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Sample records for acids composition including

  1. Lamb meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition as affected by concentrates including different legume seeds

    Pietro Pennisi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of concentrates including legume seeds (Vicia faba var. minor or Pisum sativum on lamb performances and on meat quality, with an emphasis on intramuscular fatty acid composition. Thirty lambs (14.5 ± 3.45 kg live weight were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: PEA group (concentrate including 400 g/kg of peas; FB group (concentrate including 380 g/kg of faba bean; SBM group (concentrate including 180 g/kg of soybean meal. Growth and slaughter performances were not affected by treatments as well as physical and proximate chemical meat characteristics. FB and SBM meat showed higher (P<0.001 vaccenic acid levels compared to PEA meat. Oleic acid was higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM meat while its level in FB meat was similar to counterparts. Linoleic acid levels tended to increase (P<0.10 in SBM lambs compared to PEA animals. PEA group showed higher (P<0.001 α-linolenic acid proportions compared to FB and SBM groups and a tendentially higher (P<0.10 eicosapentaenoic acid content compared to SBM meat. As a result, total n-3 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05 in PEA meat compared to SBM one while the proportions in FB meat were at intermediate level. These findings accounted for a lower and more favourable (P<0.001 n-6/n-3 ratio in PEA group compared to counterparts. Peas based-concentrate seemed to be more effective than faba bean- or soybean meal-included concentrates to improve the acidic profile of meat leading to higher α-linolenic acid levels and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio.

  2. Variation in Fatty Acids Composition Including Trans Fat in Different Brands of Potato Chips by GC-MS

    Kandhro, Aftab A.; S.T.H. Sherazi; S.A. Mahesar; M. Younis Talpur; Yawar Latif

    2010-01-01

    Twelve different brands of potato chips were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions with eminence on trans fatty acid (TFA) using GC-MS. Results of the present study showed that the dominant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (23.91–42.64 %) was found in greater amount in all analyzed chips samples. The amount of TFA’s determined was ranged between (4.91–14.13 %). Although there was significant variation in the fatty acid profile of all ...

  3. Variation in fatty acids composition including trans fat in different brands of potato chips by GC-MS

    Twelve different brands of potato chips were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions with eminence on trans fatty acid (TFA) using GC-MS. Results of the present study showed that the dominant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (23.91.42.64 %) was found in greater amount in all analyzed chips samples. The amount of TFA's determined was ranged between (4.91.14.13 %). Although there was significant variation in the fatty acid profile of all analyzed chips samples but high amount of palmitic acid and trans fat was commonly observed. The results of present study clearly indicated fat used in the manufacturing of chips was partially hydrogenated and palm oil had major contribution. The high level of trans as well as saturated fat is startling issue for the health of consumers. (author)

  4. Variation in Fatty Acids Composition Including Trans Fat in Different Brands of Potato Chips by GC-MS

    Aftab A. Kandhro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve different brands of potato chips were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions with eminence on trans fatty acid (TFA using GC-MS. Results of the present study showed that the dominant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (23.91–42.64 % was found in greater amount in all analyzed chips samples. The amount of TFA’s determined was ranged between (4.91–14.13 %. Although there was significant variation in the fatty acid profile of all analyzed chips samples but high amount of palmitic acid and trans fat was commonly observed. The results of present study clearly indicated fat used in the manufacturing of chips was partially hydrogenated and palm oil had major contribution. The high level of trans as well as saturated fat is startling issue for the health of consumers.

  5. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( < 0.001). Furthermore, the T-RC group showed a greater proportion of α-linolenic acid than the T group ( = 0.03). In conclusion, the effects of the 2 active compounds (PPO and tannins) appear to be similar and additive. Moreover, a silage composed of a mixture of RC and SF is an excellent forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition. PMID:27136014

  6. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  7. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  9. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivanković; Miljenko Konjačić; Nikolina Kelava

    2010-01-01

    Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P

  10. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  11. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  12. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  13. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems. (author)

  14. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  15. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.

  16. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to...... maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the...... reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the...

  17. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy,...

  18. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Thidarat Noiraksar; Piyawan Srivilas; Jarunan Pratoomyot

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp.) five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp.) and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus) and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synech...

  19. Acid-resistant composite for reinforcing gas and oil wells

    Tarnavskiy, A.P.; Avilov, V.I.; Bayda, Yu.V.; Danyushevskiy, V.S.; Sitkov, B.P.; Zolotukhin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The acid-resistant composite for reinforcing gas and oil wells including ferromolybdenum slag, liquid glass and sodium fluosilicate is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase its setting periods in acid media with increased bed temperature to 80/sup 0/ C, it additionally contains potassium oleate with the following ratio of components (parts by weight): ferromolybdenum slag 100, liquid glass 99-100, sodium fluosilicate 5.5-10.0; potassium oleate 0.2-1.5.

  20. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic proton conductors

    He, Ronghuan; Qingfeng, Li; Gang, Xiao;

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) and PBI composite membranes have been prepared in the present work. The PBI composites contain inorganic proton conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2·nH2O), phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40·nH2O) and silicotungstic acid (Si...

  1. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  2. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  3. Synthesis of acid-functionalized composite via surface deposition of acid-containing amorphous carbon

    Du, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Lou, Lan-Lan; Dong, Yanling; Liu, Gaixia; Liu, Shuangxi

    2012-07-01

    A synthetic procedure, including two steps: a hydrothermal treatment using H2SO4 solution and a thermal treatment with concentrated H2SO4 in Teflon-lined stainless autoclaves was developed to synthesize acid-functionalized composite. In this process, the carbonization of glucose which contributed to the formation of carbon species with acid functional groups occurred on the silica surface. The resultant composite, investigated by powder XRD, low temperature N2 sorption and TEM, possessed well-defined mesostructure. And it was determined by XPS that amorphous carbon was deposited at the silica surface of SBA-15. The presence of multi-functional groups in the composite was confirmed by FT-IR results. Furthermore, carboxylic and sulfonic groups could be incorporated into the composite material via the covalent bond. The composite was employed as the catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. It was suggested that acid sites were well dispersed, which was responsible for the good performance in the catalytic test. According to these facts, a synthesis route for mesostructured composite with acid functional groups has been proposed.

  4. Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.

    Domínguez, R; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-11-15

    The construction and performance of bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors for the selective determination of l- or d-amino acids is reported. D- or L-Amino acid oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and the mediator ferrocene were coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of a graphite-70% Teflon electrode matrix. Working conditions including amino acid oxidase loading and pH were optimized. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.00 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different biosensors illustrate the robustness of the bioelectrodes design. Calibration plots by both amperometry in stirred solutions and flow injection with amperometric detection were obtained for L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, D-leucine, D-methionine, D-serine, and D-valine. Differences in sensitivity were discussed in terms of the hydrophobicity of the substrate and of the electrode surface. The bienzyme composite electrode was applied to the determination of L- and D-amino acids in racemic samples, as well as to the estimation of the L-amino acids content in muscatel grapes. PMID:11700983

  5. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  6. Characterisation of traditional Macedonian edible oils by their fatty acid composition and their volatile compounds

    Ivanova, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Stafilov, Trajče; Markova Ruzdik, Natalija; Leitner, Erich; Lankmayr, Ernst; Siegmund, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of selected traditional Macedonian edible oils of several varieties, including sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, flax seed, rapeseed and sesame seeds, were analysed. The fatty acid (FA) composition was determined by GC-FID analysis after transesterification into the corresponding methyl esters. α-Linolenic acid (C18:3) was the main unsaturated fatty acid in flax seed oil (56.2% of total FA), oleic acid (C18:1) dominated in rapeseed and sesame se...

  7. Proton conductivity of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole and its composites with inorganic protontic conductors

    Li, Qingfeng

    2003-01-01

    contain inorganic protonic conductors including zirconium phosphate (ZrP), (Zr(HPO4)2. nH2O); phosphotungstic acid (PWA), (H3PW12O40. nH2O); and silicotungstic acid (SiWA), (H4SiW12O40 . nH2O). The conductivity of phosphoric acid doped PBI and PBI composite membranes was found to be dependent on the acid...

  8. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...... for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were...

  9. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  11. Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Karpova, I.V.; Titova, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of freshly produced acid tars and pond tars, gives an analysis of the acid part of the tars, and obtains data on the change in composition of the acid tar in the course of storage--data that are needed in developing methods for utilizing the tar. The acid-pond tars consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons with a very low content of acids, whereas the freshly produced acid tars consist mainly of sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids, and carboxylic acids. In the course of storage, hardening of acid tars in the volume proceeds through reactions of polymerization, condensation, and oxidation of the surface layer that is in contact with air.

  12. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  13. Fatty acid composition of Beroe ovata (Bosc, 1802)

    İşinibilir, Melek; Aslan, Serap Sağlık; Güven, Selin Cumalı Burak Çoban and Kasım Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beroe ovata was collected from Kumkapı, İstanbul, Sea of Marmara. Fatty acids composition of Beroe ovata were determined using GC/MS. Total lipid amount was found as 0.98±0.05 mg/g (n=6). Total saturated; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids percentages were 35.78, 14.11 and 37.09, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) percentage was 9.75 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) percentage was 23.01. Docosapentaenoic acid was not detected in Beroe ovata. EPA/DH...

  14. Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells - Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Nankova, Bistra B; Agarwal, Raj; MacFabe, Derrick F.; La Gamma, Edmund F.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA ad...

  15. Composition of nitrosyl ruthenium complexes in nitric acid

    The composition of nitrosyl ruthenium complexes in nitric acid has been determined. The analysis was carried out by low temperature, gradient elution, reversed-phase partition chromatography. Paper chromatography, using methyl isopropyl ketone and nitric acid-acetone, were also carried out to obtain complementary data. (author)

  16. Longitudinal distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids in the marine aerosols from the central Pacific including equatorial upwelling

    Hoque, Mir Md. Mozammal; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-03-01

    Remote marine aerosol samples (total suspended particles) were collected during a cruise in the central Pacific from Japan to Mexico (1°59'N-35°N and 171°54'E-90°58'W). The aerosol samples were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), ω-oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids as well as organic and elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon, and total nitrogen (WSTN). During the study, diacids were the most abundant compound class followed by fatty acids, ω-oxoacids, and α-dicarbonyls. Molecular compositions of diacids showed a predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Oxalic acid comprises 74% of total diacids. This result suggests that photochemical production of oxalic acid is significant over the central Pacific. Spatial distributions of diacids, ω-oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids together with total carbon and WSTN showed higher abundances in the eastern equatorial Pacific where the upwelling of high-nutrient waters followed by high biological productivity is common, indicating that their in situ production is important in the warmer central Pacific through photochemical oxidation from their gaseous and particulate precursors. This study demonstrates that there is a strong linkage in biogeochemical cycles of carbon in the sea-air interface via ocean upwelling, phytoplankton productivity, sea-to-air emissions of organic matter, and formation of secondary organic aerosols in the eastern equatorial Pacific.

  17. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai)

    LUTHRIA, DEVANAND L.; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Ayaz Ali Memon; Najma Memon

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE) using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids) w...

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Raw and Roasted Kulthi Seeds

    Harsha Mishra; Shahin Pathan

    2011-01-01

    Raw and roasted kulthi (Dolichos biflorus) seeds of drought prone area of Maharashtra were studied for their fatty acid composition using gas chromatographic analysis. Kulthi is under cultivation in remote areas of India. It is used as food and fodder. Legumes are in general good source of unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial for health. Therefore study was performed for analysis and characterization of fatty acids of raw and roasted kulthi seeds and to obtain reliable data on their ...

  19. Is the fatty acid composition of Daphnia galeata determined by the fatty acid composition of the ingested diet?

    Weers, P.M.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Gulati, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    1. The fatty acid (FA) composition of Daphnia galeata and their algal food was analysed and showed many similarities, however, some significant differences were also found in the relative abundance of the FA C16:4 omega 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Their relative abundances were much lower in d

  20. [Amino acid composition of rice grain proteins].

    Peruanskiĭ, Iu V; Savich, I M

    1976-01-01

    The composition of the major reserve proteins of rice grain--globulins, prolamines and glutelins--was examined in four rice varieties (Dubovsky 129, Kuban 3, Alakul, Ushtobinsky). Globulins proved to be most heterogeneous whereas glutelins appeared to be least heterogeneous. In regards to the ratio of components globulins showed high variability and glutelins displayed high stability. PMID:1005365

  1. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  2. Preliminary research on amino acid composition and nutritional value of clover proteins

    L. Kłyszejko-Stefanowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid composition and nutritional value of 5 clover varieties including 3 Polish ones ('Gloria', 'Hruszowska', 'Skrzeszowicka' and 2 of foreign origin ('Rotra' and 'Violetta' were investigated. No significant differences in the total protein content (19.2–20.0% of dry matter as well as in qualitative amino acid composition were found among the clover varieties under examination. EAA index (Essential amino acid index calculated according to Oser for 'Gloria' and 'Hruszowska' showed the highest nutritional value was – 40. The lowest value of EAA index was found for 'Violetta' cvar. – 32, intermediate values however for Rotra and Skrzeszowicka was 37 and 36.

  3. Characterization of Polylactic Acid/ Microcrystalline Cellulose/ Montmorillonite Hybrid Composites

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of montmorillonite (MMT)/ microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hybrid fillers on mechanical properties and morphological characteristics of polylactic acid (PLA) composites. PLA/ MMT nano composites and PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites were prepared by solution casting method. Morphology and tensile properties of PLA composites were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Instron tensile testing machine. The maximum tensile strength of PLA/ MMT nano composites was obtained with 5 phr contents of MMT, which corresponding to 30.75 MPa. Based on optimized formulation of PLA/ MMT nano composites (5 phr MMT contents), various amounts of MCC (0 to 7 phr) were added into optimum formulation of PLA/ MMT in order to produce PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed some level of interaction between PLA and both MMT and MCC in the hybrid composites. However, the percent elongation at break of the hybrid composites was generally higher than PLA/ MMT nano composites. Additionally, Young's modulus of the PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites increased gradually with increasing of MCC contents and was higher than PLA/ MMT at all compositions. The present results are the first among a series of experiments that have been designed in order to probe the effect of MMT and MCC in the PLA. (author)

  4. Study of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for radioactive waste including uranium

    A lot of solid and liquid radioactive wastes had been produced in the various examinations. The wastes have been stored in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center. Amounts of solid wastes including fluorine and uranium are very much, so techniques of final disposal will be developed and the solid wastes will be disposed. This study estimates the applicability of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for CaF2, NaF, Al2O3 and UF4, so examinations using those wastes were performed and mass balance and activity balance sheets were made. The conclusion is as below. 1. The process using hydrochloric acid to CaF2 is applicable. 2. The process using hydrochloric acid to NaF is applicable. 3. Dissolution of Al2O3 is difficult, but uranium in Al2O3 is almost dissolved, so application of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for Al2O3 is possible. 4. Application of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid to UF4 has problem of insolubility of UF4. 5. Next subjects are a rise of solid/liquid ratio, a increase of efficiency of uranium precipitation and decrease of second wastes which are resins and aluminium as masking material to fluorine. (author)

  5. Fatty Acid Composition of Raw and Roasted Kulthi Seeds

    Harsha Mishra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw and roasted kulthi (Dolichos biflorus seeds of drought prone area of Maharashtra were studied for their fatty acid composition using gas chromatographic analysis. Kulthi is under cultivation in remote areas of India. It is used as food and fodder. Legumes are in general good source of unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial for health. Therefore study was performed for analysis and characterization of fatty acids of raw and roasted kulthi seeds and to obtain reliable data on their suitability for both human nutrition and pharmaceutical purposes. Test results indicate that raw and roasted seeds also contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids ie.72.49and 71.99%, respectively. Both the samples contain good percentage of linoleic acid i.e., 42.78 and 40.83%, respectively. Linoleic acid is useful for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Prediction of Protein Submitochondrial Locations by Incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's General Pseudo Amino Acid Composition.

    Ahmad, Khurshid; Waris, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrion is the key organelle of eukaryotic cell, which provides energy for cellular activities. Submitochondrial locations of proteins play crucial role in understanding different biological processes such as energy metabolism, program cell death, and ionic homeostasis. Prediction of submitochondrial locations through conventional methods are expensive and time consuming because of the large number of protein sequences generated in the last few decades. Therefore, it is intensively desired to establish an automated model for identification of submitochondrial locations of proteins. In this regard, the current study is initiated to develop a fast, reliable, and accurate computational model. Various feature extraction methods such as dipeptide composition (DPC), Split Amino Acid Composition, and Composition and Translation were utilized. In order to overcome the issue of biasness, oversampling technique SMOTE was applied to balance the datasets. Several classification learners including K-Nearest Neighbor, Probabilistic Neural Network, and support vector machine (SVM) are used. Jackknife test is applied to assess the performance of classification algorithms using two benchmark datasets. Among various classification algorithms, SVM achieved the highest success rates in conjunction with the condensed feature space of DPC, which are 95.20 % accuracy on dataset SML3-317 and 95.11 % on dataset SML3-983. The empirical results revealed that our proposed model obtained the highest results so far in the literatures. It is anticipated that our proposed model might be useful for future studies. PMID:26746980

  7. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  8. Composition of fatty acids in selected vegetable oils

    Helena Frančáková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils and fats are important and necessary components of the human nutrition. They are energy source and also contain fatty acids - compounds essential for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of selected plant oil - olive, rapeseed, pumpkin, flax and sesame; based on fatty acid composition in these oils. Fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA, SFA were analyzed chromatography using system Agilent 6890 GC, injector multimode, detector FID. The highest content of saturated fatty acids was observed in pumpkinseed oil (19.07%, the lowest content was found in rapeseed oil (7.03%, with low level of palmitic and stearic acids and high level of behenic acid (0.32% among the evaluated oils. The highest content of linoleic acid was determined in pumpkinseed (46.40% and sesame oil (40.49%; in these samples was also found lowest content of α-linolenic acid. These oils have important antioxidant properties and are not subject to oxidation. The richest source of linolenic acid was flaxseed oil which, which is therefore more difficult to preserve and process in food industry. In olive oil was confirmed that belongs to the group of oils with a predominantly monosaturated oleic acid (more than 70% and a small amount of polysaturated fatty acid. The most commonly used rapeseed oil belongs to the group of oils with the medium content of linolenic acid (8.76%; this oil also showed a high content of linoleic acid (20.24%. The group of these essentially fatty acids showed a suitable ratio ∑n3/n6 in the rapessed oil (0.44.

  9. Effects of Fermented Diets Including Grape and Apple Pomace on Amino Acid Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA Emission in Finishing Pigs

    I.H. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the fermented diet including grape and apple pomace on amino digestibility, nitrogen balance and volatile fatty acid in finishing pigs. A total of 24 finishing pigs ((Yorkshire x Landrace x Duroc with an average BW of 63.42±9.78 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were allotted to 6 experiment diets according to initial BW. Dietary treatments were: CON (dry compound diet, (fermented liquid compound diet, GF10 (fermented liquid compound diet with 10% grape pomace, GF20 (fermented liquid compound diet with 20% grape pomace, AF10 (fermented liquid compound diet with 10% apple pomace and AF20 (fermented liquid compound diet with 20% apple pomace. The DM, CP and CF digestibility was highest (p<0.05 in CON and F treatments among treatments. The DM, EE, ash and Ca digestibility was highest (p<0.05 in AF10 treatment among treatments. All the detected Essential amino acid and non-essential amino acids digestibility were highest (p<0.05 in F treatment among treatments. All the detected essential amino acid and non-essential amino acids digestibility were lowest (p<0.05 in AF20 treatment except leucine and and proline digestibility were lowest (p<0.05 in GF20 treatment among treatments. The total essential amino acids, total non-essential amino acids and total amino acid digestibility was highest (p<0.05 in CON and F treatments and lowest in AF20 treatment among treatments. The dietary Lactobacillus concentration was increased (p<0.05 as the order of treatments listed in table and the Enterobacteriaceae concentration was decreased (p<0.05 in reverse order. The fecal acetic acid, isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid emission were higher (p<0.05 in CON treatment than other treatments. The slurry acetic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid emission was higher (p<0.05 in AF10 treatment than other treatments. The feed intake and feces excretion were highest (p<0.05 in AF20 treatments among treatments

  10. Composition and properties of acid tar and asphalt produced from acid tar

    Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Timrot, S.D.

    Acid tar is a waste material that is produced in large volumes in treating petroleum oils with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid tar contains up to 80% petroleum oils and tars and resins. In current practice, the acid tar is dumped into holding ponds that take up large areas of land; this practice leads to pollution of the ground, water, and air. The amounts of acid tar available in holding ponds are such that it can be used as raw material for the production of paving asphalt. This paper presents results from an investigation of the group composition and rheological properties of acid tar and the BKG asphalt produced from this tar. The fresh acid tar contains from 25 to 60% sulfuric acid. The group composition of the organic part of the fresh acid tar, as determined by the method of Sereda varies over wide limits, depending on the type of crude and the oils being produced (transformer, motor, perfumery, cylinder, etc.(: 34-94% resin/oil and resin/asphaltene substances, 5-60% sulfonic acids, and 1-6% carboxylic acids. Experimental results are plotted, tabulated and discussed in terms of recommendation for practical uses. 10 refs.

  11. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  12. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  13. Fatty acids composition of fruits of selected Central European sedges (Carex L. Cyperaceae)

    Bogucka-Kocka, A.; Janyszek, M.

    2010-07-01

    Fatty acids in the fruits of 13 sedge species (Ca rex L., Cyperaceae) were analyzed. The oil contents in the fruits of the studied sedges ranged from 3.73 and 46.52%. In the studied fruit oils 14 different fatty acids were identified. The main unsaturated fatty acids were: linoleic, a-linolenic, oleic, oleo palmitic n-7; oleo palmitic n-9, octadecenic, and eicosenoic acids. The following acids were found in the greatest quantities: linoleic, oleic, a-linolenic and palmitic acids. Based on the fatty acid composition, studied taxa can be divided in two groups. The first group (C. flava, C. pseudocyperus, C. riparia, C. leporina) is a very good source of linoleic acid. The second group, including the remaining species, is a good source of a-linolenic acid. The highest oleic acid contents were observed in C. vulpina. The studied material has shown a low concentration of saturated fatty acids, among which palmitic acid was the main one.Results of the analyses allow for the inclusion of the studied species among plants whose fruits are characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. (Author)

  14. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P  0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  15. Does the autoantibody immunodominant region on thyroid peroxidase include amino acid residues 742-771?

    Xiong, Z; Farilla, L; Guo, J; McLachlan, S; Rapoport, B

    2001-03-01

    Identification of the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) amino acid residues that comprise the autoantibody immunodominant region is an important goal that has proven difficult because of the conformational nature of the epitopes involved. Recent data suggest that the immunodominant region has been located. Thus, by autoantibody recognition of tryptic fragments of native TPO, as well as of conformational portions of TPO expressed as cell-free translates, the autoantibody immunodominant region appears to include amino acid residues 742-771, near the C terminus of the ectodomain. To evaluate this deduction, we expressed as cell-free translates the full TPO ectodomain, as well as TPO truncated after residues 741 and 771. The epitopic integrity of these molecules was first confirmed by immunoprecipitation by patient sera containing TPO autoantibodies. However, autoantibody recognition could involve a minority of TPO autoantibodies with the individual sera, not fulfilling the strict criteria for immunodominance. In order to obtain definitive data, we performed immunoprecipitations on these TPO variants with four recombinant human monoclonal autoantibodies that define the immunodominant region. All four monoclonal autoantibodies immunoprecipitated TPO 1-741 to the same extent as they did TPO 1-771 and the full TPO ectodomain, indicating that the immunodominant region comprises (at least in large part) amino acid residues upstream of residue 741. PMID:11327613

  16. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  17. Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Cereal-Based Turkish Foods

    DAĞLIOĞLU, Orhan; Taşan, Murat

    2002-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 13 cereal-based foods produced by Turkish companies were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The total fat contents of the samples ranged from 1.8 to 37.9%. Traditional Turkish white bread and bulgur had the lowest fat content (1.8% and 2.3% respectively) and wafer the highest (37.9%). The major fatty acids in the samples were C16:0, C18:0, trans C18:1, C18:1 and C18:2. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents varied bet...

  18. Comparison of fatty acid composition in conventional and organic milk

    Anka Popović Vranješ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the scientific research was to establish the differences between fatty acid composition in conventional milk and milk produced according to the organic production principles. In the period between February and December in 2009, the samples of raw conventional milk were analysed using the gas chromographic method to determine the fatty acid composition. Conventional milk was produced at the farm with around 700 dairy cows of Holstein breed. The farm is located in the Vrbas municipality. Organic milk was sampled from ten smaller farms with 12 dairy cows of Simmental breed on the average, located in clean environment of Fruška Gora slopes (Grabovo settlement. The results of fatty acids content were processed with the statistical package (Statistica 9, and a significant differences were determined with t-test and shown as statistically significant (p0.05. The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in organic milk was lower than in conventional milk, which is crucial to human health. The differences in fatty acid composition between conventional and organic milk may result from different feeding practices, because the organic breeding of cows is primarily based on grazing, while the conventional breeding implies mixed ration.

  19. Mechanical behaviour of standardized, endoskeleton-including hip spacers implanted into composite femurs

    T. Thielen, S. Maas, A. Zuerbes, D. Waldmann, K. Anagnostakos, J. Kelm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage reconstruction using an antibiotic loaded cement spacer is the preferred treatment method of late hip joint infections. Hip spacers maintain stability of the joint and length of the limb during treatment period. However, as the material strength of bone cement (PMMA is limited, spacer fractures led to serious complications in the past. This study investigated the load capacity of custom made hip spacers, developed at the 'Klinik für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie' (Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg / Saar, Germany, and implanted into composite femurs. In a quasi-static test, non-reinforced spacers tolerated hip joint loads of about 3000 N, whereas reinforced spacers with titanium-grade-two endoskeletons doubled this load up to 6000 N. Even for cyclic loading, endoskeleton-including hip spacers tolerated loads of >4500 N with 500,000 load cycles. Thus, an endoskeleton-including spacer should provide a mobile and functional joint through the treatment course. A generated FE-model was used to determine the fracture stresses and allows for further sensitivity analysis.

  20. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai

    Devanand L. Luthria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids were extracted, separated, and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Identification of phenolic acids was achieved by comparison of retention times, ultraviolet, and mass spectral data with authentic commercial standards. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (3719 ± 22 µg/g was the predominant phenolic acid extracted from ber samples. In addition, four phenolic acids, namely p-hydroxybenzoic (2187 ± 71 µg/g, vanillin (2128 ± 20 µg/g, ferulic (2629 ± 96 µg/g, and o-coumaric acids (2569 ± 41 µg/g were obtained in intermediate amounts from dried Ziziphus mauritiana L. fruit. The total phenolic acids content was determined as 18231 ± 306 µg/g dry matter basis (DMB. This study indicates that ber fruit is a good natural source of phenolic acids and that PLBHE can be used for the assay of phenolic acids.

  1. Poly (lactic acid) organoclay nano composites for paper coating applications

    Tatcha Sonjui; Nantana Jiratumnukul

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) or PLA is a well-known biodegradable polymer derived from renewable resources such as corn strach, tapioca strach, and sugar cane. PLA is the most extensively utilized biodegradable polyester with potential to replace conventional petrochemical-based polymers. However, PLA has some drawbacks, such as brittleness and poor gas barrier properties. Nano composite polymers have experience and increasing interest due to their characteristics, especially in mechanical a...

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...... that found in veal (4.0 +/- 1.2 g/100 g fatty acids) and lamb (4.5 +/- 0.6 g/100 g fatty acids). Trans C-16:1 was 0.24 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.79 +/- 0.02 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Only small variations in trans and other fatty acids could be demonstrated between...

  3. Acid-base properties and chemical composition of the surface of the InSb-ZnTe system

    The acid-base properties and chemical composition of the surface of solid solutions and binary components of the InSb-ZnTe system were studied by the hydrolytic adsorption, nonaqueous conductometric titration, mechanochemistry, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry methods. The strength, nature, and concentration of acid centers were determined. Changes in the concentration of acid centers caused by surface exposure to CO and changes in the composition of the system were also studied. The mechanism of acid-base interactions was established. The chemical composition of the surface of system components exposed to air included adsorbed H2O molecules, OH- groups, hydrocarbon and oxo carbon compounds, and the products of surface atom oxidation. After thermal treatment in a vacuum, the composition of the surface approached the stoichiometric composition

  4. Fatty acid composition of certain oil seeds from nigeria

    Fatty acids of certain oil seeds from Nigeria were determined by gas liquid chromatography and their identification was based on comparison by authentic samples. Seeds studied in this study were Aframomum danielli K. Schum, Arachidis hypogeal L., Glycine max L., Elaesis guineensis var. tenera, Piper guineense Thonn. ex Schumach and Treculia africana Decne. ex Trec. The fatty acid composition of the oil seeds showed that they (except E. guineensis) all contained more of unsaturated fatty acids ranging from 62.80% to 86.70% for P. guineense and A. hypogeal (L.), respectively. The oils with the exception of A. danielli (7.50%) and E. guineensis (3.30%) contained linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid with cholesterol-lowering activity in high amount in the range of 23.10% (A. hypogeae) to 34.10% (T. africana) with G. max, having the highest percentage of 56.40%. Four of the oils also contained linolenic acid in the range of 1.20% for A. danielli to 21.60% for P. guineense. (author)

  5. Composition of Humic Acids of the Lake Baikal Sediments

    Vishnyakova, O.; Chimitdorzhieva, G.; Andreeva, D.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances are the final stage of the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter in the biosphere. Its natural compounds are found not only in soil, peat, coal, and sediments of basins. Chemical composition and properties of humic substances are determined by the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore the study of the unique Lake Baikal sediments can provide information about their genesis, as well as the processes of organic matter transformation. For this purpose, preparations of humic acids (HA) were isolated by alkaline extraction method. The composition of HA was investigated by the elemental analyzer CHNS/O PerkinElmer Series II. Various located sediments of the Lake Baikal were the objects of the study: 1 - Chivyrkuisky Bay, 2 - Kotovo Bay, 3 - Selenga river delta near Dubinino village, 4 - Selenga river delta near Murzino village. Data on the elemental composition of HA in terms of ash-free portion show that the carbon content (CC) is of 50-53% with a maximum value in a sample 3, and minimum - in a sample 2. Such values are characteristic also for the soils with low biochemical activity. The hydrogen content is of 4,2-5,3%, a maximum value is in a sample 1. Data recalculation to the atomic percentages identified following regularities. The CC of HA is of 35-39 at. %. Hydrogen content is of 37-43 at. %. According to the content of these elements investigated substances are clearly divided into two groups: HA of the sediments of the Lake Baikal and river Selenga delta. The magnitude of the atomic ratio H/C can be seen varying degrees of condensation of the molecules of humic acids. The high atomic ratio H/C in HA of the former group indicates the predominance of aliphatic structures in the molecules. Humic acids of the later group are characterized by a low value H/C (acids such as cystine, cysteine, methionine, which is reflected in the composition of HA. Oxygen content is about 33,8-39,1% (17-22 at. %). Data analysis of the elemental

  6. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Raimondi, Stefano; Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer st...

  8. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug....

  9. Processing Of Fe - 1%Tic and Fe - 2%Tic Composites & Densification Behaviour Including Mechanical Properties

    Mrs. S. K. Pandey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation pertains to evaluate the densification mechanism/s exhibiting the influence of initial preform geometries and the composition as well as to assess the mechanical properties of hot forged discs and square cross–section (~14mm x ~14mm bars with an approximate lengths of 100±05mm at 1150 ± 100C of Fe -1%TiC and Fe–2.0%TiC systems. These compacts of the above systems were prepared on a 1.0MN capacity UTM, in the relative density range of 0.84 ± 0.01 by taking accurately pre-weighed powder blends for all aspect ratios, namely, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.24 respectively by applying pressures in the range of 435 ± 20 M Pa using a suitable die, punch and the bottom insert. Ceramic coated compacts were sintered in an electric muffle furnace at 1150±100C for a period of 100 minutes. Sintered compacts of first three initial aspect ratios were axially hot upset forged to different height strains, whereas, the fourth one were hot forged to square cross - section bars of the above dimensions. Ten such bars were forged. Analysis of experimental data and the calculated parameters has shown that the lower aspect ratio preforms densified more rapidly compared to the higher aspect ratio preforms. Mechanical properties such as yield strength, tensile and fracture strengths including percentage elongation and percentage area reduction were obtained by conducting uniaxial tensile tests. Further homogenization step has improved the above properties. Thus, the present investigation opens up a new area of research.

  10. Phase relationship in three-phase composites which include a void phase

    Price, H. L.; Nelson, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The paper shows the relationship among polymer, particles, and voids in a three-phase composite and how some of the properties of a composite may be changed by changing the proportions of the phases. The three-phase composite is an aggregate of microspheres bonded together with a small amount of polymer which may not form a continuous matrix. The void space (third phase) is obtained by limiting the amount of polymer which is mixed with the microspheres. A ternary phase diagram is used to show the proportional relationship among the three phases, with each apex representing a volume fraction of unity for a constituent while the side opposite the apex represents a volume fraction of zero for that constituent. The vertical dimension represents some composite property such as density or strength. The effect of composition on composite properties is shown by plotting them on a binary phase diagram which represents a perpendicular plane coincident with the 0.60 volume fraction microsphere line.

  11. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  12. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  13. Fatty acid composition of human milk in atopic Danish mothers

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt; Mikkelsen, Tina Buur; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Michaelsen, Kim F; Loland, Lotte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2006-01-01

    , that of atopic mothers had significantly higher concentrations of 22:5n-6 and lower concentrations of 20:5n-3; moreover,20:4n-6/20:5n-3, 22:5n-6/22:6n-3, and long-chain n-3 PUFA/18:3n-3 were shifted toward n-6 PUFA and 18:3n-3 in nonatopic and atopic mothers, respectively. No differences in breast......-milk PUFA composition were evident between the subject groups. The diets of the groups differed only slightly with respect to protein intake. However, the PUFA composition of the breast milk was associated with diet and time of milk sampling, and the above difference in milk PUFAs disappeared when those...... factors were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Our data do not support the possibility that the fatty acid composition of breast milk is affected by atopic dermatitis or atopy in general, because most differences in breast-milk PUFA composition appear to be explained by the diet....

  14. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  15. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  16. Fatty Acid Composition of Hibiscus trionum L. (Malvaceae

    Ceyda Sibel Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hibiscus plants have different uses, some are used as foods (H. esculenta L., and some species as remedy in traditional medicine (H. sabdariffa L. as well as a colorant for herbal teas. The only species that grows naturally in Turkey is H. trionum L. The plant especially infests soy and corn fields, and therefore it is considered to be a noxious weed. The plant is also found to be a host for Potato Virus Y (PVY and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. Infestation of the crop fields by this plant shows that it germinates easily. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quiet easy. Though, seed oil yield is low (4.7% since linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67,5%, it can still be used as a source of unsaturated fatty acids. The other major fatty acids are palmitic, oleic and stearic acids in the studied seed oil .

  17. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  18. Characterization of carbon/carbon composites prepared by different processing routes including liquid pitch densification process

    Carbon/carbon composites with an apparent density higher than 1.80 g/cm3 were prepared using a multi-step densification process. This consists of a pre-densification step followed by pitch impregnation/pyrolysis (I/P) cycles carried out under moderate pressure. Three pre-densification methods were investigated to significantly increase the apparent density of a raw preform to about 1.4 g/cm3. These were:(i) impregnation by carbonaceous powder slurry, (ii) film boiling chemical vapor infiltration, (iii) impregnation with a combination of synthetic pitch I/P and carbonaceous powder slurry. Composites were prepared from each of these three pre-densified materials, using a liquid pitch processing route with four I/P cycles with M50 petroleum pitch, under moderate pressures (10 MPa). As a reference a carbon/carbon composite was prepared using four I/P cycles with pitch. All four composites had different microstructural characteristics and different thermal properties. The influence of processing on thermal properties is discussed in relation to the microstructural characteristics. (authors)

  19. Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 (FADS1) Gene Polymorphisms Control Human Hepatic Lipid Composition

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously Genome-wide Association St...

  20. Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth and Fatty Acid Composition in Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) Juveniles

    ŞENER, Erdal; Yildiz, Mustafa; SAVAŞ, Esra

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) fed feeds including fish oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil were researched and the effects of the feeds on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the fish were studied. In the Sapanca Inland Waters Research and Experiment Department of İstanbul University's Faculty of Fisheries, sturgeon juveniles having an approximate initial weight of 27.23 ± 0.98 g were fed experimental feeds containing different kinds of oil for 63 ...

  1. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  2. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Dowd, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  3. Proximate analysis and fatty acid composition of nigella sativa (kalonji) seed oil growing in pakistan

    Physical and chemical characteristics including fatty acid composition of samples of seven commercially available Nigella sativa oil-and three freshly extracted seed oil, collected from different localities, were determined by gas liquid chromatography. The average and standard deviations found were: refractive index at 20 degree C, 1.473 +- 0.0018; specific gravity at 20 degree C, 0.9166 +- 0.0002; iodine value (IV, WiJ's), 119.98 +- 1.8; saponification value, 201.80 +-2.2 and unsaponifiable matter, 0.61% +- 0.05. Fatty acid (FA) profile was based on high levels of unsaturated FA like oleic acid, 24.17% +- 0.61; linoleic acid, 53.64% +-0.799 and eicosadienoic acid, 2.3%+-0.37. Saturated FA such as palmitic acid and stearic acid amounted to 14.82%+-0.49 and 2.95% +- 0.37, respectively. Myristic and palmitoleic acids were also detected in minor quantity. (author)

  4. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  5. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  6. Gender Differences in Rat Erythrocyte and Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition: Role of Ovarian Hormones and Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The two-fold higher prevalence rate of major depression in females may involve vulnerability to omega-3 fatty acid deficiency secondary to a dysregulation in ovarian hormones. However, the role of ovarian hormones in the regulation of brain omega-3 fatty acid composition has not been directly evaluated. Here we determined erythrocyte and regional brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in intact male and female rats, and in chronically ovariectomized (OVX) rats with or without c...

  7. Poly (lactic acid organoclay nano composites for paper coating applications

    Tatcha Sonjui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid or PLA is a well-known biodegradable polymer derived from renewable resources such as corn strach, tapioca strach, and sugar cane. PLA is the most extensively utilized biodegradable polyester with potential to replace conventional petrochemical-based polymers. However, PLA has some drawbacks, such as brittleness and poor gas barrier properties. Nano composite polymers have experience and increasing interest due to their characteristics, especially in mechanical and thermal properties. The objectives of this research were to prepare PLA formulations using three different PLAs. The formulas giving high gloss coating film were selected to prepare nano composite film by incorporated with different amount of various types of organoclays. The physical properties of the PLA coating films were studied and it was found that the PLA 7000D with 0.1%w/w of Cloisite 30B provided decent viscosity for coating process. In addition, the nano composite coating films showed good physical properties such as high gloss, good adhesion, and good hardness. There is a possibility of using the obtained formulation as a paper coating film.

  8. Feeding feedlot steers fish oil alters the fatty acid composition of adipose and muscle tissue.

    Wistuba, T J; Kegley, E B; Apple, J K; Rule, D C

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen steers (441±31.7kg initial body weight) consumed two high concentrate diets with either 0 or 3% fish oil to determine the impact of fish oil, an omega-3 fatty acid source, on the fatty acid composition of beef carcasses. Collected tissue samples included the Longissimus thoracis from the 6th to 7th rib section, ground 10th to 12th rib, liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to the 12th rib, intramuscular adipose tissue in the 6th to 7th rib sections, perirenal adipose tissue, and brisket adipose tissue. Including fish oil in the diet increased most of the saturated fatty acids (Pniche marketing if there are no deleterious effects on consumer satisfaction. PMID:22061591

  9. Within day variation in fatty acid composition of milk from cows in an automatic milking system

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Camilla Bjerg;

    2012-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition is influenced by a range of conditions such as breed, feeding, and stage of lactation. Knowledge of milk fatty acid composition of individual cows would make it possible to sort milk at farm level according to certain fatty acid specifications. In the present study, 22...

  10. Fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings

    In this study, fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage were prepared by blending erythritol tetrapalmitate (ETP) and erythritol tetrastearate (ETS) with diatomite and expanded perlite (EP). The maximum incorporation percentage for ETP and ETS into diatomite and EP was found to be 57 wt% and 62 wt%, respectively without melted PCM seepage from the composites. The morphologies and compatibilities of the composite PCMs were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT–IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The DSC analyses results indicated that the composite PCMs were good candidates for building applications in terms of their large latent heat values and suitable phase change temperatures. The thermal cycling test including 1000 melting and freezing cycling showed that composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. TG analysis revealed that the composite PCMs had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges. Moreover, in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs, the expanded graphite (EG) was added to them at different mass fractions (2%, 5%, and 10%). The best results were obtained for the composite PCMs including 5wt% EG content in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity values and the decrease amount in latent heat capacity. The improvement in thermal conductivity values of ETP/Diatomite, ETS/Diatomite, ETP/EP and ETS/EP were found to be about 68%, 57%, 73% and 75%, respectively. Highlights: ► Fatty acid esters-based composite PCMs were prepared by blending ETP and ETS with diatomite and expanded perlite. ► The composite PCMs were characterized by using SEM, FT–IR, DSC and TG analysis methods. ► The DSC results indicated that the composites PCMs had good thermal

  11. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  12. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia; Sandstrom, B.; Tholstrup, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  13. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia;

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  14. Influence of a dry fractionation of butterfat on the content of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids

    Rehberger, Brita; Bütikofer, Ueli; Bisig, Walter; Collomb, Marius

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing demand among consumers for food products with natural nutritional-physiological advantages over comparable conventional products. As part of an EU project, a process using dry fractionation is evaluated that enables the targeted lowinput enrichment of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in milk fat. Furthermore, the distribution of CLA isomers in the fat fractions was analysed. In the olein fraction for highland butter a CLA enrichment of 15.3% was obtained. The yield of the...

  15. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatgoat milk yogurts contain respectively 0.128-1.501, 0.405-1.250 and 0.433-0.976 g CLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  16. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    Buryová, Halka; Chalupský, Karel; Žbodáková, Olga; Kanchev, Ivan; Jiroušková, Markéta; Gregor, Martin; Sedláček, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, 30.10.2013 (2013), s. 155-155. ISSN 1471-230X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/2143; GA ČR GAP303/10/2044; GA AV ČR IAA500520812; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ursodeoxycholic acid * ADAM17 * shedding * cholestasis * liver Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2013

  17. Composition of fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes and eicosanoids level in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Antonyuk Marina V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS formation. Methods The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR. The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, fatty acid (FA of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. Results In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6 and lower pool of saturated FA (12:0, 14:0, 16: 0, 17:0 in plasma were discovered. A deficit of polyunsaturated FA (18:3 n3, 20:4 n6 with a predominance of on-saturated FA (14:0, 18:0 in erythrocyte membranes was revealed. In MS patients regardless of the carbohydrate metabolism status high levels of leukotriene B4 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1α in serum were found. The development of IR in MS patients leads to increased synthesis of thromboxane A2. Conclusion The results revealed a disturbance in nonesterified fatty acids of plasma lipids and red blood cells, eicosanoid synthesis in MS patients. The breach of the plasma and cell membranes fatty acids compositions, synthesis of vasoactive and proinflammatory eicosanoids is an important pathogenetic part of the MS development.

  18. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    Valeriano Domenech; Oliva Polvillo; Pilar Garcia; Adriana Bonvillani; Manuel Juárez; Francisco Peña

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes ...

  19. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites.

  20. [Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae)].

    D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Reyes, Dilia; Salazar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33-31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 omega-11, C22:1 omega-9, C18:3 omega-3, C20:5 omega-3 and C22:6 omega-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization. PMID:20527465

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  2. The energetics of tightly bent DNA: a composite elastica model including local melting

    Evans, Arthur; Levine, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Melting transitions are well-known to be affected by the application of mechanical stress. Motivated by the experiments of Zocchi and collaborators (Qu and Zocchi 2011, EPL 94 18003), we explore the effect of the application of mechanical stress on DNA melting in a particular composite of a stiff double stranded piece of DNA (dsDNA), shorter than its own persistence length, whose ends are linked by a flexible single stranded piece of DNA (ssDNA). The flexible ssDNA acts as a Gaussian polymer coil bending the stiff dsDNA through an elastic force that is controllable by the length of the ssDNA chain. In this talk we present theoretical predictions for two experimentally accessible features: the degree of local dsDNA melting and the local elastic energy of the dsDNA/ssDNA construct both as a function of the length of the attached ssDNA. We also address the effect of introducing a nick (broken covalent bond) in the dsDNA backbone on these results and discuss the implications of such data on the relative importance of backbone elasticity versus base stacking and base pairing interactions in determining the elasticity of dsDNA. This work also addresses open questions in the nonlinear elasticity of DNA in tightly bent curves.

  3. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  4. Mutation induced changes in essential fatty acids composition in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    Changes in fatty acid composition were studied in M2 generation using two varieties (Varuna and BR-40) of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Fatty acid profile indicated inverse relationship between erucic acid and oleic acid in Varuna progenies derived from higher doses of gamma rays whereas in BR-40, it was true for all the treatments. Selection of mutants having high oleic and linoleic acid and low erucic and eicosenoic acid was preferred for further quality improvement in Indian mustard. (author)

  5. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    several studies reported multiple adverse effects of TFAs on human health, limited  nformation is available about total fatty acid composition, particularly TFAs, in Iranian edible oils. Our findings indicated higher content of TFAs in Iranian commercially available PHVOs.

  • KEYWORDS: Fatty Acids, Vegetable Oils, Trans Fats.
  • Warning about Fatty Acid Compositions in Some Iranian Mayonnaise Salad Dressings

    Bahar Nazari; Sedigheh Asgary; Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The beneficial or detrimental effects of dietary fats on health and well-being largely depend on their fatty acid composi-tion. The contribution of high intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to the risk of coronary heart dis-ease is well documented. In this study, the fatty acid composition of different samples of mayonnaise salad dressing produced in Iran wasanalyzed. Methods: Three most consumed samples from four different brands of Iranian mayon...

  • Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Chanida Lamaisri; Vittaya Punsuvon; Sonthichai Chanprame; Anuruck Arunyanark; Peerasak Srinives; Ponsiri Liangsakul

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositio...

  • Concentrations and composition profiles of parabens in currency bills and paper products including sanitary wipes.

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-03-15

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Although parabens have been reported to be used as antimicrobials in certain types of papers (e.g., wet sanitary or hygiene wipes), little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in paper products. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six paraben analogs, methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), butyl (BuP), benzyl (BzP), and heptyl parabens (HepP), in 253 paper products divided into 18 categories, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At least one of the six parabens was detected in almost all (detection rate: 98%) paper samples, and the total concentrations (∑PBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.85 to 3,220,000 ng/g (geometric mean (GM): 103; median: 55.1 ng/g). Sanitary wipes contained very high concentrations of ∑PBs (GM: 8300 ng/g). Paper currencies, tickets, business cards, food cartons, flyers, and newspapers contained notable concentrations of ∑PBs, and the GM concentrations in these paper categories were on the order of a few tens to thousands of nanograms per gram. One source of parabens in paper products is the use of these chemicals as antifungal agents. MeP and PrP were the predominant analogs, accounting for approximately 62% and 16% of the total concentrations of parabens, respectively. On the basis of measured concentrations and frequency of handling of paper products, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of parabens through dermal absorption. The GM and 95th percentile EDI values were 6.31 and 2050 ng/day, respectively, for the general population. Among the paper categories analyzed, sanitary wipes contributed to the majority (>90%) of the exposures. PMID:24419282

  • Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne;

    2015-01-01

    In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence...... of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...

  • Chemical Genetics Uncovers Novel Inhibitors of Lignification, Including p-Iodobenzoic Acid Targeting CINNAMATE-4-HYDROXYLASE.

    Van de Wouwer, Dorien; Vanholme, Ruben; Decou, Raphaël; Goeminne, Geert; Audenaert, Dominique; Nguyen, Long; Höfer, René; Pesquet, Edouard; Vanholme, Bartel; Boerjan, Wout

    2016-09-01

    Plant secondary-thickened cell walls are characterized by the presence of lignin, a recalcitrant and hydrophobic polymer that provides mechanical strength and ensures long-distance water transport. Exactly the recalcitrance and hydrophobicity of lignin put a burden on the industrial processing efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass. Both forward and reverse genetic strategies have been used intensively to unravel the molecular mechanism of lignin deposition. As an alternative strategy, we introduce here a forward chemical genetic approach to find candidate inhibitors of lignification. A high-throughput assay to assess lignification in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings was developed and used to screen a 10-k library of structurally diverse, synthetic molecules. Of the 73 compounds that reduced lignin deposition, 39 that had a major impact were retained and classified into five clusters based on the shift they induced in the phenolic profile of Arabidopsis seedlings. One representative compound of each cluster was selected for further lignin-specific assays, leading to the identification of an aromatic compound that is processed in the plant into two fragments, both having inhibitory activity against lignification. One fragment, p-iodobenzoic acid, was further characterized as a new inhibitor of CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway synthesizing the building blocks of the lignin polymer. As such, we provide proof of concept of this chemical biology approach to screen for inhibitors of lignification and present a broad array of putative inhibitors of lignin deposition for further characterization. PMID:27485881

  • Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  • Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...... valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  • Reduction in Acidity of RDX and its Compositions by Use of Suitable Additives

    Harihar Singh

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium Silicate and Zinc Stearate have been used as additives to reduce the acidity of RDX and RDX/TNT compositions. They have been found to be effective in reducing the acidity of RDX/TNT compositions but ineffective for RDX alone. An explanation to this effect has been provided.

  • Use of fuzzy clustering technique and matrices to classify amino acids and its impact to Chou's pseudo amino acid composition

    Georgiou, D. N.; Karakasidis, T.E.; Nieto, J J; Torres, A.

    2009-01-01

    Use of fuzzy clustering technique and matrices to classify amino acids and its impact to Chou's pseudo amino acid composition correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +302421074163. (Karakasidis, T.E.) (Karakasidis, T.E.) University of Patras, Department of Mathematics - 265 00 Patras--> - GREECE (Georgiou, D.N.) University of Thessaly, Department of Civil Engineering - 383 34 Volos--> - GREECE (Karakas...

  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  • Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  • Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  • Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U3O8) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na2CO3 solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  • Influence of the chemical composition on gamma ray attenuation by fatty acids.

    Bhandal, G S; Singh, K

    1992-04-01

    The dependence of gamma ray attenuation on the chemical composition of fatty acids is investigated in the energy range from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. The mass attenuation coefficients (muF) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff) have been calculated for 27 different fatty acids. They show appreciable variation with the chemical composition of fatty acids in the region of gamma ray energies from 10(-3) to 10(5) MeV. PMID:1314792

  • Surface of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Relationships between Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties

    Boonaert, C J; Rouxhet, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The surface chemical composition and physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity and zeta potential) of two lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetilactis and Lactobacillus helveticus, have been investigated using cells harvested in exponential or stationary growth phase. The surface composition determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was converted into a molecular composition in terms of proteins, polysaccharides, and hydrocarbonlike compounds. The conce...

    1. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

      Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

      2016-01-01

      This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

    2. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

      PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

    3. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

      Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

      2008-06-01

      The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

    4. Influence of geography on fatty acid composition of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil

      Fatty acid composition of 24 seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) accessions collected from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S. was measured to determine the influence of geography on fatty acid distribution. Seed oils were extracted with hexane utilizing the Soxhlet method and fatty acid...

    5. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature

      Van Dooremalen, C.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

      2009-01-01

      A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (P

    6. Differentiation of free-living Anabaena and Nostoc cyanobacteria on the basis of fatty acid composition.

      Caudales, R; Wells, J M

      1992-04-01

      The cellular fatty acids of free-living, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Anabaena and Nostoc were analyzed to differentiate the genera. The fatty acid compositions of 10 Anabaena strains and 10 Nostoc strains that were grown for 12 days on BG-11o medium were determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Of the 53 fatty acids detected, 17 were major components; the average level for each of these 17 fatty acids was at least 0.9% of the total fatty acids (in at least one of the genera). These fatty acids included (with mean percentages in the Anabaena and Nostoc strains, respectively) the saturated fatty acids 16:0 (30.55 and 23.23%) and 18:0 (0.77 and 1.27%); several unsaturated fatty acids, including 14:1 cis-7 (2.50 and 0.11%), 14:1 cis-9 (3.10 and 3.41%), a polyunsaturated 16-carbon (sites undetermined) fatty acid with an equivalent chain length of 15.30 (1.20 and 1.03%), 16:4 cis-4 (0.95 and 0.87%), 16:3 cis-6 (2.16 and 1.51%), 16:1 cis-7 (1.44 and 0.36%), 16:1 cis-9 (6.53 and 18.76%), 16:1 trans-9 (4.02 and 1.35%), 16:1 cis-11 (1.62 and 0.42%), 18:2 cis-9 (10.16 and 12.44%), 18:3 cis-9 (18.19 and 17.25%), 18:1 cis-9 (4.01 and 5.10%), and 18:1 trans-9 (0.92 and 1.94%); and the branched-chain fatty acids iso-16:0 (2.50 and 1.14%) and iso-15:1 (0.34 and 2.05%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1581185

    7. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

      Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

      2012-12-15

      The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). PMID:22980905

    8. Fatty Acid, Flavonol, and Mineral Composition Variability among Seven Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc. Accessions

      Ming Li Wang

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals should provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse gram accessions, geographically adapted to Griffin, GA, USA were analyzed for fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral concentrations using gas chromatography, reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. Significant year effects occurred for stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic, gadoleic, and lignoceric acids. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid ranged from 8.9%–16.8%, 40.3%–45.6%, and 11.6%–14.3%, respectively, as percent of total fatty acids measured (total oil ranged from 2.32% to 2.87%. Seed concentrations of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol ranged from 0–36 μg/g DW, 0–27 μg/g DW, and 240–316 μg/g DW, respectively and the only year effect was observed for kaempferol among the horse gram accessions. Year effects were found for Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, and S. Mean concentrations of macrominerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, and S and microminerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn ranged from 1.3–14 mg/g DW, and 1.0–95.0 μg/g DW, respectively. Several correlations were observed among several fatty acids, flavonols, and minerals. The mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid correlated significantly with linoleic acid (r = −0.64, arachidic acid (r = −0.61, Ca (r = 0.50 and Zn (r = 0.51, all at P < 0.01. The flavonol, myricetin correlated significantly with quercetin (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001, while quercetin correlated with Ca (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 and kaempferol correlated with Mg (r = 0.61, P < 0.01. Several mineral correlations were found including Fe with K (r = 0.66 and Mg (r = 0.56, both at P < 0.01. These seven horse gram accessions can be used in breeding programs to

    9. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf

      Andreia P. Oliveira; Pereira, J.A.; Andrade, P.B.; Valentão, P.; Seabra, R.M.; B.M. Silva

      2008-01-01

      Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214 nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from...

    10. Amino acid protein composition of grain of common wheat mutants

      The quantitative ratio of some amino acids changes in the grain of soft wheat morphological mutants with a high protein content. The soft wheat mutants developed, valuable for breeding, surpass the initial varieties in total protein content and the content of some amino acids in grain. The relative content of some amino acids in protein varies, and the stable sum of irreplaceable amino acids in it is retained

    11. Degradation and miscibility of poly(DL-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) composite films: Effect of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)

      Zhigang Ma; Na Zhao; Chengdong Xiong

      2012-08-01

      The in vitro degradation behaviour of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and its composite films containing poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PDLGA) were investigated via mass loss, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All the films were prepared by solution casting, using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. Since the degradation rate of PDLLA is lower than that of PGA, those of the PDLLA/PGA composite films decreased. As a compatibilizer, PDLGA improved the compatibility and hydrolytic stability of PDLLA/PGA composite films. Changes in the composite films indicate that this kind of PGA-based composite biomaterial may be applicable to device design for clinical application in the future.

    12. Including land use information for the spatial estimation of groundwater quality parameters - 1. Local estimation based on neighbourhood composition

      Heißerer, T.; Haslauer, C. P.; Bárdossy, A.

      2016-04-01

      Most groundwater recharge comes from the infiltration of water through the land surface. Data analysis shows that solute concentrations at the water table vary between land use categories and depending on the land use composition within a certain neighbourhood. Driven by these observations, the goal of this paper is to estimate the solute distribution at a location depending on the composition of land use in the neighbourhood, even though land use information is categorical. This goal is achieved by mixing pure distributions of homogeneous land use according to their frequency of occurrence in the vicinity of, and their distance from an estimation location. These pure distributions are jointly inverted using a maximum likelihood-based approach. The neighbourhood size is optimized using cross-validation. Measurements below detection limit are included via their probabilities of non-exceedance. A solute-specific, spatially distributed measure of information content of the secondary information is presented. The method is applicable for many types of secondary information and can be used as drift for spatial estimation of the primary variable. This estimation is a local estimation and does not include larger scale spatial information. The information of measurements is included via the optimized concentration distributions for land use groups, not via a model of spatial dependence. The global estimation is described in the companion paper.

    13. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

      Lina Lindberg

      Full Text Available When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555 cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP2C 2.2× and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP2C 2.7×, when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to

    14. Deleterious effects of lard-enriched diet on tissues fatty acids composition and hypothalamic insulin actions.

      Dornellas, A P S; Watanabe, R L H; Pimentel, G D; Boldarine, V T; Nascimento, C M O; Oyama, L M; Ghebremeskel, K; Wang, Y; Bueno, A A; Ribeiro, E B

      2015-12-01

      Altered tissue fatty acid (FA) composition may affect mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including central insulin actions. In rats fed either standard chow or a lard-enriched chow (high in saturated/low in polyunsaturated FA, HS-LP) for eight weeks, we examined the FA composition of blood, hypothalamus, liver, and retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissues. Insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling were evaluated after intracerebroventricular insulin injection. HS-LP feeding increased saturated FA content in adipose tissues and serum while it decreased polyunsaturated FA content of adipose tissues, serum, and liver. Hypothalamic C20:5n-3 and C20:3n-6 contents increased while monounsaturated FA content decreased. HS-LP rats showed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The results showed that, upon HS-LP feeding, peripheral tissues underwent potentially deleterious alterations in their FA composition, whist the hypothalamus was relatively preserved. However, hypothalamic insulin signaling and hypophagia were drastically impaired. These findings suggest that impairment of hypothalamic insulin actions by HS-LP feeding was not related to tissue FA composition. PMID:26525379

    15. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

      Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

      2012-01-01

      The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

    16. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

      Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

      2013-03-01

      Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

    17. Differences in the fatty-acid composition of rodent spermatozoa are associated to levels of sperm competition

      Javier delBarco-Trillo

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Sperm competition is a prevalent phenomenon that drives the evolution of sperm function. High levels of sperm competition lead to increased metabolism to fuel higher sperm velocities. This enhanced metabolism can result in oxidative damage (including lipid peroxidation and damage to the membrane. We hypothesized that in those species experiencing high levels of sperm competition there are changes in the fatty-acid composition of the sperm membrane that makes the membrane more resistant to oxidative damage. Given that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the most prone to lipid peroxidation, we predicted that higher sperm competition leads to a reduction in the proportion of sperm PUFAs. In contrast, we predicted that levels of sperm competition should not affect the proportion of PUFAs in somatic cells. To test these predictions, we quantified the fatty-acid composition of sperm, testis and liver cells in four mouse species (genus Mus that differ in their levels of sperm competition. Fatty-acid composition in testis and liver cells was not associated to sperm competition levels. However, in sperm cells, as predicted, an increase in sperm competition levels was associated with an increase in the proportion of saturated fatty-acids (the most resistant to lipid peroxidation and by a concomitant decrease in the proportion of PUFAs. Two particular fatty acids were most responsible for this pattern (arachidonic acid and palmitic acid. Our findings thus indicate that sperm competition has a pervasive influence in the composition of sperm cells that ultimately may have important effects in sperm function.

    18. An MINLP Model that Includes the Effect of Temperature and Composition on Property Balances for Mass Integration Networks

      Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available The synthesis of water networks based on properties has commonly ignored the effect of temperature on the property balances that are part of the formulation. When wide differences of temperatures are observed within the process, such an effect might yield significant errors in the application of conventional property balances. In this work, a framework for the development of water networks that include temperature effects on property balances is presented. The approach is based on the inclusion of constants in the property operators that are commonly used to carry out the property balances. An additional term to take care of composition effects is also included. The resulting approach is embedded into a formulation based on a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model for the design of water networks. A case study is presented that shows that the proposed approach yields an improvement in the prediction of the resulting properties for the integrated network, thus affecting the optimal solution.

    19. Synthesis of poly(acrylic acid-maleic acid)SiO2/Al2O3 as novel composite material for cesium removal from acidic solutions

      A novel composite material of SiO2-Al2O3 based on poly(acrylic acid-maleic acid) was synthesized by irradiated with 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 25 KGy. The composite material was characterized using FTIR, TGA and BET surface area. Adsorption of 134Cs from HNO3 was studied as a function of contact time, temperature and concentration of Cs. Sorption behavior of 134Cs in different concentration of HCl, HNO3, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, NaCl and NaNO3 solutions has been investigated. It can be concluded that the P(AA-MA)/SiO2/Al2O3 is promising adsorbent for Cs removal from acidic liquid radioactive waste. (author)

    20. Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species

      Celso Vataru Nakamura

      1999-07-01

      Full Text Available Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

    1. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

      Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

      1999-01-01

      Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

    2. Fatty acid composition of cream fermented by probiotic bacteria

      Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

      2013-01-01

      The production of fatty acids in cream containing one of the three probiotic microorganisms (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) was evaluated at 4±1 °C for up to 15 days. Gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid content showed that during storage the amount of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased in the probiotic cream fermented with B. lactis compared to the control cream. Probiotic bacteria were all associated with increases in medium ch...

    3. Oil yield and fatty acid composition of spring sunflower

      Shahbaz Ahmad; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

      2000-01-01

      Five sunflower hybrids were grown at four sowing dates to have variable maturity temperatures. The hybrids having the same oil yield potential may differ for the oil quality. Oil yield and oleic acid increased while linoleic acid decreased with increasing maturity temperature. The intersection point of oil yield and linoleic acid lines at 2000 growing degree days (GDD) may be the best compromise for high oil yield with the best quality.

    4. Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

      Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

      2008-11-15

      Organic acid profiles of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from three different geographical origins of northern (Bragança and Carrazeda de Ansiães) and central Portugal (Covilhã), harvested in three collection months (June, August and October of 2006), were determined by HPLC/UV (214nm). Quince leaves presented a common organic acid profile, composed of six constituents: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. C. oblonga leaves total organic acid content varied from 1.6 to 25.8g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.5g/kg dry matter). Quinic acid was the major compound (72.2%), followed by citric acid (13.6%). Significant differences were found in malic and quinic acids relative abundances and total organic acid contents according to collection time, which indicates a possible use of these compounds as maturity markers. Between June and August seems to be the best period to harvest quince leaves for preparation of decoctions or infusions, since organic acids total content is higher in this season. PMID:26047441

    5. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

      Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

      2016-04-01

      The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

    6. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

      Turgut Kılıç

      2007-05-01

      Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

    7. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

      Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

      2015-09-01

      Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

    8. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

      Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

    9. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

      Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

      1981-01-01

      The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

    10. Calcium phosphate composite materials including inorganic powders, BSA or duplex DNA prepared by W/O/W interfacial reaction method

      We reported before that inorganic reaction occurring at the interface of W/O/W emulsion is advantageous to produce hollow spheres (microcapsules) of inorganic matrices such as silica. This process enables us to include various materials into inorganic matrices directly. Calcium phosphates were also produced from NH4H2PO4 and Ca(OH)2 by this interfacial reaction method. Various biomaterials are directly incorporated into crystalline calcium phosphate matrices, when the biomaterials are added to the inner water phase of the W/O/W emulsion. ZrO2 and Al2O3 powders were effectively encapsulated in calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HAp). The images of backscattered electron of FE-SEM observations indicated that ZrO2 particles were included in HAp, while they adhered to the surface of HAp in the case of a simple precipitation method. Biomacromolecules such as BSA and duplex DNA were also included in HAp using the inner water phases dissolving them. Fluorescent microscopy observations revealed that biomacromolecules incorporated in HAp localized in some domains of the HAp matrices. Biomacromolecules thus included were scarcely liberated into deionized water, indicating their strong encapsulation in HAp. This general and simple methodology will provide various composite materials of calcium phosphates, which are applicable to regenerative medicine, DDS, GDS and more

    11. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

      Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

      2011-01-01

      The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

    12. Design and characterization of a composite material based on Sr(II)-loaded clay nanotubes included within a biopolymer matrix.

      Del Buffa, Stefano; Bonini, Massimo; Ridi, Francesca; Severi, Mirko; Losi, Paola; Volpi, Silvia; Al Kayal, Tamer; Soldani, Giorgio; Baglioni, Piero

      2015-06-15

      This paper reports on the preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity of a hybrid nanocomposite material made of Sr(II)-loaded Halloysite nanotubes included within a biopolymer (3-polyhydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) matrix. The Sr(II)-loaded inorganic scaffold is intended to provide mechanical resistance, multi-scale porosity, and to favor the in-situ regeneration of bone tissue thanks to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The interaction of the hybrid system with the physiological environment is mediated by the biopolymer coating, which acts as a binder, as well as a diffusional barrier to the Sr(II) release. The degradation of the polymer progressively leads to the exposure of the Sr(II)-loaded Halloysite scaffold, tuning its interaction with osteogenic cells. The in vitro biocompatibility of the composite was demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests on L929 fibroblast cells. The results indicate that this composite material could be of interest for multiple strategies in the field of bone tissue engineering. PMID:25778738

    13. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

      Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

      2012-01-01

      In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

    14. Preparation and characterization of stearic acid/expanded graphite composites as thermal energy storage materials

      Stearic acid/expanded graphite composites with different mass ratios were prepared by absorbing liquid stearic acid into the expanded graphite. In the composite materials, the stearic acid was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and the expanded graphite acted as the supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermal diffusivity measurement were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalline phase, microstructure and thermal diffusivity of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal analysis results indicated that the materials exhibited the same phase transition characteristics as the stearic acid and their latent heats were approximately the same as the values calculated based on the weight fraction of the stearic acid in the composites. The microstructural analysis results showed that the stearic acid was well absorbed in the porous network of the expanded graphite, and there was no leakage of the stearic acid from the composites even when it was in the molten state.

    15. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?

      Petanidou, T.; Van Laere, A.; Ellis, W.; Smets, E.

      2006-01-01

      We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring in a phryganic (East Mediterranean garrigue) community and investigated whether AA and sugar composition is shaped by evolutionary (plant phylogeny), ecological (flowering time as a direct effect of summer

    16. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

      Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

    17. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES

      Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

    18. Morphology and thermal degradation study of poly(lactic acid)/synthetic mica composites

      Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/synthetic mica composites has been little studied in the literature. In this work, an organophilic synthetic mica was used to prepare PLA nanocomposites. The composites were obtained at an internal mixer containing 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt% of mica. The materials were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and gel permeation chromatography. (author)

    19. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

      Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

    20. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

      PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

      sources and mass cultured in the laboratory using organic media. Fatty acids were quantified as methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC), using WICHROM software and data collector. This efficient approach using a computer modelled software program...

    1. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

      Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

      2016-08-01

      Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

    2. Change in the amino acid composition of calf skin collagen after. gamma. -irradiation in aqueous solution

      Duzhenkova, N.A.; Savich, A.V. (Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR))

      A study was made of the amino acid composition of calf skin collagen after ..gamma..-irradiation (/sup 60/Co) of 2.5x10/sup -6/ M aerated aqueous protein solution within the dose range from 30 to 2000 Gy. The radiosensitivity of amino acid residues was compared.

    3. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

      Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

      2014-11-01

      Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

    4. Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.

      Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

      2013-01-01

      The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

    5. Proteomic analysis of changes in the protein composition of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and their combination

      Flodrová, D. (Dana); Benkovská, D. (Dagmar); Macejová, D.; Bialesova, L.; Hunakova, L.; Brtko, J.; Bobálová, J. (Janette)

      2015-01-01

      Retinoic acid (all-trans and 9-cis) isomers represent important therapeutic agents for many types of cancers, including human breast cancer. Changes in protein composition of the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were induced by all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and their combination and subsequently proteomic strategies based on bottom-up method were applied. Proposed approach was used for the analysis of proteins extracted from MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line utilizing a ...

    6. Biomimetic coating of apatite/collagen composite on poly L-lactic acid facilitates cell seeding

      Chen, Y; Mak, AFT; Wang, M; Li, J.

      2005-01-01

      Collagen and apatite were co-precipitated as a composite coating on poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) in an accelerated biomimetic process. The coating formed on PLLA films after 24 hours incubation was characterized. Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were used to evaluate the cell seeding on this biomimetic composite coating. It was shown that cell seeding on PLLA films with the composite coating was greatly improved. PLLA coated with submicron collagen fibrils and submicron apatite paticulates can facil...

    7. Thermal characterization of the composites based on poly(lactic acid)

      Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana

      2011-01-01

      In this study, rice-hulls-filled poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composites were prepared through addition of 5 wt. % PLA-grafted-MA (CA) for enhancement of adhesion between polymer matrix and natural filler. The composites containing 30% wt. rice hulls (RH) were prepared by compression molding. For the composites, the thermal properties were analyzed and compared to those of commonly used thermoplastic based-polymer, polypropylene (PP) containing the same reinforcement. Thermal stability of composi...

    8. Changes in body composition in broilers by a sulfur amino acid deficiency during growth

      Conde Aguilera, Jose Alberto; Cobo Ortega, Carlos; Tesseraud, Sophie; LESSIRE, Michel; Mercier, Yves; Van Milgen, Jacob

      2013-01-01

      In the factorial approach, amino acid (AA) requirements are determined using the AA composition of retained protein, which is assumed to be constant. However, this hypothesis may not be valid because the AA composition of body protein can be affected by the diet. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in chemical body composition of broilers receiving diets either deficient (TSAA–) or sufficient (TSAA+) in TSAA. Diet TSAA+ was formulated according to the Ross recommendation. ...

    9. Survey analysis and chemical characterization of solid inhomogeneous samples using a general homogenization procedure including acid digestion, drying, grinding and briquetting together with X-ray fluorescence.

      Sahlin, Eskil; Magnusson, Bertil

      2012-08-15

      A survey analysis and chemical characterization methodology for inhomogeneous solid waste samples of relatively large samples (typically up to 100g) using X-ray fluorescence following a general homogenization procedure is presented. By using a combination of acid digestion and grinding various materials can be homogenized e.g. pure metals, alloys, salts, ores, plastics, organics. In the homogenization step, solid material is fully or partly digested in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in an open vessel. The resulting mixture is then dried, grinded, and finally pressed to a wax briquette. The briquette is analyzed using wave-length dispersive X-ray fluorescence with fundamental parameters evaluation. The recovery of 55 elements were tested by preparing samples with known compositions using different alloys, pure metals or elements, oxides, salts and solutions of dissolved compounds. It was found that the methodology was applicable to 49 elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Th, that all had recoveries >0.8. 6 elements were lost by volatilization, including Br, I, Os, and Hg that were completely lost, and S and Ge that were partly lost. Since all lanthanides are chemically similar to La and Ce, all actinides are chemically similar to Th, and Hf is chemically similar to Zr, it is likely that the method is applicable to 77 elements. By using an internal standard such as strontium, added as strontium nitrate, samples containing relatively high concentrations of elements not measured by XRF (hydrogen to fluorine), e.g. samples containing plastics, can be analyzed. PMID:22841048

    10. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid catalyst and its catalytic activities for acetalization

      Yueqing Lu; Xuezheng Liang; Chenze Qi

      2012-06-01

      Novel solid acid based on carbon/silica composites are synthesized through one-pot hydrothermal carbonization of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid, sucrose and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The novel solid acid owned the acidity of 2.0 mmol/g, much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the solid acid are investigated through acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid was very efficient for the reactions. The high acidity and catalytic activities made the novel carbon/silica composites based solid acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

    11. Composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seeds: phenolics, organic acids and free amino acids.

      Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

      2005-04-01

      Phenolic compounds, organic acids and free amino acids of quince seeds were determined by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/UV and GC/FID, respectively. Quince seeds presented a phenolic profile composed of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-glucosyl chrysoeriol and 6-C-glucosyl-8-C-pentosyl chrysoeriol. Six identified organic acids constituted the organic acid profile of quince seeds: citric, ascorbic, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The free amino acid profile was composed of 21 identified free amino acids and the three most abundant were glutamic and aspartic acids and asparagine. PMID:15702641

    12. Estimating Fatty Acid Composition of Infant Buccal Mucosal Cells by Capillary Gas Chromatography

      CHEN Fei; ZHANG Wei-li; LI Fang; ZHU Xiao-dong; ZHU Jian-xing

      2008-01-01

      Long chain polyunsaturated fatty adds, i. e., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or C22 : 6n -3), arachidonic acid (AA or C20 : 4n - 6) have been identified as essential fatty acids and play an important role in growth and development of infants. Mensurement of fatty acid composition is usually by collection of blood, but to obtain blood in infants is difficult. Nowadays, the fatty acid composition can be estimated by collecting buccal mucosal cells, which can avoid repeated blood sampling. The purpose of this paper is to compare the fatty acid composition of cheek calls with that of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). In this study, twenty-seven infants were enrolled, and buccal mucosal cells and blood samples were obtained from these infants of the same time. Fatty acid composition of buccal mucesal cells, plasma and RBCs were measured by capillary gas chromatography. The results show that the contents of AA and DHA in the buccal mucosal cells are correlated well with that in the plasma [r=0.36 (P=0.042) and r=0.38 (P=0.033), respectively]. The ratio of AA to DHA is 1.32% in buccal mucosal cells, 1.60% in plasma and 1.55% in RBCs and there are no significant differences among groups (P = 0.134). It shows that the fatty acid composition in buccal mucosal cells can reflect the fat nutrition status in infants and can be detected by capillary gas chromatography. Estimating fatty acid composition of buccal mucosal cells in infants by capillary gas chromatography is feasible, and because of its noninvasiveness, it can be suitable for nutrition research in infants.

    13. Goat milk fatty acid composition in the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico

      Eduardo Toyes-Vargas

      2013-11-01

      Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in milk of Creole goats in an extensive production system in an arid region of the peninsula of Baja California and compare it to two seasons of the year (rainy and dry. Materials and methods. Sampling was conducted during the dry season (June and after the rainy season (December in the municipality of Comondú in Baja California Sur. The extensive production system used involved releasing goats to roam freely in the rangeland to graze for food, and no additional food or supplements were provided. Results. The most abundant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids (66.3 and 70.9% in the rainy and dry reasons, respectively. The most abundant of these were palmitic, myristic, and stearic acid in both seasons. Monounsaturated fatty acids (15-20% were the most numerous in terms of isomers, but mostly in low concentrations. The largest average constituent of polyunsaturated fatty acids (5-6% was linoleic acid (3% and alpha-linolenic acid (1.2% in both seasons. Branched, fatty acid concentrations were highly variable; the only stable constituents were C15:0 iso (1.5% and C16:0 anti-iso, with 0.7% of total fatty acids. Conclusions. The seasons in this extensive production system significantly effected the composition of most monounsaturated and branched fatty acids in goat milk; however, saturated and polyunsaturated showed only a few compositional changes in abundance of fatty acids. Moreover, season effects were not significant on the total fatty acid content, except for branched fatty acids and omega-3.

    14. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

      Jovanović Petar Lj.

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

    15. Fatty acid composition of leaves of forced chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)

      Sinkovič Lovro; Hribar Janez; Vidrih Rajko; Ilin Žarko M.; Žnidarčič Dragan

      2015-01-01

      The objective of the present study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in leaves of nine chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus L.). The growing practice followed the traditional forcing method of developed roots in a peat to obtain new etiolated vegetative apical buds, known as chicons. The fatty acid content was determined by the extraction of fatty acid methyl esters and analysis by means of gas chromatography. The analysis revealed the following ...

    16. Fatty Acid Composition of Cultured Fibroblasts Derived from Healthy Nasal Mucosa and Nasal Polyps

      Ayyad, Suha Jabr; Roca-Ferrer, Jordi; Picado, César

      2016-01-01

      Background: Fibroblasts from nasal polyps (NP) of asthma patients have reduced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We hypothesized that the reported alterations are due to alterations in the availability of arachidonic acid (AA). Objective: The objective was to determine the fatty acid composition of airway fibroblasts from healthy subjects and from asthma patients with and without aspirin intolerance. Methods: We analyzed the fatty acid compositi...

    17. Changes in fatty acid and sterol composition during oogenesis in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera

      Vahirua Lechat, I; Laure, F; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Bianchini, J; Bellais, M; Le Moullac, Gilles

      2008-01-01

      The fatty acid and sterol composition of the oyster Pinctada margaritifera during oogenesis and in eggs was analysed. No major differences were observed during oogenesis, but the egg composition was significantly different from that of gonads. The amount of saturated fatty acids was the highest in eggs and the C16:0 predominant (P < 5%); by contrast, the amount of 22:6(n-3) was significantly lower (P < 5%) than in gonads. No major differences were observed for the polar lipid (PL) composition...

    18. Synthesis of Acrylic Acid/Kaoline Powder Superabsorbent Composite by Inverse-suspending Polymerization

      ZHONG Jin-feng; XUE Yi-ming; WU Ji-huai; LIN Jian-ming; WEI Yue-lin

      2004-01-01

      An acrylic acid/kaoline powder superabsorbent composite with a water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite about 1/800 was synthesized by inverse-suspending polymerization reaction between acrylic acid monomer and kaoline ultrafine powder. The influence of the dispersant agent on the configuration of the products in the inverse suspension polymerization is investigated. The influences of the kaoline powder, cross-linker, initiator, neutralization degree and the volume ratio of oil to water phase on the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composites are discussed in the paper.

    19. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

      Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

      2017-01-15

      The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

    20. Graphene Oxide Reinforced Polylactic Acid/Polyurethane Antibacterial Composites

      Xiaoli An

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Nanocomposites from PLA/PU containing small concentrations of graphene oxide (GO were prepared by simple liquid-phase mixing followed by casting. The as-prepared ternary PLA/PU/GO composite films exhibited good antibacterial activity against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative Escherichia coli, due to the excellent antibacterial property of GO sheets with high specific surface area. The addition of GO inhibited the attachment and proliferation of microbes on the film surfaces, resulting in that the PLA/PU/GO composite films show remarkably improved antibacterial activity compared with PLA/PU composite film. The inhibition efficiency is proportional to the amount of GO. Furthermore, PLA/PU/GO composite fibrous paper was fabricated using electrospinning and exhibited good biocompatibility. The addition of GO does not destroy normal cell’s proliferation and differentiation. PLA/PU/GO composites with good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility make it attractive for the environmental and clinical applications and also provide a candidate for future application of tissue engineering.

    1. Temporal changes (1997–2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum

      Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997–2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sum-branched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease). - Highlights: • Four PFOS precursors and four diPAPs were detected in Swedish human serum. • Disappearance half-lives (1997–2012) of PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. • No significant temporal trends were found for diPAPs in human serum. • Linear and branched isomers were detected for three PFAAs and three precursors. - The disappearance half-lives (1997–2012) of four PFOS precursors in human serum were shorter compared to PFOS, whereas for four detected diPAPs no concentration change over time was observed

    2. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

      The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

    3. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

      The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

    4. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

      Moradkhani S.

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

    5. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

      MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

      2003-01-01

      To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

    6. Compositions containing amino acids, phosphate and manganese and their uses

      Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.

      2016-01-12

      The invention provides methods of producing vaccines directed against microorganisms, with the methods comprising culturing, harvesting and/or suspending the microorganism in the presence of a radiation-protective composition and irradiating the bacteria or viruses with a dose of radiation sufficient to render the microorganism replication-deficient and/or non-infective. The radiation-protective compositions used in the methods of the present invention comprise at least one nucleoside, at least one antioxidant and at least one small peptide. The invention also provides methods of rendering bacteria in culture resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), with these methods comprising culturing the bacteria in the presence of a radiation-protective composition.

    7. Composition

      Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

      2010-01-01

      New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

    8. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

      Chanida Lamaisri

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

    9. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

      Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

      2016-01-01

      The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, or...

    10. Composites

      Zhao, Hanqing; Guo, Yuanzheng

      2014-01-01

      This thesis was a literature study concerning composites. With composites becoming increasingly popular in various areas such as aerospace industry and construction, the research about composites has a significant meaning accordingly. This thesis was aim at introducing some basic information of polymer matrix composites including raw mate-rial, processing, testing, applications and recycling to make a rough understanding of this kind of material for readers. Polymeric matrices, fillers,...

    11. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

      Bistra B Nankova

      Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

    12. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

      Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

    13. Carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid of natural isotopic composition in phosphoric acid medium

      The 13C kinetic isotope effect fractionation in the decarbonylation of lactic acid (LA) of natural isotopic composition by concentrated phosphoric acids (PA) and by 85% H3PO4 has been studied in the temperature interval of 60-150 deg C. The values of the 13C(1) isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid in 100% H3PO4, in pyrophosphoric acid and in more concentrated phosphoric acids are intermediate between the values calculated assuming that the C(1)-OH bond is broken in the rate-controlling step of dehydration and those calculated for rupture of the carbon-carbon bond in the transition state. In the temperature interval of 90-130 deg C the experimental 13C fractionation factors determined in concentrated PA approach quite closely the 13C fractionation corresponding to C(2)-C(1) bond scission. The 13C(1) kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of LA in 85% orthophosphoric acid in the temperature range of 110-150 deg C coincide with the 13C isotope effects calculated assuming that the frequency corresponding to the C(1)-OH vibration is lost in the transition state of decarbonylation. A change of the mechanism of decarbonylation of LA in going from concentrated PA medium to 85% H3PO4 has been suggested. A possible secondary 18O and a primary18O kinetic isotope effect in decarbonylation of lactic acid in phosphoric acids media have been discussed, too. (author) 21 refs.; 3 tabs

    14. Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey.

      Tekeli, Yener; Sezgin, Mehmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ozmen Guler, Gokalp; Aydin Sanda, Murad

      2010-12-01

      In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps and C. cariensis subsp. microlepis. Generally, C 18:2 ω6 linoleic acid, C 16:0 palmitic acid, C 18:3 ω3 linolenic acid and C 18:1 oleic acid were found to be the major fatty acids in all species. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in all species. PUFAs were determined at 55.10%, 50.25%, 51.41%, 41.02%, 46.18% and 58.80% in C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and C. iberica, respectively. PMID:21108113

    15. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

      Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

      2000-05-01

      Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

    16. Fatty acids composition of Colonnata Lard from two different swine breeds

      P. Secchiari

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available The study compares the fatty acid composition of the Colonnata lard obtained from two different swine breeds, Large White (LW and Cinta Senese (CS, during a one year long curing period. Samples of backfat were obtained from the carcass of three animals per breed and disposed into six different marble boxes according to the procedure of the disciplinary production of PGI “Lardo di Colonnata”. During curing period individual lard samples were collected monthly from each marble box. The fatty acid composition of pig backfat reflected the differences in the dietary regimen and in the rearing system of the two breeds. LW swine, in fact, were fed a commercial concentrate and reared in an intensive system, whereas CS swine were fed a diet composed by a commercial concentrate supplemented with acorn and reared in an outdoor system. Lard from LW contained higher amount of saturated fatty acids than lard from CS, whereas the content of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly monounsaturated fatty acids was lower. During the curing period the trend of lard fatty acids composition was different in the two breeds: the lard from CS seemed to be more susceptible to a faster hydrolysis of fatty acids than lard from LW, especially for the monounsaturated fatty acids, while the lard from LW seemed to be more susceptible to a faster hydrolysis of PUFA n-3.

    17. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

      Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

      2014-05-01

      This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

    18. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

      Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

      1993-01-01

      Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

    19. Graphene Oxide Reinforced Polylactic Acid/Polyurethane Antibacterial Composites

      Xiaoli An; Haibin Ma; Bin Liu; Jizeng Wang

      2013-01-01

      Nanocomposites from PLA/PU containing small concentrations of graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by simple liquid-phase mixing followed by casting. The as-prepared ternary PLA/PU/GO composite films exhibited good antibacterial activity against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative Escherichia coli, due to the excellent antibacterial property of GO sheets with high specific surface area. The addition of GO inhibited the attachment and proliferation of microbes on the fil...

    20. 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized graphene oxide composites: Preparation, characterization and selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

      Jiang, Bo; Qu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

      2016-03-17

      Selective enrichment and isolation of glycopeptides from complex biological samples was indispensable for mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics, however, it remained a great challenge due to the low abundance of glycoproteins and the ion suppression of non-glycopeptides. In this work, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized graphene oxide composites were synthesized via loading gold nanoparticles on polyethylenimine modified graphene oxide surface, followed by 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid immobilization by the formation of Au-S bonding (denoted as GO/PEI/Au/4-MPB composites). The composites showed highly specific and efficient capture of glycopeptides due to their excellent hydrophilicity and abundant boronic acid groups. The composites could selectively capture the glycopeptides from the mixture of glycopeptides and nonglycopeptides, even when the amounts of non-glycopeptides were 100 times more than glycopeptides. Compared with commercial meta-amino phenylboronic acid agarose, the composites showed better selectivity when the sample was decreased to 10 ng. These results clearly verified that the GO/PEI/Au/4-MPB composites might be a promising material for glycoproteomics analysis. PMID:26920771

    1. Luminescent polymethacrylate composite nanofibers containing a benzoic acid rare earth complex: Morphology and luminescence properties

      Highlights: • We synthesize PMMA composite nanofibers containing benzoic acid rare earth complex. • We investigate the effects of nanofiber morphology on luminescence properties. • Nanofibers with different morphologies had different luminescence characteristics. • Fluorescence intensity and emission lifetime of porous nanobeads were the highest. • Nanofibers with a porous structure showed the stronger fluorescent recognition ability. - Abstract: In this study, we systematically investigated the morphologies and luminescence properties of luminescent polymethacrylate composite nanofibers containing a benzoic acid rare earth complex. The analysis results indicated that the benzoic acid rare earth complex, Tb(4-methylbenzoic acid)3phen, was distributed uniformly in the polymethacrylate nanofibers, which were fabricated by electrostatic spinning. The Tb(4-methylbenzoic acid)3phen content in the polymethacrylate nanofibers was as high as 20% (mass%). The emission peaks of the as-prepared polymethacrylate composite nanofibers corresponded to the characteristic 5D4–7F6,5,4,3 transitions of Tb3+ ions. The highest emission peak was observed at 548 nm and corresponded to the 5D4–7F5 transition. When the Tb(4-methylbenzoic acid)3phen content was less than 1%, even a 0.2% increase in the content increased the fluorescence intensity markedly. The thermal stability of the rare earth complex was higher in the as-prepared nanofibers; the initial decomposition temperature of the polymethacrylate composite nanofiber reached 291 °C. Composite nanofibers with different morphologies exhibited different luminescence characteristics. The fluorescence intensity and emission lifetime of porous nanobeads were nine and two times higher, respectively, than those of smooth nanofibers. The better morphological and luminescence properties exhibited by the synthesized luminescent polymethacrylate composite nanofibers should result in the use of benzoic acid rare earth complexes in

    2. Luminescent polymethacrylate composite nanofibers containing a benzoic acid rare earth complex: Morphology and luminescence properties

      Zhao, Fulai [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Tianjin Polytechnic University, 300387 Tianjin (China); Xi, Peng, E-mail: xpsyq0007@sina.com [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Tianjin Polytechnic University, 300387 Tianjin (China); State Key laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Xia, Haiying; Wang, Chaohua; Gao, Li [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Tianjin Polytechnic University, 300387 Tianjin (China); Cheng, Bowen, E-mail: Bowen@tjpu.edu.cn [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Tianjin Polytechnic University, 300387 Tianjin (China)

      2015-08-25

      Highlights: • We synthesize PMMA composite nanofibers containing benzoic acid rare earth complex. • We investigate the effects of nanofiber morphology on luminescence properties. • Nanofibers with different morphologies had different luminescence characteristics. • Fluorescence intensity and emission lifetime of porous nanobeads were the highest. • Nanofibers with a porous structure showed the stronger fluorescent recognition ability. - Abstract: In this study, we systematically investigated the morphologies and luminescence properties of luminescent polymethacrylate composite nanofibers containing a benzoic acid rare earth complex. The analysis results indicated that the benzoic acid rare earth complex, Tb(4-methylbenzoic acid){sub 3}phen, was distributed uniformly in the polymethacrylate nanofibers, which were fabricated by electrostatic spinning. The Tb(4-methylbenzoic acid){sub 3}phen content in the polymethacrylate nanofibers was as high as 20% (mass%). The emission peaks of the as-prepared polymethacrylate composite nanofibers corresponded to the characteristic {sup 5}D{sub 4}–{sup 7}F{sub 6,5,4,3} transitions of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The highest emission peak was observed at 548 nm and corresponded to the {sup 5}D{sub 4}–{sup 7}F{sub 5} transition. When the Tb(4-methylbenzoic acid){sub 3}phen content was less than 1%, even a 0.2% increase in the content increased the fluorescence intensity markedly. The thermal stability of the rare earth complex was higher in the as-prepared nanofibers; the initial decomposition temperature of the polymethacrylate composite nanofiber reached 291 °C. Composite nanofibers with different morphologies exhibited different luminescence characteristics. The fluorescence intensity and emission lifetime of porous nanobeads were nine and two times higher, respectively, than those of smooth nanofibers. The better morphological and luminescence properties exhibited by the synthesized luminescent polymethacrylate composite

    3. V2O5-Poly aniline Nano composite as Catalyst in Ozonization of Oleic Acid

      In this work, the synthesis of Azelaic acid (AA) from oleic acid cleavage is studied. The reaction is done by using V2O5- Poly aniline (pani) nano composite as catalyst in solvent free medium. Preparation of V2O5- pani nano composite as a catalyst is done via micelle solution by using cationic surfactant, cethyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Various loading percentages of V2O5 in Pani are considered and their differences in activity and selectivity are also evaluated. According to GC analysis, results showed that nano composite as catalyst is two times more selective to azelaic acid compare to bulk and nano V2O5. This nano composite has significant selectivity to azelaic acid rather than pelargonic acid , the by-product of oleic acid ozonolysis. For characterization TEM, FESEM, BET, XPS, TGA, XRD analysis are done .It is found that both yield and selectivity are increased when surface area, defects and specific active sites of catalyst are increased. (author)

    4. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

      Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

      2009-01-01

      We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

    5. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

      Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

      2016-01-01

      Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

    6. Cd(II) Sorption on Montmorillonite-Humic acid-Bacteria Composites

      Du, Huihui; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Dai, Ke; Peacock, Caroline L.; Huang, Qiaoyun

      2016-01-01

      Soil components (e.g., clays, bacteria and humic substances) are known to produce mineral-organic composites in natural systems. Herein, batch sorption isotherms, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy were applied to investigate the binding characteristics of Cd on montmorillonite(Mont)-humic acid(HA)-bacteria composites. Additive sorption and non-additive Cd(II) sorption behaviour is observed for the binary Mont-bacteria and ternary Mont-HA-bacteria composite, respectively. Specifically, in the ternary composite, the coexistence of HA and bacteria inhibits Cd adsorption, suggesting a “blocking effect” between humic acid and bacterial cells. Large positive entropies (68.1 ~ 114.4 J/mol/K), and linear combination fitting of the EXAFS spectra for Cd adsorbed onto Mont-bacteria and Mont-HA-bacteria composites, demonstrate that Cd is mostly bound to bacterial surface functional groups by forming inner-sphere complexes. All our results together support the assertion that there is a degree of site masking in the ternary clay mineral-humic acid-bacteria composite. Because of this, in the ternary composite, Cd preferentially binds to the higher affinity components-i.e., the bacteria. PMID:26792640

    7. Warning About Fatty Acid Compositions in Some Iranian Mayonnaise Salad Dressings

      Bahar Nazari

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Objectives: The beneficial or detrimental effects of dietary fats on health and well-being largely depend on their fatty acid composition. The contribution of high intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs to the risk of coronary heart dis-ease is well documented. In this study, the fatty acid composition of different sam-ples of mayonnaise salad dressing produced in Iran wasanalyzed.Methods: Three most consumed samples from four different brands of Iranian mayonnaises were purchased. Total lipids were extracted with Folch technique. All samples were transformed into methyl ester and analysis of fatty acid methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography (GC with 60 meters capillary columns and flame ionization detectors.Results: TFAs ranged from 0.6% to 3.5% ,with linolelaidic acid (C18:2 9t, 12t being the most common form of fatty acid in Iranian mayonnaises, which had high amounts of SFAs (from18.1% to 24.9% and unsaturated fatty acids (68.4%to 74.4%.Conclusions: The most common type of fatty acids in Iranian tested mayonnaises were unsaturated ones followed by SFAs. Significant variations were found among the contents of TFAs in these products, which is related to their procedure. Improvement of the fat quality in this highly consumed food product might have a long-term impact on prevention of chronic diseases.

    8. Changes in some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of irradiated meatballs during storage

      Meatball samples were irradiated using a 60Co irradiation source (with the dose of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy) and stored (1, 2 and 3 weeks at 4 °C) to appraise some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition. The physicochemical results showed no significant differences in moisture, protein, fat and ash content of meatballs because of irradiation. However, total acidity, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values increased significantly as a result of irradiation doses and storage period. The fatty acid profile in meatball samples changed with irradiation. While saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:0) increased with irradiation, monounsaturated (C14:1, C15:1, C18:1, and C20:1) and polyunsaturated (C18:2, C18:3, and C22:2) fatty acids decreased with irradiation. Trans fatty acids (C16:1trans, C18:1trans, C18:2trans, C18:3trans) increased with increasing irradiation doses. Meatball samples irradiated at 7 kGy had the highest total trans fatty acid content. This research shows that some physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of meatballs can be changed by gamma irradiation. (author)

    9. Temperature-mediated variations in cellular membrane fatty acid composition of Staphylococcus aureus in resistance to pulsed electric fields.

      Wang, Lang-Hong; Wang, Man-Sheng; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Zhi-Wei

      2016-08-01

      Effects of growth temperature on cell membrane fatty acid composition, fluidity and lethal and sublethal injury by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (S. aureus) in the stationary phase were investigated. Analysis of the membrane fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that branched chain fatty acids (iso C14:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0) and straight chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0 and C18:0) were primary constituents in the membrane. The S. aureus changed its membrane fatty acid composition and its overall fluidity when exposed to different temperatures. The PEF lethal and sublethal effects were assessed, and results suggested that the degree of inactivation depended on the cell membrane structure, electric field strength and treatment time. The PEF inactivation kinetics including lethal and sublethal injury fractions were fitted with non-linear Weibull distribution, suggesting that inactivation of the first log cycle of S. aureus population was significantly affected by growth temperature, and the membrane of cells became more fluid, and easier to induce electroportion in low temperatures. Moreover, the morphology of S. aureus cells were investigated by electron microscopy, showing that various temperature-modified cells were distorted to differing extents and some even collapsed due to deep irreversible electroporation after PEF treatment. PMID:27155566

    10. Homozygous and heterozygous GH transgenesis alters fatty acid composition and content in the liver of Amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae

      Manabu Sugiyama

      2012-08-01

      Growth hormone (GH transgenic Amago (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae, containing the sockeye GH1 gene fused with metallothionein-B promoter from the same species, were generated and the physiological condition through lipid metabolism compared among homozygous (Tg/Tg and heterozygous GH transgenic (Tg/+ Amago and the wild type control (+/+. Previously, we have reported that the adipose tissue was generally smaller in GH transgenic fish compared to the control, and that the Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase gene was down-regulated in the Tg/+ fish. However, fatty acid (FA compositions have not been measured previously in these fish. In this study we compared the FAs composition and content in the liver using gas chromatography. Eleven kinds of FA were detected. The composition of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA such as myristic acid (14:0, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7, and cis-vaccenic acid (cis-18:1n-7 was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in GH transgenic Amago. On the other hand, the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid (18:2n-6, arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3 was significantly (P<0.05 increased. Levels of serum glucose and triacylglycerol were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the GH transgenics compared with +/+ fish. Furthermore, 3′-tag digital gene expression profiling was performed using liver tissues from Tg/Tg and +/+ fish, and showed that Mid1 interacting protein 1 (Mid1ip1, which is an important factor to activate Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, was down-regulated in Tg/Tg fish, while genes involved in FA catabolism were up-regulated, including long-chain-fatty-acid–CoA ligase 1 (ACSL1 and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 3 (ACOX3. These data suggest that liver tissue from GH transgenic Amago showed starvation by alteration in glucose and lipid metabolism due to GH overexpression. The decrease of serum glucose suppressed Mid1ip1, and caused a decrease of de novo FA synthesis, resulting

    11. Fatty Acid Composition of Tissue Cultured Breast Carcinoma and the Effect of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Inhibition

      Mohammadzadeh, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Gholamali; Montazeri, Vahid; Darabi, Maryam; Fayezi, Shabnam; Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahmati, Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Mehdizadeh, Amir

      2014-01-01

      Purpose Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a novel therapeutic target in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pharmacologic inhibition of SCD1 on fatty acid composition in tissue explant cultures of human breast cancer and to compare these effects with those in adjacent nonneoplastic breast tissue. Methods Paired samples of tumor and adjacent noncancerous tissue were isolated from 12 patients with infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Samples were explant cultured in vitro, exposed to the highly selective SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566, and examined for fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic and antigrowth effects were evaluated by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and by sulforhodamine B (SRB) measurement, respectively. Results Breast cancer tissue samples were found to have higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p<0.001) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, p<0.001) and a lower level of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, p=0.02) than the normal-appearing breast tissues. While exhibiting no evident cytotoxicity, treatment with the SCD1 inhibitor, CAY10566 (0.1-1 µM), for 48 hours significantly increased 18:2n-6 levels in both the tumor and adjacent normal-appearing tissue (approximately 1.2 fold, p<0.05). However, the breast cancer tissue samples showed significant increases in the levels of MUFA and 20:4n-6 compared to the normal-appearing breast tissues (p<0.05). The SRB growth assay revealed a higher rate of inhibition with the SCD1 inhibitor in breast cancer tissues than in normal-appearing tissues (p<0.01, 41% vs. 29%). The SCD1 inhibitor also elevated saturated fatty acid (1.46-fold, p=0.001) levels only in the tumor tissue explant. Conclusion The fatty acid composition and response to SCD1 inhibition differed between the explant cultures from breast cancer and the adjacent normal-appearing tissue. Altered fatty acid composition induced by SCD1 inhibition

    12. Detecting and Tracking Shifts in National Vegetation Composition,Including Donors and Recipients, Across the MODIS Era

      Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S. P.; Hoffman, F. M.

      2014-12-01

      Forested landscapes are ecologically and economically important, and understanding their dynamics is important for land--management decision making. Forest ecosystems are also under stress, and may be changing due to interannual variability and long term change in climate, natural and anthropogenic disturbance, including human use and management. Detecting and tracking shifts in vegetation is important for land--management, conservation planning, monitoring recovery, managing and monitoring forest structure and composition, maintaining species and habitat diversity and many other purposes.We used MODIS NDVI to create phenological ecoregions, or "phenoregions" having similar annual phenology using a unsupervised clustering method over the period 2000--2012. These statistically derived phenoregions were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) classes using the "Mapcurves" algorithm. Interannual transitions in phenologically defined classes are indicator of disturbance and recovery. Because the area within the CONUS is fixed, land cover area changes are a zero-sum game. Changes in one land cover class must be accompained by compensating changes in other classes.We demonstrate a full-circle national-scale accounting system which can track not only area changes in land cover classes, but can show which other compensatory land cover class area changes accompanied them. Area changes in the vegetation distributions, as well as compensatory gains, losses, and trades in area of other land cover types, were mapped and tracked annually during 2000--2012 period at MODIS resolution. The types or labels of the classes used in the accounting can easily be changed to sets of land cover types that maximize the utility of the tracking. For any particular "focus" land cover type, results show which other land covers were donors or recipients of area changes, showing ecologists and land managers alike what vegetation types were given up or gained to offset particular

    13. Influence of Flaxseed Oil on Fecal Microbiota, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolks in Laying Hens.

      Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Heo, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Do-Woon; Park, Tae-Eun; Han, Geon Goo; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Ho-Bin; Jung, Eojin; Kim, Hee Sung; Na, Yerim; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

      2016-03-01

      Although there have been many attempts to produce ω-3 fatty acid-rich eggs using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that is a popular fatty acid in the poultry feed industry, only limited knowledge about the effects of ALA-enriched diets on chicken fecal microbiota is currently available. Herein we examined the changes in the fecal microbiota composition, egg quality traits and fatty acid composition of the egg yolks of laying hens fed ALA-rich flaxseed oil for 8 weeks. The animals fed the experimental diets that contained 0 % (group C), 0.5 % (group T1), and 1.0 % (group T2) of flaxseed oil, respectively, and eggs and feces were obtained for the analyses. ω-3 fatty acids, including ALA, were increased in T1 and T2 compared with C. Furthermore, the freshness of eggs was improved with no side effects on the eggs. The diet also changed the fecal microbiota; Firmicutes was increased in T1 and T2 (48.6 to 83 and 79.6 %) and Bacteroidetes was decreased (40.2 to 8.8 and 4.2 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, among the 56 examined genera, was the most influenced bacterial group in terms of the fecal microbial community shifts. These results indicate that ALA-rich diets influenced both the egg and fecal microbiota in beneficial manners in laying hens although the association between the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk and the fecal microbiota was not clear. This study is a first step to understand the effect of flaxseed oil as well as intestinal microbiota of laying hens. PMID:26613617

    14. Fatty Acid Composition in Oil of Recent Rapeseed Hybrids and 00 Cultivars

      Milan Pospišil

      2007-09-01

      Full Text Available Fatty acid composition in oil of seven new hybrids (‘Artus’, ‘Baldur’, ‘Exact’, ‘Executive’, ‘Extra’, ‘RG 9908’, ‘RG 9909’ and eight 00-cultivars (‘Aviso’, ‘Bristol’, ‘Canary’, ‘Dexter’, ‘Ella’, ‘Kosto’, ‘Navajo’, ‘Royal’ of rapeseed was investigated in the period 2003-2005. The experiments were placed in the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters, and the oil iodine number was calculated as well. The studied new rapeseed hybrids and 00 cultivars contained no erucic acid or it was present far below 2%. The average content of oleic acid was 61.88±2.64% in hybrids and 62.54±3.90% in 00-cultivars, the content of linoleic acid was 20.52±1.49% and 19.57±2.51%, the content of linolenic acid was 8.39±1.50% and 7.92±2.12%, the content of palmitic acid was 5.13±0.48% and 5.50±0.51%, and the content of stearic acid was 1.48±0.16% and 1.58±0.19%, respectively. Th is ratio of fatty acids confirms the high nutritive quality of rapeseed oil. The iodine value was 112±2 in oil from hybrids and 110±4 in oil from 00-cultivars. In both investigated groups there were no differences in fatty acid composition which could influence the quality and stability of rapeseed oil. The average values in oils obtained from hybrids as well as from 00-cultivars are inside the data prescribed in law regulations. Although, there were several samples in which oleic and palmitic acid contents were above and linoleic and linolenic acid contents (as well as the iodine values below the limit values, what ought to be incorporated into the revision of present regulations on vegetable oils. Fatty acid composition in hybrids and in 00-cultivars was greatly influenced by weather conditions. In the year with higher mean monthly air temperatures and less precipitation during May and June compared to average long

    15. Influence of oxidation on fulvic acids composition and biodegradability.

      Kozyatnyk, Ivan; Świetlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanisławiak, Ursula; Dąbrowska, Agata; Klymenko, Nataliya; Nawrocki, Jacek

      2013-08-01

      Oxidation is well-known process of transforming natural organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. Chlorine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide are common oxidants used in water treatment technologies for this purpose. We studied the influence of different doses of these oxidants on by-products formation and changes in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of fulvic acids (FA) with different BDOC content. Chlorination did not significantly change the MWD of FA and disinfection by-products formation. However, higher molecular weight compounds, than those in the initial FA, were formed. It could be a result of chlorine substitution into the FA structure. Chlorine dioxide oxidized FA stronger than chlorine. During ozonation of FA, we found the highest increase of BDOD due to the formation of a high amount of organic acids and aldehydes. FA molecules were transformed into a more biodegradable form. Ozonation is the most preferable process among those observed for pre-treatment of FA before biofiltration. PMID:23746389

    16. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

      Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

    17. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

      Gecgel, Umit, E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.t [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

      2011-04-15

      Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

    18. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

      Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

      2010-07-01

      Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

    19. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF ETHYL-CYANOETHYL CELLULOSE/POLYACRYLIC ACID COMPOSITE FILMS WITH REFLECTION COLORS

      Yong Huang

      2001-01-01

      Ethyl-cyanoethyl cellulose [(E-CE)C]/acrylic acid (AA) becomes a cholesteric liquid crystalline solution with vivid colors when the (E-CE)C concentration is 42 wt% ~52 wt%. (E-CE)C/polyacrylic acid (PAA) composites with cholesteric structure were prepared by polymerizing AA in (E-CE)C/AA liquid crystalline solutions. The layers of ordered polymer chains in the cholesteric phase were inclined during polymerization and the degree of the inclination depended on the polymerization temperature and the concentration of the solution before polymerization. The cholesteric structure in the composites could not be changed when temperature was lower than 100C. Cross-linking of the PAA in composites improved their water-resistance. The cholesteric order of the composites without cross-linking was destroyed when they where immersed in water. The color derived from the selective reflection of the cholesteric phase of the cross-linked composites turned from blue to red after the composites absorbed water. The color of the composites could be returned to the original one when the absorbed water was removed from the swollen composites.

    20. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

      Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

      2013-04-15

      Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

    1. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

      Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

    2. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

      Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

      2016-01-01

      It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products. PMID:27432239

    3. Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.

      Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

      1996-01-01

      One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes

    4. Fatty acid composition of Achene oils from five Moroccan climatic cultivars of Cannabis.

      Merzouki, A.

      1997-06-01

      Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of achene oil from five Cannabis climatic cultivars cultivated in the nort of Morrocco is determined. Linoleic acid predominated (40 to 45%, followed by linolenic (12 to 17% and oleic (7 to 10% acids. Differences in the fatty acid composition of oils are attributed to environmental factors.

      Se estudia la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de los aquenios de cinco variedades climáticas del cáñamo (Cannabis sativa L cultivadas en el norte de Marruecos. Predomina el ácido linoleico (40 a 45% seguido por el linolénico (12 a 17% y el oleico (7 a 10%. Las diferencias en la composición de los ácidos grasos del aceite se atribuyen a factores ambientales.

    5. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

      Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E;

      2012-01-01

      Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI...... (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic...

    6. Identify Secretory Protein of Malaria Parasite with Modified Quadratic Discriminant Algorithm and Amino Acid Composition.

      Feng, Yong-E

      2016-06-01

      Malaria parasite secretes various proteins in infected red blood cell for its growth and survival. Thus identification of these secretory proteins is important for developing vaccine or drug against malaria. In this study, the modified method of quadratic discriminant analysis is presented for predicting the secretory proteins. Firstly, 20 amino acids are divided into five types according to the physical and chemical characteristics of amino acids. Then, we used five types of amino acids compositions as inputs of the modified quadratic discriminant algorithm. Finally, the best prediction performance is obtained by using 20 amino acid compositions, the sensitivity of 96 %, the specificity of 92 % with 0.88 of Mathew's correlation coefficient in fivefold cross-validation test. The results are also compared with those of existing prediction methods. The compared results shown our method are prominent in the prediction of secretory proteins. PMID:26286010

    7. Fatty acid composition of cultured butter produced using mesophilic and probiotic cultures

      Мусий, Любовь Ярославовна; Цисарык, Орыся Иосифовна; Голубец, Ольга Валерьевна; Шкаруба, Сергей Николаевич

      2014-01-01

      The aim of the research was to study the possibility of modeling the composition of fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria in the production of cultured butter. For the cream culturing, fermenting compositions DVS (Chr.Hansen, Denmark) FloraDanica (FD) and Lbm. acidophilum La-5 (La-5) were used. Four groups of cultured butter were produced: I (samples K1, K2, K3 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - cream culturing at a temperature of 30ºC; II (K4, K5, K6 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - cream culturing at a tem...

    8. Hybrid Fibre Polylactide Acid Composite with Empty Fruit Bunch: Chopped Glass Strands

      K. Y. Tshai; A. B. Chai; Kong, I.; Hoque, M.E; Tshai, K. H.

      2014-01-01

      Hybrid polylactide acid (PLA) composites reinforced with palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and chopped strand E-glass (GLS) fibres were investigated. The hybrid fibres PLA composite was prepared through solution casting followed by pelletisation and subsequent hot compression press into 1 mm thick specimen. Chloroform and dichloromethane were used as solvent and their effectiveness in dissolving PLA was reported. The overall fibre loading was kept constant at volume fraction, Vf, of 20% while the ...

    9. Determination of the Amino Acid and Chemical Composition of Canned Smoked Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, L.)

      Şengör, Gülgün F.; Gün, Hüseyin; Kalafatoğlu, Hanife

      2008-01-01

      In this research smoking and canning techniques were applied to cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, L.) from the Çanakkkale Strait in Eceabat, Turkey. Mussels that were smoked by liquid and traditional methods were canned in different sauces. The chemical composition and amino acid composition of the canned smoked mussels were determined by the results of laboratory analyses. As a result of smoking and canning mussels, a food with high nutritional value was obtained. It was determine...

    10. Poly(lactic acid) /kenaf fiber composites: effect of microfibrillated cellulose on interface-sensitive properties

      Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana; Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

      2012-01-01

      Ecologically friendly composites consist of a biodegradable matrix and natural fibers (such as cotton, sisal, kenaf, bamboo, etc.), which have been successfully used for reinforcing of different polymer matrices. Quite recently, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was used as a matrix for biodegradable eco-composites. Natural fibers (NFs) offer both cost savings and a reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Though the strength of NFs is not as great as glass, the specific properti...

    11. Triacylglycerols and fatty acids composition of egusi seed oil (Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin)

      R. Kamga; Tchatchueng, J. B.; Kapseu, C.

      1993-01-01

      Triacylglycerols were determined from a Cameroonian (African) white egusi seed oil (Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin) using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The fatty acid composition of two types of seed (red and white) is obtained by capillary gas chromatography. The study of the triacyiglycerol composition obtained in white egusi seed oil revealed that only nine triacylglycerols were present in amounts above 1% (area). The first five triglycerides represent more than 80% of...

    12. The effect of fishmeal or peameal on milk fatty acid composition in organic farming

      Adler, Steffen A.; Randby, Åshild T.

      2006-01-01

      Feed fatty acid (FA) composition influences the FA composition of cow milk. In a continuous production experiment with 32 Norwegian red dairy cows fishmeal (FM) was compared to peameal (PM) as protein supplement to home-grown cereals and grass silage in organic farming. The protein supplements were together with cereals formulated to be isonitrogeneous and isoenergetic (NEL) and were compared at high (HC) and low concentrate (LC) level. The concentrate rations did not affect the intake of sil...

    13. Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition

      Bimal Mohanty

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs.

    14. Fatty Acid Composition of Tobacco Seed Oil and Synthesis of Alkyd Resin

      MUKHTAR,Azam; ULLAH,Habib; MUKHTAR,Hamid

      2007-01-01

      The fatty acid composition of tobacco seed oil revealed that the oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, having linoleic acid (71.63%), oleic acid (13.46%) and palmitic acid (8.72%) as the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids respectively. So the tobacco oil was characterized as semi-drying type on the basis of fatty acid composition. The synthesis of alkyd resin was carried out by alcoholysis or monoglyceride process using an alkali refined tobacco seed oil, pentaerythritol, cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride along with lithium hydroxide as catalyst.The alkyd resin so prepared was found to be bright and of low color with high gloss. The drying and hardness properties and adhesion of the tobacco seed oil derived alkyd resin were also found a bit superior to those of other alkyd resins of the same oil length. In addition, the water and acid resistance of the said alkyd was also found comparable to the other alkyds.

    15. Influence of self-compacting concrete composition on sulfuric acid attack

      Feys, Dimitri; Liu, Zanqun; Heirman, Gert; De Schutter, Geert; Boel, Veerle; Desmet, Bram; Vantomme, John; Cizer, Özlem; Vandewalle, Lucie; Gemert, Dionys van

      2009-01-01

      Sulfuric acid attack on concrete has been reported for over a century. Many scientific papers deal with the issue of concrete damage due to sulfate and sulfuric attack. The introduction of self-compacting concrete introduces new questions related to the behaviour of powder-rich mixtures in a sulfate environment. This paper describes a simple testing method to investigate the influence of the concrete composition on the sulfuric acid attack. Concrete samples have been submerged in a sulfate...

    16. Ammonia Gas Sensing Behavior of Tanninsulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline-TiO2 Composite

      Venu Gopal Bairi; Bourdo, Shawn E.; Nicolas Sacre; Dev Nair; Berry, Brian C.; Biris, Alexandru S; Tito Viswanathan

      2015-01-01

      A highly active tannin doped polyaniline-TiO2 composite ammonia gas sensor was developed and the mechanism behind the gas sensing activity was reported for the first time. A tanninsulfonic acid doped polyaniline (TANIPANI)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of tanninsulfonic acid and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to determine the incorporation of TiO2 in TANIPAN...

    17. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in healthy Portuguese children: Is the Mediterranean diet disappearing?

      Guerra, Antonio; Feldl, Franziska; Koletzko, Berthold

      2001-01-01

      Background: Adults and children in Mediterranean countries are believed to consume a Mediterranean-type diet wh ich is h ig her in monounsaturated a nd n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids than compared to central and northern parts of Europe and has preventive effects for cardiovascular risks. Subjects and Methods: in preschool children from Porto, Portugal (n = 35) and Munich, Germany (n = 18) we determined the plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition considered as a biomarker for dietary fat ...

    18. Isolation and cellular fatty acid composition of psychrotrophic Halomonas strains from Antarctic sea water

      Vipra Vijay Jadhav; Amit Yadav; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Rama Kaustubh Bhadekar

      2013-01-01

      Microorganisms from extreme environments such as Arctic, Antarctic and Polar regions modulate their membrane fatty acids to survive in such habitats. Characterization of such microorganisms helps in understanding their physiological behavior. In view of this, the present article describes isolation, characterization and cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial isolates from Antarctic sea water samples. All the three isolates (BRI 6, 29 and 31) were psychrotrophic Gram negative rods....

    19. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

      Dulf Francisc V; Pamfil Doru; Baciu Adriana D; Pintea Adela

      2013-01-01

      Abstract Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fra...

    20. Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition

      Subramanian Saravanan; Inge Geurden; A Cláudia Figueiredo-Silva; Suluh Nusantoro; Sadasivam Kaushik; Johan Verreth; Johan W Schrama

      2013-01-01

      Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a...

    1. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil

      Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

      2013-01-01

      Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (...

    2. Pollen Flavonoid/Phenolic Acid Composition of Four Species of Cactaceae and its Taxonomic Significance

      Norma Almaraz-Abarca; Campos, Maria G.; Eli A. Delgado-Alvarado; Jose A. Avila-Reyes; Jesus Herrera-Corral; Laura S. Gonzalez-Valdez; Nestor Naranjo-Jimenez; Christian Frigerio; Ana F. Tomatas; Ana J. Almeida; Amelia Vieira; Jose N. Uribe-Soto

      2008-01-01

      The pollen flavonoid/phenolic acid composition of 14 individual of Stenocactus multicostatus subsp. zacatecasensis (Britton et Rose) U. Guzman et Vazquez-Benitez, comb. et stat. nov., 11 of Echinocereus enneacanthus Engelmann, 8 of Echinocereus pectinatus (Scheidweiler) Engelmann and 12 of Mammillaria heyderi sensu lato (all belonging to Cactaceae) was analyzed by HPLC/DAD with the aim of determining the role of pollen profiles of flavonoid/phenolic acid as valuable markers in those taxa. The...

    3. Investigation on protein content and amino acid composition in the kernels of some sunflower lines

      Nenova N.; Drumeva M.

      2012-01-01

      This study took into account the protein content in the kernel of ten lines derived from interspecific hybrids Helianthus annuus (line 2607) × Helianthus resinosus and Helianthus annuus (line 2607) × Helianthus salicifolius. The amino acid composition of storage protein was also studied. The protein in the new lines exceeded the protein in the parental forms with up to 10.6%. The essential amino acids lysine, valine, threonine and phenylalanine had higher a...

    4. Genotypic Variation on Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Phenolic Compounds in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

      ÖZKAYNAK KANMAZ, Evrim; Ova, Gülden

      2015-01-01

      Linseed is used as a functional food ingredient in food products because ofits valuable bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of cultivar varietyon total oil content, fatty acid composition, level of α-linolenic acid, SDG(secoisolariciresinol diglucosid) lignan, phenolic (free and esterified) andflavonoid (free and esterified) content of linseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.)cultivated in Turkey was investigated. Also, it was aimed to determine thecorrelations between the bioactive compou...

    5. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

      Valeriano Domenech

      2011-07-01

      Full Text Available Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT and semitendinosus (ST muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes had greater saturated (P<0.001 and lower monounsaturated (P<0.001 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002 concentration than meat from Anglo Nubian, showing higher saturated fatty acids (SFA. On the other hand, intramuscular fat content from both genotypes was higher (P=0.042 in ST muscle, while the lowest cholesterol levels were observed in ST of Criollo Cordobes (P=0.038. That higher fat content resulted in lower relative contents of total polyunsaturated (P<0.001 and n-3 (P=0.002 fatty acids due to the lower contribution of the membrane phospholipids.

    6. Characterization of the Fatty Acid and Mineral Compositions of Selected Cereal Cultivars from Turkey

      Asuman Kan

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available In this present study, crude oil, fatty acid and mineral compositions of wheat (Triticum sp. L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus., rye (Secale cereale L., and oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars, respectively, from Turkey were investigated. Both the distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, and the mineral contents of evaluated cereals were reported. Fatty acid compositions and mineral contents were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES techniques, respectively. The highest crude oil content was found in oat [cv. Seydisehir; 5.35%], whereas the lowest crude oil was in triticale [cv. Aslım-95; 1.19 %]. The results showed that the contents of total UFA in the different cultivars varied between 77.1 - 81.5 %. The major components of the cereal oils were determined as oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. The total macro-, micro- element, and heavy metal contents varied between 8638 - 16108 ppm, 113-180 ppm and 1.8 - 6.9 ppm, respectively. As a conclusion, there were significant (p < 0.01 differences between the cereal cultivars in view of their crude oil contents, fatty acid and mineral compositions of the investigated samples from Turkey.

    7. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

      The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

    8. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

      Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

      1998-01-01

      esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids....... The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake...

    9. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

      Meilan Xue

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

    10. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

      Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

      2012-09-14

      Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.