural organization of the membrane. These results strengthen the relevance of TTP interactions with cell membranes as a molecular mechanism underlying their broad spectrum of biological effects. PMID:21167812

  14. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Interact with Comparative Gene Identification-58 Linking Lipolysis with Lipid Ligand Shuttling*

    Hofer, Peter; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Jaeger, Doris; Feiler, Ursula; Arthanari, Haribabu; Mayer, Nicole; Zehender, Fabian; Rechberger, Gerald; Oberer, Monika; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim; Haemmerle, Guenter; Breinbauer, Rolf; Zechner, Rudolf; Preiss-Landl, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background: A multiprotein complex designated as lipolysome degrades intracellular triglycerides and contains proteins such as adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and its co-activator Cgi-58. Results: Cgi-58 interacts with fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabps), which impact Atgl-mediated lipolysis and lipid signaling. Conclusion: Fabps modulate Atgl-mediated TG hydrolysis and link lipolysis with intracellular lipid ligand shuttling. Significance: Novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of...

  15. Differential Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth Performance, Digestibility, Fatty Acid Composition and Histology of African Catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) Fingerlings

    Theophilus Olayiwola Babalola; David Friday Apata; James Sunday Omotosho; Musibau Ayinde Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil (FO), two terrestrial animal fats (lard (PL) and poultry oil (CF)) and three vegetable oils (palm kernel (PKO), sheabutter (SBO) and sunflower (SFO)) as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fatty acid (FA) composition and histology of Hetero-branchus longifilis. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 6% of added fat from the lipid sources were formulated and used. Eac...

  16. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  17. Lipid Use and Misuse by the Heart.

    Schulze, P Christian; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Goldberg, Ira J

    2016-05-27

    The heart utilizes large amounts of fatty acids as energy providing substrates. The physiological balance of lipid uptake and oxidation prevents accumulation of excess lipids. Several processes that affect cardiac function, including ischemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, sepsis, and most forms of heart failure lead to altered fatty acid oxidation and often also to the accumulation of lipids. There is now mounting evidence associating certain species of these lipids with cardiac lipotoxicity and subsequent myocardial dysfunction. Experimental and clinical data are discussed and paths to reduction of toxic lipids as a means to improve cardiac function are suggested. PMID:27230639

  18. Improved stability of free-standing lipid bilayers based on nanoporous alumina films

    Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Taira, Tasuku; Oshima, Azusa; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we propose a method for improving the stability of free-standing bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) by preparing BLMs across nanoporous alumina films. The use of porous alumina reduced individual membrane size to improve the BLM stability. The BLMs were stable under an applied voltage of ±1 V. The lifetime of the BLMs was 16-30 h with and without incorporated gramicidin channels. Electric properties of the BLMs as a platform for channel-current recordings are also discussed. Since the total area of the BLMs is still large to facilitate protein incorporation, our approach is useful for designing highly sensitive biosensors based on channel proteins.

  19. Overproduction and secretion of free fatty acids through disrupted neutral lipid recycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Leber, Christopher; Polson, Brian; Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals from biorenewable resources is important to alleviate the environmental concerns, costs, and foreign dependency associated with the use of petroleum feedstock. Fatty acids are attractive biomolecules due to the flexibility of their iterative biosynthetic pathway, high energy content, and suitability for conversion into other secondary chemicals. Free fatty acids (FFAs) that can be secreted from the cell are particularly appealing due to their lower harvest costs and straightforward conversion into a broad range of biofuel and biochemical products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to overproduce extracellular FFAs by targeting three native intracellular processes. β-oxidation was disrupted by gene knockouts in FAA2, PXA1 and POX1, increasing intracellular fatty acids levels up to 55%. Disruptions in the acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1, FAA4 and FAT1 allowed the extracellular detection of free fatty acids up to 490mg/L. Combining these two disrupted pathways, a sextuple mutant (Δfaa1 Δfaa4 Δfat1 Δfaa2 Δpxa1 Δpox1) was able to produce 1.3g/L extracellular free fatty acids. Further diversion of carbon flux into neutral lipid droplet formation was investigated by the overexpression of DGA1 or ARE1 and by the co-overexpression of a compatible lipase, TGL1, TGL3 or TGL5. The sextuple mutant overexpressing the diacylglycerol acyltransferase, DGA1, and the triacylglycerol lipase, TGL3, yielded 2.2g/L extracellular free fatty acids. This novel combination of pathway interventions led to 4.2-fold higher extracellular free fatty acid levels than previously reported for S. cerevisiae. PMID:25461829

  20. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  1. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: A randomized crossover trial

    Rosenquist Anna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs in plasma. Methods A randomized crossover design (n = 19 was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P Results No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. Conclusions The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  2. Phytoglycogen octenyl succinate, an amphiphilic carbohydrate nanoparticle, and epsilon-polylysine to improve lipid oxidative stability of emulsions.

    Scheffler, Siqi L; Wang, Xue; Huang, Lei; San-Martin Gonzalez, Fernanda; Yao, Yuan

    2010-01-13

    Phytoglycogen octenyl succinate (PG-OS) and epsilon-polylysine (EPL) were used to form oil-in-water emulsions with enhanced lipid oxidative stability. PG-OS is an amphiphilic carbohydrate nanoparticle prepared using octenyl succinate (OS) substitution of phytoglycogen (PG). PG-OS had a dispersed molecular density nearly 20 times that of waxy corn starch octenyl succinate (WCS-OS). Fish oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using PG-OS, WCS-OS, and Tween 20, stored at 55 degrees C for 6 days, and monitored for the accumulation of hydroperoxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The result indicated that PG-OS may lead to high lipid oxidative stability, and that the addition of EPL may further improve the oxidative stability of emulsions. To address the interaction between PG-OS and EPL, zeta-potential was determined for various systems. The results indicated a possible formation of an interfacial complex layer comprising both PG-OS and EPL. This complex layer may provide both physical and electrostatic barriers against pro-oxidative compounds. PMID:19928899

  3. Improvement of Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status of Hyperlipidaemic Albino Rats by Gamma-irradiated Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    Hyper-Lipidemia is a dominant risk factor that contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Safflower is rich in the essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds which are known to be effective for the treatment of hyper- lipidemia. This study was performed to examine the efficacy of safflower to ameliorate the induced hyper-lipidemia in rats. The results obtained revealed that rats fed on high fat diet (HFD) significantly induced an increase in lipid profile, glucose and some liver enzymes as well as elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated with a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), glutathione (GSH) content and some antioxidant enzymes activity. However, when rats received HFD containing either raw or irradiated safflower (1% w/w), a significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters was seen. In conclusion, safflower supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to a promising role of safflower, a natural product, on antioxidant enzymes, liver function and lipid profile of hyper-lipidemic rats, regardless if it is irradiated or not

  4. Sage Tea Drinking Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Defences in Humans

    Cristina Pereira-Wilson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (common sage is a plant with antidiabetic properties. A pilot trial (non-randomized crossover trial with six healthy female volunteers (aged 40-50 was designed to evaluate the beneficial properties of sage tea consumption on blood glucose regulation, lipid profile and transaminase activity in humans. Effects of sage consumption on erythrocytes’ SOD and CAT activities and on Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes were also evaluated. Four weeks sage tea treatment had no effects on plasma glucose. An improvement in lipid profile was observed with lower plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels as well as higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels during and two weeks after treatment. Sage tea also increased lymphocyte Hsp70 expression and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities. No hepatotoxic effects or other adverse effects were observed.

  5. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  6. Lipid membrane partitioning of lysolipids and fatty acids: Effects of membrane phase structure and detergent chain length

    Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Kent

    2001-01-01

    The lipid membrane partitioning of lysolipids (lysoPC) and fatty acids (FA) into unilamellar vesicles composed of saturated DC$-16$/PC phospholipids has been determined by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The calorimetric titrations were performed at low temperatures in the ordere...... on, for example, the lipid membrane permeability and the activity of membrane associated enzymes such as phospholipase A$-2$/.......The lipid membrane partitioning of lysolipids (lysoPC) and fatty acids (FA) into unilamellar vesicles composed of saturated DC$-16$/PC phospholipids has been determined by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The calorimetric titrations were performed at low temperatures in the ordered...... gel phase and at high temperatures in the disordered fluid phase of the phospholipid membrane vesicles. The long saturated acyl chains of the lysolipids and fatty acids varied from 10 to 16 carbon atoms and all titrations were performed below the critical micellar concentrations (cmc) of the...

  7. Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and seed of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan.

    Takenaga, Fumio; Matsuyama, Kaori; Abe, Shin; Torii, Yasuyoshi; Itoh, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the mesocarp and seed of avocado fruit grown and harvested in Japan, which is located at the northern range of the avacado, was investigated and compared to an imported avocado purchased commercially. The potential of the avocado mesocarp as an agricultural product in Japan was also explored. Total lipids (TL) accounted for approximately 20% of the mesocarp. Further analysis showed that the neutral lipid (NL) fraction accounted for at least 95% of the TL, and almost 90% of NL was triacylglycerol. Monoenoic acids accounted for at least 65% of the total fatty acids, and oleic acid, which is regarded as an especially important functional component of avacado accounted for approximately 50% of the monounsaturated fatty acids. A comparison of the Japanese avocado cultivars and an imported avocado cultivar in the present study revealed no significant differences in the lipid and fatty acid compositions. Therefore, production of avocado fruit, which is rich in various nutritional components, is expected to be increased on a larger number of farms in Japan in the future. It is believed to be necessary to carry out further verification, such as the establishment of a cultivation technique adoptable to Japan, examination of optimal soil and land features, and cultivar selection. PMID:18838831

  8. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid β-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity

  9. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with [3H]palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)]-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton

  10. Effects of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ, Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Serum Lipid and HOMA-IR in Rats

    Chia Yoke Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on ligand binding potential of glycyrrhizic acid, a potential agonist to PPARγ, displayed encouraging results in amelioration of metabolic syndrome. The regulation of gene cassettes by PPARγ affects glucose homeostasis, lipid, lipoprotein metabolism and adipogenesis. This study was performed to determine the effects of GA on total PPARγ and LPL expression levels, lipid parameters and HOMA-IR. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours resulted in an increase in insulin sensitivity with decreases in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed with a decrease in triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and an elevation in HDL-cholesterol. GA administration also resulted in up-regulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles, as well as liver and kidney, with a significant up-regulation only in the visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles. Thus, oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles and induced upregulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in all studied tissues.

  11. Milk lipids

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  12. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  13. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C₂₂:₆, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C₂₀:₅, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C₁₆:₄) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10⁻⁶ M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

  14. Lipids, fatty acids composition and carotenoids of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Barcelos Oliveira, Jorge Luiz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative culture media have been evaluated for the cultivation of microalgae, among them are, industrial and agriculture wastewaters, that make residue recycling possible by bioconverting it into a rich, nourishing biomass that can be used as a feeding complement in aquaculture and in diverse areas. The objective of this research is to determine the lipid, fatty acid profile and carotenoid produced by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a hydroponic wastewater, with different dilutions. The results showed that lipid contents did not present significant differences. Fatty acids were predominantly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:3n-6. For total carotenoids, the dilution of hydroponic wastewater did not stimulate the production of these pigments. From this study, it was determined that, the use of hydroponic wastewater as an alternative culture medium for  the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris generates good perspectives for lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid production.Medios de cultivo alternativos vienen siendo evaluados para el cultivo de microalgas, entre ellos, están los afluentes industriales y agrícolas, que posibilitan la reciclaje del residuo, bioconvirtiéndose en una biomasa enriquecida bajo el punto de vista nutricional, que puede ser utilizada como complemento alimenticio, para la acuacultura y en varias otras áreas de actuación. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar los contenidos de lípidos, composición de ácidos grasos y carotenoides producidos por la microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada en solución hidropónica residual, con diferentes diluciones. Los resultados de los contenidos de lípidos totales no presentaron diferencia significativa. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron los 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 e 18:3n-6. Para los carotenoides totales, la dilución de la solución hidropónica residual no estimuló la producción de estos pigmentos por la microalga. La utilización de la solución hidrop

  15. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  16. Alpha linolenic acid in maternal diet halts the lipid disarray due to saturated fatty acids in the liver of mice offspring at weaning

    Shomonov-Wagner, Limor; Raz, Amiram; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3) in maternal diets has been shown to attenuate obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring in mice. The objective in the present study was to detect the early effects of maternal dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and their partial substitution with ω-3 ALA, docosa hexenoic acid (DHA,22:6) and eicosapentenoic acid 20:5 (EPA,20:5) on the HOMA index, liver lipids and fatty acid desaturases in the offspring at weaning. Methods 3 month...

  17. An improved method for hyaluronic acid radioiodination

    Orlando, P.; De Feo, A.; Orlando, M.; Trenta, R.; Trevisi, R. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy). Centro Radioisotopi; Binaglia, L. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Biochimica e Chimica Medica

    1995-09-01

    A simple procedure is described for preparing {sup 125}I-labelling hyluronan of high molecular weight. The reducing terminal group of hyaluronic acid was derivatized with tyramine through the formation of a Schiff base which was subsequently reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride. By radioiodination of the aromatic ring, {sup 125}I-labelled hyaluronic acid was obtained in high yield (40%) and high specific activity, 555 GBq/mmol (15 Ci/mmol). (Author).

  18. An improved method for hyaluronic acid radioiodination

    A simple procedure is described for preparing 125I-labelling hyluronan of high molecular weight. The reducing terminal group of hyaluronic acid was derivatized with tyramine through the formation of a Schiff base which was subsequently reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride. By radioiodination of the aromatic ring, 125I-labelled hyaluronic acid was obtained in high yield (40%) and high specific activity, 555 GBq/mmol (15 Ci/mmol). (Author)

  19. Genomic risk models improve prediction of longitudinal lipid levels in children and young adults

    Nathan E. Wineinger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In clinical medicine, lipids are commonly measured biomarkers used to assess an individual’s risk for cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Accurately predicting longitudinal lipid levels based on genomic information can inform therapeutic practices and decrease cardiovascular risk by identifying high-risk patients prior to onset. Using genotyped and imputed genetic data from 523 unrelated Caucasian Americans from the Bogalusa Heart Study, surveyed on 4,026 occasions from 4 to 48 years of age, we generated various lipid genomic risk models based on previously reported markers. We observed a significant improvement in prediction over non-genetic risk models in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (increase in the squared correlation between observed and predicted values, d=0.032, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (d=0.053, total cholesterol (d=0.043, and triglycerides (d=0.031. Many of our approaches are based on an n-fold cross-validation procedure that are, by design, adaptable to a clinical environment.

  20. Improved Side Chain Dynamics in MARTINI Simulations of Protein-Lipid Interfaces.

    Herzog, Florian A; Braun, Lukas; Schoen, Ingmar; Vogel, Viola

    2016-05-10

    Specific interactions of protein side chains and lipid membranes regulate the localization, orientation, and activity of many peripheral proteins. Here, we introduce a modification of the coarse-grained MARTINI protein model, called 'side chain fix' (scFix), that was necessary and sufficient to correctly sample the side chain dynamics of β-strands in several globular proteins. When compared to μs long atomistic simulations or previous experimental findings, scFix MARTINI simulations reproduced all key interactions between the well-studied PLC-δ1 pleckstrin homology domain and a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) containing lipid membrane. Moreover, the extended runtime and higher sampling speed enabled the systematic mapping of the protein's rolling motion at the membrane, the identification of short-lived and stable binding orientations, as well as the verification and prediction of already known and of novel transient PIP2 binding sites. scFix also showed promise to maintain proper side chain orientation in other secondary structural motifs of the α-spectrin SH3 domain, the B1 domain of protein G, and the villin headpiece. This suggests that scFix improves on the predictive power of MARTINI simulations regarding protein-lipid and protein-ligand interactions. PMID:27042944

  1. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration.

    Tichota, Deise Michele; Silva, Ana Catarina; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel; Amaral, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection), argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration). PMID:25143733

  2. Improvement of lipid production in the marine strains Alexandrium minutum and Heterosigma akashiwo by utilizing abiotic parameters.

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Garcés, E; Alacid, E; Sampedro, N; Rossi, S; Camp, J

    2012-01-01

    Two different strains of microalgae, one raphidophyte and one dinoflagellate, were tested under different abiotic conditions with the goal of enhancing lipid production. Whereas aeration was crucial for biomass production, nitrogen deficiency and temperature were found to be the main abiotic parameters inducing the high-level cellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Net neutral lipid production and especially triacylglycerol (TAG) per cell were higher in microalgae (>200% in Alexandrium minutum, and 30% in Heterosigma akashiwo) under treatment conditions (25°C; 330 μM NaNO(3)) than under control conditions (20°C; 880 μM NaNO(3)). For both algal species, oil production (free fatty acids plus TAG fraction) was also higher under treatment conditions (57 mg L(-1) in A. minutum and 323 mg L(-1) in H. akashiwo). Despite the increased production and accumulation of lipids in microalgae, the different conditions did not significantly change the fatty acids profiles of the species analyzed. These profiles consisted of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in significant proportions. However, during the stationary phase, the concentrations per cell of some PUFAs, especially arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), were higher in treated than in control algae. These results suggest that the adjustment of abiotic parameters is a suitable and one of the cheapest alternatives to obtain sufficient quantities of microalgal biomass, with high oil content and minimal changes in the fatty acid profile of the strains under consideration. PMID:21766212

  3. Improvement of oral bioavailability of lovastatin by using nanostructured lipid carriers

    Zhou J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Zhou,1,2 Daxin Zhou3 1Department of Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Soochow University, 2Department of Medicine, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs have been one of the systems of choice for improving the oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. In the present study, lovastatin (LVT-loaded NLCs (LVT-NLCs were successfully prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization method with high entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and satisfactory particle size distribution. The particles had almost spherical and uniform shapes and were well dispersed with a particle size of <50 nm (23.5±1.6 nm and a low polydispersity index (0.17±0.05 mV. The result of stability showed that the LVT-NLCs dispersion maintained excellent stability without exhibiting any aggregation, precipitation, or phase separation at 4°C for 6 months of storage. The LVT release data from all developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs and NLCs were best fitted to a Ritger–Peppas kinetic model (0.9832 and 0.9783 for NLCs and SLNs, respectively. This indicated that the release of LVT from the SLNs and NLCs was due to a combination of drug diffusion and erosion from the lipid matrix. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results show that LVT-NLCs were better compared to free drug, which could be attributed to an increase in bioavailability. Keywords: nanostructured lipid carriers, lovastatin, in vitro release, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic

  4. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration

    Tichota DM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Deise Michele Tichota,1 Ana Catarina Silva,2,3 José Manuel Sousa Lobo,2 Maria Helena Amaral2 1Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology/Centre of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal Abstract: Given its advantages in skin application (eg, hydration, antiaging, and protection, argan oil could be used in both dermatological and cosmetic formulations. Therefore, the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs using argan oil as a liquid lipid is a promising technique, since the former constitute well-established systems for dermal delivery. The aim of this work was to develop a topical formulation of argan oil NLCs to improve skin hydration. Firstly an NLC dispersion was developed and characterized, and afterward an NLC-based hydrogel was prepared. The in vivo evaluation of the suitability of the prepared formulation for the proposed application was assessed in volunteers, by measuring different skin-surface parameters for 1 month. An argan oil NLC-based hydrogel formulation was successfully prepared and characterized. Moreover, the entrapment of the NLCs in the hydrogel net did not affect their colloidal sizes. Additionally, it was observed that this formulation precipitated an increase in skin hydration of healthy volunteers. Therefore, we concluded that the preparation of NLC systems using argan oil as the liquid lipid is a promising strategy, since a synergistic effect on the skin hydration was obtained (ie, NLC occlusion plus argan oil hydration. Keywords: argan oil, nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC, hydrogels, skin hydration 

  5. Association between Dietary Acid Load and Insulin Resistance: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Moghadam, Sajjad Khalili; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the longitudinal association between dietary acid load and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) in the Tehranian adult population. This longitudinal study was conducted on 925 participants, aged 22~80 years old, in the framework of the third (2006~2008) and fourth (2009~2011) phases of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. At baseline, the dietary intake of subjects was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores were calculated at baseline. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up; IR was defined according to optimal cut-off values. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of IR according to the PRAL and NEAP quartile categories. Mean age and body mass index of the participants were 40.3 years old of 26.4 kg/m2, respectively. Mean PRAL and NEAP scores were −11.2 and 35.6 mEq/d, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the lowest quartile of PRAL and NEAP, the highest quartile was accompanied with increased risk of IR [odds ratio (OR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.32~5.97 and OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.03 ~4.61, respectively]. Our findings suggest that higher acidic dietary acid-base load, defined by higher PRAL and NEAP scores, may be a risk factor for the development of IR and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27390726

  6. γ-radiation induced polymerization of unsaturated liposomes containing unsaturated lipid, cholesterol, and saturated aliphatic acid

    γ-Radiation induced polymerization of mixed-lipid liposomes consist of 1,2-bis[(2E, 4E)-2,4-octadecadienoyl]-sn - glycero-3-phosphocholine(DODPC), diparmitoyl phosphatidyl choline(DPPC), cholesterol(CHol), and stearic acid(SA) was studied from the point of view the kinetics and mean molecular area on the water surface. All the polymerization was carried out at temperature of 4degC. The polymer yield and molecular weight of soluble polymer increased when compared with those of poly-DODPC liposomes. The overall rate of polymerization increased linearly with decreasing the molar fraction of DODPC in the membrane. The mean molecular area on the water surface of mixtures DODPC with DPPC, CHol, and SA gave the ideal line indicating immiscibility. (author)

  7. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  8. Lipid-Encapsulated Echium Oil (Echium plantagineum) Increases the Content of Stearidonic Acid in Plasma Lipid Fractions and Milk Fat of Dairy Cows.

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Lock, Adam L; Kraft, Jana

    2015-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO) on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with 14 day periods. Treatments were a control diet (no supplemental fat), 1.5% dry matter (DM) as EEO and 3.0% DM as EEO. Treatments had no negative effect on animal performance (dry matter intake, milk yield, and fat yield). The milk fat content of total n-3 fatty acids and stearidonic acid (SDA) increased with EEO supplementation (P < 0.001). The proportion of SDA increased in all plasma lipid fractions with EEO supplementation (P < 0.001). Transfer of SDA from EEO into milk fat was 3.4 and 3.2% for the 1.5 and 3% EEO treatments, respectively. In conclusion, EEO increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk fat; however, the apparent transfer efficiency was low. PMID:25904162

  9. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  10. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  11. Improved aqueous extraction of microalgal lipid by combined enzymatic and thermal lysis from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Chen, Lin; Li, Runzhi; Ren, Xiaoli; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    High moisture content in wet algal biomass hinders effective performance of current lipid extraction methods. An improved aqueous extraction method combing thermal and enzymatic lysis was proposed and performed in algal slurry of Nannochloropsis oceanica (96.0% moisture) in this study. In general, cell-wall of N. oceanica was disrupted via thermal lysis and enzymatic lysis and lipid extraction was performed using aqueous surfactant solution. At the optimal conditions, high extraction efficiencies for both lipid (88.3%) and protein (62.4%) were obtained, which were significantly higher than those of traditional hexane extraction and other methods for wet algal biomass. Furthermore, an excessive extraction of polar lipid was found for wet biomass compared with dry biomass. The advantage of this method is to efficiently extract lipids from high moisture content algal biomass and avoid using organic solvent, indicating immense potential for commercial microalgae-based biofuel production. PMID:27132220

  12. Lipid production by Cryptococcus curvatus on hydrolysates derived from corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse following dilute acid pretreatment.

    Liang, Yanna; Jarosz, Kimberly; Wardlow, Ashley T; Zhang, Ji; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) are both pre-processed lignocellulosic materials that can be used to produce liquid biofuels. Pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid at a severity factor of 1.06 and 1.02 released 83.2 and 86.5 % of theoretically available sugars out of corn fiber and SSB, respectively. The resulting hydrolysates derived from pretreatment of SSB at SF of 1.02 supported growth of Cryptococcus curvatus well. In 6 days, the dry cell density reached 10.8 g/l with a lipid content of 40 % (w/w). Hydrolysates from corn fiber, however, did not lead to any significant cell growth even with addition of nutrients. In addition to consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose, C. curvatus also utilized formic acid, acetic acid, 4-hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid for growth. Thus, C. curvatus appeared to be an excellent yeast strain for producing lipids from hydrolysates developed from lignocellulosic feedstocks. PMID:24928546

  13. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  14. Effect of alpha-linolenic acid-rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Karvonen, Henna M; Aro, Antti; Tapola, Niina S; Salminen, Irma; Uusitupa, Matti I j; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2002-10-01

    Camelina sativa-derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. The proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a parallel, double-blind setting. Sixty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 28 to 65 years were randomly assigned after a 2-week pretrial period to 1 of 3 oil groups: camelina oil, olive oil, and rapeseed oil. Subjects consumed daily 30 g (actual intake, approximately 33 mL) of test oils for 6 weeks. In the camelina group, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in fatty acids of serum lipids was significantly higher (P camelina group from those in other groups. During the intervention, the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration decreased significantly by 12.2% in the camelina oil group, 5.4% in the rapeseed oil group, and 7.7% in the olive oil group. In conclusion, camelina oil significantly elevated the proportions of alpha-linolenic acid and its metabolites in serum of mildly or moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Camelina oil's serum cholesterol-lowering effect was comparable to that of rapeseed and olive oils. PMID:12370843

  15. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Lipid Metabolism and Fat Synthesis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    YONEJIMA, Yasunori; Ushida, Kazunari; Mori, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is a major risk factor for the development of obesity-related diseases, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Stimulation of lipolytic activity in adipose tissue or inhibition of fat synthesis is one way to prevent these serious diseases. Lactic acid bacteria have an anti-obesity effect, but the mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the administration of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus gasseri NT) on lipid...

  16. Growth, Fatty Acid, and Lipid Composition of Marine Microalgae Skeletonema costatum Available in Bangladesh Coast: Consideration as Biodiesel Feedstock

    Tania Sharmin; Chowdhury Md. Monirul Hasan; Sheikh Aftabuddin; Md. Atiar Rahman; Mala Khan

    2016-01-01

    Among the various potential sources of renewable energy, biofuels are of most interest. Marine microalgae are the most promising oil sources for making biofuels, which can grow very rapidly and convert solar energy to chemical energy via CO2 fixation. The fatty acid profile of almost all the microalgal oil is suitable for the synthesis of biofuel. In this research, fatty acid and lipid contents of Bangladeshi strains of marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum were performed. For this, the crud...

  17. Methyl substitution of a rexinoid agonist improves potency and reveals site of lipid toxicity.

    Atigadda, Venkatram R; Xia, Gang; Desphande, Anil; Boerma, LeeAnn J; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan; Grubbs, Clinton J; Smith, Craig D; Brouillette, Wayne J; Muccio, Donald D

    2014-06-26

    (2E,4E,6Z,8E)-8-(3',4'-Dihydro-1'(2'H)-naphthalen-1'-ylidene)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid, 9cUAB30, is a selective rexinoid that displays substantial chemopreventive capacity with little toxicity. 4-Methyl-UAB30, an analogue of 9cUAB30, is a potent RXR agonist but caused increased lipid biosynthesis unlike 9cUAB30. To evaluate how methyl substitution influenced potency and lipid biosynthesis, we synthesized four 9cUAB30 homologues with methyl substitutions at the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-position of the tetralone ring. The syntheses and biological evaluations of these new analogues are reported here along with the X-ray crystal structures of each homologue bound to the ligand binding domain of hRXRα. We demonstrate that each homologue of 9cUAB30 is a more potent agonist, but only the 7-methyl-9cUAB30 caused severe hyperlipidemia in rats. On the basis of the X-ray crystal structures of these new rexinoids and bexarotene (Targretin) bound to hRXRα-LBD, we reveal that each rexinoid, which induced hyperlipidemia, had methyl groups that interacted with helix 7 residues of the LBD. PMID:24801499

  18. Elucidation and identification of amino acid containing membrane lipids using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Moore, E.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Villanueva, L.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intact polar lipids (IPLs) are the building blocks of cell membranes, and amino acid containing IPLs havebeen observed to be involved in response to changing environmental conditions in various species of bacteri a. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) has be

  19. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  20. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  1. Phospholipids from herring roe improve plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in healthy, young adults

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Strand, Elin; Gjerde, Jennifer; Bohov, Pavol; Svardal, Asbjørn M.; Diehl, Bernd W. K.; Innis, Sheila M.; Berger, Alvin; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herring roe is an underutilized source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human consumption with high phospholipid (PL) content. Studies have shown that PL may improve bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs. Arctic Nutrition’s herring roe product MOPL™30 is a PL: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil mixture, with a DHA:eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio of about 3:1, which is also rich in choline. In this pilot study, we determined if MOPL30 could favorably affect plasma lipi...

  2. Phospholipids from herring roe improve plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in healthy, young adults

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Strand, Elin; Gjerde, Jennifer; Bohov, Pavol; Svardal, Asbjørn; Diehl, Bernd W. K.; Innis, Sheila M.; Berger, Alvin; Berge, Rolf K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herring roe is an underutilized source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human consumption with high phospholipid (PL) content. Studies have shown that PL may improve bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs. Arctic Nutrition’s herring roe product MOPL™30 is a PL: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil mixture, with a DHA:eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio of about 3:1, which is also rich in choline. In this pilot study, we determined if MOPL30 could favorably affect...

  3. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in whole grain of rye, wheat and rice: effects on linoleic and linolenic acid

    Changes in the fatty acid composition in lipids after γ-irradiation of whole grain of wheat, rye and rice were examined. The radiosensitivity of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) was studied up to a dose of 63 kGy in seeds with different water content and after a post-irradiation storage time of 2 months. At doses in the range recommended for grain disinfestation, i.e. 0.1-1.0 kGy, no detectable degradation of 18:2 and 18:3 was found, but at the highest dose applied, 63 kGy, a degradation in the range from a few percent up to 40% was observed. Under extreme conditions, i.e. pre- and post-irradiation treatment with oxygen, or when the flour prepared from the seeds was mixed with water and heated before the extraction of the lipids, a more pronounced degradation of the unsaturated fatty acids was noticed. Lipid peroxidation induced by γ-irradiation was estimated using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. High yields of the TBA-reactive material were formed in the three types of grain investigated corresponding to G-values in the range of 12-18. The influence on peroxidation yields of the water content of the seeds was studied in wheat. The origin of the TBA-reactive material formed in the seeds is not yet known, but could only to a minor extent be due to fatty acid peroxidation. (author)

  4. Improvement of lipid content in green algae for subsequent use in bio-fuel production

    Full text: Heterotrophic cultivation technique of microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica, in shake flask under different medium composition and culture conditions were developed aimed at improvement of the cell composition and biomass production for subsequent used in bio diesel synthesis. Heterotrophic microalgae cell was developed from the adaptation of the photo trophic cell by photo periodic, manipulation of medium and culture conditions. The performance of heterotrophic cultivation of T. suecica was substantially improved in term of growth rate, final cell concentration, specific growth rate and productivity as well as cell composition especially totals lipid concentration. The cultivation time to reach maximum cell concentration was decreased from 408 hr in photoautotrophic to 142 hr in heterotrophic cultivation. The final cell concentration (24.3 g/L) was increased more than three times in heterotrophic cultivation as compared to that obtained in photoautotrophic cultivation (8.4 g/L). In addition, the maximum productivity (0.17 g/L.h-1) for heterotrophic cultivation was nine times higher than photoautotrophic cultivation (0.02 g/L.h-1). Moreover the among of protein decreased from 47.7 percentage of dry cell weight in photoautotrophic to 10.5 percent in heterotrophic cells. On the other side the total lipid (53.8) and carbohydrate (14.8) percentage of dry cell weight in heterotrophic cells increased more than two times compare with photoautotrophic cells (24.5 and 7.4 respectively) that is very important from bio fuel production viewpoint. (author)

  5. Long-term quercetin supplementation reduces lipid peroxidation but does not improve performance in endurance runners

    Scholten SD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Shane D Scholten,1 Igor N Sergeev21Department of Natural Sciences, University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, SD, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAPurpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic quercetin supplementation on endurance performance and antioxidant status in long distance runners. We hypothesized that an improved antioxidant status can be associated with enhanced performance.Methods: During 6 weeks of supplementation utilizing a double blind, randomized design, young male subjects received quercetin (1000 mg/day or placebo while maintaining their current training schedules.Results: Following the end of the supplementation period, there was a significant time × supplement interaction for serum malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. There were no significant pre- to post-supplement changes in parameter values employed for measuring total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and protein oxidation (protein carbonyl in serum. There were also no significant pre- to post-supplement differences in VO2peak, running economy, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the 10 km time trial.Conclusion: The findings obtained indicate that there is a relationship between quercetin supplementation and the statistically significant decreasing trend in MDA levels following 6 weeks of supplementation and training. This evidence suggests that quercetin can reduce oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation. However, performance improvements were not significant (as measured by VO2peak, running economy, heart rate, and RPE.Keywords: quercetin, antioxidant capacity, oxygen consumption, running economy, exercise performance

  6. Droplet immobilization within a polymeric organogel improves lipid bilayer durability and portability.

    Venkatesan, Guru A; Sarles, Stephen A

    2016-05-24

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) is a promising technique for assembling lipid membrane-based materials and devices using water droplets in oil, but it has largely been limited to laboratory environments due to its liquid construction. With a vision to transform this lab-based technique into a more-durable embodiment, we investigate the use of a polymer-based organogel to encapsulate DIBs within a more-solid material matrix to improve their handling and portability. Specifically, a temperature-sensitive organogel formed from hexadecane and poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] (SEBS) triblock copolymer is used to replace the liquid solvent that surrounds the lipid-coated droplets to establish a novel liquid-in-gel DIB system. Through specific capacitance measurements and single-channel recordings of the pore forming peptide alamethicin, we verify that the structural and functional membrane properties are retained when DIBs are assembled within SEBS organogel. In addition, we demonstrate that organogel encapsulation offers improved handling of droplets and yields DIBs with a near 3× higher bilayer durability, as quantified by the lateral acceleration required to rupture the membrane, compared to liquid-in-liquid DIBs in oil. This encapsulated DIB system provides a barrier against contamination from the environment and offers a new material platform for supporting multilayered DIB-based devices as well as other digital microfluidic systems that feature water droplets in oil. PMID:27164314

  7. Tragopogon porrifolius improves serum lipid profile and increases short-term satiety in rats.

    Zeeni, Nadine; Daher, Costantine F; Saab, Lea; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Tragopogon porrifolius (white salsify) is an edible plant commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. This study investigates the effect of the aqueous extract of the aerial part of T. porrifolius on lipemia and appetite regulation using a rat model. Food intake, abdominal fat percentage, blood lipid profile, liver weight and liver enzymes were assessed following 4 weeks of extract intake via drinking water (50, 100, or 250 mg/kg body weight) in standard high-carbohydrate and high-fat dietary conditions. In a separate study, the short term effect of a preload of T. porrifolius extract on food intake was evaluated. Results showed that consumption of the plant extract for a period of four weeks resulted in a marked improvement of the lipid profile (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol). Body weight, food intake and intra-abdominal fat were also lower in animals given the plant extract (100 and 250 mg/kg). In addition, T. porrifolius extract preload produced a dose dependent decrease in food intake observed over 24h. The intake of T. porrifolius aqueous extract therefore improved lipemia and increased satiety in rats with no visible adverse effects. PMID:24099703

  8. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS MINYAK IKAN DENGAN ASAM LAURAT UNTUK SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR [Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

    Edy Subroto1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid (SL containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol. Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h. In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h. Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50C, triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.

  9. Predicted Changes in Fatty Acid Intakes, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Replacement of trans Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oil with Application-Appropriate Alternatives

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)—containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  10. Fatty acid-inducible ANGPTL4 governs lipid metabolic response to exercise

    Catoire, Milène; Alex, Sheril; Paraskevopulos, Nicolas;

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity increases energy metabolism in exercising muscle. Whether acute exercise elicits metabolic changes in nonexercising muscles remains unclear. We show that one of the few genes that is more highly induced in nonexercising muscle than in exercising human muscle during acute exercis...... use of plasma triglycerides as fuel for active muscles. Our data suggest that nonexercising muscle and the local regulation of ANGPTL4 via AMPK and free fatty acids have key roles in governing lipid homeostasis during exercise.......Physical activity increases energy metabolism in exercising muscle. Whether acute exercise elicits metabolic changes in nonexercising muscles remains unclear. We show that one of the few genes that is more highly induced in nonexercising muscle than in exercising human muscle during acute exercise......-activated receptor-δ, presumably leading to reduced local uptake of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids and their sparing for use by exercising muscle. In contrast, the induction of ANGPTL4 in exercising muscle likely is counteracted via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated down-regulation, promoting the...

  11. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater with waste glycerol: Strategies for improving nutrients removal and enhancing lipid production.

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-05-01

    To improve nutrients removal from wastewater and enhance lipid production, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater with waste glycerol generated from biodiesel production using scum derived oil as feedstock was studied. The results showed that nutrients removal was improved and lipid production of C. vulgaris was enhanced with the addition of waste glycerol into wastewater to balance its C/N ratio. The optimal concentration of the pretreated glycerol for C. vulgaris was 10gL(-1) with biomass concentration of 2.92gL(-1), lipid productivity of 163mgL(-1)d(-1), and the removal of 100% ammonia and 95% of total nitrogen. Alkaline conditions prompted cell growth and lipid accumulation of C. vulgaris while stimulating nutrients removal. The application of the integration process can lower both wastewater treatment and biofuel feedstock costs. PMID:26894565

  12. Lipid transmitter signaling as a new target for treatment of cocaine addiction: new roles for acylethanolamides and lysophosphatidic acid.

    Orio, Laura; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, María; Rivera, Patricia; Calado, Montserrat; Suárez, Juan; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes the roles of lipid transmitters, especially those derived from the cleavage of membrane phospholipids, in cocaine-associated behaviors. These lipid signals are important modulators of information processing in the brain, affecting transmitter release, neural plasticity, synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, and cellular energetics. This broad range of actions makes them suitable targets for pharmaceutical development of cocaine addiction therapies because they participate in the main cellular processes underlying the neuroadaptations associated with chronic use of this psychostimulant. The main lipid transmitters reviewed here include a) acylethanolamides and acylglycerols acting on cannabinoid receptors, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol; b) acylethanolamides that do not act on cannabinoid receptors, such as oleoylethanolamide; c) eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, including prostaglandins; and d) lysophosphatidic acid, focusing on the role of its LPA-1 receptor. Direct experimental evidence for the significance of these lipids in cocaine-related behaviors is presented and discussed. Additionally, the roles for both their biosynthesis and degradation pathways, as well as the participation of their receptors, are examined. Overall, lipid transmitter signaling can offer new targets for the development of therapies for cocaine addiction. PMID:23574441

  13. Status of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

    Surapaneni Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The exact pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in osteoarthritis patients is still not clear. To add a new insight to the question, changes in the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products (MDA, levels of glutathione (GSH, ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (nonenzymatic antioxidant parameters; and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione - S - transferase (GST were measured in patients with osteoarthritis. Aim: This work was undertaken to assess oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with osteoarthritis. Settings and design: The study was conducted in 20 patients and compared to controls. Levels of erythrocyte MDA, GSH, ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E; and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in patients with osteoarthritis. materials and Methods: Erythrocyte GSH was measured by the method of Beutler et al. Ascorbic acid levels were measured by the method of Tietz. Plasma vitamin E levels were measured by the method of Baker et al. MDA was determined as the measure of thio barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. SOD activity in the hemolysate was measured by the method of Misra and Fridovich. Activity of catalase was measured by the method of Beers and Sizer. GPX activity was measured as described by Paglia and Valentine in erythrocytes, and Plasma GST activity was measured as described by Warholm et al. These parameters were measured in 20 patients and compared to controls. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis between group 1 (controls and group 2 (patients was performed by the student′s t - test using the stat -view package. Results: It was observed that there was a significant increase in erythrocyte MDA levels; SOD, GPX and plasma GST activities; and a significant decrease in erythrocyte GSH, ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E levels and catalase activity in patients with osteoarthritis when compared to

  14. Improved Coarse-Grained Modeling of Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol trafficking, which is an essential function in mammalian cells, is intimately connected to molecular-scale interactions through cholesterol modulation of membrane structure and dynamics and interaction with membrane receptors. Since these effects of cholesterol occur on micro- to millisecond time scales, it is essential to develop accurate coarse-grained simulation models that can reach these time scales. Cholesterol has been shown experimentally to thicken the membrane and increase phospholipid tail order between 0 and 40% cholesterol, above which these effects plateau or slightly decrease. Here, we showed that the published MARTINI coarse-grained force-field for phospholipid (POPC) and cholesterol fails to capture these effects. Using reference atomistic simulations, we systematically modified POPC and cholesterol bonded parameters in MARTINI to improve its performance. We showed that the corrections to pseudobond angles between glycerol and the lipid tails and around the oleoyl double bond particle (the “angle-corrected model”) slightly improves the agreement of MARTINI with experimentally measured thermal, elastic, and dynamic properties of POPC membranes. The angle-corrected model improves prediction of the thickening and ordering effects up to 40% cholesterol but overestimates these effects at higher cholesterol concentration. In accordance with prior work that showed the cholesterol rough face methyl groups are important for limiting cholesterol self-association, we revised the coarse-grained representation of these methyl groups to better match cholesterol-cholesterol radial distribution functions from atomistic simulations. In addition, by using a finer-grained representation of the branched cholesterol tail than MARTINI, we improved predictions of lipid tail order and bilayer thickness across a wide range of concentrations. Finally, transferability testing shows that a model incorporating our revised parameters into DOPC outperforms other

  15. Imaging heterogeneity of membrane and storage lipids in transgenic Camelina sativa seeds with altered fatty acid profiles.

    Horn, Patrick J; Silva, Jillian E; Anderson, Danielle; Fuchs, Johannes; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Nazarenus, Tara J; Shulaev, Vladimir; Cahoon, Edgar B; Chapman, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Engineering compositional changes in oilseeds is typically accomplished by introducing new enzymatic step(s) and/or by blocking or enhancing an existing enzymatic step(s) in a seed-specific manner. However, in practice, the amounts of lipid species that accumulate in seeds are often different from what one would predict from enzyme expression levels, and these incongruences may be rooted in an incomplete understanding of the regulation of seed lipid metabolism at the cellular/tissue level. Here we show by mass spectrometry imaging approaches that triacylglycerols and their phospholipid precursors are distributed differently within cotyledons and the hypocotyl/radicle axis in embryos of the oilseed crop Camelina sativa, indicating tissue-specific heterogeneity in triacylglycerol metabolism. Phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols enriched in linoleic acid (C18:2) were preferentially localized to the axis tissues, whereas lipid classes enriched in gadoleic acid (C20:1) were preferentially localized to the cotyledons. Manipulation of seed lipid compositions by heterologous over-expression of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, or by suppression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases, resulted in new overall seed storage lipid compositions with altered patterns of distribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol in transgenic embryos. Our results reveal previously unknown differences in acyl lipid distribution in Camelina embryos, and suggest that this spatial heterogeneity may or may not be able to be changed effectively in transgenic seeds depending upon the targeted enzyme(s)/pathway(s). Further, these studies point to the importance of resolving the location of metabolites in addition to their quantities within plant tissues. PMID:23808562

  16. Orlistat in polycystic ovarian syndrome reduces weight with improvement in lipid profile and pregnancy rates

    Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of exercise, metformin, and orlistat on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, endocrine parameters, and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women were compared. AIM: The aim was to study the efficacy of orlistat compared with metformin and exercise in PCOS. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. Methods: A total of 90 eligible PCOS women were randomly assigned to receive either of the two drugs (orlistat or metformin in combination with lifestyle interventions or as controls where they received lifestyle interventions alone. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline and 4 weekly intervals for 3 months. Androgen levels, insulin resistance, ovulation and conception rates and lipid profile were also assessed at the end of study. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0. Results: The levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance were comparable in three treatment groups. Mean total testosterone, serum hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in all arms were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. However, orlistat and metformin were more effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. However, side-effects were less with orlistat. Ovulation rate was 33.3%, 23.35% with orlistat and metformin group respectively, but were not statistically significant. In orlistat group, significant improvement was observed in lipid profile at the end of 3 months. Conception rates were 40% and 16.7% and 3.3% in orlistat, metformin group and control group respectively (P - 0.003. Weight loss was found to be the best predictor of ovulation with sensitivity with good sensitivity. Conclusion: Orlistat is as effective as metformin in reducing weight and achieves similar ovulation rates in obese PCOS patients. However, orlistat has minimal side

  17. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in primary nephrotic syndrome: effects on plasma lipids and coagulopathy.

    Hall, A V; Parbtani, A; Clark, W F; Spanner, E; Huff, M W; Philbrick, D J; Holub, B J

    1992-12-01

    The effect of fish oil dietary supplementation on the dyslipidemia and coagulopathy of seven patients with nephrotic syndrome and hypoalbuminemia due to primary kidney disease was studied. Plasma lipids, platelet aggregation studies, simplate bleeding time, and fibrinogen levels were determined before and after 6 wk of treatment with fish oil (15 g/day of MaxEPA; 2.7 g of eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and 1.8 g of docosahexenoic acid. Urea kinetics were determined from urine-urea concentration, urinary proteina, and urine volume. A 3-day dietary intake record was obtained from each patient before and after 6 wk of fish oil supplementation. There was no significant dietary change in protein, fat, or carbohydrate intake over the time period of the study. At study end, total triglycerides decreased from 2.98 +/- 1.31 to 2.18 +/- 1.14 mmol/L (P = 0.002), and very low-density lipoprotein-triglycerides decreased from 2.35 +/- 1.34 to 1.28 +/- 1.07 mmol/L (P = 0.01). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased from 5.18 +/- 1.74 to 7.35 +/- 2.83 mmol/L (P = 0.005). No significant changes occurred in bleeding time, platelet count, hematocrit, red blood cell flexibility, or whole blood viscosity. Platelet aggregation responses to collagen and arachidonic acid were consistently reduced after treatment, but there was no change in platelet response to ADP. The platelet membrane phospolipids showed a significantly increased incorporation of EPA after the fish oil diet (P = 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1477328

  18. [Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids during embryonic development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L].

    Murzina, S A; Nefedova, Z A; Ripatti, P O; Nemova, N N; Markova, L V

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of fatty acid composition of total lipids was studied for freshwater salmon Salmo salar L. during its embryonic development from blastula (3 hours) up to hatching (108 days) as well as in unfertilized eggs. Stable amount of total and some saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of total lipids was observed during embryonic development. Considerable changes in fatty acid composition were observed at the stage of prelarvae hatching, i.e., significant decrease of (n-6) PUFA (18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6)) and (n-3) PUFA and increase of total and some saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was registered. Change in saturation ratio of membrane lipids justifies the presence of the biochemical mechanism forwarded on regulation of cell membrane enzymes in accordance with the changes of internal physiological processes taking place in the organism and fluctuations of external environmental conditions or the preparation period (as reproduction). Data on peculiarities of transformation and utilization of fatty acids during salmon embryonic development may be used for understanding of their functional role in the developing organism as well as for assessing the quality of the caviar. PMID:22650081

  19. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  20. Effect of the amino acid composition of cyclic peptides on their self-assembly in lipid bilayers.

    Danial, Maarten; Perrier, Sébastien; Jolliffe, Katrina A

    2015-02-28

    The effect of amino acid composition on the formation of transmembrane channels in lipid bilayers upon self-assembly of alt-(L,D)-α-cyclic octapeptides has been investigated. Cyclic peptides comprising D-leucine, alternating with different combinations of L-azidolysine, L-lysine(Alloc), L-lysine and L-tryptophan were synthesized and the size of pores formed via self-assembly of these molecules in lipid bilayers was elucidated using large unilamellar vesicle fluorescence assays and dynamic light scattering. Pore formation was examined in large unilamellar vesicles made up of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine or Escherichia coli total lipid extract. From these analyses, we have established that cyclic peptides with charged side chains form large pores while those with neutral side chains form unimeric pores. Furthermore, the cyclic peptides that consist of non-symmetric amino acid configurations possess a higher membrane activity than the cyclic peptides with a symmetric amino acid configuration. In addition, we have found that peptide amphiphilicity plays a vital role in selective partitioning between bilayers that consist of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and those comprised of E. coli total lipid extract. These results suggest that selective transbilayer channel formation via self-assembly may be a viable alternative for many applications that currently use more expensive, multistep synthesis methods. PMID:25566760

  1. Influence of abscisic acid on growth, biomass and lipid yield of Scenedesmus quadricauda under nitrogen starved condition.

    Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan; Arumugam, Muthu

    2016-08-01

    Scenedesmus quadricauda, accumulated more lipid but with a drastic reduction in biomass yield during nitrogen starvation. Abscisic acid (ABA) being a stress responsible hormone, its effect on growth and biomass with sustainable lipid yield during nitrogen depletion was studied. The result revealed that the ABA level shoots up at 24h (27.21pmol/L) during the onset of nitrogen starvation followed by a sharp decline. The external supplemented ABA showed a positive effect on growth pattern (38×10(6)cells/ml) at a lower concentration. The dry biomass yield is also increasing up to 2.1 fold compared to nitrogen deficient S. quadricauda. The lipid content sustains in 1 and 2μM concentration of ABA under nitrogen-deficient condition. The fatty acid composition of ABA treated S. quadricauda cultures with respect to nitrogen-starved cells showed 11.17% increment in saturated fatty acid content, the desired lipid composition for biofuel application. PMID:26949054

  2. Caveolin-1 Is Necessary for Hepatic Oxidative Lipid Metabolism: Evidence for Crosstalk between Caveolin-1 and Bile Acid Signaling

    Manuel A. Fernández-Rojo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caveolae and caveolin-1 (CAV1 have been linked to several cellular functions. However, a model explaining their roles in mammalian tissues in vivo is lacking. Unbiased expression profiling in several tissues and cell types identified lipid metabolism as the main target affected by CAV1 deficiency. CAV1−/− mice exhibited impaired hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα-dependent oxidative fatty acid metabolism and ketogenesis. Similar results were recapitulated in CAV1-deficient AML12 hepatocytes, suggesting at least a partial cell-autonomous role of hepatocyte CAV1 in metabolic adaptation to fasting. Finally, our experiments suggest that the hepatic phenotypes observed in CAV1−/− mice involve impaired PPARα ligand signaling and attenuated bile acid and FXRα signaling. These results demonstrate the significance of CAV1 in (1 hepatic lipid homeostasis and (2 nuclear hormone receptor (PPARα, FXRα, and SHP and bile acid signaling.

  3. Comparative study of tissue deposition of omega-3 fatty acids from polar-lipid rich oil of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata with krill oil in rats.

    Kagan, Michael L; Levy, Aharon; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) exert health benefits which are dependent upon their incorporation into blood, cells and tissues. Plasma and tissue deposition of LC n-3 PUFA from oils extracted from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata and from krill were compared in rats. The algal oil provides eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) partly conjugated (15%) to phospholipids and glycolipids but no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whereas krill oil provides both EPA and DHA conjugated in part (40%) to phospholipids. Rats fed a standard diet received either krill oil or polar-lipid rich algal oil by gavage daily for 7 days (5 ml oil per kg body weight each day). Fatty acid concentrations were analyzed in plasma, brain and liver, and two adipose depots since these represent transport, functional and storage pools of fatty acids, respectively. When measuring total LC n-3 PUFA (sum of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and DHA), there was no statistically significant difference between the algal oil and krill oil for plasma, brain, liver and gonadal adipose tissue. Concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA were higher in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue from the algal oil group. Tissue uptake of LC n-3 PUFA from an algal oil containing 15% polar lipids (glycolipids and phospholipids) was found to be equivalent to krill oil containing 40% phospholipids. This may be due to glycolipids forming smaller micelles during ingestive hydrolysis than phospholipids. Ingestion of fatty acids with glycolipids may improve bioavailability, but this needs to be further explored. PMID:25360534

  4. The Secreted Enzyme PM20D1 Regulates Lipidated Amino Acid Uncouplers of Mitochondria.

    Long, Jonathan Z; Svensson, Katrin J; Bateman, Leslie A; Lin, Hua; Kamenecka, Theodore; Lokurkar, Isha A; Lou, Jesse; Rao, Rajesh R; Chang, Mi Ra; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P; Griffin, Patrick R; Nomura, Daniel K; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-07-14

    Brown and beige adipocytes are specialized cells that express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and dissipate chemical energy as heat. These cells likely possess alternative UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanisms. Here, we identify a secreted enzyme, peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1), that is enriched in UCP1(+) versus UCP1(-) adipocytes. We demonstrate that PM20D1 is a bidirectional enzyme in vitro, catalyzing both the condensation of fatty acids and amino acids to generate N-acyl amino acids and also the reverse hydrolytic reaction. N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. Mice with increased circulating PM20D1 have augmented respiration and increased N-acyl amino acids in blood. Lastly, administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure. These data identify an enzymatic node and a family of metabolites that regulate energy homeostasis. This pathway might be useful for treating obesity and associated disorders. PMID:27374330

  5. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  6. La sustitución eucalórica de triglicéridos de cadena larga por triglicéridos de cadena media mejora la composición corporal y el perfil lipídico en un paciente con lipodistrofia asociada al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Eucaloric substitution of medium chain triglycerides for dietary long chain fatty acids improves body composition and lipid profile in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy

    C. Vázquez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La lipodistrofia asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH es una patología frecuente, caracterizada por una pérdida de tejido adiposo en las extremidades, región glútea y cara, junto con un depósito excesivo del mismo en el cuello y abdomen. La coexistencia de dislipemia y diabetes mellitus en la lipodistrofia asociada al VIH es también frecuente, y aumenta el riesgo cardiovascular de los pacientes que la padecen. Aunque hay tratamientos disponibles para las alteraciones metabólicas asociadas, hasta la fecha no existen terapias con un claro beneficio demostrado para la lipodistrofia. Caso clínico: Un paciente de 42 años con lipodistrofia asociada al VIH fue inicialmente tratado con dieta hipocalórica (Background: Lipodystrophy is a frequent disorder among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, characterized by a loss of adipose tissue from the extremities, gluteal region and face, with excess fat in the neck and abdominal region. Metabolic abnormalities such as hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus frequently coexist, posing these patients to an increased cardiovascular risk. Drug therapy may improve some of these metabolic disturbances, but to date there are no treatments for lipodystrophy with proven benefit. Case report: A 42 year old man with HIV lipodystrophy was started on a standard low caloric diet with <30% of total fat and < 10% of saturated fat, together with rosiglitazone 8 mg daily. After five months of treatment, given that lipodystrophic features and dyslipidaemia were still present in our patient, we tried to further improve therapeutic results by eucaloric substitution of medium chain triglycerides for dietary long chain fatty acids. Three months later, a dramatic change in body composition was shown with an increase in lean mass and a decrease in fat mass, together with an improvement in lipid profile. Conclusion: Eucaloric substitution of medium chain

  7. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect. PMID:25500170

  8. Effects of flocculants on lipid extraction and fatty acid composition of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interference of anionic and cationic flocculants in the lipid extraction and fatty acid profiles of two species of marine microalgae: Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii. Cells were grown in batch cultures (f/2 medium, salinity of 28, temperature of 20 oC, light intensity of 40 μmol photons m-2 s-1 and 12/12 h L/D photoperiod) and concentrated using sodium hydroxide (control), sodium hydroxide and the anionic polyacrylamide flocculant Magnafloc® LT-25 (APF treatment) and sodium hydroxide plus the cationic polyacrylamide flocculant Flopam® (CPF treatment). There were no statistically significant differences among treatments with respect to lipid extraction for both species. However, N. oculata which presented higher percentages of C16:0, C16:1 and C20:5 fatty acids showed an increase of C14:0 and a decrease of C20:5 with the use of anionic flocculant. Additionally, T. weissflogii which had high percentages of C16:0, C16:1, C16:3 and C20:5, showed a decrease of C18:0 and C18:1n9c when both flocculants were used and a small decrease of C16:0 in the APF treatment. The results indicate that the choice of flocculant should be based on the level of saturation desirable, i.e., if the goal is to produce more stable biodiesel, with low percentage unsaturated fatty acids, then anionic flocculants should be used. On the other hand, if the aim is to produce unsaturated fatty acids for commercial uses in the pharmacy or food industries, then anionic polymers should be avoided. -- Highlights: → Interference of flocculants on biochemical of two marine microalgae. → Lipids extraction and fatty acids profile from Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii. → No differences in the lipids but some differences on fatty acids profile.

  9. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  10. Soy Germ Protein With or Without-Zn Improve Plasma Lipid Profile in Metabolic Syndrome Women

    SIWI PRAMATAMA MARS WIJAYANTI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of soy germ protein on lipid profile of metabolic syndrome (MetS patients. Respondents were 30 women with criteria, i.e. blood glucose level > normal, body mass index > 25 kg/m2, hypertriglyceridemia, low cholesterol-HDL level, 40-65 years old, living in Purwokerto, and signed the informed consent. The project was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Faculty from Gadjah Mada University-Yogyakarta. Respondents were divided into three randomly chosen groups consisting of ten women each. The first, second, and third groups were treated, respectively, with milk enriched soy germ protein plus Zn, milk enriched soy germ protein (without Zn, and placebo for two months. Blood samples were taken at baseline, one and two months after observation. Two months after observation the groups consuming milk enriched with soy germ protein, both with or without Zn, had their level of cholesterol-total decrease from 215.8 to 180.2 mg/dl (P = 0.03, triglyceride from 240.2 to 162.5 mg/dl (P = 0.02, and LDL from 154.01 to 93.85 mg/dl (P = 0.03. In contrast, HDL increased from 38.91 to 49.49 mg/dl (P = 0.0008. In conclusion, soy germ protein can improve lipid profile, thus it can inhibit atherosclerosis incident.

  11. Nanostructured lipid carrier-loaded hyaluronic acid microneedles for controlled dermal delivery of a lipophilic molecule

    Lee SG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sang Gon Lee,1,* Jae Han Jeong,1,* Kyung Min Lee,1 Kyu Ho Jeong,1 Huisuk Yang,2 Miroo Kim,2 Hyungil Jung,2 Sangkil Lee,3 Young Wook Choi11College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; 3College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs were employed to formulate a lipophilic drug into hydrophilic polymeric microneedles (MNs. Hyaluronic acid (HA was selected as a hydrophilic and bioerodible polymer to fabricate MNs, and nile red (NR was used as a model lipophilic molecule. NR-loaded NLCs were consolidated into the HA-based MNs to prepare NLC-loaded MNs (NLC-MNs. A dispersion of NLCs was prepared by high-pressure homogenization after dissolving NR in Labrafil and mixing with melted Compritol, resulting in 268 nm NLCs with a polydispersity index of 0.273. The NLC dispersion showed a controlled release of NR over 24 hours, following Hixson–Crowell's cube root law. After mixing the NLC dispersion with the HA solution, the drawing lithography method was used to fabricate NLC-MNs. The length, base diameter, and tip diameter of the NLC-MNs were approximately 350, 380, and 30 µm, respectively. Fluorescence microscopic imaging of the NLC-MNs helped confirm that the NR-loaded NLCs were distributed evenly throughout the MNs. In a skin permeation study performed using a Franz diffusion cell with minipig dorsal skin, approximately 70% of NR was localized in the skin after 24-hour application of NLC-MNs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (z-series of the skin at different depths showed strong fluorescence intensity in the epidermal layer, which appeared to spread out radially with the passage of time. This study indicated that incorporation of drug-loaded NLCs into MNs could represent a promising strategy for controlled dermal delivery of lipophilic drugs

  12. Characterization of fatty acids, bioactive lipids, and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells seed oil

    Hassanien, M. F.R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells (Campanula medium seed oil. C. medium seeds contained 9.2% extractable oil. The lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterol and tocopherol composition of C. medium seed oil were determined. The amount of neutral lipids in the oil was the highest, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. Linoleic and oleic were the main fatty acids. C. medium oil is characterized by high levels of phytosterols and β-sitosterol was the main compound. β-Tocopherol constituted 42.5% of the total tocopherol content followed by γ-tocopherol. The radical scavenging activity (RSA toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and galvinoxyl radicals of C. medium oil were higher than those of extra virgin olive oil. The diverse potential uses of C. medium oil may make this plant industrially important.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la composición química y la actividad de captación de radicales de aceites de semillas de campanillas de Canterbury (Campanula medium. Las semillas de C. medium contenían 9,2 % de aceite extraíble. Se determinó la composición de las diferentes clases de lípidos, ácidos grasos, fitoesteroles y tocoferoles. La cantidad de lípidos neutros en el aceite fue mayoritario, seguido de glicolípidos y fosfolípidos. Linoleico y oleico fueron los ácidos grasos principales. El aceite de C. medium se caracteriza por altos niveles de fitoesteroles y β-sitosterol fue el compuesto principal. β-tocoferol constituía 42,5 % del contenido total de tocoferol seguido de γ-tocoferol. La actividad de captación de radicales (RSA a 1,1-difenil-2- picrilhidrazil (DPPH y radicales galvinoxil de C. medium fueron superiores a las de aceite de oliva virgen extra. Los diversos usos potenciales de los aceites de C. medium pueden hacer que esta planta pueda ser importante industrialmente.

  13. Cardiac lipid content is unresponsive to a physical activity training intervention in type 2 diabetic patients, despite improved ejection fraction

    Leiner Tim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cardiac lipid content has been associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. We recently showed that cardiac lipid content is reduced after 12 weeks of physical activity training in healthy overweight subjects. The beneficial effect of exercise training on cardiovascular risk is well established and the decrease in cardiac lipid content with exercise training in healthy overweight subjects was accompanied by improved ejection fraction. It is yet unclear whether diabetic patients respond similarly to physical activity training and whether a lowered lipid content in the heart is necessary for improvements in cardiac function. Here, we investigated whether exercise training is able to lower cardiac lipid content and improve cardiac function in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Eleven overweight-to-obese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age: 58.4 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 29.9 ± 0.01 kg/m2 followed a 12-week training program (combination endurance/strength training, three sessions/week. Before and after training, maximal whole body oxygen uptake (VO2max and insulin sensitivity (by hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp was determined. Systolic function was determined under resting conditions by CINE-MRI and cardiac lipid content in the septum of the heart by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Results VO2max increased (from 27.1 ± 1.5 to 30.1 ± 1.6 ml/min/kg, p = 0.001 and insulin sensitivity improved upon training (insulin stimulated glucose disposal (delta Rd of glucose improved from 5.8 ± 1.9 to 10.3 ± 2.0 μmol/kg/min, p = 0.02. Left-ventricular ejection fraction improved after training (from 50.5 ± 2.0 to 55.6 ± 1.5%, p = 0.01 as well as cardiac index and cardiac output. Unexpectedly, cardiac lipid content in the septum remained unchanged (from 0.80 ± 0.22% to 0.95 ± 0.21%, p = 0.15. Conclusions Twelve weeks of progressive endurance/strength training was effective in improving VO2max, insulin sensitivity

  14. Dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules improve the photostability and reduce the in vitro irritation potential of this drug

    Savian, Ana L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Daiane [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Weber, Julia; Ribeiro, Roseane F. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana H. [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila R.; Adams, Andréa I.H. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Andrade, Diego F. de; Beck, Ruy C.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000 (Brazil); and others

    2015-01-01

    Dithranol is a very effective drug for the topical treatment of psoriasis. However, it has some adverse effects such as irritation and stain in the skin that make its application and patient adherence to treatment difficult. The aims of this work were to prepare and characterize dithranol-loaded nanocapsules as well as to evaluate the photostability and the irritation potential of these nanocarriers. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol (0.5 mg/mL) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer. EDTA (0.05%) or ascorbic acid (0.02%) was used as antioxidants. After preparation, dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules showed satisfactory characteristics: drug content close to the theoretical concentration, encapsulation efficiency of about 100%, nanometric mean size (230–250 nm), polydispersity index below 0.25, negative zeta potential, and pH values from 4.3 to 5.6. In the photodegradation study against UVA light, we observed a higher stability of the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules comparing to the solution containing the free drug (half-life times around 4 and 1 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing EDTA, respectively; half-life times around 17 and 7 h for the dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and free drug solution containing ascorbic acid, respectively). Irritation test by HET-CAM method was conducted to evaluate the safety of the formulations. From the results it was found that the nanoencapsulation of the drug decreased its toxicity compared to the effects observed for the free drug. - Highlights: • Strategy to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules containing dithranol • Evaluation of the nanoencapsulation effect on the photostability and irritation • Evaluation of the in vitro release of dithranol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules.

  15. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  16. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    Dänicke Sven; Kuhnt Katrin; Keller Sylvia; Lochner Alfred; Degen Christian; Jahreis Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA) solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adeno...

  17. Convenient synthesis and application of versatile nucleic acid lipid membrane anchors in the assembly and fusion of liposomes

    Ries, Oliver; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Vogel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic moieties like lipid membrane anchors are highly demanded modifications for nucleic acid oligomers. Membrane-anchor modified oligonucleotides are applicable in biomedicine leading to new delivery strategies as well as in biophysical investigations towards assembly and fusion of liposomes...... or the construction of DNA origami structures. We herein present the synthesis and applications of versatile lipid membrane anchor building blocks suitable for solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis. These are readily synthesized in bulk in five to seven steps from commercially available precursors...... and can be incorporated at any position within an oligonucleotide without significantly altering duplex stability and structure as proven by thermal denaturation experiments and circular dichroism. Furthermore, applicability could be demonstrated by assembly and fusion of liposomes mediated by lipid...

  18. The interaction of equine lysozyme:oleic acid complexes with lipid membranes suggests a cargo off-loading mechanism

    Nielsen, Søren Bang; Wilhelm, Kristina; Vad, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    with oleic acids (ELOAs) were shown to possess tinctorial and morphological properties, similar to amyloidal aggregates, and to be cytotoxic. ELOA's interactions with phospholipid membranes appear to be central to its biological action, similar to human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells....... Here, we describe the interaction of ELOA with phospholipid membranes. Confocal scanning laser microscopy shows that ELOA, but not native EL, accumulates on the surface of giant unilamellar vesicles, without inducing significant membrane permeability. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation data...... indicated an essentially non-disruptive binding of ELOA to supported lipid bilayers, leading to formation of highly dissipative and "soft" lipid membrane; at higher concentrations of ELOA, the lipid membrane desorbs from the surface probably as bilayer sheets of vesicles. This membrane rearrangement...

  19. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II : oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability

    Alves, M.M.; Vieira, J. A. Mota; Pereira, R. M. Álvares; M. A. PEREIRA; Mota, M.

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50=137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50=80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving max...

  20. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  1. Synergie et acides gras – XXIe siècle : une ère nouvelle pour les lipides

    Mendy François

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The various disciplins of Science reveal a complex, consistent, and flexible world of lipids, which moreover allows for most of the biological world resilience. Marketing of Science, Commercial and Political marketing, have wanted to simplify this complex world at the most, reaching the limits of binary reduction of black and white, of Opposition and Exclusion. The Communication Mediatory Mask has ceased fulfilling its social function of interpreter, transmitter of truth. It became reducer, letting appearance to be confused with reality, disinformer by fact. Thus, the way to cognitive dissociation and repeated inconsistencies, was fully mapped out. Children of the century, researchers became heavily contaminated, and scientists were accused of inconsistancy. In the food and agri-business field, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, the sanction has been, is or will be severe (animal flours and new variants of prion disease, coxiBs or anti-Cox2. The real scientific discourse is actually very consistant, provided no acquisition, no question, neither from past nor for present time, is ignored, provided one’s accepts its complexity. Several ignored questions or problems about to be solved or renewed, are raised :- Tendency to take a part for the whole, the concept of flux speed, of endogenous synthesis speed, concept of the influence of a different man made environment – Excess of exogenous or endogenous oleic acid, danger of cholesterol oleate, but requirement for a little amount of endogenous oleic acid - Phytosterols and 25-OH vitamin D- Requirement for a saturated fatty acids minimal amount. -Confusion between Vaccenic acid :-C18 :1n-7trans, natural parent of Rumenic acid, and Elaidic acid (C18 :1n-9trans product of industrial hydrogenation. Furthermore new and old data on the confusion between alphalinolenic acid (in general and alpha-linolenic in sn-2 position, the only one to be indispensable, are emerging together with the

  2. Early Effect of High Dose of Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Plasma Lipids Profile and Liver Fatty Acids Composition in Rats

    The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of acute gamma-irradiation on rats at supralethal doses of 20 Gy to determine the synthesis and amounts of free fatty acids, neutral lipids and phospholipids of plasma and liver after 24 and 48 h of gamma-irradiation. Male Wistar rats weighing 120+- 20 g were exposed to 20 Gy of gamma radiation (dose rate of 0.59 Gy/min). Exposure of rats to ionizing radiation resulted in significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating lipid metabolism disturbance. Plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels increased up to 71.3 and 71.5 %, respectively, after 24 h from radiation exposure and then returned to 28 and 27 % change in-compare with control values after 48 h post-irradiation. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations increased concomitantly with irradiation, but their values are less high than cholesterol and phospholipid levels recording significant changes at 19 and 9 % comparing with control rats. Lipid peroxidation measured as MDA recorded significant elevation after 24 and 48 h post irradiation. It was shown that the synthesis of free fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ethers and phospholipids was activated 48 h after irradiation at 20 Gy. The amount of free fatty acids of the rat liver decreased at 20 Gy exposures. This is assumed to be a result of the radioresistance to some degree in the system of free fatty acid synthesis of the rat to the gamma-irradiation in the lethal doses

  3. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. PMID:25978353

  4. Selection for low erucic acid and genetic mapping of loci affecting the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in meadowfoam seed storage lipids.

    Gandhi, S D; Kishore, V K; Crane, J M; Slabaugh, M B; Knapp, S J

    2009-06-01

    Erucic acid (22:1(13)) has been identified as an anti-nutritional compound in meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) and other oilseeds in the Brassicales, a classification which has necessitated the development of low erucic acid cultivars for human consumption. The erucic acid concentrations of meadowfoam wild types (8%-24%) surpass industry standards for human consumption (acid lines and identify loci affecting the accumulation of 22:1(13) and other very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in meadowfoam seed storage lipids. LE76, a low erucic acid line, was developed by 3 cycles of selection in an ethyl methanesulfonate-treated wildtype population. LE76 produced 3% 22:1(13), threefold less than the M0 population. Wildtype x LE76 F2 populations produced continuous, approximately normal erucic and dienoic acid distributions. Loss-of-function mutations apparently did not segregate and individuals with low 22:1(13) concentrations (lipids by genotyping and phenotyping wildtype x low erucic acid F2 progeny. Composite interval mapping identified 3 moderately large-effect erucic acid QTL. The low erucic acid parent transmitted favorable alleles for 2 of 3 QTL, suggesting low erucic acid cultivars can be developed by combining favorable alleles transmitted by wildtype and low erucic acid parents. PMID:19483773

  5. Coating Solid Lipid Nanoparticles with Hyaluronic Acid Enhances Antitumor Activity against Melanoma Stem-like Cells

    Shen, Hongxin; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Successful anticancer chemotherapy requires targeting tumors efficiently and further potential to eliminate cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations. Since CD44 is present on many types of CSCs, and it binds specially to hyaluronic acid (HA), we tested whether coating solid lipid nanoparticles with hyaluronan (HA-SLNs)would allow targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to CD44-overexpressing B16F10 melanoma cells. First, we developed a model system based on melanoma stem-like cells for experiments in vitro and in mouse xenografts, and we showed that cells expressing high levels of CD44 (CD44+) displayed a strong CSC phenotype while cells expressing low levels of CD44 (CD44-) did not. This phenotype included sphere and colony formation, higher proportion of side population cells, expression of CSC-related markers (ALDH, CD133, Oct-4) and tumorigenicity in vivo. Next we showed that administering PTX-loaded HA-SLNs led to efficient intracellular delivery of PTX and induced substantial apoptosis in CD44+ cells in vitro. In the B16F10-CD44+ lung metastasis model, PTX-loaded HA-SLNs targeted the tumor-bearing lung tissues well and subsequently exhibited significant antitumor effects with a relative low dose of PTX, which provided significant survival benefit without evidence of adverse events. These findings suggest that the HA-SLNs targeting system shows promise for enhancing cancer therapy. PMID:25897340

  6. Doxorubicin hydrochloride-oleic acid conjugate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for tumor specific drug release.

    Zhao, Shuangni; Minh, Le Van; Li, Na; Garamus, Vasil M; Handge, Ulrich A; Liu, Jianwen; Zhang, Rongguang; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Zou, Aihua

    2016-09-01

    The hydrophilic drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) paired with oleic acid (OA) was successfully incorporated into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) by a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) method. Drug nanovehicles with proper physico-chemical characteristics (less than 200nm with narrow size distribution, spherical shape, layered internal organization, and negative electrical charge) were prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency of DOX-OA/NLCs were 4.09% and 97.80%, respectively. A pH-dependent DOX release from DOX-OA/NLCs, i.e., fast at pH 3.8 and 5.7 and sustained at pH 7.4, was obtained. A cytotoxicity assay showed that DOX-OA/NLCs had comparable cytotoxicity to pure DOX and were favorably taken up by HCT 116 cells. The intracellular distribution of DOX was also studied using a confocal laser scanning microscope. All of these results demonstrated that DOX-OA/NLCs could be a promising drug delivery system with tumor-specific DOX release for cancer treatment. PMID:27137808

  7. The effects of anaerobic training in serum lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites

    GEORGIOS KIPREOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary arteries are subjected daily in high shear stress and manifest atherosclerosis very early in life in comparison to other arteries in the human body. Some factors that are implicated in the evolution and progress of this process are the concentration of lipids and arachidonic acid metabolites, such prostacyclin and thromboxane. It has been reported that those who participate in aerobic activities such as walking, cycling, jogging or brisk walking might have normal values of the mentioned chemical substances. On the other hand, it is reported that the effects of anaerobic and strength activities has negative effects on the vascular endothelium, which is essential for the maintenance of hemostatic balance and the local regulation of vascular tone.Therefore, even although extensive research has been conducted in this field, there are crucial gaps in our knowledge. Consequently, the purpose of this brief review is to describe what is known about the effects of anaerobic activities in which the competitive athletes have participated on the following blood parameters: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C, low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL - C, prostacyclin & thromboxane.

  8. Genome-scale metabolic modeling and in silico analysis of lipid accumulating yeast Candida tropicalis for dicarboxylic acid production.

    Mishra, Pranjul; Park, Gyu-Yeon; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Lee, Hee-Seok; Lee, Hongweon; Chang, Matthew Wook; Ching, Chi Bun; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the bio-production of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has gained significant attention, which potentially leads to the replacement of the conventional petroleum-based products. In this regard, the lipid accumulating yeast Candida tropicalis, has been recognized as a promising microbial host for DCA biosynthesis: it possess the unique ω-oxidation pathway where the terminal carbon of α-fatty acids is oxidized to form DCAs with varying chain lengths. However, despite such industrial importance, its cellular physiology and lipid accumulation capability remain largely uncharacterized. Thus, it is imperative to better understand the metabolic behavior of this lipogenic yeast, which could be achieved by a systems biological approach. To this end, herein, we reconstructed the genome-scale metabolic model of C. tropicalis, iCT646, accounting for 646 unique genes, 945 metabolic reactions, and 712 metabolites. Initially, the comparative network analysis of iCT646 with other yeasts revealed several distinctive metabolic reactions, mainly within the amino acid and lipid metabolism including the ω-oxidation pathway. Constraints-based flux analysis was, then, employed to predict the in silico growth rates of C. tropicalis which are highly consistent with the cellular phenotype observed in glucose and xylose minimal media chemostat cultures. Subsequently, the lipid accumulation capability of C. tropicalis was explored in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating that the formation of "citrate pyruvate cycle" is essential to the lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts. The in silico flux analysis also highlighted the enhanced ability of pentose phosphate pathway as NADPH source rather than malic enzyme during lipogenesis. Finally, iCT646 was successfully utilized to highlight the key directions of C. tropicalis strain design for the whole cell biotransformation application to produce long-chain DCAs from alkanes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1993-2004.

  9. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid intake in humans: a systematic review focusing on its effect on body composition, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

    Salas-Salvadó, J; Márquez-Sandoval, F; Bulló, M

    2006-01-01

    Studies performed on different species show that the consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) leads to a loss of fat and total body weight, reduces the plasma concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol, and has an antiinflammatory effect. This article reviews the clinical trials on human beings that evaluate how mixtures of CLA isomers administered as supplements or CLA-enriched products can affect total body weight, body composition, plasma lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, insulin sensitivity, lipid oxidation, and inflammation. After analyzing the few studies published to date in reduced samples of healthy humans or patients with overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, or diabetes, we deduce that there is not enough evidence to show that conjugated linoleic acid has an effect on weight and body composition in humans. However, some of these studies have observed that the administration of various CLA isomers has adverse effects on lipid profile (it decreases HDL cholesterol concentration and increases Lp(a) circulating levels), glucose metabolism (glycemia, insulinemia or insulin sensitivity), lipid oxidation, inflammation, or endothelial function. Therefore, long-term randomized clinical trials, controlled with placebo, need to be made in large samples of patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA isomers before its indiscriminate use in human beings can be recommended. PMID:16864141

  11. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). PMID:23294646

  12. GC-MS evaluation of fatty acid profile and lipid bioactive of partially hydrogenated cooking oil consumed in Pakistan

    Evaluation of fatty acid profile including trans fat and lipid bioactive (tocopherol and sterol contents) of most commonly used vanaspati ghee and cooking oil brands was made by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MSD). Among the saturated fatty acids (SFA), palmitic and stearic acid were dominant fatty acids; the mean value of SFA in ghee and oil was 44.98 and 30.83%, respectively. Mean values of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids in ghee were 47.51, 7.49 and 8.08%, and in oil 49.26, 19.90 and 0.91%, respectively. alpha-tocopherol was the major tocopherol while campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol were main phytosterols in terms of their quantity. (author)

  13. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  14. Gas chromatographic measurement of 3- and 4-thia fatty acids incorporated into various classes of rat liver lipids during feeding experiments.

    Grav, H J; Asiedu, D K; Berge, R K

    1994-08-01

    A practical procedure is described for the quantitative measurement of the amount of acyl units derived from tetradecylthioacetic acid (effecting hypolipemia in rats) and tetradecylthiopropionic acid (effecting hyperlipidemia). The procedure involves three main successive steps: (1) extraction; (2) solid-phase lipid class separation yielding free fatty acids, phospholipids, triacylglycerides, cholesterol esters, and diacylglycerides without crosscontamination; and (3) gas chromatography of hydrolyzed lipids derivatized to picolinyl esters, combined with unambiguous identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The overall recoveries of heptadecanoyl lipids added as internal standards during extraction were 94-96%, except for cholesteryl heptadecanoate where the recovery was 60% owing to incomplete hydrolysis. Recoveries of thia fatty acids from samples spiked with these compounds were 95%. Flame-ionization response factors were found to be 0.92 and 0.81 for the tetradecylthioacetic acid and tetradecylthiopropionic acid picolinyl esters, respectively, compared to that of heptadecanoic acid. The lower limit of quantitation was 25 pmol as injected. Measurement of the amount of thia fatty acyl units in rat plasma and in liver lipids 4 h after administration of single doses by gastric intubation indicated efficient absorbtion and rapid incorporation into liver lipids, particularly in the phospholipid fraction. Both plasma clearance and channelling into lipids was slower for the 4-thia fatty acid. PMID:7952108

  15. Effect of a novel insulinotropic agent, succinic acid monoethyl ester, on lipids and lipoproteins levels in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamideinduced type 2 diabetes

    Ramalingam Saravanan; Leelavinothan Pari

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of succinic acid monoethyl ester (EMS) on the pattern of lipids and lipoproteins in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes was investigated. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 min after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The carboxylic nutrient EMS was administered intraperitonially at a dose of 8 mol/g body weight for 30 days. At the end of experimental period, the effect of EMS on plasma glucose, insulin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxide (HP) and serum triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and the percentage of antiatherogenic index (AAI) (ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol) were studied. Administration of EMS to diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in the elevated levels of plasma glucose, TBARS and hydroperoxides as well as TG, PL, FFA, TC, VLDL-C and LDC-C levels. The decreased plasma insulin and serum HDL-C and percentage of AAI in diabetic rats were also reversed towards near normal. The effect produced by EMS was compared with metformin, a reference drug. The results indicates that the administration of EMS and metformin to nicotinamide-streptozotocin diabetic rats normalized plasma glucose, insulin concentrations and caused marked improvement in altered lipids, lipoprotein and lipid peroxidation markers during diabetes. Our results show the antihyperlipidemic properties of EMS and metformin in addition to its antidiabetic action. Moreover, the antihyperlipidemic effect could represent a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis.

  16. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  17. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  18. Repeated Batch Fermentation Biotechnology for the Biosynthesis of Lipid and Gamma-Linolenic Acid by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1

    Marjan Ganjali Dashti; Peyman Abdeshahian; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Aidil Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of biomedical products including lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was studied in repeated batch fermentation. Three key process variables, namely, glucose concentration, ammonium tartrate concentration, and harvesting time, were optimized using response surface methodology. Repeated batch fermentation was carried out by the cultivation of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in nitrogen-limited medium with various nitrogen concentration (1–4 g/L) and...

  19. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and cytokines in humans: A pilot study

    Raghu, B.; Venkatesan, P

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and cytokines in humans. Twenty adult healthy subjects were supplemented with 1g/day fish oil concentrate capsules for 2 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and again after 2 week intervention. Fish oil supplementation significantly lowered fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein...

  20. Maintenance of improved lipid levels following attendance at a cardiovascular risk reduction clinic: a 10-year experience

    Glen J Pearson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Glen J Pearson1,5, Kari L Olson6, Nicole E Panich1, Sumit R Majumdar2,5, Ross T Tsuyuki1,4, Dawna M Gilchrist2,5, Ali Damani4, Gordon A Francis3,5The MILLARR Study (Maintenance of Improved Lipid Levels Following Attendance at a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic 1Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology; 2General Internal Medicine; 3Endocrinology and Metabolism; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 4University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 6University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA; 7Family Medicine (Private Practice, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Specialty cardiovascular risk reduction clinics (CRRC increase the proportion of patients attaining recommended lipid targets; however, it is not known if the benefits are sustained after discharge. We evaluated the impact of a CRRC on lipid levels and assessed the long-term effect of a CRRC in maintaining improved lipid levels following discharge.Methods: The medical records of consecutive dyslipidemic patients discharged >6 months from a tertiary hospital CRRC from January 1991 to January 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in patients’ lipid levels between the final CRRC visit and the most recent primary care follow-up. A worst-case analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the patients in whom the follow-up lipid profiles post-discharge from the CRRC were not obtained.Results: Within the CRRC (median follow-up = 1.28 years in 1064 patients, we observed statistically significant improvements in all lipid parameters. In the 411 patients for whom post-discharge lipid profiles were available (median follow-up = 2.41 years, there were no significant differences observed in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, or triglycerides since CRRC discharge; however, there

  1. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  2. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10−7 and 2.0 × 10−8 mol L−1 Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10−6, 1.1 × 10−5 and 1.1 × 10−3 mol L−1 N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production

  3. Coping with sub-optimal water temperature: modifications in fatty acid profile of barramundi as influenced by dietary lipid.

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic responses to sub-optimal temperature deplete lipid depots, remodel membrane lipid and alter the fatty acid profile in the whole body and tissues of ectothermic vertebrates including fish. The magnitude of these changes may depend on dietary history including oil sources with different fatty acid compositions. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes, Latidae), a tropical ectothermic fish, was fed on diets either rich in dietary long-chain (≥C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil, rich in stearidonic and γ-linolenic acid (SDA and GLA, respectively) from Echium plantagineum, or rapeseed oil deficient in LC-PUFA. Following 5 weeks at the optimum temperature of 30 °C when growth rates were comparable amongst dietary treatments, water temperature was dropped to 20 °C for 1 week for half of the animals and maintained at 30 °C for the other half. Decreased temperature increased the liver and skeletal muscle content of LC-PUFA in fish fed on echium oil compared with rapeseed oil, while dietary LC-PUFA depots in fish oil fed-fish depleted rapidly in the week of sub-optimal temperature. The lipid unsaturation index of cellular membrane in the liver and muscle increased under low temperature at the same rate regardless of dietary oil. Therefore, rapid exposure of an ectothermic vertebrate to a lower and sub-optimal temperature caused significant modulation in fatty acid composition. We propose that the tolerance of barramundi, a representative of tropical farmed fish, to sub-optimal temperature will be enhanced when fatty acid substrates closer to the LC-PUFA are available in their diet. PMID:23524056

  4. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDE (FOS SUPPLEMENTATION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC ADULTS IMPROVES SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE, SERUM LIPID, AND GUT MICROBIOTA

    Mahendra A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharide (FOS is a prebiotic, becoming apparent for its therapeutic role for diseased conditions like CHD, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. CHD and hypertension are one of the most prevalent NCD’s encountered in diabetic adults. Present study aims to assess the effect of FOS supplementation in type 2 diabetic adults on their lipemic, biophysical parameters and gut microflora parameters. A cross-sectional study was designed with 65 adult type 2 diabetics enrolled from Health clinic of The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat. All the subjects were randomly divided into two groups control and experimental. The experimental group was given 10 g of fructooligosaccharide and compared with the controls for lipemic parameters, hypertension and fecal counts in terms of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enteric pathogen. Eight week supplementation of FOS resulted in an appreciable reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL levels by 10%, 4.9% and 7.8% respectively. A significant reduction (p<0.05 in systolic blood pressure was also observed as a result of FOS supplementation in the experimental group. A decline was seen in TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and non-HDL by 10.4%, 7.6% and 6.6% respectively (p<0.05, p<0.001. Gut microbiota values exhibited a significant increment in fecal log10 counts of Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria by 9.3% and 10.9% respectively (p<0.001 while a significant reduction by 4.8% (p<0.001 was observed for Enteric pathogen. These outcomes revealed an efficacy of FOS in reducing serum lipid parameters, systolic BP and improving the gut microbiota in type 2 diabetic adults

  5. Significant sensitivity improvements by matrix optimization: a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric study of lipids from hen egg yolk.

    Teuber, Kristin; Schiller, Jürgen; Fuchs, Beate; Karas, Michael; Jaskolla, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Due to its sensitivity, the tolerance of impurities and the simplicity of performance, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is increasingly used to analyze lipids from biological sources. Although its detailed role is not understood so far, the applied matrix has a pronounced effect on the achievable spectrum quality and particularly how sensitive the individual lipid classes are detectable. Different matrix compounds were recently established in the lipid field including 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), para-nitroaniline (PNA), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), and 2-(2-aminoethylamino)-5-nitropyridine (AAN). It is the aim of this paper to compare the properties of these matrices with the newly synthesized matrix, alpha-cyano-2,4-difluorocinnamic acid (Di-FCCA). An organic extract from hen egg yolk was used as a simple and easily available test system. It will be shown that Di-FCCA is the matrix of choice to detect lipids in the positive-ion mode due to an achievable sensitivity gain of more than one order of magnitude compared to alternative matrices. In contrast, Di-FCCA is not suitable for negative-ion detection of phospholipids. Here, 9-AA is unequivocally the matrix of choice. PMID:20420816

  6. Promotion of radiation peroxidation in models of lipid membranes by caesium and rubidium counter-ions: micellar linolenic acids

    Caesium and rubidium counter-ions increase peroxidation in irradiated micelles of linoleic (18 : 2) and linolenic (18 :3) acids. The effect was specific to Cs+ and Rb+ in the alkali metal series. The effect was independent of the salts used (Cl-, NO3-, Cl04-) and, therefore, independent of the chaotropic nature, and reactivity with hydroxyl radicals of Cl-, NO3- and ClO4-. The promotion of peroxidation by Cs+ and Rb+ is interpreted in terms of their effect on fatty acid micelle structure. The dependence of radiation peroxidation on lipid structure in the micelles may be significant for studies of peroxidation in highly structured cell membranes. (author)

  7. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... markers of glucose homeostasis and 4 markers of lipolysis were derived from glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations during a 3-hour frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test. Intramuscular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Forty...

  8. Oxidative Stress Attenuates Lipid Synthesis and Increases Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation in Hepatoma Cells Infected with Hepatitis C Virus.

    Douglas, Donna N; Pu, Christopher Hao; Lewis, Jamie T; Bhat, Rakesh; Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Logan, Michael; Lund, Garry; Addison, William R; Lehner, Richard; Kneteman, Norman M

    2016-01-22

    Cytopathic effects are currently believed to contribute to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver injury and are readily observed in Huh7.5 cells infected with the JFH-1 HCV strain, manifesting as apoptosis highly correlated with growth arrest. Reactive oxygen species, which are induced by HCV infection, have recently emerged as activators of AMP-activated protein kinase. The net effect is ATP conservation via on/off switching of metabolic pathways that produce/consume ATP. Depending on the scenario, this can have either pro-survival or pro-apoptotic effects. We demonstrate reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of AMP-activated kinase in Huh7.5 cells during HCV (JFH-1)-induced growth arrest. Metabolic labeling experiments provided direct evidence that lipid synthesis is attenuated, and β-oxidation is enhanced in these cells. A striking increase in nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which plays a dominant role in the expression of β-oxidation genes after ligand-induced activation, was also observed, and we provide evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α is constitutively activated in these cells. The combination of attenuated lipid synthesis and enhanced β-oxidation is not conducive to lipid accumulation, yet cellular lipids still accumulated during this stage of infection. Notably, the serum in the culture media was the only available source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which were elevated (2-fold) in the infected cells, implicating altered lipid import/export pathways in these cells. This study also provided the first in vivo evidence for enhanced β-oxidation during HCV infection because HCV-infected SCID/Alb-uPA mice accumulated higher plasma ketones while fasting than did control mice. Overall, this study highlights the reprogramming of hepatocellular lipid metabolism and bioenergetics during HCV infection, which are predicted to impact both the HCV life cycle and pathogenesis. PMID:26627833

  9. Improved Delivery of Caffeic Acid through Liposomal Encapsulation

    Katuwavila, Nuwanthi P.; A. D. L. Chandani Perera; V. Karunaratne; Gehan A. J. Amaratunga; D. Nedra Karunaratne

    2016-01-01

    Photoageing resulting from long term exposure of the skin to UV light can be minimized by scavenging the reactive photochemical intermediates with antioxidants. For effective photoprotection, the antioxidant must overcome the barrier properties of the skin and reach the target site in significant amounts. The present study aims to improve the skin penetration of caffeic acid, a very effective free radical scavenger, by encapsulating in liposomes. Caffeic acid loaded liposomes prepared using t...

  10. Nanostructured lipid carrier-loaded hyaluronic acid microneedles for controlled dermal delivery of a lipophilic molecule.

    Lee, Sang Gon; Jeong, Jae Han; Lee, Kyung Min; Jeong, Kyu Ho; Yang, Huisuk; Kim, Miroo; Jung, Hyungil; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were employed to formulate a lipophilic drug into hydrophilic polymeric microneedles (MNs). Hyaluronic acid (HA) was selected as a hydrophilic and bioerodible polymer to fabricate MNs, and nile red (NR) was used as a model lipophilic molecule. NR-loaded NLCs were consolidated into the HA-based MNs to prepare NLC-loaded MNs (NLC-MNs). A dispersion of NLCs was prepared by high-pressure homogenization after dissolving NR in Labrafil and mixing with melted Compritol, resulting in 268 nm NLCs with a polydispersity index of 0.273. The NLC dispersion showed a controlled release of NR over 24 hours, following Hixson-Crowell's cube root law. After mixing the NLC dispersion with the HA solution, the drawing lithography method was used to fabricate NLC-MNs. The length, base diameter, and tip diameter of the NLC-MNs were approximately 350, 380, and 30 μm, respectively. Fluorescence microscopic imaging of the NLC-MNs helped confirm that the NR-loaded NLCs were distributed evenly throughout the MNs. In a skin permeation study performed using a Franz diffusion cell with minipig dorsal skin, approximately 70% of NR was localized in the skin after 24-hour application of NLC-MNs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (z-series) of the skin at different depths showed strong fluorescence intensity in the epidermal layer, which appeared to spread out radially with the passage of time. This study indicated that incorporation of drug-loaded NLCs into MNs could represent a promising strategy for controlled dermal delivery of lipophilic drugs. PMID:24403833

  11. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise;

    2014-01-01

    -sucrose diets with protein sources of increasing endogenous taurine content, i.e., chicken, cod, crab and scallop, for 6 weeks. The energy intake was lower in crab and scallop-fed mice than in chicken and cod-fed mice, but only scallop-fed mice gained less body and fat mass. Liver mass was reduced in scallop......-fasted states. Dietary intake of taurine and glycine correlated negatively with body mass gain and total fat mass, while intake of all other amino acids correlated positively. Furthermore taurine and glycine intake correlated positively with improved plasma lipid profile, i.e., lower levels of plasma lipids and...

  12. Protective effect of chenodeoxycholic acid against lipid kidney injury induced by high-fructose feeding in rats and the underlying mechanism

    胡志娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention of chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) on kidney of high-fructose-fed rats,and investigate the mechanism of CDCA on lipid kidney injury.Methods Forty-eight healthy male Wistar

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types. PMID:27108035

  14. Growth, Fatty Acid, and Lipid Composition of Marine Microalgae Skeletonema costatum Available in Bangladesh Coast: Consideration as Biodiesel Feedstock

    Tania Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various potential sources of renewable energy, biofuels are of most interest. Marine microalgae are the most promising oil sources for making biofuels, which can grow very rapidly and convert solar energy to chemical energy via CO2 fixation. The fatty acid profile of almost all the microalgal oil is suitable for the synthesis of biofuel. In this research, fatty acid and lipid contents of Bangladeshi strains of marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum were performed. For this, the crude oil was extracted by Soxhlet extraction method, using three most common solvent systems, pure hexane and mixture of CHCl3 : MeOH (2 : 1 and hexane : EtOH (3 : 1 one by one. Highest oil recovery (15.37% came from CHCl3 : MeOH (2 : 1 solvent system from dry biomass whereas the lowest (2.49% came from n-hexane from wet biomass. The qualitative analysis of the extracted oil by GC/MS analysis revealed that it contained significant amount of myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1. It also indicated presence of hexadecatrienoic acid, benzenedicarboxylic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (C19H36O2, and so forth. The obtained fatty acid profile indicates high potentiality of S. costatum species to be used as promising biofuel feedstock a little improvisation and substantially it can replace diesel in near future.

  15. Expression of Vibrio harveyi Acyl-ACP Synthetase Allows Efficient Entry of Exogenous Fatty Acids into the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid and Lipid A Synthetic Pathways

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Campbell, John W.; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously-supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function. PMID:20028080

  16. Further characterization of theobroma oil-beeswax admixtures as lipid matrices for improved drug delivery systems.

    Attama, A A; Schicke, B C; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2006-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in lipid based drug delivery systems due to factors such as better characterization of lipidic excipients and formulation versatility and the choice of different drug delivery systems. It is important to know the thermal characteristics, crystal habit, texture, and appearance of a new lipid matrix when determining its suitability for use in certain pharmaceutical application. It is line with this that this research was embarked upon to characterize mixtures of beeswax and theobroma oil with a view to applying their admixtures in drug delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Admixtures of theobroma oil and beeswax were prepared to contain 25% w/w, 50% w/w, and 75% w/w of theobroma oil. The admixtures were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (IMC). The melting behavior and microstructures of the lipid admixtures were monitored by polarized light microscopy (PLM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the internal structures of the lipid bases. DSC traces indicated that the higher melting peaks were roughly constant for the different admixtures, but lower melting peaks significantly increased (p beeswax in all the lipid matrix admixtures at all stages of the study. PLM micrographs revealed differences with regard to the thermal and optical behaviors depending on the composition of the matrix. The lipid matrix consisting of 75% w/w of theobroma oil showed a spherulite texture after 4 weeks of isothermal storage. Crystallization exotherms of lipid matrices containing 50% w/w and 25% w/w of theobroma oil showed change in modification after 30 min with the latter having a greater time-dependent crystallization. Generally, low non-integral Avrami exponents and growth rate constants were obtained for all the lipid matrices, with the admixture

  17. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    Dänicke Sven

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29. Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride, respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43, 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11 contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8, compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6. Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular

  18. Upgrading the lipid fraction of foods of animal origin by dietary means: rumen activity and presence of trans fatty acids and CLA in milk and meat

    Andrea Serra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature dealing with the effect of the diet on the quality of milk and meat fat is reviewed. Some aspects ofthe rumen metabolism of lipids are dealt with: lipolysis, bio-hydrogenation, synthesis of microbial fatty acids and inhibitionmechanisms on fermentation. Firstly, the influence of forage is considered. Pasture is the best forage, better if highhill pasture, as compared to hay and silage: short chain fatty acids (SCFA (shorter than C10 are increased, mediumchain fatty acids (MCFA (C12 through C16 are decreased, oleic (OA, linoleic (LA and linolenic (LNA acids are increasedand so are the conjugated linoleic acid pool of isomers (CLA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA. Secondly,the energy supplementation of diets with fats is looked at. Animal fats depress milk yield and SCFA, while OA is increasedbecause of the enhanced activity of mammary Δ9 desaturase. Fish oil depresses milk yield as well, but promotes CLA andn-3 PUFA. If animal fats are protected against rumen bacteria, milk yield and milk fat depression are avoided. Vegetablefats are richer in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, thus more susceptible to the rumen bio-hydrogenation. As calcium soapsor inside whole seeds, plant fats are protected and CLA is increased. CLA is an important component of fat. In ruminantsit comes from the desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA both in rumen and udder; and the yield of VA depends on the dietquality. In conclusion, simple directions are given on how to improve the quality of animal fat by dietary means, withoutaffecting yield.

  19. Evaluation of factors affecting on lipid extraction for recovery of fatty acids from Nannochloropsis oculata micro-algae to biodiesel production

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the appropriate method for dewatering and drying biomass and selecting a suitable organic solvent for lipid extraction. Methods: NannochloropsisOculata was cultured in Gillard F/2 medium and after reaching the end of the stationary growth phase, algal biomass was separated from aqueous by centrifuge and dried through three methods: Oven, Air-dried and Lyophilized. Soxhlet apparatus achieved lipid extraction of all samples: diethyl ether, n-hexane and n-pentane using three solvents. At each stage, the quantity and quality of the extracted lipids were determined by Gas Chromatography. Results: In all three drying methods, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid, and most significantly fatty acid composition of microalgae were extracted. The fatty acid composition of palmitic acid extracted by Diethyl ether was significantly more than the other two solvents. Maximum production of triglyceride was observed in Lyophilized and air-dried microalgae where lipid extraction was performed with diethyl ether solvents and are 75.03% and 76.72% of fatty acid. Conclusion: The use of Lyophilized method for dewatering and drying of biomass and Diethyl ether as solvent for the extraction of lipids from biomass, studied in this paper, as compared to other methods, had higher yields and researches proved that the production of biodiesel from microalgae’s lipid was more efficient.

  20. Lipid clustering in bilayers detected by the fluorescence kinetics and anisotropy of trans-parinaric acid.

    C. Reyes Mateo; Brochon, J C; M Pilar Lillo; Ulises Acuña, A.

    1993-01-01

    Fluid heterogeneity in lipid bilayers and shows a simple and useful method to quantify this heterogeneity. Taking advantage of the maximum entropy method, we have resolved the probe fluorescence lifetime distributions in homogeneous solutions and in single and two-component lipid bilayers at different temperatures. A precise description of the emission kinetics was obtained as a function of viscosity in the homogeneous solution and as a function of the phase composition (gel/fluid) in the lip...

  1. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Ethanol and fatty acids impair lipid homeostasis in an in vitro model of hepatic steatosis.

    Vecchione, Giulia; Grasselli, Elena; Compalati, Andrea D; Ragazzoni, Milena; Cortese, Katia; Gallo, Gabriella; Voci, Adriana; Vergani, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Excess ethanol consumption and fatty acid intake lead to a cumulative effect on liver steatosis through still unclear mechanisms. This study aimed to characterize the lipid homoeostasis alterations under the exposure of hepatocytes to ethanol alone or combined with fatty acids. FaO hepatoma cells were incubated in the absence (C) or in the presence of 100 mM ethanol (EtOH) or 0.35 mM oleate/palmitate (FFA) alone or in the combination (FFA/EtOH). Content of intra- and extra-cellular triglycerides (TAGs) and of lipid droplets (LDs), expression of lipogenic and lipolytic genes, and oxidative stress-related parameters were evaluated. Exposure to either FFAs or EtOH given separately led to steatosis which was augmented when they were combined. Our results show that FFA/EtOH: (i) increased the LD number, but reduced their size compared to separate treatments; (ii) up-regulated PPARγ and SREBP-1c and down-regulated sirtuin-1 (SIRT1); (iii) impaired FFA oxidation; (iv) did not change lipid secretion and oxidative stress. Our findings indicate that one of the major mechanisms of the metabolic interference between ethanol and fat excess is the impairment of FFA oxidation, in addition to lipogenic pathway stimulation. Interestingly, ethanol combined with FFAs led to a shift from macrovesicular to microvesicular steatosis that represents a more dangerous condition. PMID:26854922

  3. Quality Improvement of an Acid Treated Fuel Oil

    Elizabeth Jumoke ETERIGHO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The work on the quality improvement of fuel oil using acid treatment was carried out. The improvement of the fuel oil was done using sulphuric acid to remove contaminants. Sulphuric acid at different concentrations were mixed with the oil and kept at 45°C for four hours in the agitator vessel to allow reaction to take place. Acidic sludge was then drained off from the agitator and the oil was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. Centrifugation operation was used to extract the sulphonate dispersed in the oil. The treated and untreated oils were characterized for various properties and the results showed that the viscosity, total sulphur of fuel oil decreased from 6.0 to before 5.0 cst after acid treatment and 2.57 to 1.2225% w/w respectively while the flash point increased from 248 to 264°F. The water and sediment content increased from trace before to 0.6 after treatment. In addition, the calorific value increased from initial value of 44,368 to 44,805 and 44,715 kJ/kg at 50% and 75% conc. H2SO4 while decreasing with 85% and 90% conc. H2SO4. However, both carbon residue and ash content decreases with an increase in acid concentration.

  4. Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.

    Nelson, L M; Russell, R I

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the elemental diets Vivonex (V) and Flexical (F) on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat has been investigated both with ad libitum feeding and when calorie intake was limited to that of control rats (C) fed a standard diet (Oxoid 41B). Ad libitum feeding of V and F for 9 weeks resulted in a weight gain in excess of that for the control diet. After 9 weeks of isocaloric feeding the V-fed rats were significantly lighter than those fed F and C. Fecal bile acid excretion (FBA) and the fractional turnover rates for cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) were measured. The elemental diets significantly reduced FBA when fed both ad libitum and isocalorically compared with the control diet, the reduction with V being significantly greater than for F. In the isocaloric feeding study both elemental diets significantly increased the half life of CA and CDC. The increase for CA was significantly greater for V than F but for CDC the effect of the two diets was the same. Thus the percentage of CDC-derived 6 substituted bile acids was greater with V than F feeding. There was a strong negative correlation between bile acid half-life and fecal excretion of metabolites for the three dietary groups indicating that bile acid pool size was unchanged by the elemental diets. A gross increase in liver lipid both histologically and chemically was found for the ad libitum fed V rats with a marked but lesser increase for F.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755773

  5. Monthly and seasonal variation in the amount of total lipid and fatty acid in the muscle of a silurid cat fish Wallagu attu

    Pinak Dutta; Mita Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Monthly and seasonal variation in the amount of total lipid and fatty acid in the muscle tissues of W. attu growing wild in large ponds was studied. The result depicts that both the amounts of total lipid and fatty acid varied monthly and thus seasonally in this fish species (boal) belonging to the family of fresh water silurid cat fishes. The percentage of total lipid value reaches its minimum in May and starts increasing from June to October. During breeding season the amount of total fatty...

  6. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  7. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Ould Mohamedou, M M; Zouirech, K; El Messal, M; El Kebbaj, M S; Chraibi, A; Adlouni, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B), CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P = 0.001), total chol by 9.13%, (P = 0.01), and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P = 0.02). However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P = 0.01 and 9.40%,  P = 0.045, resp.). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P = 0.038) in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22114593

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  10. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wells, Greg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Barna, Barbara P. [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Malur, Achut G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Thomassen, Mary Jane, E-mail: thomassenm@ecu.edu [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by

  11. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Highlights: ► Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. ► Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. ► Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and the PPARγ-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPARγ. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPARγ plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPARγ or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung compliance was diminished in untreated GMCSF KO mice

  12. Transport of stearic acid-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) into human epithelial cells.

    Shah, Rohan M; Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Ludford-Menting, Mandy; Eldridge, Daniel S; Palombo, Enzo A; Harding, Ian H

    2016-04-01

    Development of drug delivery systems, as much as the drug molecule itself, is an important consideration for improving drug absorption and bioavailability. The mechanisms by which drug carriers enter target cells can differ depending on their size, surface properties and components. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained an increased attention in recent years and are the drug carriers of interest in this paper. They are known to breach the cell-membrane barrier and have been actively sought to transport biomolecules. Previous studies by our group, and also other groups, provided an extensive characterization of SLNs. However, few studies have investigated the uptake of SLNs and these have had limited mechanistic focus. The aim of this work was to investigate the pathway of uptake of SLNs by human epithelial cells i.e., lung A549 and cervical HeLa cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study that investigates the cellular uptake of SLNs by human epithelial cells. The mechanism of cellular uptake was deciphered using pharmacologic inhibitors (sucrose, potassium-free buffer, filipin and cytochalasin B). Imaging techniques and flow assisted cell sorting (FACS) were used to assess the cellular uptake of SLNs loaded with rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent probe. This study provided evidence that the cellular uptake of SLNs was energy-dependent, and the endocytosis of SLNs was mainly dependent on clathrin-mediated mechanisms. The establishment of entry mechanism of SLNs is of fundamental importance for future facilitation of SLNs as biological or drug carriers. PMID:26764103

  13. Reduced intestinal lipid absorption and body weight-independent improvements in insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed Park2 knockout mice.

    Costa, Diana K; Huckestein, Brydie R; Edmunds, Lia R; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali; Butrico, Gina M; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Harmon, Daniel B; Lu, Canying; Mantell, Benjamin S; Hartman, Douglas J; Camporez, João-Paulo G; O'Doherty, Robert M; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Jurczak, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases and results from mismatch of damage and repair over the life of the organelle. PARK2 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates mitophagy, a repair mechanism that selectively degrades damaged mitochondria. Deletion of PARK2 in multiple in vivo models results in susceptibility to stress-induced mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction. Surprisingly, Park2 knockout (KO) mice are protected from nutritional stress and do not develop obesity, hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). However, these phenomena are casually related and the physiological basis for this phenotype is unknown. We therefore undertook a series of acute HFD studies to more completely understand the physiology of Park2 KO during nutritional stress. We find that intestinal lipid absorption is impaired in Park2 KO mice as evidenced by increased fecal lipids and reduced plasma triglycerides after intragastric fat challenge. Park2 KO mice developed hepatic steatosis in response to intravenous lipid infusion as well as during incubation of primary hepatocytes with fatty acids, suggesting that hepatic protection from nutritional stress was secondary to changes in energy balance due to altered intestinal triglyceride absorption. Park2 KO mice showed reduced adiposity after 1-wk HFD, as well as improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. These studies suggest that changes in intestinal lipid absorption may play a primary role in protection from nutritional stress in Park2 KO mice by preventing HFD-induced weight gain and highlight the need for tissue-specific models to address the role of PARK2 during metabolic stress. PMID:27166280

  14. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival. PMID:26777559

  15. Overexpression of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1 in Skeletal Muscle Is Sufficient to Enhance Fatty Acid Oxidation and Improve High-Fat Diet–Induced Insulin Resistance

    Bruce, Clinton R.; Hoy, Andrew J.; Turner, Nigel; Watt, Matthew J.; Allen, Tamara L.; Carpenter, Kevin; Cooney, Gregory J.; Febbraio, Mark A; Kraegen, Edward W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with lipid accumulation, but whether insulin resistance is due to reduced or enhanced flux of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria is both controversial and unclear. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle–specific overexpression of the muscle isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the enzyme that controls the entry of long-chain fatty acyl CoA into mitochondria, would enhance rates of fatty acid oxidation and improv...

  16. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women. PMID:26402730

  17. Improvement in HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid in the profiling of biomass hydrolysate.

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Wu, Yonnie; Adhikari, Sushil

    2011-04-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural could be separated by the Aminex HPX-87H column chromatography, however, the separation and quantification of acetic acid and levulinic acid in biomass hydrolysate have been difficult with this method. In present study, the HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid on Aminex HPX-87H column has been investigated by varying column temperature, flow rate, and sulfuric acid content in the mobile phase. The column temperature was found critical in resolving acetic acid and levulinic acid. The resolution for two acids increased dramatically from 0.42 to 1.86 when the column temperature was lowered from 60 to 30 °C. So did the capacity factors for levulinic acid that was increased from 1.20 to 1.44 as the column temperature dropped. The optimum column temperature for the separation was found at 45 °C. Variation in flow rate and sulfuric acid concentration improved not as much as the column temperature did. PMID:21316945

  18. Rapid determination of free fatty acids in poultry feed lipid extracts by SB-ATR FTIR spectroscopy.

    Sherazi, S T H; Mahesar, S A; Bhanger, M I; van de Voort, F R; Sedman, J

    2007-06-27

    A simple, rapid, and reproducible method has been developed for the quantitative determination of free fatty acid (FFA) content in lipids extracted from poultry feeds by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with the use of a single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) accessory. An FTIR calibration curve was prepared by gravimetrically adding oleic acid (15-37%) to pure refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) canola oil and measuring the area of the COOH absorption band at 1710 cm-1. The oil from each of 12 poultry feed formulations was extracted using conventional Soxhlet extraction, and after evaporation of the solvent, the FFA content was determined by the conventional AOCS titrimetric procedure and by the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR FFA predictions were related to those determined by the AOCS titrimetric method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.999 and a SD of +/-0.28% FFA. Time-course spectra collected as lipids extracted into hexane indicated that a 15 min extraction was adequate to obtain a representative sample for FFA determination, with further extraction resulting in little, if any, change in the proportion of FFA in the lipid extract. Only a small volume of the hexane extract ( approximately 20 mL) yielded sufficient material for the SB-ATR/FTIR analysis. Thus, by shortening the extraction time and taking a small sample so as to reduce solvent removal time, the SB-ATR/FTIR procedure provides a very simple and rapid means of determining the FFA content of poultry feed lipids. PMID:17530766

  19. Effect of food matrix microstructure on stomach emptying rate and apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility of almond lipids.

    Gallier, Sophie; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-10-01

    Almond lipids can be consumed in different forms such as nuts, oil-in-water emulsions or oil. The stomach emptying rate (SER) of almond lipids (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) as a function of the food matrix was studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy based on the stomach emptying of a marker (AlCl3-6H2O) in the growing rat. Chyme and digesta samples were collected following serial gavaging (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) to study microstructural changes and determine the apparent ileal digestibility of almond fatty acids as a function of the native food matrix. The T(1/2) for the stomach emptying of crushed whole almonds and almond cream (194 ± 17 min and 185 ± 19 min, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) from that of a gastric-stable Tween-oil emulsion (197 ± 19 min). The T(1/2) values for a sodium caseinate (NaCas)-oil emulsion (145 ± 11 min) and a gastric-unstable Span-oil emulsion (135 ± 7 min) were different (P almonds, almond cream and Tween-oil emulsion, while almond milk and oil emptied at an intermediate rate (157 ± 9 min and 172 ± 11 min, respectively). Extensively coalesced emulsions under gastric conditions (almond oil, almond cream and Span-oil) had lower (P almonds, almond milk, NaCas-oil and Tween-oil emulsions (91.0%, 92.2%, 92.1% and 88.7%, respectively). The original food matrix and structural changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract had an impact on SER and ileal fatty acid digestibility of the almond preparations. PMID:25066699

  20. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  1. Fatty acid composition and Ω3/Ω6 ratios of the muscle lipids of six fish species in Sugla Lake, Turkey

    Cakmak Selim Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of the muscle lipids of Carassius gibelio, Pseudophoxinus anatolicus, Sander lucioperca, Tinca tinca, Vimba vimba tenella and Capoeta capoeta in Sugla Lake were determined. In all species, palmitic acid (13.25- 18.54% of total fatty acids and oleic acid (11.93-34.23% of total fatty acids were identified as major saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was found to be the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in T. tinca, C. capoeta, C. gibelio, P. anatolicus and S. lucioperca while the predominant PUFA of V. vimba tenella was eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. S. lucioperca contained more ω3 fatty acids than the other fish species. The percentages of total ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in all species. Since P. anatolicus is endemic and endangered, this species should be protected and produced for future marketing.

  2. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  3. Physiologic growth hormone replacement improves fasting lipid kinetics in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome

    HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (HLS) is characterized by accelerated lipolysis, inadequate fat oxidation, increased hepatic reesterification, and a high frequency of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on these lipid kinetic abnormalities is unknown. We aimed ...

  4. Genetic variants in a lipid regulatory pathway as potential tools for improving the nutritional quality of grass-fed beef.

    Baeza, M C; Corva, P M; Soria, L A; Pavan, E; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic variants on candidate genes corresponding to the sterol recognition element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) signaling pathway and stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCD1 and SCD5) on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition of Brangus steers fattened on grass. FA profiles were measured on Longissimus lumborum muscle samples using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection technique. A total of 43 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the SCD1, SCD5, SREBP-1, SCAP, INSIG1, INSIG2, MBTPS1, MBTPS2, and SRPR genes were genotyped on 246 steers to perform a marker-trait association study. To evaluate the influence of the Indicine breed in the composite breed, additional groups of 48 Angus, 18 Hereford, 75 Hereford x Angus, and 36 Limousin x Hereford-Angus steers were also genotyped. To perform the association analysis, FA data were grouped according to the number of carbon atoms and/or number of double bonds (i.e. SFA, MUFA, PUFA, etc.). In addition, different indexes that reflect the activity of FA desaturase and elongase enzymes were calculated. SCD1 markers significantly affected C14:1/(C14:0 + C14:1) and C18:1/(C18:0 + C18:1) indexes, whereas one SNP in SCD5 was correlated with the C16:1/(C16:0 + C16:1) index. Polymorphisms in the signal recognition particle receptor (SRPR) gene were associated with all the estimated desaturase indexes. Because the evaluated markers showed no effect on total lipid content of beef, this work supports the potential utilization of these markers for the improvement of grass-fed beef without undesirable side effects. PMID:22690737

  5. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  6. Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis

    Malur Anagha; Kavuru Mani S; Marshall Irene; Barna Barbara P; Huizar Isham; Karnekar Reema; Thomassen Mary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rationale Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly reduced expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the PPARγ-regulated ATP binding cassette (ABC) lipid transpor...

  7. Lipid Replacement Therapy Functional Food Formulation with NT Factor for Reducing Weight, Girth, Body Mass, Appetite and Fatigue While Improving Blood Lipid Profiles

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid Replacement Therapy using NT Factor® plus kidney bean alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb® was used in a two month weight loss clinical trial to reduce weight and improve fatigue without changing easting or exercise patterns and without use of drugs, stimulants or herbs. Objectives: To determine the effects of an all-natural functional food, NT Factor® plus alpha-amylase inhibitor (Healthy Curb®, on weight loss, body girth, body mass and index, basal metabolic rate, appetite, carvings for sweets and fatigue as well as blood lipid profiles during a 2-month open label clinical trial without food restrictions or increases in physical activity.Methods: Thirty subjects (Mean Age = 56.8 ± 1.8; 24 females and 6 males used the functional food containing NT Factor® (500 mg and alpha-amylase inhibitor (500 mg 30 min before each meal in tablet form. Participants were told to eat and exercise normally. Weight, waist and hip measurements were taken weekly. Appetite and sweet cravings were assessed weekly by standard methods. Fatigue was determined using the Piper Fatigue Scale. Blood samples were taken prior to and at the end of the trial for lipid and chemical analyses. Results: Sixty-three percent of the participants lost an average of 6.11 ± 0.28 pounds (2.77 ± 0.12 Kg (p<0.001 along with average reductions of 2.51 ± 0.05 inches (6.4 ± 0.13 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.5 ± 0.04 inches (3.8 ± 0.10 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. The entire Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(1:11-24 group lost an average of 3.63 ± 0.13 pounds (1.65 ± 0.11 Kg (p<0.001 with average reductions of 1.59 ± 0.03 inches (4.04 ± 0.06 cm (p<0.0001 and 1.13 ± 0.02 inch (2.87 ± 0.05 cm (p<0.0001 from waist and hip circumferences, respectively. Weight loss and body measurement decreases were gradual, consistent and significant, along with reductions in body mass index (BMI and basal metabolic rate (BMR measurements

  8. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA. PMID:17263304

  9. The liver fatty acid binding protein--comparison of cavity properties of intracellular lipid-binding proteins.

    Thompson, J; Ory, J; Reese-Wagoner, A; Banaszak, L

    1999-02-01

    The crystal and solution structures of all of the intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) reveal a common beta-barrel framework with only small local perturbations. All existing evidence points to the binding cavity and a poorly delimited 'portal' region as defining the function of each family member. The importance of local structure within the cavity appears to be its influence on binding affinity and specificity for the lipid. The portal region appears to be involved in the regulation of ligand exchange. Within the iLBP family, liver fatty acid binding protein or LFABP, has the unique property of binding two fatty acids within its internalized binding cavity rather than the commonly observed stoichiometry of one. Furthermore, LFABP will bind hydrophobic molecules larger than the ligands which will associate with other iLBPs. The crystal structure of LFABP contains two bound oleate molecules and provides the explanation for its unusual stoichiometry. One of the bound fatty acids is completely internalized and has its carboxylate interacting with an arginine and two serines. The second oleate represents an entirely new binding mode with the carboxylate on the surface of LFABP. The two oleates also interact with each other. Because of this interaction and its inner location, it appears the first oleate must be present before the second more external molecule is bound. PMID:10331654

  10. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  11. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice.

    Oliveros, L B; Videla, A M; Giménez, M S

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL+VLDL)-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [3H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [3H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [3H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [3H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress. PMID:15060696

  12. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  13. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while...

  14. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Oliveros L.B.; Videla A.M.; Giménez M.S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacr...

  15. Monthly and seasonal variation in the amount of total lipid and fatty acid in the muscle of a silurid cat fish Wallagu attu

    Pinak Dutta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monthly and seasonal variation in the amount of total lipid and fatty acid in the muscle tissues of W. attu growing wild in large ponds was studied. The result depicts that both the amounts of total lipid and fatty acid varied monthly and thus seasonally in this fish species (boal belonging to the family of fresh water silurid cat fishes. The percentage of total lipid value reaches its minimum in May and starts increasing from June to October. During breeding season the amount of total fatty acid also shows the same tendency to decrease till May when it reaches its minimum. From June onwards the total fatty acid increases significantly. At the end of the reproductive season, i.e. during the commencement of the nutritional season, the fishes start the process of storing energy in the form of lipids / fatty acids for future use i.e. during reproduction season or during scarcity of food. This is what is reflected in the study that, during the monsoon months in West Bengal the lipid / fatty acid content in the muscle tissues of boal rises to the maximum. This starts decreasing in the winter season as the reproduction period approaches and reaches its minimum in summer.

  16. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin; Jørgensen, Henry;

    2011-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are powerful regulators of metabolism, and mice treated orally with cholic acid are protected from dietinduced obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, and increased plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose levels. Here, we show that plasma BA concentration in rats was elevated by ex...

  17. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  18. Lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in tissue slices: characterization and comparison with homogenates and microsomes.

    Fraga, C G; Leibovitz, B E; Tappel, A L

    1988-01-01

    Liver slices were used to measure lipid peroxidation induced by bromotrichloromethane, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), or ferrous iron. The responses of liver homogenates and microsomes to oxidative conditions were compared with the response of tissue slices. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). As was observed in homogenates and microsomes, TBARS production by liver slices depended upon the amount of tissue, the incubation time, inducer, the amount of inducer, and the presence of antioxidant. Control liver slices incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 h produced 19 nmol of TBARS per g of liver. When slices were incubated in the presence of 1 mM BrCCl3, 1 mM t-BOOH, or 50 microM ferrous iron, TBARS production increased 4.6-, 8.2-, or 6.7-fold over the control value, respectively. Comparable induction of TBARS by liver homogenates and microsomes was observed when these preparations were incubated with the same inducers. Addition of 5 microM butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented the induction of TBARS by 50 microM ferrous iron by liver slices. The results indicate the usefulness of tissue slices to measure lipid peroxidation. The usefulness of tissue slices is emphasized when a number of compounds or tissues are studied and tissue integrity is desired as in toxicological, pharmacological, and nutritional studies where reduced numbers of experimental animals is a relevant issue. PMID:3356355

  19. The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix

    Barneda, David; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Gaspar, Maria L; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Prasannan, Sunil; Dormann, Dirk; Han, Gil-Soo; Jesch, Stephen A; Carman, George M; Kagan, Valerian; Parker, Malcolm G; Ktistakis, Nicholas T; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Dixon, Ann M; Henry, Susan A; Christian, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of energy homeostasis depends on the highly regulated storage and release of triacylglycerol primarily in adipose tissue, and excessive storage is a feature of common metabolic disorders. CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. We demonstrate an essential role in this process for an amphipathic helix in CIDEA, which facilitates embedding in the LD phospholipid monolayer and binds phosphatidic acid (PA). LD pairs are docked by CIDEA trans-complexes through contributions of the N-terminal domain and a C-terminal dimerization region. These complexes, enriched at the LD–LD contact site, interact with the cone-shaped phospholipid PA and likely increase phospholipid barrier permeability, promoting LD fusion by transference of lipids. This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07485.001 PMID:26609809

  20. Inhibition of erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and hemolysis by the radioprotectant WR-2721, S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid

    Chemical radioprotection is often interpreted in terms of protection or repair of DNA damaged predominantly by reactive oxygen species formed from the radiolysis of water. Radiation injury can also be related to membrane damage as a consequence, e.g., of lipid hydroperoxide formation, but the role of lipid peroxidation in radioprotection has not been studied widely. The authors have used red cell model systems in this regard, which have the advantage of lack of organelles and DNA, and the potential for characterizing factors that influence drug uptake. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was used to mimic radiation-induced hydroperoxides. After 2.5 hr incubation of rat erythrocytes with 1.0 mM CHP, 20% hemolysis was observed, which appeared to be related to glucose depletion in the cells, since the presence of glucose (5mM) inhibited hemolysis. Hemolysis was also totally inhibited by 5 mM WR-2721. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (indicative of lipid peroxidation) were detectable before hemolysis and inhibited by WR-2721. WR-2721 and its free sulfhydryl form (WR-1065) were also capable of inhibiting radiation-induced formation of pentane in erythrocyte ghost preparations. These data indicate that the antioxidant action of WR-2721 is due to its conversion to WR-1065, and this antioxidant effect may contribute to the radioprotective effect of the drug

  1. Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator.

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Bruce, Barry D; Young, Jock W; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  2. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids and oleic acid on blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities

    Tholstrup, T.; Ehnholm, C.; Jauhiainen, M.; Petersen, M.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Lund, Pia; Sandstrøm, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are more easily absorbed from dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) than are long-chain fatty acids from, for example, vegetable oils. It has generally been claimed that MCFAs do not increase plasma...... design, 17 healthy young men replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 70 g MCTs (66% 8:0 and 34% 10:0) or high-oleic sunflower oil (89.4% 18:1). Each intervention period lasted 21 d, and the 2 periods were separated by a washout period of 2 wk. Blood samples were taken before and after the...... intervention periods. Results: Compared with the intake of high-oleic sunflower oil, MCT intake resulted in 11% higher plasma total cholesterol (P = 0.0005), 12% higher LDL cholesterol (P = 0.0001), 32% higher VLDL cholesterol (P = 0.080), a 12% higher ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol (P = 0.002), 22% higher...

  3. Konjac-based oil bulking system for development of improved-lipid pork patties: technological, microbiological and sensory assessment.

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Carballo, José; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    Improved-lipid pork patties were manufactured following two different reformulation strategies: fat reduction by replacement of pork backfat with konjac gel (KG), and fat reduction/lipid improvement by replacement of pork backfat with an improved oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils) bulking system based on konjac gel (O-KG). Technological, microbiological and sensory properties were analyzed as affected by the type of formulation and by chilled storage (9days, 2°C). Fat was reduced by between 30 and 86%. In the cases where O-KG was incorporated, 12 and 41% of total fat in patties came from the oil combination. There was no observable effect on color parameters in samples with O-K. Higher KG levels produced harder cooked patties. Animal fat replacement in patties promoted an increase in lipid oxidation, which was more pronounced in samples with an oil combination. In general, during chilled storage no major changes were observed in the studied properties as a result of the different treatments. PMID:25485511

  4. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

    Tang, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Li, Jin-Zhang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (...

  5. An efficient new formulation of fusidic acid and betamethasone 17-valerate (fucicort lipid cream) for treatment of clinically infected atopic dermatitis

    Larsen, Finn Schultz; Simonsen, Lene; Melgaard, Anita;

    2007-01-01

    To relieve the dryness of atopic dermatitis skin, a lipid formulation of fusidic acid and betamethasone 17-valerate (Fucicort Lipid cream) was developed as an additional treatment option to the established Fucicort cream. The two formulations were compared in patients with clinically infected...... atopic dermatitis. A total of 629 patients were randomized to twice daily double-blind treatment for 2 weeks with either Fucicort Lipid cream, Fucicort cream, or the new lipid cream vehicle. Clinical assessment was based on a Total Severity Score of the eczematous lesions. Bacteriological samples were...... taken at inclusion and at subsequent visit(s) if clinically infected lesions persisted. At the end of treatment, the mean reduction in Total Severity score was 82.9% in the lipid cream group, 82.7% in the cream group, and 33.0% in the vehicle group. The percentage of patients with a successful...

  6. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC50 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC50 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata

  7. Fatty acid transport protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C., E-mail: cdirusso2@unl.edu

    2015-09-25

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC{sub 50} 8–11 μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC{sub 50} 58 μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of {sup 13}C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • Grassofermata is a small compound inhibitor of FATP2. • Uptake inhibition is specific for long chain fatty acids. • Uptake kinetics shows low specificity for adipocytes compared to other cell types. • Inhibition is by a non-competitive mechanism. • Atypical antipsychotics do not inhibit FA uptake by comparison with Grassofermata.

  8. Pectin-Lipid Self-Assembly: Influence on the Formation of Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Nanoparticles

    Guzmán-Puyol, Susana; Benítez, José J.; Domínguez, Eva; Bayer, Illker S.; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16- trihidroxipalmitic) acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10),16- dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w) and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w)) with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR,...

  9. Evidence of improved serum fatty acid profile of postmenopausal women receiving atorvastatin and raloxifene.

    Piperi, C; Zisaki, K; Skenderi, K; Kalofoutis, C; Kalofoutis, A

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene and atorvastatin have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal status and it has been postulated that their effects may be partly mediated by favourable changes in serum lipids and fatty acid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and fatty acids composition was evaluated. Postmenopausal women receiving both raloxifene and atorvastatin showed significant changes in the majority of serum lipids with important reductions in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001) and Apo B levels (p < 0.001). Phospholipids concentrations (p < 0.01) as well as Apo A-I were also significantly raised (p < 0.001). Furthermore, oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) followed by a marked reduction in palmitic acid (16:0) and arachidonic acid (20:4) concentrations (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The results of the study indicate that the serum lipid and fatty acid composition in postmenopausal women is influenced by the combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin and a further attempt to evaluate the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:16183584

  10. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro

    Suzuki, Chie; SAKAGUCHI, Yosuke; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshioka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addit...

  11. Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts

    Herrmann Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms of long chain fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane are important targets in treatment of many human diseases like obesity or hepatic steatosis. Long chain fatty acid translocation is achieved by a concert of co-existing mechanisms. These lipids can passively diffuse, but certain membrane proteins can also accelerate the transport. However, we now can provide further evidence that not only proteins but also lipid microdomains play an important part in the regulation of the facilitated uptake process. Methods Dynamic association of FAT/CD36 a candidate fatty acid transporter with lipid rafts was analysed by isolation of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs and by clustering of lipid rafts with antibodies on living cells. Lipid raft integrity was modulated by cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and sphingolipid depletion using myriocin and sphingomyelinase. Functional analyses were performed using an [3H]-oleate uptake assay. Results Overexpression of FAT/CD36 and FATP4 increased long chain fatty acid uptake. The uptake of long chain fatty acids was cholesterol and sphingolipid dependent. Floating experiments showed that there are two pools of FAT/CD36, one found in DRMs and another outside of these domains. FAT/CD36 co-localized with the lipid raft marker PLAP in antibody-clustered domains at the plasma membrane and segregated away from the non-raft marker GFP-TMD. Antibody cross-linking increased DRM association of FAT/CD36 and accelerated the overall fatty acid uptake in a cholesterol dependent manner. Another candidate transporter, FATP4, was neither present in DRMs nor co-localized with FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our observations suggest the existence of two pools of FAT/CD36 within cellular membranes. As increased raft association of FAT/CD36 leads to an increased fatty acid uptake, dynamic association of FAT/CD36 with lipid rafts might regulate the process. There is no

  12. Profiling of Polar Lipids in Marine Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580: Prediction of the Potential Mechanism for Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Incorporation into Triacylglycerol

    Yue Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 is a candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid productivity. However, the substantial eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in this strain would affect the biodiesel quality. On the other hand, EPA is also known as the essential health supplement for humans. EPAs are mainly incorporated into glycerolipids in the microalgal cell instead of the presence as free fatty acids. Therefore, the understanding of the EPA biosynthesis including the incorporation of the EPA into glycerolipids especially triacylglycerol (TAG is fundamental for regulating EPA content for different purposes. In this study, in order to identify the biosynthesis pathway for the EPA-containing TAG species, a lipidomic characterization of the EPA-enriched polar lipids was performed by using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TRAP-MS and MS/MS analyses. The determination of the fatty acid positional distribution showed that the sn-2 position of all the chloroplast lipids and part of phosphatidylcholine (PC species was occupied by C16 fatty acids. This result suggested the critical role of the chloroplast on the lipid synthesis in F. solaris. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of C18 fatty acids in PC highly indicated the biosynthesis of EPA on PC. Finally, the PC-based acyl-editing and head group exchange processes were proposed to be essential for the incorporation of EPA into TAG and chloroplast lipids.

  13. Hyaluronic Acid-Modified Cationic Lipid-PLGA Hybrid Nanoparticles as a Nanovaccine Induce Robust Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.

    Liu, Lanxia; Cao, Fengqiang; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Hongfan; Wang, Chun; Leng, Xigang; Song, Cunxian; Kong, Deling; Ma, Guilei

    2016-05-18

    Here, we investigated the use of hyaluronic acid (HA)-decorated cationic lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) hybrid nanoparticles (HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs) as vaccine delivery vehicles, which were originally developed for the cytosolic delivery of genes. Our results demonstrated that after the NPs uptake by dendritic cells (DCs), some of the antigens that were encapsulated in HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs escaped to the cytosolic compartment, and whereas some of the antigens remained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment, where both MHC-I and MHC-II antigen presentation occurred. Moreover, HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs led to the up-regulation of MHC, costimulatory molecules, and cytokines. In vivo experiments further revealed that more powerful immune responses were induced from mice immunized with HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs when compared with cationic lipid-PLGA nanoparticles and free ovalbumin (OVA); the responses included antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, the production of antigen-specific IgG antibodies and the generation of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Overall, these data demonstrate the high potential of HA-DOTAP-PLGA NPs for use as vaccine delivery vehicles to elevate cellular and humoral immune responses. PMID:27088457

  14. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; da Silva, Patrícia Bento; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; de Oliveira Lopes, Érica; de Souza, Leonardo Perez; Vilegas, Wagner; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae) includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804) was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase). The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the nanostructure-incorporated extract of A. urundeuva leaves was more effective than both the unincorporated extract and the antifungal positive control (amphotericin B). These results suggest that this nanostructured lipid system can be used in a strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo anti-C. albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of Astronium sp. PMID:26300640

  15. Prospects of fatty acid profile and bioactive composition from lipid seeds for the discrimination of apple varieties with the application of chemometrics

    Arain, S.; Sherazzi, S. T. H.; Bhanger, M. I.; Memon, N.; Mahesar, S. A.; Rajput, M. T.

    2012-11-01

    The extracted oils from four apple seed varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Pyrus Malus and Golden Delicious) from Pakistan were investigated for their fatty acid profiles and lipid biactives by GC-MS. The oil contents in the seeds of the apple varieties ranged from 26.8-28.7%. The results revealed that linoleic acid (40.5-49.6%) was the main fatty acid in the Royal Gala, Red Delicious and Pyrus Malus seeds, and oleic acid (38.7-45.5%) was the main fatty acid in the Golden Delicious seeds. Palmitic acid (6.1-7.4%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.1%) were the dominant saturated fatty acids, besides the small amount of palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, linolenic, archidic, eicosanoic, and behenic acids. Sterols, tocopherols, hydrocarbons and some other minor components were also identified from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The variation among the results of both fatty acids and lipid bio actives for the four different varieties was assessed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cluster analyses. The results conclude that both oil fractions could be applied as a useful tool to discriminate among the apple seed varieties. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. Effects of supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to low-protein diets on expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of growing pigs.

    Duan, Yehui; Duan, Yangmiao; Li, Fengna; Li, Yinghui; Guo, Qiuping; Ji, Yujiao; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    protein 4 in the muscles (P protein diet (17 % CP) with the BCAA ratio within 1:0.25:0.25-1:0.75:0.75 could increase the IMF content in BF muscle and significantly improve the fatty acid composition in different skeletal muscles accompanied by changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, compared with those in the pigs that received adequate dietary protein (20 %), which might result in improved eating quality and nutritional value of the meat. PMID:27156063

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera using commercial proteases: Effects on lipid distribution and amino acid composition

    Kechaou, Emna; Durnay, Justine; Donnay-Moreno, Claire; Jaouen, Pascal; Gouygou, Jean-paul; Berge, Jean-pascal; Ben Arnar, Raja

    2009-01-01

    Total lipid and phospholipid recovery as well as amino acid quality and composition from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were compared. Enzymatic hydrolyses were performed using the three proteases Protamex, Alcalase, and Flavourzyme by the pH-stat method (24 h, pH 8, 50 degrees C). Three fractions were generated: an insoluble sludge, a soluble aqueous phase, and an oily phase. For each fraction, lipids, phospholipids, and proteins were quantified. Quantitative...

  18. Fliposomes: pH-Sensitive Liposomes Containing a trans-2-morpholinocyclohexanol-Based Lipid That Performs a Conformational Flip and Triggers an Instant Cargo Release in Acidic Medium

    Barbora Brazdova; Franz, Andreas H.; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V.; Xin Guo; Xin Liu; Samoshina, Nataliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of a pH-sensitive conformational switch into a lipid structure enables a drastic conformational flip upon protonation that disrupts the liposome membrane and causes rapid release of cargo specifically in areas of increased acidity. pH-sensitive liposomes containing the amphiphile (1) with trans-2-morpholinocyclohexanol conformational switch, a phospholipid, and a PEG-lipid conjugate were constructed and characterized. The optimized composition—1/POPC/PEG-ceramide (50/45/5)—could...

  19. β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucose/lipid metabolic disturbance in mice with type 2 diabetes

    Chang-Xiang Shi; Ming-Xia Zhao; Xiao-Dong Shu; Xiao-Qing Xiong; Jue-Jin Wang; Xing-Ya Gao; Qi Chen; Yue-Hua Li; Yu-Ming Kang; Guo-Qing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a nature thymine catabolite, and contributes to exercise-induced protection from metabolic diseases. Here we show the therapeutical effects of BAIBA on hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and glucose/lipid metabolic disturbance in diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was induced by combined streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Oral administration of BAIBA for 4 weeks reduced blood glucose and lipids levels, hepatic key enzymes of gluconeogenesis a...

  20. Fructus xanthii improves lipid homeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Li, Xiumin; Yang, Mingxing; Li, Zhipeng; Xue, Mei; Shangguan, Zhaoshui; Ou, Zhimin; Liu, Ming; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity triggers common features of human metabolic syndrome in rats. Our previous study showed that Fructus xanthii (FX) attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipid metabolism in epididymal fat (EF), and examine its underlying mechanisms. Aqueous extraction fractions of FX or vehicle were orally administered by gavage for 6 weeks to rats fed either a HFD or a normal chow diet (NCD). The levels of circulating free fatty acid (FFA) were determined in plasma, and the expression levels of lipid metabolism‑ and inflammation‑associated genes in the EF were measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The general morphology, size and number of adipocytes in the EF, and the levels of macrophage infiltration were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining or immunohistochemical staining. FX decreased circulating levels of FFA, increased the expression levels of sterol‑regulatory‑element‑binding protein‑1c, FAS, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase lipogenic genes in the EF. FX increased the numbers of adipocytes in the EF, and featured a shift towards smaller adipocyte size. Compared with the vehicle‑treated rats, positive staining of F4/80 was more dispersed in the FX‑treated rats, and the percentage of F4/80 positive cells was significantly decreased. FX attenuated HFD‑induced lipid dyshomeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue. PMID:26648271

  1. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  2. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment. PMID:26850860

  3. Changes of cell lipids in human colonic cell lines after treatment with fatty acids

    Koubková, Zuzana; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Kozubík, Alois

    Piešťany, 2006. ISBN 80-969532-6-5. [Biochemický zjazd /20./. 12.09.2006-16.09.2006, Piešťany] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/04/0895; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : colon cancer * PUFA * cell lipids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Seasonal Variation of Lipids and Fatty Acids of the Microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata Grown in Outdoor Large-Scale Photobioreactors

    Catherine Legrand

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available While focus in oil-producing microalgae is normally on nutrient deficiency, we addressed the seasonal variations of lipid content and composition in large-scale cultivation. Lipid content, fatty acid profiles and mono- di- and triglycerides (MAGs, DAGs, and TAGs were analyzed during May 2007–May 2009 in Nannochloropsis oculata grown outdoors in closed vertical flat panels photobioreactors. Total lipids (TL ranged from 11% of dry weight (DW in winter to 30% of DW in autumn. 50% of the variation in TL could be explained by light and temperature. As the highest lipid content was recorded during autumn indicating an optimal, non-linear, response to light and temperature we hypothesize that enhanced thylakoid stacking under reduced light conditions resulted in more structural lipids, concomitantly with the increase in glycerides due to released photo-oxidative stress. The relative amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA increased during autumn. This suggested a synthesis, either of structural fatty acids as MUFA, or a relative increase of C16:1 incorporated into TAGs and DAGs. Our results emphasize the significant role of environmental conditions governing lipid content and composition in microalgae that have to be considered for correct estimation of algal oil yields in biodiesel production.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid at the sn-2 position of structured triacylglycerols improved n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid assimilation in tissues of hamsters.

    Bandarra, Narcisa M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Ferreira, Júlia; Alfaia, Cristina M; Rolo, Eva A; Correia, Jorge J; Pinto, Rui M A; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; Batista, Irineu; Prates, José A M; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position, which enhances efficacy and health benefits of dietary DHA n-3 supplementation. Ten-week-old Golden Syrian male hamsters were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups with 10 animals in each: linseed oil (LSO; control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE), and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL). After 12weeks, there were no variations in the hamsters' body composition parameters across dietary groups. The DHA-SL diet had the lowest values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipids, and aspartate aminotransferase activity, whereas the inverse was observed for the FO diet. Glucose was increased in the LSO diet without affecting insulin and insulin resistance markers. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was increased in the brain of hamsters fed the DHA-SL diet, higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid were observed in the liver and erythrocytes of the LSO. The highest omega-3 index was obtained with the DHA-SL diet. The principal component analyses discriminated DHA from other metabolites and set apart 4 clusters matching the 4 diets. Similarly, liver, erythrocytes, and brain were separated from each other, pointing toward an individual signature on fatty acid deposition. The structured sn-2 position DHA-containing TAG ameliorated blood lipids and fatty acid incorporation, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA in liver, erythrocytes, and brain, relative to commercially FOs, thus improving the health benefits of DHA due to its higher bioavailability. PMID:27101763

  6. Lipid remodelling during epididymal maturation of rat spermatozoa. Enrichment in plasmenylcholines containing long-chain polyenoic fatty acids of the n-9 series.

    Aveldaño, M I; Rotstein, N P; Vermouth, N T

    1992-04-01

    In their transit from the caput to the cauda segments of the epididymis, rat spermatozoa undergo significant modifications in lipid content and composition. The amount of lipid phosphorus per cell decreases, and most lipid classes show specific changes in their constituent fatty acids. A depletion of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, concomitant with a virtually unchanged amount of the corresponding plasmalogens, are the major alterations, plasmenylcholine thereby becoming the major phospholipid. Diphosphatidylglycerol, sphingomyelin and the phosphoinositides decrease to a lesser extent or do not change at all, also resulting in relative increases with sperm maturation. Concerning the fatty acids, the proportions of oleate (C18:1, n-9) and linoleate (C18:2, n-6) in most lipids decrease on movement of sperm from caput to cauda, augmenting in turn the proportions of longer-chain (C20 to C24) and more unsaturated fatty acids. Docosapentaenoate (C22:5, n-6) is a major acyl chain present in all lipids at both stages, but uncommon long-chain polyenoic fatty acids of the n-9 series are also present, being almost exclusively found in the choline glycerophospholipids. These fatty acids are found to undergo the most significant changes during sperm maturation. They are minor components of plasmenylcholine in immature spermatozoa, but increase severalfold on maturation, representing more than half of the acyl chains of this major lipid in cells from the cauda. The high concentration of n-9 polyenes in mature sperm plasmenylcholine raises intriguing questions on the possible role epididymal cells may play in providing spermatozoa with such an unusual phospholipid. These plasmenylcholines could contribute to the characteristic lipid domain organization of the mature spermatozoa plasma membrane. PMID:1567371

  7. Freeze-dried strawberry powder improves lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in women with metabolic syndrome: baseline and post intervention effects

    Betts Nancy M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strawberry flavonoids are potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents that have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in prospective cohort studies. Effects of strawberry supplementation on metabolic risk factors have not been studied in obese populations. We tested the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberry powder (FSP will lower fasting lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation at four weeks compared to baseline. We also tested the tolerability and safety of FSP in subjects with metabolic syndrome. FSP is a concentrated source of polyphenolic flavonoids, fiber and phytosterols. Methods Females (n = 16 with 3 features of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference >35 inches, triglycerides > 150 mg/dL, fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL and 130/85 mm Hg were enrolled in the study. Subjects consumed two cups of the strawberry drink daily for four weeks. Each cup had 25 g FSP blended in water. Fasting blood draws, anthropometrics, dietary analyses, and blood pressure measurements were done at baseline and 4 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured using ELISA techniques. Plasma ellagic acid was measured using HPLC-UV techniques. Results Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower at 4 weeks versus baseline (-5% and -6%, respectively, p

  8. GH replacement in hypopituitarism improves lipid profile and quality of life independently of changes in obesity variables

    Abrams, P.; Boquete, H.; Fideleff, H.;

    2008-01-01

    normal WG, n=434 with increased WG) and FM (n=357) and according to changes in these variables after 1 year of GH replacement. Serum IGF-I concentrations, lipid concentrations and QoL using the QoL Assessment of GHD in Adults questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. RESULTS...... GH replacement, total and LDL cholesterol and QoL improved in all BMI, WG and FM groups. CONCLUSIONS: Variables of obesity adversely affect the already unfavourable lipid profile in GHD subjects by decreasing HDL cholesterol, but do not counteract the positive effect of GH replacement on LDL...... cholesterol. Similarly, QoL is influenced by obesity, but responds equally well to GH treatment independent of BMI, WG and FM Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  9. The Olive Oil-Based Lipid Clinoleic Blocks Leukocyte Recruitment and Improves Survival during Systemic Inflammation: A Comparative In Vivo Study of Different Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Kirsten Buschmann; Johannes Poeschl; Natascha Braach; Hannes Hudalla; Navina Kuss; David Frommhold

    2015-01-01

    Although fish oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions, the immunomodulating properties of lipids are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of three different parenterally administered lipid emulsions in vivo: olive oil-based Clinoleic, fish oil-based Smoflipid, and soybean oil-based Lipofundin. We observed leukocyte recruitment in inflamed murine cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy and s...

  10. Effects of USDA beef quality grade and cooking on fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipid fractions.

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C

    2015-02-01

    The effects of USDA beef quality grade (QG; Prime, Low Choice, and Standard; n=8) and cooking (RC) on fatty acid (FA) concentrations (mg/g dry matter) and percentages of neutral and polar lipid fractions (NL and PL, respectively)from strip steaks were explored. An increase in QG led to an accumulation of most FA, especially in the NL fraction (P < 0.001). Common effects on FA percentages were two-way interactions of either QG or RC with LF (P ≤ 0.019). Fatty acids were affected differently by QG and RC depending on their originating LF. Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentages of the PL were dependent on QG (P ≤ 0.014). Cooking and QG had minimal impact on FA percentages of the NL, however, greatly influenced PL MUFA and PUFA percentages (P b 0.001). There was evidence indicating that dry heat cookery affected not only PUFA, as generally thought, but also the MUFA of PL fraction. PMID:25460133

  11. Bile Acids Improve the Antimicrobial Effect of Rifaximin▿ †

    Darkoh, Charles; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Ajami, Nadim; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common infirmities affecting international travelers, occurring in 20 to 50% of persons from industrialized countries visiting developing regions. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common causative agent and is isolated from approximately half of the cases of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin, a largely water-insoluble, nonabsorbable (<0.4%) antibiotic that inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis, is approved for use for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea caused by diarrheagenic E. coli. However, the drug has minimal effect on the bacterial flora or the infecting E. coli strain in the aqueous environment of the colon. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and bioavailability of rifaximin in aqueous solution in the presence and absence of physiologic concentrations of bile acids. The methods used included growth measurement of ETEC (strain H10407), rifaximin solubility measurements, total bacterial protein determination, and assessment of the functional activity of rifaximin by monitoring inhibition of bacterial β-galactosidase expression. Solubility studies showed rifaximin to be 70- to 120-fold more soluble in bile acids (approximately 30% in 4 mM bile acids) than in aqueous solution. Addition of both purified bile acids and human bile to rifaximin at subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations significantly improved the drug's anti-ETEC effect by 71% and 73%, respectively, after 4 h. This observation was confirmed by showing a decrease in the overall amount of total bacterial protein expressed during incubation of rifaximin plus bile acids. Rifaximin-treated samples containing bile acids inhibited the expression of ETEC β-galactosidase at a higher magnitude than samples that did not contain bile acids. The study provides data showing that bile acids solubilize rifaximin on a dose-response basis, increasing the drug's bioavailability and antimicrobial effect. These observations suggest

  12. Pectin-Lipid Self-Assembly: Influence on the Formation of Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Nanoparticles

    Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Benítez, José Jesús; Domínguez, Eva; Bayer, Ilker Sefik; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles, named cutinsomes, have been prepared from aleuritic (9,10,16-trihidroxipalmitic) acid and tomato fruit cutin monomers (a mixture of mainly 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (85%, w/w) and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (7.5%, w/w)) with pectin in aqueous solution. The process of formation of the nanoparticles of aleuritic acid plus pectin has been monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while their chemical and morphological characterization was analyzed by ATR-FTIR, TEM, and non-con...

  13. Development of an optimized hyaluronic acid-based lipidic nanoemulsion co-encapsulating two polyphenols for nose to brain delivery.

    Nasr, Maha

    2016-05-01

    The development of mucoadhesive lipidic nanoemulsion based on hyaluronic acid, co-encapsulating two polyphenols (resveratrol and curcumin) for the transnasal treatment of neurodegenerative diseases was attempted in the current manuscript. Nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method, and were characterized for their particle size, zeta potential, mucoadhesive strength and morphology. The selected formula was tested for its antioxidant potential, in vitro and ex vivo release of the two polyphenols, safety on nasal mucosa and in vivo quantification of the two drugs in rat brains. Its stability was tested by monitoring the change in particle size, zeta potential, drugs' content and antioxidant potential upon storage for 3 months. The optimized hyaluronic acid based nanoemulsion formula displayed a particle size of 115.2 ± 0.15 and a zeta potential of -23.9 ± 1.7. The formula displayed a spherical morphology and significantly higher mucoadhesive strength compared to its non mucoadhesive counterpart. In addition, the nanoemulsion was able to preserve the antioxidant ability of the two polyphenols and protect them from degradation. Diffusion controlled release of the two drugs was achievable till 6 hours, with an ex vivo flux across sheep nasal mucosa of 2.86 and 2.09 µg/cm(2)hr for resveratrol and curcumin, respectively. Moreover, the mucoadhesive nanoemulsion was safe on nasal mucosa and managed to increase the amounts of the two polypehnols in the brain (about 7 and 9 folds increase in AUC0-7 h for resveratrol and curcumin, respectively). Hyaluronic acid based lipidic nanoemulsion proved itself as a successful carrier enhancing the solubility, stability and brain targetability of polyphenols. PMID:26401600

  14. Lipid and fatty acid composition, and persistent organic pollutant levels in tissues of migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, L.) broodstock

    Lipid class, fatty acid and POP levels were measured in migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT) tissues caught off the Barbate coast, Spain. Tissue lipids were largely characterized by triacylglycerol, reflecting large energy reserves accumulated prior to reproductive migration. Fatty acid compositions of muscle, liver and adipose exhibited similar profiles, whereas gonads showed a higher affinity for docosahexaenoic acid. Tissue POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol and negatively with polar lipids. Highest POP concentrations were in adipose and lowest in gonads, reflecting lipid content. DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB levels, with mono-ortho concentrations higher in tissues, whereas non-ortho PCBs contributed greater WHO-TEQs due to differences in TEFs. PBDE47 was the most prominent BDE congener in tissues, probably through biotransformation of BDE99 and other higher brominated congeners. The perceived POP risk from ABT consumption should be balanced by the well-established beneficial effects on human health of omega-3 fatty acids. - Highlights: ► Lipid classes, fatty acids and POPs were measured in Atlantic bluefin tuna tissues. ► Lowest POP concentrations were detected in gonads and highest in adipose. ► POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol. ► The DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB concentrations and TEQ levels. ► We assess the risk-benefit to human health associated with ABT consumption. - Lipids, fatty acids (particularly omega-3) and POPs were determined in Atlantic bluefin tuna to examine tissue distribution, and assess the risk-benefit to human health.

  15. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  16. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  17. A Nanostructured Lipid System as a Strategy to Improve the in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Copper(II Complexes

    Patricia B. da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the in vitro antibacterial activity of copper(II complexes. New compounds with the general formulae [CuX2(INH2]·nH2O (X = Cl− and n = 1 (1; X = NCS− and n = 5 (2; X = NCO− and n = 4 (3; INH = isoniazid, a drug widely used to treat tuberculosis derived from the reaction between the copper(II chloride and isoniazid in the presence or absence of pseudohalide ions (NCS− or NCO− were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, melting points and complexometry with 2,2′,2′′,2′′′-(Ethane-1,2-diyldinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA. The characterization techniques allowed us to confirm the formation of the copper(II complexes. The Cu(II complexes were loaded into microemulsion (MEs composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol, 10% surfactant [soy oleate and Brij® 58 (1:2] and 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 prepared by sonication. The Cu(II complex-loaded MEs displayed sizes ranging from 158.0 ± 1.060 to 212.6 ± 1.539 nm, whereas the polydispersity index (PDI ranged from 0.218 ± 0.007 to 0.284 ± 0.034. The antibacterial activity of the free compounds and those that were loaded into the MEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922, as evaluated by a microdilution technique, and the cytotoxicity index (IC50 against the Vero cell line (ATCC® CCL-81TM were used to calculate the selectivity index (SI. Among the free compounds, only compound 2 (MIC 500 μg/mL showed activity for S. aureus. After loading the compounds into the MEs, the antibacterial activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was significantly increased against E. coli (MIC’s 125, 125 and 500 μg/mL, respectively and S. aureus (MICs 250, 500 and 125 μg/mL, respectively. The loaded compounds were less toxic against the Vero

  18. Lipid changes in normal and cancer colon cells during differentiation and apoptosis induced by fatty acids

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Hýžďalová, Martina; Koubková, Zuzana; Netíková, Jaromíra; Kozubík, Alois

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), S43. ISSN 1107-3756. [12th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and 10th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine. 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Hersonissos, Crete] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1178; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : colon cancer * lipids * apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Changes in LDL fatty acid composition as a response to olive oil treatment are inversely related to lipid oxidative damage: The EUROLIVE study

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Nascetti, Simona; López-Sabater, Maria C; Elosua, Roberto; Salonen, Jukka T; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Poulsen, Henrik E; Zunft, Hans-Joachim F; Kiesewetter, Holger; de la Torre, Karina; Covas, María-Isabel; Kaikkonen, Jari; Mursu, Jaakko; Koenbick, Corina; Bäumler, Hans; Gaddi, Antonio V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage.......The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage....

  20. Increased Lipid Levels Improves after Treatment with Cabergolin in Patients with Prolactinoma

    Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Aycicek Dogan, Bercem; Navdar Basaran, Mehtap; Arduc, Ayse; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIt has been suggested that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. However it is not fully understood that dyslipidemia is occurs independently or due to obesity. The study was aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and androgen hormone levels before and after cabergolin (CAB) treatment in non- obese premenauposal patients with prolactinoma. This study was a single-centre, prospective, case–control study, consisted of 53 patients with symptomatic prolacti...

  1. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Scagliusi Fernanda B; Benatti Fabiana B; Artioli Guilherme G; Ugrinowitsch Carlos; Gualano Bruno; Harris Roger C; Lancha Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training d...

  2. Improvement of lipid and phospholipid recoveries from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera using industrial proteases

    Dumay, Justine; Donnay-Moreno, Claire; Barnathan, G; Jaouen, P.; Berge, Jean-pascal

    2006-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine viscera by three broad spectrum proteases was investigated using the pHstat method (24 h, pH 8, 50 degrees C). After hydrolysis, three fractions (sludge, aqueous phase and oily phase) were collected. For each fraction, lipids and phospholipids were quantified and molecular weights of aqueous phase peptides were determined. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) varied from 1.9% (Flavourzyme), 3.1% (Protamex) and to 3.3% (Alcalase). Dry matter dis...

  3. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–con...

  4. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives: We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–c...

  5. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B. Esha; Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2013-01-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared t...

  6. Olive Leaf Extract Improves the Atherogenic Lipid Profile in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    Olmez, Ercument; Vural, Kamil; Gok, Sule; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kayalar, Husniye; Ayhan, Semin; Var, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Coronary heart disease because of atherosclerosis is still the most common cause of mortality. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the olive leaf extract on serum lipid profile, early changes of atherosclerosis and endothelium-dependent relaxations in cholesterol-fed rats. For this purpose, rats were fed by 2% cholesterol-enriched or standard chow for 8 weeks. Some rats in each group were also fed orally by olive leaf extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. Atorvastatin at dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight daily was also given as positive control. After 8 weeks, lipid profiles of rat serums were analyzed. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and degree of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) were also measured in the hearts isolated from rats. In addition, expression of adhesion molecules and endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated thoracic aortas of rats were evaluated. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be increased in cholesterol-fed rats, and both doses of olive leaf extract and atorvastatin significantly decreased those levels. In conclusion, because the olive leaf extract attenuates the increased cholesterol levels, it may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis. PMID:26328503

  7. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  8. Skin photoprotection improvement: synergistic interaction between lipid nanoparticles and organic UV filters.

    Nikolić, S; Keck, C M; Anselmi, C; Müller, R H

    2011-07-29

    A photoprotective formulation was developed with an increased sunprotection factor (SPF), compared to a conventional nanoemulsion, but having the same concentration of three molecular sunscreens, namely ethylhexyl triazone, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine, and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. The sunscreen mixture was incorporated into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The ability of nine different solid lipids to yield stable aqueous NLC suspensions was assessed. After the production by hot high pressure homogenization, the NLC were analyzed in terms of particle size, physical state, particle shape, ultraviolet absorbance and stability. The particle size for all NLC was around 200 nm after production. The NLC suspension with carnauba wax had superior UV absorbance, NLC from bees wax showed similar efficiency as the reference emulsion. The NLC formulations were incorporated into hydrogel formulations and the in vitro SPF was measured. This study demonstrated that approximately 45% higher SPF values could be obtained when the organic UV filters were incorporated into carnauba wax NLC, in comparison to the reference nanoemulsion and bees wax NLC. The data showed that the synergistic effect of NLC and incorporated sunscreens depends not only on the solid state of the lipid but also on its type. PMID:21600969

  9. Model steatogenic compounds (amiodarone, valproic acid, and tetracycline alter lipid metabolism by different mechanisms in mouse liver slices.

    Ewa Szalowska

    Full Text Available Although drug induced steatosis represents a mild type of hepatotoxicity it can progress into more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Current models used for safety assessment in drug development and chemical risk assessment do not accurately predict steatosis in humans. Therefore, new models need to be developed to screen compounds for steatogenic properties. We have studied the usefulness of mouse precision-cut liver slices (PCLS as an alternative to animal testing to gain more insight into the mechanisms involved in the steatogenesis. To this end, PCLS were incubated 24 h with the model steatogenic compounds: amiodarone (AMI, valproic acid (VA, and tetracycline (TET. Transcriptome analysis using DNA microarrays was used to identify genes and processes affected by these compounds. AMI and VA upregulated lipid metabolism, whereas processes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation were downregulated. TET downregulated mitochondrial functions, lipid metabolism, and fibrosis. Furthermore, on the basis of the transcriptomics data it was hypothesized that all three compounds affect peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR signaling. Application of PPAR reporter assays classified AMI and VA as PPARγ and triple PPARα/(β/δ/γ agonist, respectively, whereas TET had no effect on any of the PPARs. Some of the differentially expressed genes were considered as potential candidate biomarkers to identify PPAR agonists (i.e. AMI and VA or compounds impairing mitochondrial functions (i.e. TET. Finally, comparison of our findings with publicly available transcriptomics data showed that a number of processes altered in the mouse PCLS was also affected in mouse livers and human primary hepatocytes exposed to known PPAR agonists. Thus mouse PCLS are a valuable model to identify early mechanisms of action of compounds altering lipid metabolism.

  10. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Giménez, María Dolores García; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  11. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  12. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Rafael Guillén-Bejarano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw/day and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day, saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF, the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA, fiber fraction (FF, and flavonoid fraction (FVF to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD. In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.

    Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C

    2014-07-01

    Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. PMID:24775093

  14. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  15. Use of tannins to improve fatty acids profile of meat and milk quality in ruminants: A review

    Rodrigo Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews how tannins, through their effects on rumen lipid metabolism, can affect the composition of ruminants' meat and milk fat. Tannins are a heterogeneous group of plant secondary compounds known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on animals' digestive physiology. Tannins supplementation of ruminants' diets alters both in vivo and in vitro unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation and hence the profile of fatty acids outflowing the rumen, which can influence milk and meat content of beneficial fatty acids such as linolenic acid (c9,c12,c15-18:3, vaccenic acid (ti 1-18:1 and rumenic acid (c9,t11-18:2, among others. Published information indicates that tannins could inhibit biohydrogenation though affecting ruminal microorganisms. Some studies found increments in linolenic, rumenic and/or vaccenic acids in meat and milk fat using different sources of tannins; however, the effects of tannins supplementation on milk and meat fatty acid profile are not consistent, and there are contradictory results published in the literature. Effects of tannin supplementation on fatty acids biohydrogenation are affected by the chemical type of tannins, the complexity of their interactions with dietary components, and the potential microbial adaptation to tannins. In addition, the duration of the tannins-feeding period may also affect milk and meat fatty acid profile. Characterizing the effects of each specific tannic compound on different biohydrogenation steps and on the microbial species conducting them, as well as the interaction between specific tannin compounds and other dietary components can help to take greater advantage of tannins potential to contribute to improve human health through promoting beneficial fatty acids in ruminants products.

  16. CUTICULAR LIPIDS OF THE STORED FOOD PEST, LIPOSCELIS BOSTRYCHOPHILA BADONNEL (PSOCOPTERA: LIPOSCELIDIDAE): HYDROCARBONS, ALDEHYDES, FATTY ACIDS AND FATTY ACID AMIDES

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, has increasingly become a common pest of stored food products worldwide. We report here the cuticular hydrocarbon composition of this pest (the first report of the hydrocarbons of any member of the Order Psocoptera) and the first report of fatty acid amides...

  17. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  18. Enhanced microemulsion formation in lipid-based drug delivery systems by combining mono-esters of medium-chain fatty acids with di- or tri-esters

    Darshil P Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop strategies for selecting appropriate lipids from mono-, di- and tri-esters of medium-chain fatty acids for the development of lipid-based drug delivery systems, ternary phase diagrams of propylene glycol(PG monocaprylate (Capryol® 90; HLB~7, PG dicaprylocaprate (Labrafac™PG; HLB~2 and glycerol tricaprylocaprate (Labrafac™Lipophile WL1349; HLB~2 were determined in combination with a commonsurfactant, PEG-35 castor oil (Cremophor®EL, HLB~13, and water. Particle size and viscosity in different regions of the phase diagrams were measured, solubility of a model drug, danazol, in different lipid-surfactant mixtures was determined, and dispersion testing by diluting selected preconcentrates with 250 ml 0.01 NHCl was performed. Further, phase diagrams were constructed using binary mixtures of lipids (monoester with diester, or monoester with triester in place of single lipids. The phase diagrams of PG dicaprylocaprate andglycerol tricaprylocaprate were similar, while it was distinctly different for PG monocaprylate. The microemulsion regions in phase diagrams were rather limited for individual lipids, and additionally, the diand tri-esters showed pronounced gel regions in the phase diagrams, which could influence drug release from preconcentrates. The mixing of PG monocaprylate (monoester with PG dicaprylocaprate (diester or glycerol tricaprylocaprate (triester had dramatic effects on the performance of lipids as evidenced by thegreatly reduced gel phases, much larger microemulsion regions, faster dispersion of the preconcentrates in an aqueous medium, and smaller particle size of the microemulsions subsequently formed.

  19. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed;

    1999-01-01

    : Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P <0.05) lower total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed after theBR and BS period, compared to BG. The effect of BR and BS did not differ. BG and BR...

  20. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the Leptocephalus larva of tropical eels

    Deibel, D.; Parrish, C.C.; Grønkjær, P.;

    2012-01-01

    16:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali...

  1. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in healthy Portuguese children: Is the Mediterranean diet disappearing?

    Guerra, Antonio; Feldl, Franziska; Koletzko, Berthold

    2001-01-01

    Background: Adults and children in Mediterranean countries are believed to consume a Mediterranean-type diet wh ich is h ig her in monounsaturated a nd n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids than compared to central and northern parts of Europe and has preventive effects for cardiovascular risks. Subjects and Methods: in preschool children from Porto, Portugal (n = 35) and Munich, Germany (n = 18) we determined the plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition considered as a biomarker for dietary fat ...

  2. Fatty acid-inducible ANGPTL4 governs lipid metabolic response to exercise

    Catoire, Milène; Alex, Sheril; Paraskevopulos, Nicolas; Mattijssen, Frits; Evers-van Gogh, Inkie; Schaart, Gert; Jeppesen, Jacob; Kneppers, Anita; Mensink, Marco; Voshol, Peter J.; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Tan, Nguan Soon; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Berbée, Jimmy F.; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise causes profound changes in energy metabolism in humans. In this study we show that resting skeletal muscle has a crucial role in the metabolic response to acute exercise. During endurance exercise, selective induction of the protein angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in nonexercising muscle reduces local fatty acid uptake, presumably to prevent fat overload, while directing fatty acids to the active skeletal muscle as fuel. Our data thus suggest that nonexercising muscle has a ke...

  3. Unsupported planar lipid membranes formed from mycolic acids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Langford, Kyle W.; Penkov, Boyan; Derrington, Ian M.; Gundlach, Jens H.

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria includes a thick, robust, and highly impermeable outer membrane made from long-chain mycolic acids. These outer membranes form a primary layer of protection for mycobacteria and directly contribute to the virulence of diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. We have formed in vitro planar membranes using pure mycolic acids on circular apertures 20 to 90 μm in diameter. We find these membranes to be long lived and highly resistant to irreversible electroporation...

  4. Glucose regulates fatty acid binding protein interaction with lipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    Hostetler, Heather A.; Balanarasimha, Madhumitha; Huang, Huan; Kelzer, Matthew S.; Kaliappan, Alagammai; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), nuclear mechanisms linking glucose and LCFA metabolism are poorly understood. As the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) shuttles LCFA to the nucleus, where L-FABP directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the effect of glucose on these processes was examined. In vitro studies showed that L-FABP strongly bound glucose and glucose-...

  5. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  6. Shelf life of ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid and use of grape seed extract to inhibit lipid oxidation.

    Gómez, Inmaculada; Beriain, María J; Mendizabal, Jose A; Realini, Carolina; Purroy, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The shelf life and oxidative stability of refrigerated raw ground beef enriched with omega-3 and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were studied. Grape seed extract (GSE) was used to inhibit lipid oxidation in the ground beef. Eight treatments of ground beef were established according to the enrichment of beef (control, enriched with omega-3, with CLA, or with omega-3 plus CLA) and the use of GSE (0 and 250 mg GSE/kg product). Fresh beef was ground and mixed with GSE and salt. Treatments of beef were stored at 2 ± 1°C in aerobic packaging for 0, 1, 3, and 6 days under retail display conditions. Oxidation stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin formation, and sensory attributes (color and odor) were measured. Omega-3-enriched beef increased the oxidation level at day 6 as determined by TBARS (P color was not affected. The enrichment of CLA improved the coordinates of color (P color and odor values among the types of beef during display, except at day 3, when CLA treatments had the highest scores. Addition of GSE decreased the oxidation level (P color or the sensory parameters. PMID:26788312

  7. Improved lipid and biomass productivities in Chlorella vulgaris by differing the inoculation medium from the production medium

    Shahrbanoo Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of biomass and lipid productivities is now one of the main concerns in commercialization of microalgae cultivation as a feedstock for algal biofuel production. Conventional photoautotrophic processes using well-studied and rich in oil strain of Chlorella vulgaris are not able to meet such demands. A new strategy of inoculating algae production medium with cells grown in a different medium from the production medium was proposed herein. More specifically, when SH4 was used as production medium and N8 was used as inoculation medium, biomass and lipid productivities increased by 2.33 folds and 1.44 fold, respectively, compared with when the production and inoculation media were the same, such as SH4. The findings of the present investigation showed that this cultivation scheme resulted in 52% increase in cell number and 54% increase in dry weight leading to improved productivities. Although by even considering this improvement, photoautotrophic cultivation of algae can hardly compete with the heterotrophic cultivation, the high cost of hydrocarbon supply required in large-scale heterotrophic processes marks the technique proposed in the present study as a promising approach for commercialization of algal biofuel production.

  8. Biodiesel production from the lipid of wastewater sludge using an acidic heterogeneous catalyst

    Siddiquee, M.N.; Kazemian, H.; Rohani, S. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, London, ON (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The production of biodiesel from the lipid of wastewater sludge was studied using SBA-15 impregnated with the heteropolyacid H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}.12WO{sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O (PW{sub 12}) as a mesoporous heterogeneous catalyst. X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, thermalgravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the prepared catalysts. Catalytic performances were evaluated in a microreactor setup under different experimental conditions. The biodiesel yield for a sample impregnated with 15 % PW{sub 12} was 30.14 wt-% at a temperature of 135 C and a pressure of 135 psi for 3 h reaction time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Effects of Headgroups and Serum on Gene Transfection of Alkaline Amino Acid Based Cationic Lipids

    LI Li; YANG Yang; NIE Yu; HE Bin; GU Zhong-wei

    2009-01-01

    Three cationic lipids with lysylated(l), histidylated(2), and arginylated(3) headgroups and cholesterol hy-drophobic moiety were synthesized. The average sizes of liposomes and lipoplexes were around 100 and 160 nm, re-spectively. The gene transfection efficiency of the three lipoplexes loaded with pGL3 or pORF-LacZ was compared on 293T cells in the presence or the absence of serum. The transfection efficiency of the three lipoplexes in a se-rum-free medium was 2 to 3-fold higher than that of dioleoyl-trimethylammonium propane(DOTAP). In the presence of serum, however, most of the lipoplexes showed lower transfection activities; only lipoplex 3 retained its high transfection efficiency.

  10. Lipids in salicylic acid-mediated defense in plants: focusing on the roles of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

    Qiong eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved effective defense strategies to protect themselves from various pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA is an essential signaling molecule that mediates pathogen-triggered signals perceived by different immune receptors to induce downstream defense responses. While many proteins play essential roles in regulating SA signaling, increasing evidence also supports important roles for signaling phospholipids in this process. In this review, we collate the experimental evidence in support of the regulatory roles of two phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P, and their metabolizing enzymes in plant defense, and examine the possible mechanistic interaction between phospholipid signaling and SA-dependent immunity with a particular focus on the immunity-stimulated biphasic PA production that is reminiscent of and perhaps mechanistically connected to the biphasic reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and SA accumulation during defense activation.

  11. Disialylated apolipoprotein C-III proteoform is associated with improved lipids in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    Koska, Juraj; Yassine, Hussein; Trenchevska, Olgica; Sinari, Shripad; Schwenke, Dawn C; Yen, Frances T; Billheimer, Dean; Nelson, Randall W; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-05-01

    The apoC-III proteoform containing two sialic acid residues (apoC-III2) has different in vitro effects on lipid metabolism compared with asialylated (apoC-III0) or the most abundant monosialylated (apoC-III1) proteoforms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma apoC-III proteoforms (by mass spectrometric immunoassay) and plasma lipids were tested in two randomized clinical trials: ACT NOW, a study of pioglitazone in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 531), and RACED (n = 296), a study of intensive glycemic control and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients. At baseline, higher relative apoC-III2 and apoC-III2/apoC-III1 ratios were associated with lower triglycerides and total cholesterol in both cohorts, and with lower small dense LDL in the RACED. Longitudinally, changes in apoC-III2/apoC-III1 were inversely associated with changes in triglycerides in both cohorts, and with total and small dense LDL in the RACED. apoC-III2/apoC-III1 was also higher in patients treated with PPAR-γ agonists and was associated with reduced cardiovascular events in the RACED control group. Ex vivo studies of apoC-III complexes with higher apoC-III2/apoC-III1 showed attenuated inhibition of VLDL uptake by HepG2 cells and LPL-mediated lipolysis, providing possible functional explanations for the inverse association between a higher apoC-III2/apoC-III1 and hypertriglyceridemia, proatherogenic plasma lipid profiles, and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26945091

  12. Alpha-linolenic acid regulates the growth of breast and cervical cancer cell lines through regulation of NO release and induction of lipid peroxidation

    Ruchika Kaul-Ghanekar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have analyzed the effect of the essential fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA on nitric oxide release as well as induction of lipid peroxidation in breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and cervical (SiHa and HeLa cancer cell lines. ALA-treated cells showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in both breast and cervical cancer cell lines without affecting the viability of non-cancerous transformed HEK 293 cells. Both types of cancer cells treated with ALA demonstrated a significant reduction in nitric oxide (NO release with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO. This was followed by a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as activation of caspase 3 leading to apoptosis. Thus, ALA regulated the growth of cancer cell lines through induction of lipid peroxidation and modulation of nitric oxide release resulting in apoptosis.

  13. Growth of the oleaginous microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101 on cellulosic biomass and the production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid.

    Hong, Won-Kyung; Kim, Chul Ho; Rairakhwada, Dina; Kim, Seonghun; Hur, Byung-Ki; Kondo, Akihiko; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We examined the growth of a novel oleaginous microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101, using cellulosic materials as nutrients, and the resultant production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The microalgal strain could grow using either carboxymethylcellulose or cellobiose as a carbon source, and produced lipids containing high levels of DHA (49-58% of total fatty acids). In line with this growth behavior, carboxymethylcellulase and cellobiohydrolase activities were evident in both cell-free lysates and culture broths. Additionally, an industrial cellulosic biomass, palm oil empty fruit bunches (POEFB), a by-product of the palm oil industry, were utilized by the microalgal strain for cell growth and lipid production. PMID:21959581

  14. Isolipidic diets differing in their essential fatty acid profiles affect the deposition of unsaturated neutral lipids in the intestine, liver and vascular system of Senegalese sole larvae and early juveniles

    Boglino, A.; Gisbert, E.; Darias, Maria Jose; Estevez, A; Andree, K. B.; Sarasquete, C; Ortiz-Delgado, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    How lipid content and composition in the diet is utilized by the various organs and tissues of fish is reflected in their structure, such as the intestine through which dietary lipids are digested and absorbed, the vascular system which is involved in their transport, and the liver where lipids are stored and metabolized. However, no study has been conducted to compare the effect of different diets containing different levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and essential fatty acids ...

  15. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    Breitkreutz, D. [of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fallone, B. G.; Yahya, A. [of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T{sub 2}) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (∼550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (∼50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 5×5×5 mm{sup 3} voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M{sub 0}exp(-TE/T{sub 2}), where M{sub 0} is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T{sub 2} values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  16. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T2) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (∼550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (∼50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 5×5×5 mm3 voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M0exp(-TE/T2), where M0 is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M0 and T2 increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M0 and T2 values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T2 values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation - Prairies.NWT

  17. Unsupported planar lipid membranes formed from mycolic acids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Langford, Kyle W; Penkov, Boyan; Derrington, Ian M; Gundlach, Jens H

    2011-02-01

    The cell wall of mycobacteria includes a thick, robust, and highly impermeable outer membrane made from long-chain mycolic acids. These outer membranes form a primary layer of protection for mycobacteria and directly contribute to the virulence of diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. We have formed in vitro planar membranes using pure mycolic acids on circular apertures 20 to 90 μm in diameter. We find these membranes to be long lived and highly resistant to irreversible electroporation, demonstrating their general strength. Insertion of the outer membrane channel MspA into the membranes was observed indicating that the artificial mycolic acid membranes are suitable for controlled studies of the mycobacterial outer membrane and can be used in nanopore DNA translocation experiments. PMID:21076119

  18. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  19. Improved skin delivery of voriconazole with a nanostructured lipid carrier-based hydrogel formulation.

    Song, Seh Hyon; Lee, Kyung Min; Kang, Jong Boo; Lee, Sang Gon; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Young Wook

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop topical preparations of voriconazole (VRC) for the treatment of mycotic infections of the skin, a nanostructured lipid carrier-based hydrogel (NLC-gel) formulation was developed and its physical characteristics, in vitro skin permeation, and retention profiles were examined. A VRC-loaded NLC dispersion, consisting of Precirol ATO 5, Labrafil 1944 CS, and Tween 80, was prepared by high-pressure homogenization and embedded into Carbopol 940 hydrogel. The lipid nanoparticles in the hydrogel were approximately 210 nm in size, with a spherical shape and zeta potential of -30 mV. In a skin permeation study using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated mouse skin, the NLC-gel was superior to conventional cream and microemulsion-based gel formulations, showing 2.8- and 1.7-fold greater flux values, respectively. In addition, the NLC-gel led to markedly greater accumulation of VRC in deeper skin layers as compared with the reference formulations. In conclusion, the novel topical formulation reported here represents an alternative treatment for skin infections such as candidiasis, with less potential for systemic adverse effects than oral therapy. PMID:25087631

  20. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum...

  2. THE EFFECT OF PANTETHINE, A PRECURSOR OF COENZYME A, ON BILE ACIDS AND LIPIDS IN RATS FED WITH A CHOLESTEROL DIET

    Kajiyama, Goro; Kawamoto, Toshio; Fukuhara, Choho; Horiuchi, Itaru; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Akima

    1981-01-01

    The effect of pantethine on bile acids and lipids was studied by the washout technique in Wistar female rats fed for four weeks with a 1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, either containing or not containing 1% pantethine. Pantethine caused a slight increase in the biliary cholesterol concentration with a significant decrease in the serum cholesterol, β-lipoprotein and triglyceride levels. An increase in the pool size, secretion rate and enterohepatic circulation rate ...

  3. THE EFFECT OF PANTETHINE, A PRECURSOR OF COENZYME A, ON BILE ACIDS AND LIPIDS IN RATS FED WITH A CHOLESTEROL DIET

    Kajiyama, Goro; Kawamoto, Toshio; Fukuhara, Choho; Horiuchi, Itaru; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Akima

    1981-01-01

    The effect of pantethine on bile acids and lipids was studied by the washout technique in Wistar female rats fed for four weeks with a 1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, either containing or not containing 1% pantethine. Pantethine caused a slight increase in the biliary cholesterol concentration with a significant decrease in the serum cholesterol, β-lipoprotein and triglyceride levels. An increase in the pool size, secretion rate and enterohepatic circulation rate of pr...

  4. Seasonal comparison of wild and farmed brown trout (Salmo trutta forma fario L., 1758): crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acids.

    Kaya, Yalçin; Erdem, Mehmet Emіn

    2009-08-01

    Brown trout is one of the most preferred wild freshwater fish species in the east Black Sea region (Turkey) due to its nutritional value and palatable aroma as well as being popular for sport fishing. In this research, seasonal variations in the crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acid composition of wild and farmed brown trout were investigated. The spawning period of wild and farmed brown trout appears to be from August to October and from October to January, respectively. The mean crude lipid content in farmed brown trout (3.62%) was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than that of wild brown trout (2.80%). Significant seasonal differences (P≤0.05) in crude lipid content were observed in both fish. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was similar (P≥0.05) in both fish. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher (P≤0.05) in the wild brown trout compared with the farmed brown trout, while its total monounsaturated fatty acids content was lower (P≤0.05). The muscle lipids of wild fish contained significantly (P≤0.05) higher percentages of C16:1n-7, C17:1n-7, C18:3n-3, C20:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:2n-6 fatty acids and contained lower percentages of C14:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C20:1n-9, C24:1n-9 and C22:6n-3 fatty acids than farmed fish. The total amounts of n-3 fatty acids in wild fish were higher than in farmed fish, but total amounts of n-6 fatty acids in farmed fish were higher than in wild fish. The n3/n6 proportion in wild fish was higher than that of farmed fish. PMID:18651298

  5. Levels of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, and most trienoate-containing polar lipid molecular species increase during the dark period of the diurnal cycle

    Sara eMaatta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the dark period. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana were grown at constant (21°C temperature with 12-h light and 12-h dark periods. Collision induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that 16:3 and 18:3 fatty acid content in membrane lipids of leaves are higher at the end of the dark than at the end of the light period, while 16:1, 16:2, 18:0, and 18:1 content are higher at the end of the light period. Lipid profiling of membrane galactolipids, phospholipids, and lysophospholipids by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry indicated that the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine classes include molecular species whose levels are highest at end of the light period and others that are highest at the end of the dark period. The levels of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine classes were higher at the end of the dark period, and molecular species within these classes either followed the class pattern or were not significantly changed in the diurnal cycle. Phospholipase D (PLD is a family of enzymes that hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid. Analysis of several PLD mutant lines suggests that PLDζ2 and possibly PLDα1 may contribute to diurnal cycling of phosphatidic acid. The polar lipid compositional changes are considered in relation to recent data that demonstrate phosphatidylcholine acyl editing.

  6. Changes in LDL fatty acid composition as a response to olive oil treatment are inversely related to lipid oxidative damage: The EUROLIVE study

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Nascetti, Simona; López-Sabater, Maria C; Elosua, Roberto; Salonen, Jukka T; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Poulsen, Henrik E; Zunft, Hans-Joachim F; Kiesewetter, Holger; de la Torre, Karina; Covas, María-Isabel; Kaikkonen, Jari; Mursu, Jaakko; Koenbick, Corina; Bäumler, Hans; Gaddi, Antonio V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fatty acid composition of low density lipoproteins (LDL) after sustained consumption of olive oil at real-life doses (25 mL/day) and their relationship with lipid oxidative damage....

  7. Effects of dietary nucleotides on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids in term infants.

    DeLucchi, C; Pita, M L; Faus, M J; Molina, J A; Uauy, R; Gil, A

    1987-01-01

    Human milk contains relatively high amounts of acid-soluble nucleotides, mainly CMP, AMP, UMP, IMP, and UDP sugars, and lacks orotate. On the contrary, cow's milk and adapted formulas contain high amounts of orotate and very low amounts of CMP and AMP. Nucleotides may be modulators of metabolic functions in gut and liver. To evaluate the possible role of dietary nucleotides in newborn fatty acid metabolism, we studied the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids in 58 term infants at 30 days of age. Twenty of them were fed human milk (HM), 19 an adapted formula (MF), and 19 with the same formula supplemented with nucleotides (NMF) in an amount similar to that present in HM. Relative content of omega 6 and 3 PUFA greater than 18 carbon atoms was significantly reduced especially in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine for infants fed regular MF compared with those fed HM or NMF. Unsaturation index of red blood cell phospholipids showed a similar effect. These results suggest that dietary nucleotides play a role in the in vivo desaturation and elongation of essential fatty acids to long chain PUFA during early life for the human newborn. PMID:3430266

  8. Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells.

    Kevin Kolahi

    Full Text Available While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5 and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3. We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism.

  9. Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells

    Louey, Samantha; Varlamov, Oleg; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-01-01

    While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5) and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3). We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism. PMID:27124483

  10. Anaerobic conditions improve germination of a gibberellic acid deficient rice

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf plants are useful in research because multiple plants can be grown in a small area. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is especially important since its relatively simple genome has recently been sequenced. We are characterizing a gibberellic acid (GA) mutant of rice (japonica cv 'Shiokari,' line N-71) that is extremely dwarf (20 cm tall). Unfortunately, this GA mutation is associated with poor germination (70%) under aerobic conditions. Neither exogenous GA nor a dormancy-breaking heat treatment improved germination. However, 95% germination was achieved by germinating the seeds anaerobically, either in a pure N2 environment or submerged in unstirred tap water. The anaerobic conditions appear to break a mild post-harvest dormancy in this rice cultivar. Copyright 2002 Crop Science Society of America.

  11. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  12. Inhibition of gastric lipase as a mechanism for body weight and plasma lipids reduction in Zucker rats fed a rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid.

    María Romo Vaquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts (REs exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40% modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+ and obese (fa/fa female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption.

  13. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  14. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  15. Lipid composition of the human eye: are red blood cells a good mirror of retinal and optic nerve fatty acids?

    Acar, Niyazi; Berdeaux, Olivier; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Martine, Lucy; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles; Creuzot Garcher, Catherine; Bron, Alain; Bretillon, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. Even well accepted such relationships have never been clearly established. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following recent data linking lipid intake to ocular health and disease. In the present study, we wanted to determine in humans whether a lipidomic approach based on red bl...

  16. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05). PMID:25694685

  17. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  18. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities. PMID:25314375

  19. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  20. Metabolic incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into boar spermatozoa lipids and de novo formation of diacylglycerols

    Svetlichnyy, V.; Müller, P.; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in the maturation, viability and function of sperm cells. In this study, we examined the neutral and polar lipid composition of boar spermatozoa by thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry. Main representatives of the neutral lipid classes were diacylglycerols...