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Sample records for acidothermus cellulolyticus 11b

  1. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot

  2. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Necsulea, Anamaria [UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [JGI; Pujic, Pierre [UNIV LYON; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Phillipe [UNIV LYON

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  3. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B.

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg(-1), respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL(-1) and 131.75 U·mg(-1), respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  4. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    Junling Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future.

  5. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacome, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Philippe [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Necsula, Anamaria [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [CNRS/GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [DOE JOINT GENOME INST.; Pujic, Pierre [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Richardson, Paul [DOE JOINT GENOME INST; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  6. Heterologous Expression of Family 10 Xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus Enhances the Exoproteome of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and Growth on Xylan Substrates

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Chung, Daehwan; Himmel, Michael E.; Bomble, Yannick J.; Westpheling, Janet

    2016-08-22

    The ability to deconstruct plant biomass without conventional pretreatment has made members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor the target of investigation for the consolidated processing of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. These Gram-positive bacteria are hyperthermophilic anaerobes and the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms so far described. They use both C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously and have the ability to grow well on xylan, a major component of plant cell walls. This is an important advantage for their use to efficiently convert biomass at yields sufficient for an industrial process. For commodity chemicals, yield from substrate is perhaps the most important economic factor. In an attempt to improve even further the ability of C. bescii to use xylan, we introduced two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Acel_0180 includes tandem carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM2 and CBM3) located at the C-terminus, one of which, CBM2, is not present in C. bescii. Also, the sequences of Xyn10A and Acel_0180 have very little homology with the GH10 domains present in C. bescii. For these reasons, we selected these xylanases as potential candidates for synergistic interaction with those in the C. bescii exoproteome. Heterologous expression of two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii resulted in a modest, but significant increase in the activity of the exoproteome of C. bescii on xylan substrates. Even though the increase in extracellular activity was modest, the ability of C. bescii to grow on these substrates was dramatically improved suggesting that the xylan substrate/microbe interaction substantially increased deconstruction over the secreted free enzymes alone. We anticipate that the ability to efficiently use xylan, a major component of plant cell walls for conversion of plant biomass to products of interest, will allow the conversion of renewable, sustainable, and inexpensive plant feedstocks to

  7. Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) production in transgenic tobacco plants by transcriptional, post-transcription and post-translational modification.

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S; Quesenberry, Ryan D; Thomas, Steven R

    2005-10-01

    An attempt was made to obtain a high-level production of intact Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) in transgenic tobacco plants. The E1 expression was examined under the control of the constitutive and strong Mac promoter or light-inducible tomato Rubisco small sub-unit (RbcS-3C) promoter with its original or Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV) RNA4 5'-untranslated leader (UTL) and targeted to different sub-cellular compartments via transit peptides. The transit peptides included native E1, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole, apoplast, and chloroplast. E1 expression and its stability in transgenic plants were determined via E1 activity, protein immunoblotting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of sub-cellular compartments on E1 production and its stability were determined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors, where the E1 was under the control of Mac promoter, mannopine synthase transcription terminator, and one of the five transit peptides. Transgenic tobacco plants with an apoplastic transit peptide had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation, which was about 0.25% of total leaf soluble proteins estimated via E1 specific activity and protein gel blots. Intercellular fluid analyses confirmed that E1 signal peptide functioned properly in tobacco cells to secret E1 protein into the apoplast. By replacing RbcS-3C UTL with AMV RNA4 UTL E1 production was enhanced more than twofold, while it was less effective than the mannopine synthase UTL. It was observed that RbcS-3C promoter was more favorable for E1 expression in transgenic plants than the Mac promoter. E1 activity in dried tobacco seeds stored one year at room temperature was 45% higher than that observed immediately after harvesting, suggesting that E1 protein can be stored at room temperature for a long period. E1 stability in different sub-cellular compartments and the optimal combination of promoter, 5'-UTL, and sub-cellular compartmentation for

  8. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Chou Hong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. Results In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme β-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1 gene, from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial E1 gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer, with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the E1 protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial E1 enzyme were obtained that expressed the gene at high levels without severely impairing plant growth and development. However, some transgenic plants exhibited a shorter stature and flowered earlier than the wild type plants. The E1 specific activities in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20-fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. A zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the E1 enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid for one hour at 39°C and another hour at 81°C yielded 43% more reducing sugars than wild type rice

  9. In planta expression of A. cellulolyticus Cel5A endocellulase reduces cell wall recalcitrance in tobacco and maize

    Blaylock Michael J; Lee David; Himmel Michael E; Vinzant Todd B; Selig Michael J; Brunecky Roman; Decker Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The glycoside hydrolase family 5 endocellulase, E1 (Cel5A), from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was transformed into both Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays with expression targeted to the cell wall under a constitutive promoter. Here we explore the possibility that in planta expression of endocellulases will allow these enzymes to access their substrates during cell wall construction, rendering cellulose more amenable to pretreatment and enzyme digestion. Tobacco and maize plants were heal...

  10. Crystal Structure of Talaromyces cellulolyticus (Formerly Known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) GH Family 11 Xylanase

    Kataoka, Misumi; Akita, Fusamichi; Maeno, Yuka; Inoue, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) is one of the mesophilic fungi that can produce high levels of cellulose-related enzymes and are expected to be used for the degradation of polysaccharide biomass. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus detected seven open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to xylanases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11. The gene encoding the GH11 xylanase C (TcXylC) with the highest activity was used fo...

  11. In planta expression of A. cellulolyticus Cel5A endocellulase reduces cell wall recalcitrance in tobacco and maize

    Blaylock Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The glycoside hydrolase family 5 endocellulase, E1 (Cel5A, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was transformed into both Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays with expression targeted to the cell wall under a constitutive promoter. Here we explore the possibility that in planta expression of endocellulases will allow these enzymes to access their substrates during cell wall construction, rendering cellulose more amenable to pretreatment and enzyme digestion. Tobacco and maize plants were healthy and developed normally compared with the wild type (WT. After thermochemical pretreatment and enzyme digestion, transformed plants were clearly more digestible than WT, requiring lower pretreatment severity to achieve comparable conversion levels. Furthermore, the decreased recalcitrance was not due to post-pretreatment residual E1 activity and could not be reproduced by the addition of exogenous E1 to the biomass prior to pretreatment, indicating that the expression of E1 during cell wall construction altered the inherent recalcitrance of the cell wall.

  12. Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627

    Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.; Skory, C. D.; Adney, W. S.; Thomas, S. R.; Tisserat, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. T.

    2007-01-01

    Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed. The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.

  13. Lactose enhances cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-08-01

    Acremonium cellulolyticus is a fungus that produces cellulase and has been exploited by enzyme industry. To promote cellulase production by A. cellulolyticus strain C-1, we evaluated the effects of the saccharides: Solka Floc (cellulose), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), pullulan, lactose, trehalose, sophorose, cellobiose, galactose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, and mixtures as carbon sources for cellulase production. Solka Floc with SSPS enhanced cellulase production. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase synthesis in this fungus, and the synergistic effects between lactose and Solka Floc was observed. Various enzyme activities and the protein composition of crude enzyme produced by cultures with or without addition of lactose were analyzed. The results showed that lactose addition greatly improves the production of various proteins with cellulase activity by A. cellulolyticus. To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of cellulases by lactose in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:18804052

  14. Crystal structure of Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) GH family 11 xylanase.

    Kataoka, Misumi; Akita, Fusamichi; Maeno, Yuka; Inoue, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly known as Acremonium cellulolyticus) is one of the mesophilic fungi that can produce high levels of cellulose-related enzymes and are expected to be used for the degradation of polysaccharide biomass. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus detected seven open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to xylanases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11. The gene encoding the GH11 xylanase C (TcXylC) with the highest activity was used for overproduction and purification of the recombinant enzyme, permitting solving of the crystal structure to a resolution of 1.98 Å. In the asymmetric unit, two kinds of the crystal structures of the xylanase were identified. The main structure of the protein showed a β-jelly roll structure. We hypothesize that one of the two structures represents the open form and the other shows the close form. The changing of the flexible region between the two structures is presumed to induce and accelerate the enzyme reaction. The specificity of xylanase toward the branched xylan is discussed in the context of this structural data and by comparison with the other published structures of xylanases. PMID:25138599

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Talaromyces cellulolyticus Strain Y-94, a Source of Lignocellulosic Biomass-Degrading Enzymes

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Koike, Hideaki; Sawayama, Shigeki; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) is a promising fungus for cellulase production. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of T. cellulolyticus strain Y-94. The genome is 36.4 Mbp long and contains genes for several enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and amylases.

  16. Magnetic moment of /sup 11/B

    Bouten, M. (Limburgs Universitair Centrum (Belgium)); Bouten, M.C. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the magnetic moment of /sup 11/B on the characteristics of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated in the framework of the shell model. This leads to the construction of a new central two-body interaction for use in variational calculations for nuclei in the second half of the p shell. An intermediate-coupling calculation in a projected Hartree-Fock basis for the ground state of /sup 11/B is carried out using the new interaction.

  17. Optimization of Acidothermus Celluloyticus Endoglucanase (E1) Production in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Transcriptional, Post-transcription and Post-Translational Modification

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Thomas, S. R.

    2005-10-01

    Biochemical characteristics of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) and its physiological effects in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) has been studied previously. In an attempt to obtain a high level of production of intact E1 in transgenic plants, the E1 gene was expressed under the control of strong Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of manopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region) or tomato Rubisco small subunit (RbcS-3C) promoter with different 5’ untranslated leader (UTL) sequence and targeted to different subcellular comartmentations with various transit peptides. The expression of E1 protein in transgenic tobacco plants was determined via E1 activity, protein immunobloting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of different transit peptides on E1 protein production and its stability were examined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors with the same (Mac) promoter and transcription terminator (Tmas). Transgenic tobacco plants with apoplast transit peptide (Mm-apo) had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation , while E1 protein was more stable in transgenic plants with no transit peptide (Mm) than others. The E1 expression under tomato RbcS-3C promoter was higher than that under Mac promoter based on the average E1 activity, E1 protein accumulation, and RNA gel-blotting. The E1 expression was increased more than two fold when the 5’-UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene replaced the UTL of RbcS-3C promoter, while the UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene was less effective than the UTL of Mac promoter. The optimal combination of promoter, 5’-UTL, and subcellular compartmentation (transit peptide) for E1 protein production in transgenic tobacco plants are discussed.

  18. Efficient cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    Ikeda, Yuko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Naoyuki; Park, Enock Y

    2007-01-01

    Cellulase production was investigated in a culture of a strain of Acremonium cellulolyticus. The medium components were optimized for the improvement of cellulase production. The maximum production of cellulolytic enzymes was obtained in a medium containing (grams per liter) 50 Solka Floc, 5 (NH4)2SO4, 24 KH2PO4, 4.7 potassium tartrate hemihydrate, 1.2 MgSO4.7H2O, 1 Tween 80, 4 urea, 0.01 ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.01 MnSO4.6H2O, and 0.01 CuSO4.7H2O, with a pH of 4.0. In the flask culture, 15.5 filter paper units (FPU)/mL of maximum cellulase activity was obtained, 17.42 FPU/mL in a 7-L bioreactor, and 13.08 FPU/mL in a 50-L scale bioreactor for 4-8 d at 30 degrees C. Average production rates were 1.94 FPU/mL.d in flasks, 2.86 FPU/mL.d in the 7-L bioreactor, and 2.56 FPU/mL.d in the 50-L bioreactor. Cellulase production on a small scale was successfully reproduced in the 50-L pilot scale bioreactor. Saccharification activity from A. cellulolyticus was compared with cellulolytic enzymes produced by other strains. The A. cellulolyticus culture broth had a comparable saccharification yield in comparison with those of other Trichoderma enzymes (GC220 or Cellulosin T2) under the same total cellulase activity. Its saccharification yield (percent of released reducing sugar to used dried substrate) was 60%, and its glucose content was 83%. PMID:17253723

  19. Genome-wide analysis of acetivibrio cellulolyticus provides a blueprint of an elaborate cellulosome system

    Dassa Bareket

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial degradation of plant cell walls and its conversion to sugars and other byproducts is a key step in the carbon cycle on Earth. In order to process heterogeneous plant-derived biomass, specialized anaerobic bacteria use an elaborate multi-enzyme cellulosome complex to synergistically deconstruct cellulosic substrates. The cellulosome was first discovered in the cellulolytic thermophile, Clostridium thermocellum, and much of our knowledge of this intriguing type of protein composite is based on the cellulosome of this environmentally and biotechnologically important bacterium. The recently sequenced genome of the cellulolytic mesophile, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus, allows detailed comparison of the cellulosomes of these two select cellulosome-producing bacteria. Results Comprehensive analysis of the A. cellulolyticus draft genome sequence revealed a very sophisticated cellulosome system. Compared to C. thermocellum, the cellulosomal architecture of A. cellulolyticus is much more extensive, whereby the genome encodes for twice the number of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins. The A. cellulolyticus genome has thus evolved an inflated number of 143 dockerin-containing genes, coding for multimodular proteins with distinctive catalytic and carbohydrate-binding modules that play critical roles in biomass degradation. Additionally, 41 putative cohesin modules distributed in 16 different scaffoldin proteins were identified in the genome, representing a broader diversity and modularity than those of Clostridium thermocellum. Although many of the A. cellulolyticus scaffoldins appear in unconventional modular combinations, elements of the basic structural scaffoldins are maintained in both species. In addition, both species exhibit similarly elaborate cell-anchoring and cellulosome-related gene- regulatory elements. Conclusions This work portrays a particularly intricate, cell-surface cellulosome system in A. cellulolyticus

  20. Enzymatic hydrolyzing performance of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei against three lignocellulosic materials

    Murakami Katsuji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a useful method in the production of bioethanol. The filamentous fungi Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei are known to be potential cellulase producers. In this study, we aimed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the cellulase enzymes derived from these fungi. Results We compared A. cellulolyticus and T. reesei cellulase activity against the three lignocellulosic materials: eucalyptus, Douglas fir and rice straw. Saccharification analysis using the supernatant from each culture demonstrated that the enzyme mixture derived from A. cellulolyticus exhibited 2-fold and 16-fold increases in Filter Paper enzyme and β-glucosidase specific activities, respectively, compared with that derived from T. reesei. In addition, culture supernatant from A. cellulolyticus produced glucose more rapidly from the lignocellulosic materials. Meanwhile, culture supernatant derived from T. reesei exhibited a 2-fold higher xylan-hydrolyzing activity and produced more xylose from eucalyptus (72% yield and rice straw (43% yield. Although the commercial enzymes Acremonium cellulase (derived from A. cellulolyticus, Meiji Seika Co. demonstrated a slightly lower cellulase specific activity than Accellerase 1000 (derived from T. reesei, Genencor, the glucose yield (over 65% from lignocellulosic materials by Acremonium cellulase was higher than that of Accellerase 1000 (less than 60%. In addition, the mannan-hydrolyzing activity of Acremonium cellulase was 16-fold higher than that of Accellerase 1000, and the conversion of mannan to mannobiose and mannose by Acremonium cellulase was more efficient. Conclusion We investigated the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by cellulase derived from two types of filamentous fungi. We

  1. Identification of BCL11B as a regulator of adipogenesis.

    Inoue, Jun; Ihara, Yusuke; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Yasumoto, Keisuke; Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kamimura, Kenya; Nakai, Yuji; Hirano, Shigeki; Shimizu, Makoto; Kominami, Ryo; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes is controlled by several transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), which are known as master regulators of adipogenesis. BCL11B is a zinc finger-type transcription factor that regulates the development of the skin and central nervous and immune systems. Here, we found that BCL11B was expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT), particularly the subcutaneous WAT and that BCL11B(-/-) mice had a reduced amount of subcutaneous WAT. During adipogenesis, BCL11B expression transiently increased in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The ability for adipogenesis was reduced in BCL11B knockdown 3T3-L1 cells and BCL11B(-/-) MEFs, whereas the ability for osteoblastogenesis was unaffected in BCL11B(-/-) MEFs. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that BCL11B stimulated C/EBPβ activity. Furthermore, the expression of downstream genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was not suppressed in BCL11B(-/-) MEFs during adipogenesis. Thus, this study identifies BCL11B as a novel regulator of adipogenesis, which works, at least in part, by stimulating C/EBPβ activity and suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27586877

  2. Heavy ion collision dynamics of 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    Singh BirBikram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM of Gupta and collaborators has been applied successfully to the decay of very-light (A ∼ 30, light (A ∼ 40−80, medium, heavy and super-heavy mass compound nuclei for their decay to light particles (evaporation residues, ER, fusion-fission (ff, and quasi-fission (qf depending on the reaction conditions. We intend to extend here the application of DCM to study the extreme case of decay of very-light nuclear systems 20,21,22Ne∗ formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions, for which experimental data is available for their binary symmetric decay (BSD cross sections, i.e., σBSD. For the systems under study, the calculations are presented for the σBSD in terms of their preformation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. Interesting results are that in the decay of such lighter systems there is a competing reaction mechanism (specifically, the deep inelastic orbiting of non-compound nucleus (nCN origin together with ff. We have emipirically estimated the contribution of σnCN. Moreover, the important role of nuclear structure characteristics via P0 as well as angular momentum ℓ in the reaction dynamics are explored in the study.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolyzing performance of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei against three lignocellulosic materials

    Murakami Katsuji; Inoue Hiroyuki; Fang Xu; Fujii Tatsuya; Sawayama Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a useful method in the production of bioethanol. The filamentous fungi Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei are known to be potential cellulase producers. In this study, we aimed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the cellulase enzymes derived fr...

  4. Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Potent Dual CYP11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase) and CYP11B1 Inhibitors.

    Meredith, Erik L; Ksander, Gary; Monovich, Lauren G; Papillon, Julien P N; Liu, Qian; Miranda, Karl; Morris, Patrick; Rao, Chang; Burgis, Robin; Capparelli, Michael; Hu, Qi-Ying; Singh, Alok; Rigel, Dean F; Jeng, Arco Y; Beil, Michael; Fu, Fumin; Hu, Chii-Whei; LaSala, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    Aldosterone is a key signaling component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and as such has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular pathology such as hypertension and heart failure. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is responsible for the final three steps of aldosterone synthesis and thus is a viable therapeutic target. A series of imidazole derived inhibitors, including clinical candidate 7n, have been identified through design and structure-activity relationship studies both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 7n was also found to be a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for cortisol production. Inhibition of CYP11B1 is being evaluated in the clinic for potential treatment of hypercortisol diseases such as Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24900631

  5. Ignition condition for p-{sup 11}B reactor

    Watanabe, Tsuguhiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Matsumoto, Yutaka; Nagaura, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Oikawa, Shun-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hojo, Hitoshi [Tsukuba Univ., Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    Particle orbits under ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency) heating in LHD (Large Helical Device) is solved numerically. Runaway ion heating process is analyzed by Langevin equation. It is shown that the steady state proton distribution function becomes a quasilinear plateau distribution function (QPDF) in high beta LHD. In addition, it is confirmed theoretically and numerically that a complete {beta} = 1 equilibrium is established by the surface magnetic field produced by the boot-strap current. The nuclear fusion reaction rate is derived assuming a QPDF for protons. The ignition conditions of p-{sup 11}B reactors are analyzed and are shown to be possible to be satisfied. On the other hand, the ignition condition of the p-{sup 11}B reactor cannot be satisfied when protons are in Maxwellian distribution functions. The LHD magnetic field can confine high-energy ions in the almost entire magnetic surface region. This nature should be sure to contribute to the economy of the fusion reactor, because whole plasma column become possible to burn. One of the most important research item of the p-{sup 11}B reactor is dynamics of the fusion produced {alpha} particles. Possible methods of improving the power balance relation of the p-{sup 11}B reactor are discussed on the first wall coating and boron dust fueling. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Cluster states in 13C and 11B

    The cluster structures of the excited states in 11B and 13C were discussed by measuring the isoscalar monopole strengths in the inelastic α scattering at Eα = 388 MeV. It was found that the 1/22-, 1/23-, and 1/24- states in 13C are candidates for the α cluster states with a 3α + n molecular configuration. (author)

  7. Down regulation of BCL11B expression inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in malignant T cells by BCL11B-935-siRNA.

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Si; Shen, Qi; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Przybylski, Grzegorz K; Schmidt, Christian A; Li, Yangqiu

    2011-07-01

    To screen the highly efficient and specific B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) small interfering RNA (siRNA) which are able to downregulate the BCL11B gene expression in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, thereby inhibiting the leukemic T-cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, four BCL11B-siRNAs and the scrambled non-silencing siRNA control (sc) were designed and obtained by chemosynthesis. After nucleofection, BCL11B expression in the mRNA and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The biological consequences based on the highly efficient and specific BCL11B-siRNA were demonstrated by CCK-8 kit, morphological changes (Hoechst 33258 staining), high-resolution imaging, and flow cytometry. Reduction in the BCL11B mRNA level was observed at 24 or 48 hours in molt-4 T cells with BCL11B-935-siRNA, BCL11B-434-siRNA, or BCL11B-748-siRNA, respectively. BCL11B protein expression levels were reduced by 34·77% and 41·73% in the BCL11B-935-siRNA- and BCL11B-434-siRNA-treated cells, compared with the control level at 72 hours. In comparison with BCL11B-434-siRNA treatment group, the Molt-4 cells transfected with the BCL11B-935-siRNA showed significantly inhibited proliferation and effectively induced apoptosis (P<0·05). When highly efficient and specific BCL11B-935-siRNA was used to analyze the inhibition of BCL11B mRNA level in primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells, similar result was obtained. In conclusion, siRNAs targeting the different exon domains resulted in different silencing effects and biological consequences. Suppression of BCL11B by RNA interference could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis effectively in leukemic T cells, which might be considered as a new target therapeutic strategy in T-cell malignancies. PMID:21756541

  8. Regulation of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 steroidogenic genes by hypoxia-inducible miR-10b in H295R cells

    Highlights: • Identification of miR-10b as a hypoxia-inducible microRNA in H295R human adrenocortical cells. • Characterization of miR-10b as a negative regulator of the human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes. • Evidence to support that CYP11B1 and and CYP11B2 mRNAs are likely targets of miR-10b. • miR-10b inhibits cortisol and aldosterone production in H295R cells. - Abstract: Although numerous studies have shown that hypoxia affects cortisol and aldosterone production in vivo, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating the steroidogenic genes of these steroid hormones are still poorly known. MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that control diverse biological processes and this study describes the identification and validation of the hypoxia-inducible microRNA, miR-10b, as a negative regulator of the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 steroidogenic genes in H295R human adrenocortical cells. Using the human TaqMan Low Density miRNA Arrays, we determined the miRNA expression patterns in H295R cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and in cells overexpressing the human HIF-1α. Computer analysis using three in silico algorithms predicted that the hypoxia-inducible miR-10b molecule targets CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs. Gene transfection studies of luciferase constructs containing the 3′-untranslated region of CYP11B1 or CYP11B2, combined with miRNA overexpression and knockdown experiments provide compelling evidence that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs are likely targets of miR-10b

  9. Synthesis of Some Novel 11b-Substituted Pyrimido[6,1-a]-isoquinoline Derivatives

    Venkov, Atanas P.; Ivanov, Iliyan I.; Angelov, Plamen A.

    2004-01-01

    A series of novel 11b-substituted 1,6,7,11b-tetrahydropyrimido[6,1-a]- isoquinoline-2,4-diones and 4-thioxo-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydropyrimido[6,1-a]isoquinolin-2- ones were synthesized, utilizing two alternative strategies for ring closure of tetrahydroisoquinoline intermediates obtained from N-phenethyl enaminones

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06402-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ... 42 0.032 CP001600_589( CP001600 |pid:none) Edwardsiella ictaluri 93-146, co.....65( CP000481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B... 53 1e-05 CP001229_570( CP001229 |pid:none) Sulfuri...9. 46 0.001 AP006725_725( AP006725 |pid:none) Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044... 46 0.001 CP001177_1975( CP001177 |pid:none) Bacill...5927_2371( AE015927 |pid:none) Clostridium tetani E88, complet... 45 0.002 CP000481_899( CP000481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellu...s thuringiensis str. Al ... 46 0.002 (A9MR94) RecName: Full=Probable phosphoglycerate

  11. Effects of neutron irradiation on polycrystalline Mg11B2

    We studied the influence of the disorder introduced in polycrystalline MgB2 samples by neutron irradiation. To circumvent self-shielding effects due to the strong interaction between thermal neutrons and 10B we employed isotopically enriched 11B which contains 40 times less 10B than natural B. The comparison of electrical and structural properties of different series of samples irradiated in different neutron sources, also using Cd shields, allowed us to conclude that, despite the low 10B content, the main damage mechanisms are caused by thermal neutrons, whereas fast neutrons play a minor role. Irradiation leads to an improvement in both upper critical field and critical current density for an exposure level in the range 1-2x1018 cm-2. With increasing fluence the superconducting properties are depressed. An in-depth analysis of the critical field and current density behavior has been carried out to identify what scattering and pinning mechanisms come into play. Finally, the correlation between some characteristic lengths and the transition widths is analyzed

  12. CD11b deficiency suppresses intestinal tumor growth by reducing myeloid cell recruitment

    Qian-Qian Zhang; Xi-Wen Hu; Yi-Long Liu; Zhi-Jin Ye; Yi-He Gui; Da-Lei Zhou; Cui-Ling Qi; Xiao-Dong He; Honglin Wang; Li-Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b) is expressed on bone marrow-derived immune cells. CD11b binds to ligands to regulate leukocyte adhesion and migration across the endothelium or epithelium. Here, we employed CD11b knockout mice and an Apc Min/+ spontaneous intestinal adenoma mouse model to clarify the function of CD11b in intestinal tumorigenesis. We showed that CD11b deficiency may contribute to the inhibition of myeloid cell trafficking to the tumor microenvironment and inactivated Wnt/β-catenin pathway to sup...

  13. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  14. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  15. Synthesis of Some Novel 11b-Substituted Pyrimido[6,1-a]-isoquinoline Derivatives

    Atanas P. Venkov

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 11b-substituted 1,6,7,11b-tetrahydropyrimido[6,1-a]- isoquinoline-2,4-diones and 4-thioxo-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydropyrimido[6,1-a]isoquinolin-2- ones were synthesized, utilizing two alternative strategies for ring closure of tetrahydroisoquinoline intermediates obtained from N-phenethyl enaminones

  16. Study of the nuclear reaction relevant to primordial nucleosynthesis: 8Li (α,n)11B

    A critical reaction in predicting abundances of 11B and heavier nuclides in the inhomogeneous models (IMs) is 8Li(α,n)11B, as 11B is the nuclide through which most heavier nuclides must pass, and that reaction apparently regulates the dominant pathway by which 11B is made in the IMs. The obvious complication in observing this reaction is the 840.3 ms half life of 8Li. A recent measurement of the inverse reaction 11B(n,α)8Li gives the ground state-ground state cross section for 8Li(α,n)11B. However, several 11B excited to be populated in 8Li(α,n)11B, so inference of the cross section of interest from measurement of the inverse reaction may underestimate the actual value by a large factor. Thus we have measured the cross section for 8Li(α,n)11B directly, using an 8Li radioactive beam and a novel detection technique. The results of that experiment are reported here. 23 refs., 4 figs

  17. Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Adrenal CYP11B2 Expression and Aldosterone Synthesis.

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Kai; Wang, Yongjun; Schuman, Mariano; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis. PMID:26471128

  18. Efficient production of cellulase in the culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus using untreated waste paper sludge.

    Prasetyo, Joni; Zhu, Jing; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2011-01-01

    Cellulase was produced by Acremonium cellulolyticus using untreated waste paper sludge (PS) as the carbon source. The clay present in PS did not show any inhibitory effect on cellulase production but did alter the pH during fermentation. On the flask scale, the maleate buffer concentration and pH were key factors that affected the efficiency of cellulase production from PS cellulose. Optimum cellulase production in a 3-L fermentor of working volume 1.5 L was achieved by controlling the pH value at 6.0 using 2 M NaOH and 2 M maleic acid, and the productivity reached 8.18 FPU/mL. When 40.89 g/L PS cellulose, 2.2 g/L (NH(4) )(2) SO(4) , and 4.4 g/L urea were added to a 48-h culture, the cellulase activity was 9.31 FPU/mL at the flask scale and 10.96 FPU/mL in the 3-L fermentor. These values are ∼80% of those obtained when pure cellulose is used as the carbon source. The method developed here presents a new route for the utilization of PS. PMID:21312360

  19. Increased expression of bcl11b leads to chemoresistance accompanied by G1 accumulation.

    Piotr Grabarczyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The expression of BCL11B was reported in T-cells, neurons and keratinocytes. Aberrations of BCL11B locus leading to abnormal gene transcription were identified in human hematological disorders and corresponding animal models. Recently, the elevated levels of Bcl11b protein have been described in a subset of squameous cell carcinoma cases. Despite the rapidly accumulating knowledge concerning Bcl11b biology, the contribution of this protein to normal or transformed cell homeostasis remains open. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by employing an overexpression strategy we revealed formerly unidentified features of Bcl11b. Two different T-cell lines were forced to express BCL11B at levels similar to those observed in primary T-cell leukemias. This resulted in markedly increased resistance to radiomimetic drugs while no influence on death-receptor apoptotic pathway was observed. Apoptosis resistance triggered by BCL11B overexpression was accompanied by a cell cycle delay caused by accumulation of cells at G1. This cell cycle restriction was associated with upregulation of CDKN1C (p57 and CDKN2C (p18 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors. Moreover, p27 and p130 proteins accumulated and the SKP2 gene encoding a protein of the ubiquitin-binding complex responsible for their degradation was repressed. Furthermore, the expression of the MYCN oncogene was silenced which resulted in significant depletion of the protein in cells expressing high BCL11B levels. Both cell cycle restriction and resistance to DNA-damage-induced apoptosis coincided and required the histone deacetylase binding N-terminal domain of Bcl11b. The sensitivity to genotoxic stress could be restored by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatine A. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here suggest a potential role of BCL11B in tumor survival and encourage developing Bcl11b-inhibitory approaches as a potential tool to specifically target chemoresistant tumor cells.

  20. Study of rlastic and inelastic {sup 11}B +α scattering and search for cluster states of enlarged radius in {sup 11}B

    Danilov, A. N., E-mail: danilov1987@mail.ru; Demyanova, A. S.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Ogloblin, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Belyaeva, T. L. [UniversidadAutonoma del Estado de Mexico, Codigo Postal (Mexico); Goncharov, S. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Gurov, Yu. B. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Maslov, V. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W. [Jyväskylän yliopisto (Finland); Khlebnikov, S. V. [Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation); Heikkinen, P.; Julin, R.; Tyurin, G. P. [Jyväskylän yliopisto (Finland); Burtebaev, N.; Zholdybayev, T. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)

    2015-09-15

    The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic {sup 11}B + α scattering were measured at the alpha-particle energy of 65 MeV, the inelastic-scattering processes leading to the excitation of known states of {sup 11}B up to excitation energies of about 14 MeV. Data on elastic scattering were analyzed together with those that were published earlier for lower energies. The cross sections for inelastic scattering were analyzed on the basis of the distorted-wave method. A modified diffractionmodel was used to determine the root-mean-square radii of excited states. The radii of states whose excitation energies were below about 7MeV were found to agree with radius of the ground state to within 0.1 to 0.15 fm. This result complieswith the traditional idea that the low-lying states of {sup 11}B have a shell structure. The possibility that these states belong to the predicted rotational bands, which, if any, are truncated to three states, cannot be ruled out either. The majority of the observed highly excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. The moments of inertia of these bands are close; for the band based on the 3/2{sup −} state at E* = 8.56 MeV, they are even higher than those of the Hoyle state in the {sup 12}C nucleus. The measured radii of states associated with these bands of {sup 11}B are larger than the ground-state radius by 0.7 to 1.0 fm and are also close to the radius of the Hoyle state. The results of the present study agree with the existing predictions that the cluster structure of the {sup 11}B nucleus is diverse at high excitation energies. The hypothesis that the {sup 11}B nucleus features a “giant” state of size commensurate with those in heavy nuclei was not confirmed.

  1. Bcl11b mutations identified in murine lymphomas increase the proliferation rate of hematopoietic progenitor cells

    Söderkvist Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The telomeric region of mouse chromosome 12 has previously shown frequent allelic loss in murine lymphoma. The Bcl11b gene has been identified and suggested as a candidate tumor suppressor gene within this region. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether Bcl11b is mutated in lymphomas with allelic loss, and whether the mutations we detected conferred any effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Methods Mouse lymphomas induced by 1,3-butadiene or 2',3'-dideoxycytidine were analysed for mutations in the Bcl11b gene using single strand conformation analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Effects on cell proliferation by the detected mutations were studied by expressing wild-type and mutant Bcl11b in the cytokine-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line FDC-P1, lacking endogenous Bcl11b expression. Results Missense and frameshift (FS mutations were identified in 7 of 47 tumors (15%. Interestingly, all mutations were found between amino acids 778–844 which encode the three C-terminal DNA-binding zinc fingers. In FDC-P1 cells, wild-type Bcl11b suppressed cell proliferation, whereas the mutated versions (S778N, K828T, Y844C and FS823 enhanced proliferation several-fold. Conclusion The genetic alterations detected in this study suggest that the three C-terminal zinc fingers of Bcl11b are important for the DNA-binding. Cell proliferation was suppressed by overexpression of wild-type Bcl11b but enhanced by mutant Bcl11b, indicating that these mutations may be an important contributing factor to lymphomagenesis in a subset of tumors.

  2. Asynchronous combinatorial action of four regulatory factors activates Bcl11b for T cell commitment.

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Yui, Mary A; Ng, Kenneth K H; Pease, Shirley S; Zhang, Jingli A; Damle, Sagar S; Freedman, George; Siu, Sharmayne; Bernstein, Irwin D; Elowitz, Michael B; Rothenberg, Ellen V

    2016-08-01

    During T cell development, multipotent progenitors relinquish competence for other fates and commit to the T cell lineage by turning on Bcl11b, which encodes a transcription factor. To clarify lineage commitment mechanisms, we followed developing T cells at the single-cell level using Bcl11b knock-in fluorescent reporter mice. Notch signaling and Notch-activated transcription factors collaborate to activate Bcl11b expression irrespectively of Notch-dependent proliferation. These inputs work via three distinct, asynchronous mechanisms: an early locus 'poising' function dependent on TCF-1 and GATA-3, a stochastic-permissivity function dependent on Notch signaling, and a separate amplitude-control function dependent on Runx1, a factor already present in multipotent progenitors. Despite their necessity for Bcl11b expression, these inputs act in a stage-specific manner, providing a multitiered mechanism for developmental gene regulation. PMID:27376470

  3. Gene expression profiles in BCL11B-siRNA treated malignant T cells

    Grabarczyk Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downregulation of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/lymphoma11B (BCL11B gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL cell line Molt-4. To further characterize the molecular mechanism, a global gene expression profile of BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells was established. The expression profiles of several genes were further validated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells and primary T-ALL cells. Results 142 genes were found to be upregulated and 109 genes downregulated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells by microarray analysis. Among apoptosis-related genes, three pro-apoptotic genes, TNFSF10, BIK, BNIP3, were upregulated and one anti-apoptotic gene, BCL2L1 was downregulated. Moreover, the expression of SPP1 and CREBBP genes involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF-β pathway was down 16-fold. Expression levels of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, SPP1, and CREBBP were also examined by real-time PCR. A similar expression pattern of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 was identified. However, CREBBP was not downregulated in the BLC11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells. Conclusion BCL11B-siRNA treatment altered expression profiles of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 in both Molt-4 T cell line and primary T-ALL cells.

  4. (11)B MAS NMR and First-Principles Study of the [OBO3] Pyramids in Borates.

    Zhou, Bing; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Biao-Chun; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Laskowski, Robert; Terskikh, Victor; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Lingyun; Botis, Sanda M; Sherriff, Barbara L; Pan, Yuanming

    2016-03-01

    Borates are built from the [Bϕ3] planar triangles and the [Bϕ4] tetrahedral groups, where ϕ denotes O or OH. However, the [Bϕ4] groups in some borates are highly distorted to include three normal B-O bonds and one anomalously long B-O bond and, therefore, are best described as the [OBO3] pyramids. Four synthetic borates of the boracite-type structures (Mg3B7O13Br, Cu3B7O13Br, Zn3B7O13Cl, and Mg3B7O13Cl) containing a range of [OBO3] pyramids were investigated by multifield (7.05, 14.1, and 21.1 T) (11)B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR experiments, as well as density functional theory calculations. The high-resolution (11)B MAS NMR spectra supported by theoretical predictions show that the [OBO3] pyramids are characterized by isotropic chemical shifts δiso((11)B) from 1.4(1) to 4.9(1) ppm and nuclear quadrupole parameters CQ((11)B) up to 1.3(1) MHz, both significantly different from those of the [BO4] and [BO3] groups in borates. These δiso((11)B) and CQ((11)B) values indicate that the [OBO3] pyramids represent an intermediate state between the [BO4] tetrahedra and [BO3] triangles and demonstrate that the (11)B NMR parameters of four-coordinate boron oxyanions are sensitive to local structural environments. The orientation of the calculated unique electronic field gradient tensor element Vzz of the [OBO3] pyramids is aligned approximately along the direction of the anomalously long B-O bond, corresponding to B-2pz with the lowest electron density. PMID:26914372

  5. CD11b immunophenotyping identifies inflammatory profiles in the mouse and human lungs.

    Duan, M; Steinfort, D P; Smallwood, D; Hew, M; Chen, W; Ernst, M; Irving, L B; Anderson, G P; Hibbs, M L

    2016-03-01

    The development of easily accessible tools for human immunophenotyping to classify patients into discrete disease endotypes is advancing personalized therapy. However, no systematic approach has been developed for the study of inflammatory lung diseases with often complex and highly heterogeneous disease etiologies. We have devised an internally standardized flow cytometry approach that can identify parallel inflammatory alveolar macrophage phenotypes in both the mouse and human lungs. In mice, lung innate immune cell alterations during endotoxin challenge, influenza virus infection, and in two genetic models of chronic obstructive lung disease could be segregated based on the presence or absence of CD11b alveolar macrophage upregulation and lung eosinophilia. Additionally, heightened alveolar macrophage CD11b expression was a novel feature of acute lung exacerbations in the SHIP-1(-/-) model of chronic obstructive lung disease, and anti-CD11b antibody administration selectively blocked inflammatory CD11b(pos) but not homeostatic CD11b(neg) alveolar macrophages in vivo. The identification of analogous profiles in respiratory disease patients highlights this approach as a translational avenue for lung disease endotyping and suggests that heterogeneous innate immune cell phenotypes are an underappreciated component of the human lung disease microenvironment. PMID:26422753

  6. Migration of CD11b+ accessory cells during murine lung regeneration.

    Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C; Lee, Grace S; Ackermann, Maximilian; Konerding, Moritz A; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung leads to growth of the remaining lung to near-baseline levels. In studying post-pneumonectomy mice, we used morphometric measures to demonstrate neoalveolarization within 21 days of pneumonectomy. Of note, the detailed histology during this period demonstrated no significant pulmonary inflammation. To identify occult blood-borne cells, we used a parabiotic model (wild-type/GFP) of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. Flow cytometry of post-pneumonectomy lung digests demonstrated a rapid increase in the number of cells expressing the hematopoietic membrane molecule CD11b; 64.5% of the entire GFP(+) population were CD11b(+). Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the CD11b(+) peripheral blood cells migrated into both the interstitial tissue and alveolar airspace compartments. Pneumonectomy in mice deficient in CD11b (CD18(-/-) mutants) demonstrated near-absent leukocyte migration into the airspace compartment (pAdamts2, Ecm1, Egf, Mmp7, Npr1, Tgfb2 in the interstitial tissue (>4-fold regulation; p<.05). These data suggest that blood-borne CD11b(+) cells represent a population of accessory cells contributing to post-pneumonectomy lung growth. PMID:23376466

  7. One-two step transfer observed in 16O + 11B nuclear system

    The angular distribution measurements for 16O ion beam elastically scattered from 11B target of thickness 32.9μg/cm2 at energy 22.4 MeV had been performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. The previous measurements for 16O + 11B nuclear system at energies 27, 30, 32.5 and 35 MeV showed an increase in the differential cross-section at backward angles due to the contribution of cluster transfer. Such transfer process could not be described in terms of optical model (OM); it could be described within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation method implemented in FRESCO code. Both one (5Li) and two-step transfer (proton transfer followed by Alpha transfer) were taken into considerations. We have extracted the spectroscopic amplitude (SA) for the configuration 16O → 11B + 5Li. (author)

  8. 2alpha+t cluster feature of $3/2^-_3$ state in $^{11}$B

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    We reanalyze $2\\alpha+t$ cluster features of $3/2^-$ states in $^{11}$B by investigating the $t$ cluster distribution around a $2\\alpha$ core in $^{11}$B, calculated with the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). In the $3/2^-_3$ state, a $t$ cluster is distributed in a wide region around $2\\alpha$, indicating that the $t$ cluster moves rather freely in angular as well as radial motion. From the weak angular correlation and radial extent of the $t$ cluster distribution, we propose an interpretation of a $2\\alpha+t$ cluster gas for the $3/2^-_3$ state. In this study, we compare the $2\\alpha+t$ cluster feature in $^{11}$B($3/2^-_3$) with the $3\\alpha$ cluster feature in $^{12}$C($0^+_2$), and discuss their similarities and differences.

  9. A Prioritized Access Point Algorithm for 802.11b Networks in a Lossy Environment

    Omara, A N; Eissa, Hussein S; El-Ramly, S

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, WLAN technology has been gaining popularity around the world with its sub standard 802.11b receiving major deployments in many indoor and outdoor environments. In this article we investigate the performance of IEEE 802.11b infrastructure networks in the lossless and lossy environments by means of a simulation study. Also, this study shows how the FIFO discipline of the 802.11b MAC affects on the global performance when at least one channel is under the influence of the bursty errors. Furthermore, this paper proposes a channel aware backoff algorithm for the Access Point (AP) to prioritize its transmissions and to accelerate the transmissions in the poor radio channels to enhance the performance of the real time applications. The final results of this simulation study showed that the proposed algorithm is able to enhance the throughput and the delay in lossy environment by an average of 49% and 83% respectively.

  10. 10B and 11B high-resolution NMR studies on boron-doped diamond

    Murakami, M.; Shimizu, T.; Tansho, M.; Takano, Y.; Ishii, S.; Ekimov, E. A.; Sidorov, V. A.; Takegoshi, K.

    2010-12-01

    11B magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments are applied to B-doped diamond samples prepared by high-pressure and high-temperature methods. From the spectrum, we show that there are at least four boron signal components and the one at 28.5 ppm is ascribed to the substitutional boron in the diamond structure providing the carriers responsible for conductivity. We further apply two-dimensional (2D) NMR to examine 1H dipolar broadening and 11B-11B boron spin diffusion, and candidates purported so far for the excess boron, that is, a boron + hydrogen complex and -B-B- and/or -B-C-B- clusters are negated. Furthermore, we show that 10B MAS NMR is useful to selectively observe the substitutional boron in the diamond structure appearing at 28.5 ppm, whose quadrupolar coupling is much smaller than that of the excess boron at 65.5 ppm.

  11. Evaluation of exchange interactions in (GdxY1-x)3Co11B4 compounds

    Two-sublattice molecular field theory (MFT) is employed to describe the temperature dependence of magnetization for (GdxY1-x)3Co11B4 compounds. Three molecular field coefficients, nRCo, nCoCo, nRR, have been calculated by a numerical fitting process. MFT with a single coefficient provides quite a reasonable description for Y3Co11B4. For x > 0, we find that nCoCo is the largest coefficient, implying that the magnetic interactions are dominated by exchange between cobalt 3d electrons. (orig.)

  12. Analysis Of Impact Of Various Parameters On BER Performance For IEEE 802.11b

    Nilesh B. Kalani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate BER for different parameters as channel type channel number data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ESN0 for various parameter like data rate packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.

  13. Summary of research activities on 11B during past five years and future prospect

    Many fruitful results were published through the CUP collaboration in the 11B category during past five years. Those are, of course, obtained from all the fusion devices in Japan and China. A lot of papers were also published to Journal of Plasma Science and Technology (PST) in the seminars held at Lijiang and Guilin in China, although we could not introduce them at all in the present report due to the page limitation. The paper publication in PST was really effective to know what we did in detail in the 11B category. This is a final scientific report on the 11B category in the CUP collaboration. However, some of the collaborations are being still progressed at present. In addition, new plans are also proposed for the future collaboration between Japan and China. Further progress on the CUP collaboration is undoubtedly promising. We strongly believe that the activity in the 11B category of the CUP collaboration during the past five years could contribute to not only the scientific collaboration but also the friendship between Japan and China. Finally, we have to say, we wish further productive and interesting results will be also obtained in the future collaboration. (author)

  14. Bcl11b: A New Piece to the Complex Puzzle of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Neuropathogenesis?

    Lennon, Matthew J; Jones, Simon P; Lovelace, Michael D; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic, fatal, neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. The pathogenesis of ALS is a topic of fascinating speculation and experimentation, with theories revolving around intracellular protein inclusions, mitochondrial structural issues, glutamate excitotoxicity and free radical formation. This review explores the rationale for the involvement of a novel protein, B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11b (Bcl11b) in ALS. Bcl11b is a multifunctional zinc finger protein transcription factor. It functions as both a transactivator and genetic suppressor, acting both directly, binding to promoter regions, and indirectly, binding to promoter-bound transcription factors. It has essential roles in the differentiation and growth of various cells in the central nervous system, immune system, integumentary system and cardiovascular system, to the extent that Bcl11b knockout mice are incompatible with extra-uterine life. It also has various roles in pathology including the suppression of latent retroviruses, thymic tumourigenesis and neurodegeneration. In particular its functions in neurodevelopment, viral latency and T-cell development suggest potential roles in ALS pathology. PMID:26563995

  15. Immunosuppressive CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes in pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    Ma, Huijuan; Wan, Suigui; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells with immunosuppressive functions have been described to be associated with one of the mechanisms by which malignant tumors escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmunity. In the current study, when we attempted to characterize the peritoneal cells in pristane-induced lupus model, as reported previously, we observed that there were markedly increased CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, this type of monocytes was almost phenotypically identical to the reported monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Further analysis on how these CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells affected T cell response showed that they strongly suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro in a manner dependent on cell-cell contact, NO, and PGE2. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes inhibited Th1 differentiation but enhanced development of forkhead box p3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consistent with the in vitro experimental results, the in vivo adoptive cell transfer study showed that infusion of pristane-treated syngeneic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes significantly suppressed the production of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin antibodies induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were also increased significantly in spleen and peripheral blood and showed immunosuppressive characteristics similar to their peritoneal counterparts. Our findings indicate that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model are monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells instead of inflammatory monocytes, as demonstrated previously. To our knowledge, this is the first to describe myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model, which may lead to a better understanding of the role of CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in this specific pristane-induced lupus model. PMID:26657791

  16. Genome-wide identification of Bcl11b gene targets reveals role in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling.

    Bin Tang

    Full Text Available B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b is a transcription factor showing predominant expression in the striatum. To date, there are no known gene targets of Bcl11b in the nervous system. Here, we define targets for Bcl11b in striatal cells by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq in combination with genome-wide expression profiling. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that 694 genes were significantly altered in striatal cells over-expressing Bcl11b, including genes showing striatal-enriched expression similar to Bcl11b. ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that Bcl11b bound a mixture of coding and non-coding sequences that were within 10 kb of the transcription start site of an annotated gene. Integrating all ChIP-seq hits with the microarray expression data, 248 direct targets of Bcl11b were identified. Functional analysis on the integrated gene target list identified several zinc-finger encoding genes as Bcl11b targets, and further revealed a significant association of Bcl11b to brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin signaling. Analysis of ChIP-seq binding regions revealed significant consensus DNA binding motifs for Bcl11b. These data implicate Bcl11b as a novel regulator of the BDNF signaling pathway, which is disrupted in many neurological disorders. Specific targeting of the Bcl11b-DNA interaction could represent a novel therapeutic approach to lowering BDNF signaling specifically in striatal cells.

  17. Induction of mouse melioidosis with meningitis by CD11b+ phagocytic cells harboring intracellular B. pseudomallei as a Trojan horse.

    Pei-Ju Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 3-5% of patients with melioidosis manifest CNS symptoms; however, the clinical data regarding neurological melioidosis are limited. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We established a mouse model of melioidosis with meningitis characterized by neutrophil infiltration into the meninges histologically and B. pseudomallei in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by bacteriological culturing methods. As the disease progresses, the bacteria successively colonize the spleen, liver, bone marrow (BM and brain and invade splenic and BM cells by days 2 and 6 post-infection, respectively. The predominant cell types intracellularly infected with B. pseudomallei were splenic and BM CD11b(+ populations. The CD11b(+Ly6C(high inflamed monocytes, CD11b(+Ly6C(low resident monocytes, CD11b(+Ly6G(+ neutrophils, CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages and CD11b(+CD19(+ B cells were expanded in the spleen and BM during the progression of melioidosis. After adoptive transfer of CD11b populations harboring B. pseudomallei, the infected CD11b(+ cells induced bacterial colonization in the brain, whereas CD11b(- cells only partially induced colonization; extracellular (free B. pseudomallei were unable to colonize the brain. CD62L (selectin was absent on splenic CD11b(+ cells on day 4 but was expressed on day 10 post-infection. Adoptive transfer of CD11b(+ cells expressing CD62L (harvested on day 10 post-infection resulted in meningitis in the recipients, but transfer of CD11b(+ CD62L-negative cells did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that B. pseudomallei-infected CD11b(+ selectin-expressing cells act as a Trojan horse and are able to transmigrate across endothelial cells, resulting in melioidosis with meningitis.

  18. Evaluation of CD11b Expression on Peripheral Blood Neutrophils for Early Detection of Neonatal Sepsis

    Minoo Adib

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is a disease of infants who are less than 1 month of age. These infants are clinically ill, and their blood culture are positive for bacteria. The reported incidence of neonatal sepsis for allinfants is 1 to 10 per 1000 live births. The mortality rate is 4.2-26%. The clinical signs are not specific and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is one of the most difficult tasks in clinical medicine. The aim of this work was determination of CD11b sensitivity and specificity for early detection of neonatal sepsis.We studied 65 neonates with gestational age of 27 to 38 weeks who were suspected for sepsis within the 28 days of life. Whole blood was obtained from neonates to determine CD11b expression on peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. C-Reactive protein (CRP was measured qualitatively.Neonates were divided into two groups. Classification was based on the result of the blood culture. In the sepsis group all of the neonates (n = 8 showed positive blood culture and clinicalsymptoms. In the suspected group (n = 57 the neonates showed clinical signs but blood cultures were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of CD11b were 75%, 100% respectively. Also positive and negative predictive values of CD11b were 100% and 86% respectively.Results of present study and previous studies showed that measurement of neutrophil surfacemarkers can be useful for diagnosis of infection in the early phases. Also, the quantitativemeasurement of CRP in addition to CD11b further enhances the ability to diagnose infections and improves sensitivity and negative predictive value by 100%.

  19. States in 12B from measurement and R-matrix analysis of sigma (Theta) for 11B(n,n)11B

    Differential cross sections for neutrons elastically scattered from 11B have been measured for 85 incident neutron energies for 2.6 12B of 5.7 to 10.7 MeV. The cross sections were measured at nine laboratory angles per energy from 200 to 1600 and show considerable resonance structure. These data, along with previously measured low-energy cross sections, have been analyzed for 0.1 12B. The R-matrix calculation allows for change of l-value and for input in either j-j or L-S coupling schemes. A very good overall fit to the data is obtained over this wide range of excitation in 12B. Comparisons with existing theoretical work are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering.

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M; Somer, M

    2016-01-01

    Mg(11)B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the "low activation superconductors". The un-doped Mg(11)B2 and Cu-doped Mg(11)B2 bulks using (11)B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg(11)B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg(11)B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg(11)B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg(11)B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  1. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  2. Does John 17:11b, 21−23 refer to church unity?

    Gert J. Malan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In ecumenical circles, John 17:11b, 21–23 has been understood as Jesus’ prayer for church unity, be it confessional or structural. This article questioned such readings and conclusions from historical, literary and sosio-cultural viewpoints. The Fourth Gospel’s language is identified as ’antilanguage’ typical of an ’antisociety’, like that of the Hermetic, Mandean and Qumran sects. Such a society is a separate entity within society at large, but opposes it. Read as a text of an antisociety, John 17:11b, 21–23 legitimises the unity of the separatist Johannine community, which could have comprised several such communities. This community opposed the Judean religion, Gnosticism, the followers of John the Baptist and three major groups in early Christianity. As text from the canon, this Johannine text legitimates tolerance of diversity rather than the confessional or structural unity of the church.

  3. 11B NMR study of vortex motion in magnesium-diboride

    We have performed 11B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements to investigate vortex dynamics in the polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor. 11B NMR spectrum, shift and transverse relaxation rate 1/T2 were measured down to 4.3K at ∼1.8T. The spectrum below Tc exhibits a typical local field distribution for a vortex lattice under magnetic field. The peak point of the spectrum shifts toward low magnetic field due to incomplete field penetration. Below the irreversibility temperature Tirr, 1/T2 data, probing the slow motion of vortices, shows a single peak with a small change of the rate, contrary to the results of nickel borocarbides. Also, the relaxation profile changes from Lorentzian decay below Tc to Gaussian decay at lower temperature. It strongly suggests that thermal fluctuation of vortices is reduced at low temperature and the vortex motion is much weaker compared with nickel borocarbides

  4. Vortex dynamics in magnesium-diboride superconductor by using 11B NMR

    11B nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) measurements were performed to investigate vortex dynamics in the polycrystalline superconductor MgB2. 11B NMR spectrum, shift and transverse relaxation rate 1/T2 were measured down to 4.3 K at ∼1.8 T. The spectrum below Tc exhibits a typical local field distribution for a vortex lattice under a magnetic field. The peak point of the spectrum shifts toward low magnetic field, due to imperfect field penetration. This decrease in the shift starts to appear below the detuning temperature of a NMR resonant circuit, which is measured to match the irreversibility temperature Tirr of magnetization. 1/T2 data, probing the slow motion of vortices, show a single peak with a small change in the rate, in contrast to the results for nickel borocarbides. This strongly suggests that thermal fluctuation of vortices is reduced and the vortex motion is much smaller, compared with nickel borocarbides.

  5. Vortex dynamics in YNi2B2C single crystals by 11B NMR

    11B pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on a single crystal of YNi2B2C superconductor to investigate the vortex structure and dynamics. As temperature decreases, 11B NMR spectrum, shift, linewidth, and T2-1, exhibit distinct features, from which the authors are able to identify three vortex phases, namely, vortex liquid, vortex glass, and vortex lattice at 1.8T parallel to the c-axis. Also they have observed thermal hysteresis of saddle-point field, motional narrowing of linewidth and the double peak structures of T2-1, all of which indicate unexpectedly significant thermal motion of vortices in this low Tc and nearly isotropic D superconductor

  6. Performance Improvement of DCF Supporting Multi-Rate in IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new channel access algorithm based on channel occupancy time (COT) fairness to guarantee fairness and improve the aggregate throughput of 802.11b multi-rate WLANs. In the algorithm, the COT is used as fairness index to analyze the fairness of WLANs instead of the channel access probability (CAP) used in the distributed coordination function (DCF).The standard COT is given by access point (AP) and broadcasted to all wireless stations. The AP and wireless stations in the WLAN can achieve COT-based fairness by adjusting their packet length,sending the multiple back-to-back packets at one time, or giving up an opportunity to access the channel. Analysis and simulations show that our algorithm can provide COT-fairness. Compared with the CAP-based algorithm, the proposed algorithm leads to improvements in aggregate throughput of IEEE 802.11b multi-rate WLANs.

  7. Channel Sounding for the Masses: Low Complexity GNU 802.11b Channel Impulse Response Estimation

    Firooz, Mohammad H; Zhang, Junxing; Patwari, Neal; Kasera, Sneha K

    2010-01-01

    New techniques in cross-layer wireless networks are building demand for ubiquitous channel sounding, that is, the capability to measure channel impulse response (CIR) with any standard wireless network and node. Towards that goal, we present a software-defined IEEE 802.11b receiver and CIR estimation system with little additional computational complexity compared to 802.11b reception alone. The system implementation, using the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio, is described and compared to previous work. By overcoming computational limitations and performing direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS-SS) matched filtering on the USRP, we enable high-quality yet inexpensive CIR estimation. We validate the channel sounder and present a drive test campaign which measures hundreds of channels between WiFi access points and an in-vehicle receiver in urban and suburban areas.

  8. IFN-γ licenses CD11b(+) cells to induce progression of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Shaabani, Namir; Honke, Nadine; Dolff, Sebastian; Görg, Boris; Khairnar, Vishal; Merches, Katja; Duhan, Vikas; Metzger, Sabine; Recher, Mike; Barthuber, Carmen; Hardt, Cornelia; Proksch, Peter; Häussinger, Dieter; Witzke, Oliver; Lang, Philipp A; Lang, Karl S

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). High titers of anti-nuclear antibodies are used as surrogate marker for SLE, however their contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Using murine model of SLE and human samples, we studied the effect of immune stimulation on relapsing of SLE. Although autoantibodies bound to target cells in vivo, only additional activation of CD8(+) T cells converted this silent autoimmunity into overt disease. In mice as well as in humans CD8(+) T cells derived IFN-γ enhanced expression of Fc-receptors on CD11b(+) cells. High expression of Fc-receptors allowed CD11b(+) cells to bind to antibody covered target cells and to destroy them in vivo. We found that autoantibodies induce clinically relevant disease when adaptive immunity, specific for disease non-related antigen, is activated. PMID:26094774

  9. 11B-NMR study on Shastry-Sutherland system TbB4

    11B-NMR experiments were performed in high magnetic fields applied along a-axis up to 17.5T to investigate the field-induced magnetic phase transitions and the magnetic structure in high magnetic fields microscopically for the single crystalline TbB4, Shastry-Sutherland-type frustrated antiferromagnet. It was found that the field-swept 11B-NMR spectra observed at low magnetic field changes drastically at HC = 15.9 T, where the magnetization jump occurs. Based on a simple model of four-spin cluster and the classical dipole-dipole interaction, we have calculated NMR spectra, which qualitatively reproduced the observation below HC but the one above HC showed discrepancy.

  10. Theoretical study for ICRF sustained LHD type p-{sup 11}B reactor

    Watanabe, Tsuguhiro (ed.)

    2003-04-01

    This is a summary of the workshop on 'Theoretical Study for ICRF Sustained LHD Type p-{sup 11}B Reactor' held in National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) on July 25, 2002. In the workshop, study of LHD type D-{sup 3}He reactor is also reported. A review concerning the advanced nuclear fusion fuels is also attached. This review was reported at the workshop of last year. The development of the p-{sup 11}B reactor research which uses the LHD magnetic field configuration has been briefly summarized in section 1. In section 2, an integrated report on advanced nuclear fusion fuels is given. Ignition conditions in a D-{sup 3}He helical reactor are summarized in section 3. 0-dimensional particle and power balance equations are solved numerically assuming the ISS95 confinement law including a confinement factor ({gamma}{sub HH}). It is shown that high average beta plasma confinement, a large confinement factor ({gamma}{sub HH} > 3) and the hot ion mode (T{sub i}/T{sub e} > 1.4) are necessary to achieve the ignition of the D-{sup 3}He helical reactor. Characteristics of ICRF sustained p-{sup 11}B reactor are analyzed in section 4. The nuclear fusion reaction rate < {sigma}{upsilon} > is derived assuming a quasilinear plateau distribution function (QPDF) for protons, and an ignition condition of p-{sup 11}B reactor is shown to be possible. The 3 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Prospects for P11B Fusion with the Dense Plasma Focus: New Results

    Lerner, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Fusion with p11B has many advantages, including the almost complete lack of radioactivity and the possibility of direct conversion of charged particle energy to electricity, without expensive steam turbines and generators. But two major challenges must be overcome to achieve this goal: obtaining average ion energies well above 100keV and minimizing losses by bremsstrahlung x-rays. Recent experimental and theoretical work indicates that these challenges may be overcome with the dense plasma fo...

  12. Ctip2/Bcl11b controls ameloblast formation during mammalian odontogenesis

    Golonzhka, Olga; Metzger, Daniel; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Bay, Brian K.; Gross, Michael K.; Kioussi, Chrissa; Leid, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Ctip2/Bcl11b plays essential roles in developmental processes of the immune and central nervous systems and skin. Here we show that Ctip2 also plays a key role in tooth development. Ctip2 is highly expressed in the ectodermal components of the developing tooth, including inner and outer enamel epithelia, stellate reticulum, stratum intermedium, and the ameloblast cell lineage. In Ctip2−/− mice, tooth morphogenesis appeared to proceed normally through the cap stage but...

  13. DCF Learn and Performance Analysis Of 802.11B Wireless Network

    Mingming Li; Biao Huang; Haiyang Liu; Miao Yang

    2013-01-01

    Though WLAN wireless network has been widely deployed as the main split-flow deployment of thecommunication network, little study emphasizes itsperformance as WLAN protocols were only designed forthe public communicating conveniently with each other. Actually that too much wireless access pointsassembling together will cause self-interference tothe whole WLAN network. This paper investigates thedistributed coordination function (DCF) learn and the performance study of 802.11b networks. Firstl...

  14. Linking CD11b+ Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer T Cells to Plaque Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    Miche Rombouts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death and disability in our Western society. To investigate whether the dynamics of leukocyte (subpopulations could be predictive for plaque inflammation during atherosclerosis, we analyzed innate and adaptive immune cell distributions in blood, plaques, and lymphoid tissue reservoirs in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/− mice and in blood and plaques from patients undergoing endarterectomy. Firstly, there was predominance of the CD11b+ conventional dendritic cell (cDC subset in the plaque. Secondly, a strong inverse correlation was observed between CD11b+ cDC or natural killer T (NKT cells in blood and markers of inflammation in the plaque (including CD3, T-bet, CCR5, and CCR7. This indicates that circulating CD11b+ cDC and NKT cells show great potential to reflect the inflammatory status in the atherosclerotic plaque. Our results suggest that distinct changes in inflammatory cell dynamics may carry biomarker potential reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression. This not only is crucial for a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis but also bares therapeutic potential, since immune cell-based therapies are emerging as a promising novel strategy in the battle against atherosclerosis and its associated comorbidities. The cDC-NKT cell interaction in atherosclerosis serves as a good candidate for future investigations.

  15. Effect of Bcl11b genotypes and γ-radiation on the development of mouse thymic lymphomas

    Bcl11b is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene and expressed in many tissues such as thymus, brain and skin. Irradiated Bcl11b+/- heterozygous mice mostly develop thymic lymphomas, but the preference of Bcl11b inactivation for thymic lymphomas remains to be addressed. We produced Bcl11b+/- heterozygous and Bcl11b wild-type mice of p53+/- background and compared their incidence of γ-ray induced thymic lymphomas. Majority of the tumors in p53+/- mice were skin tumors, and only 5 (36%) of the 14 tumors were thymic lymphomas. In contrast, Bcl11b+/-p53+/- doubly heterozygous mice developed thymic lymphomas at the frequency of 27 (79%) of the 34 tumors developed (P = 0.008). This indicates the preference of Bcl11b impairment for thymic lymphoma development. We also analyzed loss of the wild-type alleles in the 27 lymphomas, a predicted consequence given by γ-irradiation. However, the loss frequency was low, only six (22%) for Bcl11b and five (19%) for p53. The frequencies did not differ from those of spontaneously developed thymic lymphomas in the doubly heterozygous mice, though the latency of lymphoma development markedly differed between them. This suggests that the main contribution of irradiation at least in those mice is not for the tumor initiation by inducing allelic losses but probably for the promotion of thymic lymphoma development

  16. Contribution to the study of 12C excited levels resulting from the reactions 11B (P/ α0) and 11B (p, α1)

    This work is made up of two parts. In the first part the differential cross-sections have been determined of the reactions 11B (p,α) from 130 to 500 keV thus confirming, at the 163 keV resonance, the (2+) characteristics of the 16.11 MeV level of 12C. Furthermore, the experimental results in the neighbourhood of the 163 keV resonance can be explained by the interference of the 12C levels: 2+ at 16.11 MeV and 1- at 17.23 MeV for the α0, 2+ at 16.11 MeV and 2- at 16.58 MeV for the α1. In the second part the (α-8Be) disintegration process of 12C has been studied in the neighbourhood of the 16.11 MeV level. It is shown that, if the (α-8Be) mode of disintegration is preponderant outside the Ep = 163 keV resonance, it is also preponderant at this same resonance; a direct disintegration of the 12C to 3 α, with an approximate magnitude of 40 per cent has however not been excluded. (author)

  17. Tissue factor contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression in alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated mice

    Cholestatic liver injury induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is provoked by injury to intrahepatic bile ducts and the progression of hepatic necrosis requires the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) and extrahepatic cells including neutrophils. Recent studies have shown that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation. We tested the hypothesis that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation in ANIT-treated mice. TF activity in liver homogenates increased significantly in TFflox/flox mice treated with ANIT, but not in TFflox/flox/LysMCre mice (TFΔMyeloid mice), which have reduced TF expression in monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. Myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency did not alter expression of the chemokines KC or MIP-2 but reduced hepatic neutrophil accumulation in ANIT-treated mice at 48 h as indicated by tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Myeloid cell TF deficiency significantly reduced CD11b expression by blood neutrophils in ANIT-treated mice, and this was associated with reduced plasma MPO protein levels, an index of neutrophil degranulation. However, myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency had no effect on ANIT-induced coagulation cascade activation. The increase in serum ALT and ALP activities in ANIT-treated mice was reduced by myeloid cell TF deficiency (p < 0.05), but the myeloid cell TF deficiency did not reduce hepatic necrosis at 48 h, as determined by histopathology and morphometry. The results suggest that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression during cholestasis by a coagulation-independent pathway. However, the resultant reduction in neutrophil accumulation/activation is insufficient to substantially reduce ANIT hepatotoxicity, suggesting that myeloid cell TF is only one of many factors modulating hepatic necrosis during cholestasis. - Research Highlights: → Myeloid cell tissue factor contributes to liver procoagulant activity during acute cholestasis. → ANIT-induced coagulation cascade

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12183-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 053_1( AB026053 |pid:none) Pseudoalteromonas piscicida hex99 ... 45 0.006 CP001600_2802( CP001600 |pid:none) Edwardsiella ictaluri...481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B s... 63 3e-08 FM178380_50( FM178380 |pid:none) Aliivibrio sal...CP000472_3540( CP000472 |pid:none) Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, c... 60 3e-07 JC7537( JC7537 ;PC7108)beta-N-acetylglu...lar, including cell wall 32.0 %: plasma membrane 20.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum 12.0 ...29244 |pid:none) Oryctolagus cuniculus beta-hexosam... 177 1e-68 AK159091_1( AK159091 |pid:none) Mus musculus osteoclast-like cell

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14936-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ma cDNA, c... 306 9e-82 CP001140_1265( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamcha...:none) Guillardia theta DNA for complet... 292 2e-77 AC006081_7( AC006081 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana ch...CP000481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B ... 214 5e-54 EF558547_15( EF558547 |pid:none) Uncultured haloarcha...1404 |pid:none) Sulfolobus islandicus Y.N.15.51... 213 1e-53 CP001140_1067( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamcha...7298 ) CAXY4611.rev CAXY Lottia gigantea from male gonad... 94 2e-46 6 ( ES731865 ) Nad03b_35_F03_C005.g1 Nupha

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09625-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ch... 62 3e-08 CP000481_1283( CP000481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B... 62 3e-08 A96945( A96945 ) 4 animobutyrate amino...Q374002_1( DQ374002 |pid:none) Glossina morsitans morsitans alani... 59 3e-07 AP0...ella pneumoniae subsp. pn... 59 4e-07 CP001192_65( CP001192 |pid:none) Rhizobium leguminos...WO2008... 60 1e-07 ( O66557 ) RecName: Full=Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate... 60 1e-07 CP000884_2788( CP000884 |pid:non...om... 59 3e-07 CP000569_1940( CP000569 |pid:none) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae... 59 3e-07 AF166351_1( AF166351 |pid:non

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05833-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 7 c... 58 5e-07 AE017223_473( AE017223 |pid:none) Brucella abortus biovar 1 str. 9... 58 5e-07 CP000661_615(..._1( AK226475 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 64 7e-09 AM260525_591( AM260525 |pid:none) Bartonella tribocor...P000481 |pid:none) Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B... 55 3e-06 CP000524_391( CP000524 |pid:none) Bartonella bacillifor...5833-1Q.Seq.d (926 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producin...la silvestris BL2, co... 79 2e-13 AK158990_1( AK158990 |pid:none) Mus musculus visual cortex cDNA, R... 79 2

  2. The Model of Communication Channel in the 802.11b Standard Wireless Network

    Zdenek Silar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with software modelling of a communication channel in the 802.11b standard wireless network physical layer. A computer model of signal processing was created to verify possibility of the proposal of localisation system. Functionality of the signal generation and processing model was verified by the Spectrum Analyzer. Simulations run inSimulink/Matlab SW. The Simulink is used for the signal processor model and a pure Matlab software is used for mathematical evaluations of data processor model and for determination of initial conditions.

  3. Analysis of User Plane in IEEE 802.11b/g QoS Networks

    N. Nešković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the performances evaluation of infrastructure 802.11b/g QoS networks, in both HCF (Hybrid Coordination Function operating modes: EDCA (Enhanced Distributed Channel Access and HCCA (HCF Controlled Channel Access. Besides comparing these two modes in terms of total network throughput (between themselves as well as against the theoretical limit, in this paper we introduce further analyses: impact of modulation scheme on the total throughput, determination of throughput for different traffic categories and average packet delivery delay.

  4. Viability of the 11B(p, α) 2α cycle

    The authors evaluated the energetics of the proton11boron advanced fuel fusion cycle and found that the enhancement of reactivity obtained from non-thermal mechanisms is significantly less than the enhancement required for ignition or high gain operation. Based on a detailed calculation of synchrotron radiation losses, at least 135% enhancement of the reactivity is needed for ignition. The direct and induced radioactivity associated with the cycle, while being orders of magnitude lower than that of D-T, is not negligible and requires serious attention in the design. Thus, it is concluded that, using present physics knowledge, the p-11B cycle is not viable for commercial fusion power

  5. Angular Distribution of the 12C(6He, 7Li)11B Reaction

    LI Er-Tao; LI Zhi-Hong; LI Yun-Ju; YAN Sheng-Quan; BAI Xi-Xiang; GUO Bing; SU Jun; WANG You-Bao; WANG Bao-Xiang; LIAN Gang; ZENG Sheng; FANG Xiao; ZHAO Wei-Juan; LIU Wei-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Angular distribution of the 12C(6He, 7Li)11B transfer reaction is measured with a secondary 6He beam of 36.4 Me V for the first time. The experimental angular distribution is well reproduced by the distorted-wave Born approxima-tion (DWBA) calculation. The success of the present experiment shows that it is feasible to measure one-nucleon transfer reaction on a light nucleus target with the secondary beam facility of the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beifing.

  6. $^{11}B$ NMR and Relaxation in $MgB_2$ Superconductor

    Jung, J. K.; Baek, Seung Ho; F. Borsa; Bud'ko, S. L.; Lapertot, G.; Canfield, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    $^{11}B$ NMR and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) are reported at 7.2 Tesla and 1.4 Tesla in powder samples of the intermetallic compound $MgB_2$ with superconducting transition temperature in zero field $T_c$ = 39.2 K. From the first order quadrupole perturbed NMR specrum a quadrupole coupling frequency of 835 $\\pm$ 5 kHz is obtained. The Knight shift is very small and it decreases to zero in the superconducting phase. The NSLR follows a linear law with $T_1T$ = 165 $\\pm$ 10 (sec ...

  7. Internation of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase with CD11b/CD18

    El-Azami-El-Idrisi, M.; Bauche, C.; Loucká, Jiřina; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter; Ladant, D.; Leclerc, C.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 40 (2003), s. 38514-38521. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA ČR GA310/01/0934; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant ostatní: GA by National Institutes of Health Grant(XX) 55000334; GA QLK2-CT-1999(XX) 00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cyaa * rtx * cd11b Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  8. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b{sup +} cells

    Ding, Ning [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Kunugita, Naoki [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6, Minami, Wako 351-0197 (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Song, Yuan [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yokoyama, Mitsuru [Bio-information Research Center, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi [School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: freude@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. {yields} Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. {yields} CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-{alpha}. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-{kappa}B and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  9. Lightning as a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b

    Hodosán, G.; Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-04-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar System planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2013, A&A, 552, A65) carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. In the current letter, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning in the atmosphere of the planet. We find that a lightning storm with 530 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical counterpart would nevertheless be undetectable with current technology. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry of such thunderstorms is observable 2-3 years after the storm, which produces signatures in the L (3.0μm - 4.0μm) and N (7.5μm - 14.5μm) infrared bands. We conclude that future, combined radio and infrared observations may lead to lightning detection on planets outside the Solar System.

  10. Lightning as a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b

    Hodosán, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar System planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2013, A&A, 552, A65) carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. In the current letter, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning in the atmosphere of the planet. We find that a lightning storm with 530 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical counterpart would nevertheless be undetectable with current technology. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry of such thunderstorms is observable 2-3 years after the storm, which produces signatures in the L ($3.0 \\mu{\\rm m}-4.0 \\mu$m) and N ($7.5 \\mu{...

  11. Is lightning a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b?

    Hodosán, G.; Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-09-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar system planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. Here, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning with similar energetic properties like in the Solar system. We find that a lightning storm with 3.8 × 106 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical emission of such thunderstorm would be comparable to that of the host star. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry is observable 2-3 yr after the storm, which produces signatures in the L (3.0-4.0 μm) and N (7.5-14.5 μm) infrared bands. We conclude that it is unlikely that the observed radio signal was produced by lightning, however, future, combined radio and infrared observations may lead to lightning detection on planets outside the Solar system.

  12. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b+ cells

    Highlights: → Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. → Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. → CD11b+ cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-α. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-κB and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b+ cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  13. Nuclear quadrupole interactions of 11B in a LiB3O5 single crystal

    The rotation patterns of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of an 11B nucleus in a LiB3O5 (LBO) single crystal were measured in the three mutually perpendicular crystallographic planes at room temperature. We identified three centres denoted as B1, B2, and B3, each of which consists of four sets of 11B NMR spectra originating from the chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent sites. The four sets belonging to each centre were properly classified in accordance with crystal symmetry and analysed. The principal values and principal axis orientations of the nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors were determined for the first time. The centres B1, B2, and B3 were assigned to boron sites in the crystalline lattice of LBO by comparing the directions of the B-O bonds and the principal axes of the NQC tensor (P). The NQC constant (e2qQ/h) and asymmetry parameter (η) were determined as follows: for B1, e2qQ/h 2.615 ± 0.005 MHz and η = 0.266 ± 0.005; for B2, e2qQ/h = 0.176 ± 0.003 MHz and η = 0.584 ± 0.003; and for B3, e2qQ/h = 2.690 ± 0.004 MHz and η = 0.204 ± 0.003

  14. The new possibility of the fusion p + 11B chain reaction being induced by intense laser pulses

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Matafonov, A. P.; Zagreev, B. V.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the experimental and theoretical principal schemes of a thermonuclear reactor, based on the fusion reaction p + 11B: beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition at the plasma, particle acceleration by nonlinear ponderomotive forces and irradiation of the solid 11B target by a proton beam at the Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdroplets. The fusion reaction p + 11B can be initiated by ultrashort high intensity laser pulses under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This may result in fusion products containing a small amount of neutrons and other nuclear radiation effects. It was found that the fusion reaction p + 11B produces further nuclear reactions and generates high-energy protons. The latter can support the chain reaction process. Our approach allows us to also investigate nuclear reactions in the early Universe and in stars.

  15. DCF Learn and Performance Analysis Of 802.11B Wireless Network

    Mingming Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Though WLAN wireless network has been widely deployed as the main split-flow deployment of thecommunication network, little study emphasizes itsperformance as WLAN protocols were only designed forthe public communicating conveniently with each other. Actually that too much wireless access pointsassembling together will cause self-interference tothe whole WLAN network. This paper investigates thedistributed coordination function (DCF learn and the performance study of 802.11b networks. Firstly,ourstudy illustrates the performance of its MAC layerand its fairness issues related to DCF. Next we proposethe details which should be paid attention to in deploying network services. Then, performance analysesare evaluated by simulation and real test for a dense wireless network. Our main goal is to give proposalsto network operators how to design a WLAN network more standardized and orderly.

  16. Study of 11B + 12C and 10B + 13C fusion cross sections

    In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for fusion cross section limitations in light heavy-ion systems, four entrance channels which form the 23Na compound nucleus have been studied. A limitation mechanism based on a critical density of compound nucleus states does not appear to be responsible for the fusion cross section limitation at energies from approximately one to three times the Coulomb barrier energy. The possibility exists, however, that such a process becomes important at higher energies. To address this question, measurements which utilize the Argonne tandem-linac accelerator have now been completed in the energy range 42.5-80.9 MeV for the 11B + 12C and the 10B + 13C. The preliminary findings of this work are reported here

  17. Interferon regulatory factor-8 modulates the development of tumour-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells.

    Stewart, Trina J; Greeneltch, Kristy M; Reid, Julia E; Liewehr, David J; Steinberg, Seth M; Liu, Kebin; Abrams, Scott I

    2009-09-01

    Tumour-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) promote immune suppression and mediate tumour progression. However, the molecular basis for the generation of MDSC, which in mice co-express the CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) cell surface markers remains unclear. Because CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells expand during progressive tumour growth, this suggests that tumour-induced events alter signalling pathways that affect normal myeloid cell development. Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), a member of the IFN-gamma regulatory factor family, is essential for normal myelopoiesis. We therefore examined whether IRF-8 modulated tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cell development or accumulation using both implantable (4T1) and transgenic (MMTV-PyMT) mouse models of mammary tumour growth. In the 4T1 model, both splenic and bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells of tumour-bearing mice displayed a marked reduction in IRF-8 expression compared to control populations. A causal link between IRF-8 expression and the emergence of tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells was explored in vivo using a double transgenic (dTg) mouse model designed to express transgenes for both IRF-8 and mammary carcinoma development. Despite the fact that tumour growth was unaffected, splenomegaly, as well as the frequencies and absolute numbers of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells were significantly lower in dTg mice when compared with single transgenic tumour-bearing mice. Overall, these data reveal that IRF-8 plays an important role in tumour-induced development and/or accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells, and establishes a molecular basis for the potential manipulation of these myeloid populations for cancer therapy. PMID:20196788

  18. UV-radiation induced changes in antibiotic markers, chemical composition of water soluble polysaccharides and nodulation ability of Rhizobium trifolic 11B

    Rhizobium trifolii 11B, which formed effective nodules on its host. Trifolium alexanderinum L. was UV-irradiated to isolate mutants. Out of the 9 variants isolated only 1 strain, viz. 21M11B produced more water soluble polysaccharide [752 mg (100 ml-1)] than the parent 15 different antibiotics was similar only in two (22M11B and 26M11B) of the 9 UV-mutants. Compositional studies revealed that the water soluble polysaccharides from all strains contained glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 7:1. Glucuronic acid which was present (2.33 per cent) in the water soluble polysaccharide from strain 11B was absent in all but 2UV-mutants (4.22per cent in 6M11B and 4.04per cent in26M11B). Five of the UB-mutants (1M11B, 17M11B, 20N11B, 22M11B and 26M11B) were Nod-. The organisms which produced more water soluble polysaccharide upon infection of the plants induced the formation of more number of nodules. (author)

  19. Laser ablation multicollector ICPMS determination of {delta} {sup 11}B in geological samples

    Tiepolo, Massimo [C.N.R. - Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse-Sede di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)]. E-mail: tiepolo@crystal.unipv.it; Bouman, Claudia [Thermo Electron (Bremen) GmbH, Finnigan Advanced Mass Spectrometry, Hanna-Kunath-Str. 11, 28199 Bremen (Germany); Vannucci, Riccardo [C.N.R. - Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse-Sede di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Schwieters, Johannes [Thermo Electron (Bremen) GmbH, Finnigan Advanced Mass Spectrometry, Hanna-Kunath-Str. 11, 28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    A method for the in situ single spot {delta} {sup 11}B characterisation of geological materials with laser ablation multicollector ICP mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) has been developed. The mass spectrometer was equipped with both Faradays and multiple ion counters. Four samples with different B contents (12-31,400 ppm) and isotopic compositions ({delta} {sup 11}B are between -8.71 and +13.6 per mille ) were analysed. Samples include the B4 tourmaline and 3 MPI-DING glasses (StHs6/80-G, GOR132-G and GOR128-G). All sources of B isotopic fractionation during the analysis (mass bias, laser-induced isotopic fractionation and detector efficiency drift) have been evaluated and quantified. Instrumental mass bias is the major source of fractionation, altering the original isotopic ratio up to 13%. Fractionation related to laser sampling and transport to the ICP was found to be very low (less than 0.0015% s{sup -1}). Fractionation effects due to drift in ion counter efficiencies were found to be significant. Nevertheless, the 'standard-sample-standard' bracketing approach could be used to correct for the above fractionation effects using NIST SRM 610 as external standard. With spot sizes of 60-80 {mu}m in diameter, geologically meaningful results can be achieved on samples containing at least 10 ppm B, i.e., results with precisions that can discriminate between the different reservoirs on Earth. Data obtained with Faraday detectors on NIST SRM 610 and B4 tourmaline show high precision (down to 0.04 per mille , 1{sigma}) and accuracy. Boron isotope ratios measured in the glass samples using multiple ion counting show significantly higher standard deviations (up to 2.5 per mille , 1{sigma}), but they are very close to the values that can be expected from counting statistics. No significant variations with spot size or B contents were observed. Most of the values are within 1{sigma} level of the reference values. The developed method was applied to a series of ashes

  20. α1B-Adrenergic receptor signaling controls circadian expression of Tnfrsf11b by regulating clock genes in osteoblasts

    Takao Hirai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are endogenous and biological oscillations that occur with a period of <24 h. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker is localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and is linked to peripheral tissues through neural and hormonal signals. In the present study, we investigated the physiological function of the molecular clock on bone remodeling. The results of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments both indicated that the rhythmic expression of Tnfrsf11b, which encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG, was regulated by Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also showed that REV-ERBα negatively regulated Tnfrsf11b as well as Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We systematically investigated the relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and the circadian clock in osteoblasts. The administration of phenylephrine, a nonspecific α1-adrenergic receptor (AR agonist, stimulated the expression of Tnfrsf11b, whereas the genetic ablation of α1B-AR signaling led to the alteration of Tnfrsf11b expression concomitant with Bmal1 and Per2 in bone. Thus, this study demonstrated that the circadian regulation of Tnfrsf11b was regulated by the clock genes encoding REV-ERBα (Nr1d1 and Bmal1 (Bmal1, also known as Arntl, which are components of the core loop of the circadian clock in osteoblasts.

  1. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars

  2. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  3. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  4. Quantitation of intracellular Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) pools in human neutrophils.

    Jones, D H; Anderson, D C; Burr, B L; Rudloff, H E; Smith, C W; Krater, S S; Schmalstieg, F C

    1988-12-01

    The adhesive glycoprotein Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) of the CD11/CD18 complex contributes to multiple neutrophil inflammatory functions. Activation of neutrophils by chemotactic stimuli results in a rapid, protein synthesis-independent increase in surface Mac-1 derived from incompletely defined intracellular compartments. Therefore, we developed a novel quantitative lectin immunoblot technique to define intracellular pools of Mac-1 in subcellular neutrophil fractions resolved on discontinuous Percoll gradients. In cavitates of unstimulated neutrophils, 30% and 26% of total Mac-1 was identified in beta [1.10 gm/ml; vitamin B12 binding protein (vit B12 B.P.)-rich] or pre-gamma (1.07 gm/ml; vit B12 B.P.-poor) granular fractions, respectively, whereas 24% was associated with the plasma membrane-rich gamma (1.06 gm/ml) fractions. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulation (10(-8) M, 15 min, 37 degrees C) significantly diminished Mac-1 in pre-gamma (-18% of total, P less than 0.05) but not beta fractions (+6% of total). Under these conditions, the content of Mac-1 in gamma fractions increased 13% in association with four- to eightfold increase in surface Mac-1 expression (OKM-1 binding). These findings suggest that chemotactic stimuli increase plasma membrane and/or surface Mac-1 on human neutrophils by mobilizing a novel intracellular granule pool. PMID:2903896

  5. The transiting exoplanet CoRoT-11b and its peculiar tidal evolution

    Damiani C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT-11b is a fairly massive hot-Jupiter (Mp = 2.33 ± 0.34 MJup in a 3 days orbit around a F6 V star with an age of 2 ± 1 Gyr. The relatively high projected rotational velocity of the star (v sin i⋆ = 40 ± 5 km/s places CoRoT-11 among the most rapidly rotating planet hosting stars discovered so far. Assuming that the star is seen equator-on, the v sin i⋆ and the star radius (R∗ = 1.37±0.03 R⊙ translate into a stellar rotation period of 1.73±0.26 days. This peculiar planet/star configuration offers an unique opportunity to study the tidal evolution of the system. Owing to the strong tidal interaction, the planet would have moved outwards, from a starting semi-major axis corresponding to an orbital period almost synchronized with the stellar rotation. We found that the present value of the tidal quality factor Q′s could be measured by a timing of the mid-epoch of the transits to be observed with an accuracy of about 0.5 − 1 seconds over a time baseline of about 25 years.

  6. Internal conversion in the S11B3u state of pyrene

    Highlights: ► Fluorescence lifetimes were accurately observed for each single vibronic level of pyrene. ► Nonradiative internal conversion in the S1 state is enhanced via specific vibrations. ► The structure of the isolated pyrene molecule was determined by ab initio calculation. - Abstract: Fluorescence excitation spectra and fluorescence lifetimes at single vibronic levels in the S1 state have been observed for jet-cooled pyrene. The fluorescence lifetimes at the zero-vibrational levels of the S11B3u states of pyrene-h10 and pyrene-d10 are 1480 and 1470 ns, respectively, and the relaxation is considered to be dominated by the radiative process. For some vibrational levels, however, the lifetimes are remarkably shorter such as 765 ns at the 221 vibronic level of pyrene-h10 (ν22 (b1g); C–H bending and skeletal deforming mode), indicating that nonradiative transition occurs at a specific vibrational level. In this study, we demonstrate that the main process is internal conversion to the S01Ag state caused by nonadiabatic vibronic interaction via b3u promoting modes.

  7. Prospects for P11B Fusion with the Dense Plasma Focus: New Resulta

    Lerner, E J

    2004-01-01

    Fusion with p11B has many advantages, including the almost complete lack of radioactivity and the possibility of direct conversion of charged particle energy to electricity, without expensive steam turbines and generators. But two major challenges must be overcome to achieve this goal: obtaining average ion energies well above 100keV and minimizing losses by bremsstrahlung x-rays. Recent experimental and theoretical work indicates that these challenges may be overcome with the dense plasma focus. DPF experiments at Texas A&M University have demonstrated ion and electron average energies above 100keV in several-micron-sized hot-spots or plasmoids. These had density-confinement-time-energy products as high as 5.0 x1015 keVsec/cm3. In these experiments we clearly distinguished between x-rays coming from the hot-spots and the harder radiation coming from electron beam collisions with the anode. In addition, new theoretical work shows that extremely high magnetic fields, which appear achievable in DPF plasmoid...

  8. 802.11b WLAN的功率放大器设计

    Frank Li; Walter Lau

    2001-01-01

    @@ 自1997年IEE 802.11标准被采纳后,WLAN经历了一个长足的发展时期,其数据速率由1~2Mbps提高到11Mbps,并在近期将达到22Mbps、进而在5GHz频段速率达到54Mbps.2.4GHz 802.11WLAN PC卡的价格已由600~800美元降至129美元,而且可以方便地通过互联网购得.许多供应商均可提供经过WiFi鉴定的(兼容于802.11b)WLAN卡,同时这些产品具有互操作性,WLAN卡的价格有望在2001年降至100美元,到2002年可能降至50~60美元.

  9. Complete kinematics study of the p + 11B → 12C reaction

    New data and preliminary results from an experimental study of the p + 11B reaction are presented. Using proton energies in the range of 167 – 170 keV the 2+ resonance in 12C at an excitation energy of 16.11 MeV was populated. Detecting the emitted a-particles in full kinematics allows us to study 12 C resonances and their properties. In addition to the 3-α break-up of the 16.11 MeV resonance we observe γ-transitions to lower lying resonances. Transitions to the 3− state at 9.64MeV, the 1− state at 10.84 MeV and the 1+ state at 12.71 MeV are clearly seen. The transitions to the 1− state has not been observed previously. In addition we see decays to structures of natural parity at excitation energies around 11-13 MeV. The results illustrate that the indirect detection of γ-decays is an effective technique for studying the low lying resonance spectrum of 12C

  10. Multimodal Imaging Using a 11B(d,nγ)12C Source

    Nattress, Jason; Rose, Paul; Mayer, Michal; Wonders, Marc; Wilhelm, Kyle; Erickson, Anna; Jovanovic, Igor; Multimodal Imaging; Nuclear Detection (MIND) in Active Interrogation Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material (SNM) still remains one of the greatest challenges facing nuclear security, where small signal-to-background ratios result from complex, challenging configurations of practical objects. Passive detection relies on the spontaneous radioactive decay, whereas active interrogation (AI) uses external probing radiation to identify and characterize the material. AI provides higher signal intensity, providing a more viable method for SNM detection. New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome specific application constraints, such as limited scanning time. We report on a new AI approach that integrates both neutron and gamma transmission signatures to deduce specific material properties that can be utilized to aid SNM identification. The approach uses a single AI source, single detector type imaging system based on the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction and an array of eight EJ-309 liquid scintillators, respectively. An integral transmission imaging approach has been employed initially for both neutrons and photons, exploiting the detectors' particle discrimination properties. Representative object images using neutrons and photons will be presented.

  11. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm2 is presented. The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters(LPFs), transmit (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops, and on-chip output buffers. The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of −11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50–30.2 nV/√Hz input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to −41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (IIP3). The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11b/g/n requirements. The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from −1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches. By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array, the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    Zheng, Gong; Xiaojie, Chu; Qianqian, Lei; Min, Lin; Yin, Shi

    2012-11-01

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm2 is presented. The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters(LPFs), transmit (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops, and on-chip output buffers. The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of -11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50-30.2 nV/√Hz input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to -41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (IIP3). The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11b/g/n requirements. The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from -1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches. By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array, the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus cellulosomal type II cohesin module: two versions having different linker lengths

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of two protein constructs of the second type II cohesin module from A. cellulolyticus ScaB are described. Both constructs contain the native N-terminal linker, but only one of them contains the full-length 45-residue C-terminal linker; the other contains a five-residue segment of this linker. The second type II cohesin module of the cellulosomal scaffoldin polypeptide ScaB from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus (CohB2) was cloned into two constructs: one containing a short (five-residue) C-terminal linker (CohB2-S) and the second incorporating the full native 45-residue linker (CohB2-L). Both constructs encode proteins that also include the full native six-residue N-terminal linker. The CohB2-S and CohB2-L proteins were expressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic crystal system, but with different unit cells and symmetries: space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 90.36, b = 68.65, c = 111.29 Å for CohB2-S and space group P21212 with unit-cell parameters a = 68.76, b = 159.22, c = 44.21 Å for CohB2-L. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. The asymmetric unit of CohB2-S contains three cohesin molecules, while that of CohB2-L contains two molecules

  14. Throughput Analysis of Ieee802.11b Wireless Lan With One Access Point Using Opnet Simulator

    Ogu C. D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the throughput performance of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN with one access point. The IEEE 802.11b is a wireless protocol standard. In this paper, a wireless network was established which has one access point. OPNET IT Guru Simulator (Academic edition was used to simulate the entire network. Thus the effects of varying some network parameters such as the data-rate, buffer-sizes, and fragmentation threshold were observed on the throughput performance metric. Several simulation graphs were obtained and used to analyze the network performance.

  15. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    Gong Zheng; Chu Xiaojie; Lei Qianqian; Lin Min; Shi Yin

    2012-01-01

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm2 is presented.The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters (LPFs),transmitter (TX) 3rd order Chebyshev LPFs,RX programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops,and on-chip output buffers.The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of-11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50-30.2 nV/(√Hz) input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to-41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (ⅡP3).The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz,10 MHz,and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11 b/g/n requirements.The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from-1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches.By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array,the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply.

  16. Toward better understanding of B/Ca and δ11B proxies: An experimental approach

    Uchikawa, J.; Penman, D. E.; Harper, D. T.; Farmer, J. R.; Zachos, J. C.; Hoenisch, B.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of boron (B/Ca and δ11B) in marine biogenic carbonates is an important paleoceanographic tool to probe carbon cycling in the ocean-atmosphere system. These B-based proxies rely on a fundamental assumption that boron incorporation into carbonates occur via B(OH)4- adsorption with little isotopic fractionation, which is based on key results from the classic inorganic experiments performed in the late 1990s (e.g., Hemming et al., 1995, GCA, v59, 371-379; Sanyal et al., 2000, GCA, v64, 1551-1555). However, a collection of new experimental data published in recent years consistently suggests a more complicated picture for fluid-crystal element and isotope partitioning of B into inorganic carbonates. For instance, we performed novel inorganic calcite precipitation experiments by systematically adjusting solution pH as well as total B, total DIC and Ca concentrations (Uchikawa et al., 2015, GCA, v150, 171-191), and the results showcased apparent kinetic effects related to precipitation rate on B/Ca. Moreover, the results also indicated a dependence of B/Ca on the concentration ratio of total B to total DIC, which was interpreted as indirect evidence for potential B(OH)3 incorporation into synthetic calcite. Notably, relatively simple solutions of NaCl-CaCl2-B(OH)3 system were used for our previous experiments. This presentation features our latest results from similar experiments but using artificial seawater in order to close the gap between simplified experimental conditions to in-situ marine settings. Our preliminary results reveal a precipitation rate control even when artificial seawater is used for the experiments, making a strong case that kinetic effects on B/Ca are universal in inorganic carbonates. With the aid of new isotopic results, we also attempt to discuss possible scenarios of B incorporation pathway in inorganic systems.

  17. Cationic Closo-carboranes 2. Do computed 11B and 13C NMR chemical shifts support their experimental availability?

    Hnyk, Drahomír; Jayasree, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 8 (2013), s. 656-661. ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/2269 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boron clusters * weakly-coordinating cations * 11B NMR * dynamic electron correlation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2013

  18. IL-1α induces CD11b(low) alveolar macrophage proliferation and maturation during granuloma formation.

    Huaux, François; Lo Re, Sandra; Giordano, Giulia; Uwambayinema, Francine; Devosse, Raynal; Yakoub, Yousof; Panin, Nadtha; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Rabolli, Virginie; Delos, Monique; Marbaix, Etienne; Dauguet, Nicolas; Couillin, Isabelle; Ryffel, Bernhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lison, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages play a central role in immune and tissue responses of granulomatous lung diseases induced by pathogens and foreign bodies. Circulating monocytes are generally viewed as central precursors of these tissue effector macrophages. Here, we provide evidence that granulomas derive from alveolar macrophages serving as a local reservoir for the expansion of activated phagocytic macrophages. By exploring lung granulomatous responses to silica particles in IL-1-deficient mice, we found that the absence of IL-1α, but not IL-1β, was associated with reduced CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophage accumulation and fewer granulomas. This defect was associated with impaired alveolar clearance and resulted in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Reconstitution of IL-1α(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-1α restored lung clearance functions and the pulmonary accumulation of CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophages. Mechanistically, IL-1α induced the proliferation of CD11b(low) alveolar macrophages and differentiated these cells into CD11b(high) macrophages which perform critical phagocytic functions and organize granuloma. We newly discovered here that IL-1α triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages. PMID:25421226

  19. Tumor Progression Is Associated with Increasing CD11b(+) Cells and CCL2 in Lewis Rat Sarcoma

    Mishra, Rajbardhan; Kovalská, Jana; Janda, Jozef; Vannucci, Luca; Rajmon, R.; Horák, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2015), s. 703-712. ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lewis rat sarcoma * CD11b+ cell s * neutrophils Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2014

  20. Combined use of 15N and 18O of nitrate and 11B to evaluate nitrate contamination in groundwater

    Isotopic composition of NO3 (δ 15NNO3 and δ 18ONO3) and B (δ 11B) were used to evaluate NO3 contamination and identify geochemical processes occurring in a hydrologically complex Basin and Range valley in northern Nevada with multiple potential sources of NO3. Combined use of these isotopes may be a useful tool in identifying NO3 sources because NO3 and B co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The principal cause of elevated NO3 concentrations in residential parts of the study area is wastewater and not natural NO3 or fertilizers. This is indicated by some samples with elevated NO3 concentrations plotting along δ 15NNO3 and NO3 mixing lines between natural NO3 from the study area and theoretical septic-system effluent. This conclusion is supported by the presence of caffeine in one sample and the absence of samples with elevated NO3 concentrations that fall along mixing lines between natural NO3 and theoretical percolate below fertilized lawns. Nitrogen isotopes alone could not be used to determine NO3 sources in several wells because denitrification blurred the original isotopic signatures. The range of δ 11B values in native ground water in the study area (-8.2%o to +21.2%o) is large. The samples with the low δ 11B values have a geochemical signature characteristic of hydrothermal systems. Physical and chemical data suggest B is not being strongly fractionated by adsorption onto clays. δ 11B values from local STP effluent (-2.7%o) and wash water from a domestic washing machine (-5.7%o) were used to plot mixing lines between wastewater and native ground water. In general, wells with elevated NO3 concentrations fell along mixing lines between wastewater and background water on plots of δ 11B against 1/B and Cl/B. Combined use of δ 15N and δ 11B in the study area was generally successful in

  1. Study of excited states of the nucleus 12C in the range of overlapping resonances using the proton scattering on 11B and the nuclear reaction 11B(p,α0)8Be in the energy range Ep = 4.5 ... 7.5 MeV

    Using a partial wave analysis the angular distributions measured for the reactions 11B (p,p') 11B* and 11B (p,a) 8Be in the energy range from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV the resonance states of 12C were determined including level widths, spin, parity, and isopin. (HSI)

  2. Lack of an Association between CYP11B2 C-344T Gene Polymorphism and Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of 7,710 Subjects

    Pi, Yan; Zhang, Li-li; Chang, Kai; Guo, Lu; Liu, Yun; Li, Bing-Hu; Cao, Xiao-Jie; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Chang-yue GAO; Li, Jing-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) C-344T gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke remains controversial and ambiguous. To better explain the association between CYP11B2 polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods Based on comprehensive searches of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and CBM databases, we identified and abstracted outcome data from all articles to evaluate the association between CYP11B2 polymorphism and ischemic...

  3. The rs1143679 (R77H) lupus associated variant of ITGAM (CD11b) impairs complement receptor 3 mediated functions in human monocytes

    Rhodes, B.; Furnrohr, B. G.; Roberts, A.L.; Tzircotis, G.; Schett, G; Spector, T. D.; Vyse, T J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The rs1143679 variant of ITGAM, encoding the R77H variant of CD11b (part of complement receptor 3; CR3), is among the strongest genetic susceptibility effects in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors aimed to demonstrate R77H function in ex-vivo human cells. Methods Monocytes/monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers homozygous for either wild type (WT) or 77H CD11b were studied. The genotype-specific expression of CD11b, and CD11b activation using confor...

  4. Investigation of the crystal structure and magnetic properties of Nd3-xGdxCO11B4 borides

    Selcuk Kervan; Nazmiye Kervan; Ayse (O)zdemir; Hüseyin S(o)zeri

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of pseudo-ternary intermetallic Nd3-xGdxCo11B4 (x=0, 1, 2, 3)borides prepared by standard arc-melting were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), magnetization and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the hexagonal Ce3Co11B4-type structure with P6/mmm space group for each composition. The substitution of Gd for Nd led to a decrease of the unit-cell parameters a and the unit-cell volume V, while the unit-cell parameter c increased linearly.Magnetic measurements indicated that all samples were ordered magnetically below the Curie temperature. The Curie temperatures increased as Nd was substituted by Gd. The saturation magnetization at 4 K decreased upon the Gd substitution up to x=1, and then increased

  5. Analysis of the Sustainment Organization and Process for the Marine Corps RQ-11B Raven Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS)

    Van Bourgondien, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The purpose of this study is to outline and analyze the acquisition and sustainment process for the current U.S. Marine Corps RQ-11B Raven Digital Data Link small unmanned aerial system program. The current sustainment of the Marine Corps Raven evolved from the support employed for its predecessor analog variant in 2008, which was originally supported by Marine organic assets below depot-level maintenance requir...

  6. In silico structure-function analysis of pathological variation in the HSD11B2 gene sequence

    Manning, Jonathan R.; Bailey, Matthew A; Soares, Dinesh C.; Dunbar, Donald R.; Mullins, John J.

    2010-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) responsible for inactivating cortisol and preventing its binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Nonfunctional mutations in HSD11B2, the gene encoding 11βHSD2, cause the hypertensive syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). Like other such Mendelian disorders, AME is rare but has nevertheless helped to illuminate principles fundamental to the regulation of blood pressure. Furth...

  7. In silico structure-function analysis of pathological variation in the HSD11B2 gene sequence.

    Manning, Jonathan R; Bailey, Matthew A; Soares, Dinesh C; Dunbar, Donald R; Mullins, John J

    2010-08-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) responsible for inactivating cortisol and preventing its binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Nonfunctional mutations in HSD11B2, the gene encoding 11betaHSD2, cause the hypertensive syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). Like other such Mendelian disorders, AME is rare but has nevertheless helped to illuminate principles fundamental to the regulation of blood pressure. Furthermore, polymorphisms in HSD11B2 have been associated with salt sensitivity, a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. It is therefore highly likely that sequence variation in HSD11B2, having subtle functional ramifications, will affect blood pressure in the wider population. In this study, a three-dimensional homology model of 11betaHSD2 was created and used to hypothesize the functional consequences in terms of protein structure of published mutations in HSD11B2. This approach underscored the strong genotype-phenotype correlation of AME: severe forms of the disease, associated with little in vivo enzyme activity, arise from mutations occurring in invariant alignment positions. These were predicted to exert gross structural changes in the protein. In contrast, those mutations causing a mild clinical phenotype were in less conserved regions of the protein that were predicted to be relatively more tolerant to substitution. Finally, a number of pathogenic mutations are shown to be associated with regions predicted to participate in dimer formation, and in protein stabilization, which may therefore suggest molecular mechanisms of disease. PMID:20571110

  8. Ultraviolet Light B-Mediated Inhibition of Skin Catalase Activity Promotes Gr-1+CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Expansion

    Sullivan, Nicholas J.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Burns, Erin M.; Schick, Jonathan S.; Riggenbach, Judith A.; Mace, Thomas A.; Bill, Matthew A.; Gregory S. Young; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher in men compared to women, but the causes of this sex discrepancy remain largely unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure induces cutaneous inflammation and neutralizes cutaneous antioxidants. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are heterogeneous bone marrow-derived cells that promote inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Reduced activity of catalase, an antioxidant present within skin, has been associated with skin carcinogenesis. We utilized the outbred, imm...

  9. Electronic structure and point defect concentrations of C11b MoSi2 by first-principles calculations

    Highlights: • The point defects of C11b MoSi2 were studied systematically. • MoSi2 is semimetallic with strong directional covalent bonds. • Some rules of the point defect concentrations were revealed. • Vacancy is a main type of point defect in MoSi2. - Abstract: The electronic structure and point defect concentrations of C11b MoSi2 were studied systematically by the first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Mo vacancy-induced charge density shows strong directional covalent bonds caused by hybridization of Mo-4d and Si-3p orbitals, which indicates that MoSi2 has low fracture toughness at room temperature. Combining with Wagner–Schottky model, these point defect concentrations of C11b MoSi2 at 2173, 1673, 1223, 773 K as function of composition were also investigated. It is found that the point defect concentrations change drastically for off-stoichiometric compounds. The main structural defects are preferably Mo vacancies or Si anti-structure atoms on the Mo sublattices in Si-rich alloy, and Mo anti-site in Mo-rich alloy, respectively. According to the calculated effective formation enthalpies of point defects, the effective formation enthalpies from big to small in sequence are Mo anti-site, Si anti-site and vacancy (Mo and Si). This result suggests that the vacancy, especially for Si vacancy, is a main type of point defect in C11b MoSi2 system

  10. Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

  11. 11B, 13C-NMR study of the complex formation of phenylboronate with catechol and L-dopa

    In the solution of phenylboronic acid and either catechol or L-dopa at various pH, the equilibrium between phenylboronate anion and catechol or L-dopa to form the anionic complex has been demonstrated by the existence of 11B-NMR signals for the complex and either phenylboronate anion or phenylboronic acid. By the pH dependence of the 11B-NMR chemical shift of phenylboronate-phenylboronic acid solution, the ionization constant of phenylboronic acid (pKa) has been estimated as 8.90. By the 11B-NMR spectra at pH below 7, the complex formation constant, log K, has been obtained as 4.5 for catechol, and as 4.6 for L-dopa. The 13C-NMR spectra have also demonstrated the complex formations, but in the pH 8 and 9 solution of phenylboronic acid and L-dopa, the 13C-NMR signal of carbonyl carbon of L-dopa disappeared. (author)

  12. Wnt11b is involved in cilia-mediated symmetry breakage during Xenopus left-right development.

    Peter Walentek

    Full Text Available Breakage of bilateral symmetry in amphibian embryos depends on the development of a ciliated epithelium at the gastrocoel roof during early neurulation. Motile cilia at the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP give rise to leftward flow of extracellular fluids. Flow is required for asymmetric gene expression and organ morphogenesis. Wnt signaling has previously been involved in two steps, Wnt/ß-catenin mediated induction of Foxj1, a regulator of motile cilia, and Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP dependent cilia polarization to the posterior pole of cells. We have studied Wnt11b in the context of laterality determination, as this ligand was reported to activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt11b was found to be expressed in the so-called superficial mesoderm (SM, from which the GRP derives. Surprisingly, Foxj1 was only marginally affected in loss-of-function experiments, indicating that another ligand acts in this early step of laterality specification. Wnt11b was required, however, for polarization of GRP cilia and GRP morphogenesis, in line with the known function of Wnt/PCP in cilia-driven leftward flow. In addition Xnr1 and Coco expression in the lateral-most GRP cells, which sense flow and generate the first asymmetric signal, was attenuated in morphants, involving Wnt signaling in yet another process related to symmetry breakage in Xenopus.

  13. Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D-QSAR, Homology Modeling and Docking Studies on CYP11B1 Inhibitors

    Rui Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes inhibitor steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 can decrease the production of cortisol. Therefore, these inhibitors have an effect in the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome. A pharmacophore model generated by Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment for Hypermolecular Alignment of Datasets (GALAHAD was used to align the compounds and perform comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with Q2 = 0.658, R2 = 0.959. The pharmacophore model contained six hydrophobic regions and one acceptor atom, and electropositive and bulky substituents would be tolerated at the A and B sites, respectively. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR study based on the alignment with the atom root mean square (RMS was applied using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA with Q2 = 0.666, R2 = 0.978, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA with Q2 = 0.721, R2 = 0.972. These results proved that all the models have good predictability of the bioactivities of inhibitors. Furthermore, the QSAR models indicated that a hydrogen bond acceptor substituent would be disfavored at the A and B groups, while hydrophobic groups would be favored at the B site. The three-dimensional (3D model of the CYP11B1 was generated based on the crystal structure of the CYP11B2 (PDB code 4DVQ. In order to probe the ligand-binding modes, Surflex-dock was employed to dock CYP11B1 inhibitory compounds into the active site of the receptor. The docking result showed that the imidazolidine ring of CYP11B1 inhibitors form H bonds with the amino group of residue Arg155 and Arg519, which suggested that an electronegative substituent at these positions could enhance the activities of compounds. All the models generated by GALAHAD QSAR and Docking methods provide guidance about how to design novel and potential drugs for Cushing’s syndrome treatment.

  14. DMPD: CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 8485905 CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificitie...) (.html) (.csml) Show CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificitie...d NK cell membrane receptor with multipleligand specificities and functions. Authors Ross GD, Vetvicka V. Pu

  15. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    The purpose is to assess the 11B(p, α) 8Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the 11B(p, α) 8Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With 11B(p, α) 8Be* analysis, 11B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 μm, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 11B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with 11B(p, α) 8Be* analysis. When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the 11B(p, α) 8Be* reaction is well suited for assessing the microdistribution of 11B. Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  16. Performance Comparison of IEEE 802.11e EDCA and 802.11b DCF Under Non-Saturation Condition using Network Simulator

    G. Prakash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, throughput and delay performance of IEEE 802.11b and 802.11e is presented under non-saturation conditions. In order to improve the performance of IEEE 802.11b, the IEEE 802.11e has been proposed to improve the Quality of Services (QoS for multimedia application. The standard 802.11b CSMA/CA contention mechanism does not support QoS but the standard 802.11e provides QoS by adjustment of MAC parameters. The comparison of 802.11b DCF and 802.11e EDCA mechanism by using Network Simulator (NS-2 with different parameters such as throughput, delay, CWmin and AIFS differentiation are simulated. The EDCA stations have more competitive advantages than 802.11b under all the above parameters. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves the performance of the EDCA stations.

  17. Cross-talk between cAMP and MAPK pathways in HSD11B2 induction by hCG in placental trophoblasts.

    Qun Shu

    Full Text Available Overexposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids in gestation is detrimental to fetal development. The passage of maternal glucocorticoids into the fetal circulation is governed by 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2 in the placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG plays an important role in maintaining placental HSD11B2 expression via activation of the cAMP pathway. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the activation of the cAMP pathway by hCG and subsequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We found that treatment of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts with either hCG or dibutyl cAMP (dbcAMP could promote the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 not only reduced the basal HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels but also attenuated HSD11B2 levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. By contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 increased the basal mRNA and protein levels of HSD11B2 and had no effect on HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in both basal and hCG/cAMP-induced expression of HSD11B2, and ERK1/2 may play a role opposite to p38 MAPK at least in the basal expression of HSD11B2 in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts and that there is complicated cross-talk between hCG/cAMP and MAPK cascades in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression.

  18. CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G- cells show distinct function in mice with chronic inflammation or tumor burden

    Källberg Eva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100A9 has been shown to be important for the function of so called Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC. Cells with a similar phenotype are also involved in pro-inflammatory processes, and we therefore wanted to investigate the gene expression and function of these cells in animals that were either subjected to chronic inflammation, or inoculated with tumors. Methods CD11b+Ly6C++ and Ly6G+ cells were isolated from spleen, tumor tissue or inflammatory granulomas. S100A9, Arginase 1 and iNOS gene expression in the various CD11b+ cell populations was analyzed using Q-PCR. The suppressive activity of the CD11b+ cell populations from different donors was studied in co-culture experiments. Results S100A9 was shown to be expressed mainly in splenic CD11b+Ly6C+G+ cells both at the RNA and protein level. Arginase I and iNOS expression could be detected in both CD11b+Ly6C+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6C+G-/C++G- derived from tumors or a site of chronic inflammation, but was very low in the same cell populations isolated from the spleen. CD11b+ cells isolated from mice with peritoneal chronic inflammation were able to stimulate T lymphocytes, while CD11b+ cells from mice with peritoneal tumors suppressed T cell growth. Conclusion An identical CD11b+Ly6C++G- cell population appears to have the ability to adopt immune stimulatory or immune suppressive functions dependent on the presence of a local inflammatory or tumor microenvironment. Thus, there is a functional plasticity in the CD11b+Ly6C++G- cell population that cannot be distinguished with the current molecular markers.

  19. Theoretical Analysis of Neutron Double-Differential Cross Section of n+11B at 14.2 MeV

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2003-01-01

    A new reaction model for light nuclei is proposed to analyze the measured data, especially for the doubledifferential cross sections. In this paper the calculation with this model is employed to analyze measurements of the total outgoing neutron double-differential cross sections for n+11B reactions at En = 14.2 MeV. The representation of the double-differential cross sections of the second emitted particles is given in detail. The calculation results indicate that the recoil effect in light nuclear reaction is essentially important. The reaction channels are discussed in detail.

  20. Experimental Investigation on VoIP Performance and the Resource Utilization in 802.11b WLANs

    Narbutt, Miroslaw; Davis, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In a shared medium network like the 802.11b WLAN, predicting the quality of VoIP calls from the resource usage of the wireless medium is highly desirable. Analyzing the bandwidth usage at the L2/MAC layer may be especially useful for potential QoS provisioning and call admission schemes. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between resource utilization in WLANS and the quality of VoIP calls transmitted over wireless medium. Specifically we evaluate how the amount of free ba...

  1. Preparation, structure and some properties of boron crystals with different content of 10B and 11B isotopes

    The present work deals with the analysis of data on preparation and investigation of boron with different content of 10B and 11B isotopes. It was established that influence of isotopes on the structure and physical-mechanical properties of boron varies with regard to the type and percentage of an applied isotope. Microhardness of the specimens was measured at room temperatures. Peculiarities of changes observed in the values of microhardness, thermal expansion coefficients and characteristics of the relaxation processes are discussed from the point of view of probable changes in inter-atomic forces created due to substitution of natural boron atoms with their isotopes

  2. Investigation on the production of evaporation residues in 11B + natY reaction: 97Ru is a notable product

    This study indicates that the 11B induced reaction on natural Y is also an efficient route for the production of nca neutron deficient 97Ru. Although cross-sectional data are obtained just at two energies and not sufficient to derive significant conclusion on the reaction mechanism, but the measured cross-sectional data are in agreement with Houser-Feshbach model estimation. The data also shed light on the compound nuclear reaction as a major contributor. We look forward to study the reaction in the energy range ∼30-70 MeV in near future

  3. Impact of HSD11B1 polymorphisms on BMI and components of the metabolic syndrome in patients receiving psychotropic treatments

    Quteineh, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with psychiatric disorders and psychotropic treatments represents a major health issue. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes tissue regeneration of active cortisol from cortisone. Elevated enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD1 may lead to the development of MetS. Methods We investigated the association between seven HSD11B1 gene (encoding 11β-HSD1) polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in a psychiatric sample treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (n=478). The polymorphisms that survived Bonferroni correction were analyzed in two independent psychiatric samples (n R1 =168, n R2 =188) and in several large population-based samples (n 1 =5338; n 2 =123 865; n 3 >100 000). Results HSD11B1 rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers were found to be associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure compared with the reference genotype (P corrected <0.05). These associations were exclusively detected in women (n=257) with more than 3.1 kg/m 2, 7.5 cm, and 4.2 mmHg lower BMI, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, in rs846910-A, rs375319-A, and rs4844488-G allele carriers compared with noncarriers (P corrected <0.05). Conversely, carriers of the rs846906-T allele had significantly higher waist circumference and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol exclusively in men (P corrected =0.028). The rs846906-T allele was also associated with a higher risk of MetS at 3 months of follow-up (odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-7.17, P corrected =0.014). No association was observed between HSD11B1 polymorphisms and BMI and MetS components in the population-based samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that HSD11B1 polymorphisms may contribute toward the development of MetS in psychiatric patients treated with potential weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, but do not

  4. Folate Receptor β Regulates Integrin CD11b/CD18 Adhesion of a Macrophage Subset to Collagen.

    Machacek, Christian; Supper, Verena; Leksa, Vladimir; Mitulovic, Goran; Spittler, Andreas; Drbal, Karel; Suchanek, Miloslav; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes

    2016-09-15

    Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is necessary for essential cellular functions such as DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is supplied to the cell via several transporters and receptors, including folate receptor (FR) β, a GPI-anchored protein belonging to the folate receptor family. As FRβ shows a restricted expression to cells of myeloid origin and only a subset of activated macrophages and placental cells have been shown to express functional FRβ, it represents a promising target for future therapeutic strategies. In this study, we performed affinity purification and mass spectrometric analysis of the protein microenvironment of FRβ in the plasma membrane of human FRβ(+) macrophages and FRβ-transduced monocytic THP-1 cells. In this manner, we identified a novel role of FRβ: that is, we report functional interactions of FRβ with receptors mediating cellular adhesion, in particular the CD11b/CD18 β2 integrin heterodimer complement receptor type 3/Mac-1. This interaction results in impeded adhesion of FRβ(+) human primary macrophages and THP-1 cells to collagen in comparison with their FRβ(-) counterparts. We further show that FRβ is only expressed by human macrophages when differentiated with M-CSF. These findings thus identify FRβ as a novel CD11b/CD18 regulator for trafficking and homing of a subset of macrophages on collagen. PMID:27534550

  5. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the 11B(p,α0)8Be nuclear reaction

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the 11B(p,α0)8Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the 11B(p,α0)8Be nuclear reaction at 170° scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  6. Novel ZEB2-BCL11B Fusion Gene Identified by RNA-Sequencing in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(2;14(q22;q32.

    Synne Torkildsen

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing of a case of acute myeloid leukemia with the bone marrow karyotype 46,XY,t(2;14(q22;q32[5]/47,XY,idem,+?4,del(6(q13q21[cp6]/46,XY[4] showed that the t(2;14 generated a ZEB2-BCL11B chimera in which exon 2 of ZEB2 (nucleotide 595 in the sequence with accession number NM_014795.3 was fused to exon 2 of BCL11B (nucleotide 554 in the sequence with accession number NM_022898.2. RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the above-mentioned fusion transcript. All functional domains of BCL11B are retained in the chimeric protein. Abnormal expression of BCL11B coding regions subjected to control by the ZEB2 promoter seems to be the leukemogenic mechanism behind the translocation.

  7. KELT-11b: A Highly Inflated Sub-Saturn Exoplanet Transiting the V=8 Subgiant HD 93396

    Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Collins, Karen A.; Johnson, John Asher; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Beatty, Thomas; Stassun, Keivan G.; Isaacson, Howard; Colón, Knicole D.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Tan, T G

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting exoplanet, KELT-11b, orbiting the bright ($V=8.0$) subgiant HD 93396. A global analysis of the system shows that the host star is an evolved subgiant star with $T_{\\rm eff} = 5370\\pm51$ K, $M_{*} = 1.438_{-0.052}^{+0.061} M_{\\odot}$, $R_{*} = 2.72_{-0.17}^{+0.21} R_{\\odot}$, log $g_*= 3.727_{-0.046}^{+0.040}$, and [Fe/H]$ = 0.180\\pm0.075$. The planet is a low-mass gas giant in a $P = 4.736529\\pm0.00006$ day orbit, with $M_{P} = 0.195\\pm0.018 M_J$, $R_{P...

  8. 11B-NMR study of low-temperature phase transition in CuB2O4

    The material CuB2O4 presents a variety of phases in the B-T phase diagram, caused by the frustration and the Dzialoshinskii-Moriya interaction. In order to investigate the nature of the phase transitions, a 11B-NMR experiment on CuB2O4 has been performed under an applied magnetic field along the a-axis down to 0.4 K. A new incommensurate-incommensurate phase transition has been found at 0.8 K under a field of 0.5 T. Further, another phase transition has been observed at 4.7 K under a field of about 2 T, which is consistent with the transition reported by the neutron diffraction experiment

  9. Investigations on the diagnostic of intense pulsed proton beams with the 11B(p,α)2α-reaction

    To obtain more accurate and reliable ion beam focus and divergence analysis in high power ion diode experiments we have developed shadow box and pinhole camera techniques using the 11B(p,α)2α reaction to reduce the particle flux on the nuclear track detector. The α-yield is maximized and the Rutherford scattered 'background' is eliminated by a set of attenuation and filter foils tailored to the proton beam energy. It has been demonstrated in a number of Van de Graaff measurements with monoenergetic protons that thus a complete elimination of Rutherford scattered primary particles is possible. Automated microscopic counting of the particle tracks on the detectors is used for quantitative evaluation. The capabilities of this diagnostic are demonstrated for measurements of the current density distribution in the focus of the pinch reflex diode. (orig.)

  10. CD11b expression as a marker to distinguish between recently activated effector CD8(+) T cells and memory cells

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard;

    2001-01-01

    subset. Polyclonal virus-specific effector and memory CD8(+) T cells from lymphocytic choriomeningitis- and vesicular stomatitis virus-infected mice were visualized through staining for intracellular IFN-gamma or binding of MHC-peptide tetramers, and Mac-1 expression was evaluated. Naive T cells and most......CD8(+) T cells in different activation states have been difficult to identify phenotypically. In this study we have investigated whether Mac-1 (CD11b) expression can be used as a criterion to distinguish between recently activated effector cells and memory cells belonging to the CD8(+) T cell...... virus-specific memory CD8(+) T cells express little or no Mac-1 independent of the virus model employed. In contrast, the majority of CD8(+) T cells present during acute infection express a significant level of Mac-1 and, similarly, Mac-1 expression is found on secondary effectors generated in response...

  11. Extended optical model analyses for the 11B+209Bi system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies

    In the framework of an extended optical model approach in which the polarization potential is decomposed into direct-reaction (DR) and fusion parts, simultaneous χ2 analyses of elastic scattering and fusion cross-section data for the 11B+209Bi system at near-Coulomb-barrier energies are performed. We show that the DR and fusion potentials extracted from χ2 analyses separately satisfy the dispersion relation and that the threshold anomaly exhibits in both DR and fusion parts. We find that the analyses using only elastic scattering and fusion data can produce reliable predictions of cross-sections even though the direct reaction cross-section data are not complete. By using the extracted DR potential, we investigate the effects of the projectile breakup on fusion cross-sections. (orig.)

  12. Increased Expression of CD200 on Circulating CD11b+ Monocytes in Patients with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads K; Hviid, Thomas V F; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2013-01-01

    neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 44 age-matched controls without AMD. METHODS: The participants were aged 60 years or older, had no history of immune dysfunction or cancer, and were not receiving immune-modulating therapy. All participants were subjected to a structured interview, and...... detailed retinal imaging was performed: fundus autofluorescence imaging, digital color fundoscopy, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography were performed in patients with suspected neovascular AMD. Visual acuity was measured in both eyes. Fresh venous......: Patients with neovascular AMD had a higher percentage of CD11b+CD200+ monocytes and CD200+ monocytes compared with controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the intergroup differences observed were independent of age. Moreover, an age-related increment in CD200 expression on monocytes was...

  13. 99mTc-labelled anti-CD11b SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of plaque destabilization tightly linked to inflammation.

    Liu, Guobing; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Tan, Hui; Zhao, Yanzhao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to predict the risk of rupture for a specific atherosclerotic plaque timely, a thrombotic trigger tightly linked to inflammation. CD11b, is a biomarker abundant on inflammatory cells, not restricted to monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we fabricated a probe named as (99m)Tc-MAG3-anti-CD11b for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The ApoE-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were selected to establish animal models, with C57BL/6J mice used for control. A higher CD11b(+)-cell recruitment with higher CD11b expression and more serious whole-body inflammatory status were identified in ApoE(-/-) mice. The probe showed high in vitro affinity and specificity to the Raw-264.7 macrophages, as well as inflammatory cells infiltrated in atherosclerotic plaques, either in ex vivo fluorescent imaging or in in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging, which were confirmed by ex vivo planar gamma imaging, Oil-Red-O staining and CD11b-immunohistochemistry staining. A significant positive relationship was identified between the radioactivity intensity on SPECT/CT images and the CD11b expression in plaques. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-CD11b antibody mediated noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging of inflammatory leukocytes in murine atherosclerotic plaques. This imaging strategy can identify inflammation-rich plaques at risk for rupture and evaluate the effectiveness of inflammation-targeted therapies in atheroma. PMID:26877097

  14. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  15. Fission Fragment Folding Angle Distributions for the Systems 11B+237Np, 12C+236U, and 16O+232Th in the Energy Range 1.1B<2.1

    Fission fragment folding angle distributions have been measured for the systems 11B+237Np, 12C+236U, and 16O+232Th, populating the same compound nucleus (248Cf) and at similar excitation energies (Ex 45-100 MeV). The full momentum transfer and incomplete momentum transfer fusion-fission components have been separated over the bombarding energy range 1.1c.m/VB 2.1. It is observed that the largest value of the ratio of the transfer fission to the total fission is around 10 to 15% at the highest energy investigated. Over the energy range mentioned above, it is found that the transfer fission corrected fission fragment anisotropies are not significantly different from the values already obtained from the analysis of the total fission data reported earlier and hence the conclusions reached from the inclusive data remain unchanged. The anisotropy data were analyzed for the two cases corresponding to fission events with sizable fission barriers (Bf>T) and with smaller fission barriers (Bf>T). It was interesting to find that the effective moment of inertia (Jeff) values deduced from the latter component were consistent with the values from Sierk prescription used in the former case

  16. A putative 6-transmembrane nitrate transporter OsNRT1.1b plays a key role in rice under low nitrogen

    Xiaorong Fan; Huimin Feng; Yawen Tan; Yanling Xu; Qisong Miao; Guohua Xu

    2016-01-01

    OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3?) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accu-mulated 15N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25 mM NO3? confirmed 15N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared to the WT in 1.25 mM NH4NO3 and 2.5 mM NO3–or NH4þ treatments, but not in 0.125 mM NH4NO3. However, OsNRT1.1b overexpression lines increased total N accumulation in al N treatments, including 0.125 mM NH4NO3, suggesting that under low N condition, OsNRT1.1b would accumulate more N in plants and improve rice growth, but also that OsNRT1.1a had no such function in rice plants.

  17. A putative 6-transmembrane nitrate transporter OsNRT1.1b plays a key role in rice under low nitrogen.

    Fan, Xiaorong; Feng, Huimin; Tan, Yawen; Xu, Yanling; Miao, Qisong; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3 (-) ) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accumulated (15) N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25 mM NO3 (-) confirmed (15) N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared to the WT in 1.25 mM NH4 NO3 and 2.5 mM NO3 (-) or NH4 (+) treatments, but not in 0.125 mM NH4 NO3 . However, OsNRT1.1b overexpression lines increased total N accumulation in all N treatments, including 0.125 mM NH4 NO3 , suggesting that under low N condition, OsNRT1.1b would accumulate more N in plants and improve rice growth, but also that OsNRT1.1a had no such function in rice plants. PMID:26220694

  18. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+Gr1+ cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b+Gr1+ cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b+Gr1+ cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b+Gr1+ chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. PMID:27478837

  19. Study of the effect of atorvastatin on the interaction between ICAM-1 and CD11b by live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between the cell adhesion molecule CD11b and its ligand ICAM-1 plays an important role in inflammatory responses in the disease of atherosclerosis. Atorvastatin is a commonly prescribed statin drug which has been considered as one of the most potent therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis due to its lipid-lowering effect. Recently, there is a growing body of evidence that atorvastatin has anti-inflammatory effect. We have applied the advanced method of live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on adhesion force between ICAM-1 and CD11b. Our result showed that single-molecule binding force of ICAM-1 and CD11b detected by AFM in the living cells was about 40 pN, and atorvastatin did not affect this force by blocking ICAM-1 or CD11b. This was different from the ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody, which could directly reduce the binding force of ICAM-1 and CD11b. Flow cytometry results revealed that atorvastatin pretreatment decreased the ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α activated HUVECs, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory effect. The study provides a new approach to study anti-inflammatory mechanism for clinic drugs.

  20. Measurement of the 12C(e,e′p)11B two-body breakup reaction at high missing momentum

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e′p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200–400 MeV c−1, in a kinematics regime with xB>1 and Q2=2.0 (GeV c−1)2. A comparison of the results with previous lower missing momentum data and with theoretical models are presented. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV c−1. The theoretical calculations are from two very different approaches, one mean field and the other short range correlated; yet for this system the two approaches show striking agreement with the data and each other up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV c−1. For larger momenta, the calculations diverge which is likely due to the factorization approximation used in the short range approach. (paper)

  1. Performance Analysis of Multicast Video Streaming in IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Testbed Environment

    Kostuch, Aleksander; Gierłowski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Jozef

    The aim of the work is to analyse capabilities and limitations of different IEEE 802.11 technologies (IEEE 802.11 b/g/n), utilized for both multicast and unicast video streaming transmissions directed to mobile devices. Our preliminary research showed that results obtained with currently popular simulation tools can be drastically different than these possible in real-world environment, so, in order to correctly evaluate performance of video streaming, a simple wireless test-bed infrastructure has been created. The results show a strong dependence of the quality of video streaming on the chosen transmission technology. At the same time there are significant differences in perception quality between multicast (1:n) and unicast (1:1) streams, and also between devices offered by different manufacturers. The overall results seem to demonstrate, that, while multicast support quality in different products is still varied and often requires additional configuration, it is possible to select a WiFi access point model and determine the best system parameters to ensure a good video transfer conditions in terms of acceptable QoP/E (Quality of Perception/Exellence).

  2. Hint of 150 MHz radio emission from the Neptune-mass extrasolar transiting planet HAT-P-11b

    Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Gopal-Krishna,; Zarka, P

    2013-01-01

    Since the radio-frequency emission from planets is expected to be strongly influenced by their interaction with the magnetic field and corona of the host star, the physics of this process can be effectively constrained by making sensitive measurements of the planetary radio emission. Up to now, however, numerous searches for radio emission from extrasolar planets at radio wavelengths have only yielded negative results. Here we report deep radio observations of the nearby Neptune-mass extrasolar transiting planet HAT-P-11b at 150 MHz, using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). On July 16, 2009, we detected a 3-sigma emission whose light curve is consistent with an eclipse when the planet passed behind the star. This emission is at a position 14 arcsec from the transiting exoplanet's coordinates; thus, with a synthetized beam of FWHM~16 arcsec, the position uncertainty of this weak radio signal encompasses the location of HAT-P-11. We estimate a 5% false positive probability that the observed radio light...

  3. Four workshops in alternate concepts in controlled fusion. Part C. CTR using the p-11B reaction

    Clean and efficient energy production by fusion is possible in principle by using any one of a variety of so called advanced fusion fuels. Among these choices, the nuclear reaction of protium (p) and boron-11 (B11) offers the benefits of a large reaction cross section, no neutron production, and no tritium production or consumption. Compared with deuterium-tritium (D--T) fusion systems, these characteristics offer significant engineering and operational potential. Use of the p-B11 fuel cycle requires high temperature and very effective plasma confinement. Based on new confinement results in magnetic multipole configurations, our recalculation of the p-B11 energy balance for selected operating conditions shows the possibility for significant energy production. Radiation losses are reduced to an acceptable level by two means: one, operation at an ion temperature of 300 keV and an electron temperature of 150 keV, and two, reducing the magnetic field in the bulk of the plasma to a small value by use of the multipole configuration. The multipole configuration is available to the neutron-free p-B11 cycle but not the D-T cycle because it employs internal cryogenic conductors. Energy conversion is proposed by means of radiative transfer to the walls of the reactor. Critical issues include uncertainties in the p-B11 cross section, the achievable level of field free region and the confinement scaling to reaction temperatures, effects of helium ash, and the level of neutron production by parasitic reactions

  4. KELT-11b: A Highly Inflated Sub-Saturn Exoplanet Transiting the V=8 Subgiant HD 93396

    Pepper, Joshua; Collins, Karen A; Johnson, John Asher; Fulton, Benjamin J; Howard, Andrew W; Beatty, Thomas; Stassun, Keivan G; Isaacson, Howard; Colón, Knicole d; Lund, Michael B; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Siverd, Robert J; Gaudi, B Scott; Tan, T G; Curtis, Ivan; Stockdale, Christopher; Mawet, Dimitri; Bottom, Michael; James, David; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Cargile, Phillip; Bieryla, Allyson; Penev, Kaloyan; Latham, David W; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Kielkopf, John; Eastman, Jason D; Oberst, Thomas E; Jensen, Eric L N; Nelson, Peter; Sliski, David H; Wittenmyer, Robert A; McCrady, Nate; Wright, Jason T; Relles, Howard M

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting exoplanet, KELT-11b, orbiting the bright ($V=8.0$) subgiant HD 93396. A global analysis of the system shows that the host star is an evolved subgiant star with $T_{\\rm eff} = 5370\\pm51$ K, $M_{*} = 1.438_{-0.052}^{+0.061} M_{\\odot}$, $R_{*} = 2.72_{-0.17}^{+0.21} R_{\\odot}$, log $g_*= 3.727_{-0.046}^{+0.040}$, and [Fe/H]$ = 0.180\\pm0.075$. The planet is a low-mass gas giant in a $P = 4.736529\\pm0.00006$ day orbit, with $M_{P} = 0.195\\pm0.018 M_J$, $R_{P}= 1.37_{-0.12}^{+0.15} R_J$, $\\rho_{P} = 0.093_{-0.024}^{+0.028}$ g cm$^{-3}$, surface gravity log ${g_{P}} = 2.407_{-0.086}^{+0.080}$, and equilibrium temperature $T_{eq} = 1712_{-46}^{+51}$ K. KELT-11 is the brightest known transiting exoplanet host in the southern hemisphere by more than a magnitude, and is the 6th brightest transit host to date. The planet is one of the most inflated planets known, with an exceptionally large atmospheric scale height (2763 km), and an associated size of the expected atmospheric trans...

  5. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be

    Ynsa, M. D.; Ramos, M. A.; Skukan, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  6. Invariance par renversement du temps : nouvelles mesures de polarisation dans la réaction 9Be(3He, p)11B

    Pouliot, J.; Bricault, P.; Dufour, J. G.; Potvin, L.; Rioux, C.; R. Roy; Slobodrian, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    La polarisation des protons dans la réaction 9Be(3He, p)11B à 14 MeV d'énergie incidente a été mesurée à l'aide d'un nouveau montage expérimental constitué de polarimètres à analyseurs de carbone ou de silicium, en trois versions différentes. Les résultats confirment les mesures précédentes qui montraient des différences significatives entre la polarisation dans la réaction 9Be(3He, p)11B et le pouvoir d'analyse dans la réaction inverse 11B(p, 3He)9Be, impliquant, par l'égalité non vérifiée d...

  7. Deep-sea coral 13C: A tool to reconstruct the difference between seawater pH and?11B-derived calcifying fluid pH

    Martin, Patrick; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Gavin L Foster; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; White, Helen K.; Hennige, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    The boron isotopic composition (?11B) of coral skeleton is a proxy for seawater pH. However, ?11B-based pH estimates must account for the pH difference between seawater and the coral calcifying fluid, ?pH. We report that skeletal ?11B and ?pH are related to the skeletal carbon isotopic composition (?13C) in four genera of deep-sea corals collected across a natural pH range of 7.89–8.09, with ?pH related to ?13C by ?pH?=?0.029?×??13C?+?0.929, r2?=?0.717. Seawater pH can be reconstructed by det...

  8. Ultraviolet-irradiation induced and spontaneous mutation of Rhizobium trifolii 11B in relation to water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharide production ability

    Rhizobium trifolii 11B was u.v. irradiated and nine u.v. mutants have been isolated. Among the mutants, only one, R. trifolii 21M11B, produced more (752 mg/100 ml) water-soluble polysaccharide than the parent (704 mg/100 ml). The composition of water-soluble polysaccharide from u.v. mutants differed from that of the parent, R. trifolii 11B, and none of its u.v. mutants produced water-insoluble polysaccharide as detected by the Aniline Blue method. Storage of u.v. mutants for 2 months at 50C gave four spontaneous variants which acquired the ability to produce water-insoluble polysaccharide. The spontaneous mutants also retained their water-soluble polysaccharide producing ability. The water-soluble polysaccharide produced by these mutants was characterized as curdlan type. The chemistry of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides was also ascertained. (author)

  9. Identification of the complement iC3b binding site in the beta 2 integrin CR3 (CD11b/CD18).

    Ueda, T.; Rieu, P.; Brayer, J.; Arnaout, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    The divalent cation-dependent interaction of the beta 2 integrin CR3 (CD11b/CD18) with the major complement opsonic C3 fragment iC3b is an important component of the central role of CR3 in inflammation and immune clearance. In this investigation we have identified the iC3b binding site in CR3. A recombinant fragment representing the CR3 A-domain, a 200-amino acid region in the ectodomain of the CD11b subunit, bound to iC3b directly and in a divalent cation-dependent manner. The iC3b binding s...

  10. Decadal variability in seawater pH in the West Pacific: Evidence from coral δ11B records

    Wei, Gangjian; Wang, Zhibing; Ke, Ting; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenfeng; Chen, Xuefei; Xu, Jifeng; Zeng, Ti; Xie, Luhua

    2015-11-01

    Long-term seawater pH records are essential for evaluating the rates of ocean acidification (OA) driven by anthropogenic emissions. Widespread, natural decadal variability in seawater pH superimposes on the long-term anthropogenic variations, likely influencing the OA rates estimated from the pH records. Here, we report a record of annual seawater pH estimated using the δ11B proxy over the past 159 years reconstructed from a Porites coral collected to the east of Hainan Island in the northern South China Sea (SCS). By coupling this time series with previously reported long-term seawater pH records in the West Pacific, the decadal variability in seawater pH records and its possible driving mechanisms were investigated. The results indicate that large decadal variability in seawater pH has occurred off eastern Hainan Island over the past 159 years, in agreement with previous records. The Qiongdong upwelling system, which controls nutrient supplies, regulates surface water productivity, and is driven by the East Asian summer monsoon, is the primary control of this decadal variability, while terrestrial inputs appear not influence significantly. Meanwhile the impacts of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) systems on seawater pH off eastern Hainan Island is likely limited. In contrast, the PDO is the main factor to influence the decadal seawater pH variability offshore the East Australia, while the mechanism controlling the decadal seawater pH variability in Guam is not clear yet. Meanwhile, The rate of decrease in seawater pH estimated from coral records are significantly different in different regions and over different time spans, which may reflect a combination of natural decadal variability in seawater pH and long-term variations. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms driving natural variability in seawater pH is important for improving estimates of ocean acidification rates driven by anthropogenic emissions.

  11. CO2 over the past 5 million years: Continuous simulation and new δ11B-based proxy data

    Stap, Lennert B.; de Boer, Bas; Ziegler, Martin; Bintanja, Richard; Lourens, Lucas J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2016-04-01

    During the past five million yrs, benthic δ18O records indicate a large range of climates, from warmer than today during the Pliocene Warm Period to considerably colder during glacials. Antarctic ice cores have revealed Pleistocene glacial-interglacial CO2 variability of 60-100 ppm, while sea level fluctuations of typically 125 m are documented by proxy data. However, in the pre-ice core period, CO2 and sea level proxy data are scarce and there is disagreement between different proxies and different records of the same proxy. This hampers comprehensive understanding of the long-term relations between CO2, sea level and climate. Here, we drive a coupled climate-ice sheet model over the past five million years, inversely forced by a stacked benthic δ18O record. We obtain continuous simulations of benthic δ18O, sea level and CO2 that are mutually consistent. Our model shows CO2 concentrations of 300 to 470 ppm during the Early Pliocene. Furthermore, we simulate strong CO2 variability during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. These features are broadly supported by existing and new δ11B-based proxy CO2 data, but less by alkenone-based records. The simulated concentrations and variations therein are larger than expected from global mean temperature changes. Our findings thus suggest a smaller Earth System Sensitivity than previously thought. This is explained by a more restricted role of land ice variability in the Pliocene. The largest uncertainty in our simulation arises from the mass balance formulation of East Antarctica, which governs the variability in sea level, but only modestly affects the modeled CO2 concentrations.

  12. Response of Acropora digitifera to ocean acidification: constraints from δ11B, Sr, Mg, and Ba compositions of aragonitic skeletons cultured under variable seawater pH

    Tanaka, Kentaro; Holcomb, Michael; Takahashi, Asami; Kurihara, Haruko; Asami, Ryuji; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Sowa, Kohki; Rankenburg, Kai; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    The response of Acropora digitifera to ocean acidification is determined using geochemical proxy measurements of the skeletal composition of A. digitifera cultured under a range of pH levels. We show that the chemical composition (δ11B, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca) of the coral skeletons can provide quantitative constraints on the effects of seawater pH on the pH in the calcification fluid (pHCF) and the mechanisms controlling the incorporation of trace elements into coral aragonite. With the decline of seawater pH, the skeletal δ11B value decreased, while the Sr/Ca ratio showed an increasing trend. The relationship between Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca versus seawater pH was not significant. Inter-colony variation of δ11B was insignificant, although inter-colony variation was observed for Ba/Ca. The decreasing trend of pHCF calculated from δ11B was from ~8.5, 8.4, and 8.3 for seawater pH of ~8.1, 7.8, and 7.4, respectively. Model calculations based on Sr/Ca and pHCF suggest that upregulation of pHCF occurs via exchange of H+ with Ca2+ with kinetic effects (Rayleigh fractionation), reducing Sr/Ca relative to inorganic deposition of aragonite from seawater. We show that it is possible to constrain the overall carbonate chemistry of the calcifying fluid with estimates of the carbonate saturation of the calcifying fluid ( Ω CF) being derived from skeletal Sr/Ca and pHCF (from δ11B). These estimates suggest that the aragonite saturation state of the calcifying fluid Ω CF is elevated by a factor of 5-10 relative to ambient seawater under all treatment conditions.

  13. Light and temperature effect on δ11B and B/Ca ratios of the zooxanthellate coral Acropora sp.: results from culturing experiments

    P. Louvat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The boron isotopic composition (δ11B of marine carbonates (e.g. corals has been established as a reliable proxy for paleo-pH, with the strong correlation between δ11B of marine calcifiers and seawater pH being now well documented. However, further investigations are needed in order to better quantify other environmental parameters potentially impacting boron isotopic composition and boron concentration into coral aragonite. To achieve this goal the tropical scleractinian coral Acropora sp. was cultured under 3 different temperature (22, 25 and 28 °C and two light conditions (200 and 400 μmol photon m−2 s−1. The δ11B indicates an internal increase in pH from ambient seawater under both light conditions. Changes in light intensities from 200 to 400 μmol photon m−2 s−1 could bias pH reconstructions by about 0.05 units. For both light conditions, a significant impact of temperature on δ11B can be observed between 22 and 25 °C corresponding to enhancements of about 0.02 pH-units, while no further δ11B increase can be observed between 25 and 28 °C. This non-linear temperature effect complicates the determination of a correcting factor. B/Ca ratios decrease with increasing light, confirming the decrease in pH at the site of calcification under enhanced light intensities. When all the other parameters are maintained constant, boron concentrations in Acropora sp. increase with increasing temperature and increasing carbonate ions concentrations. These observations contradict previous studies where B/Ca in corals was found to vary inversely with temperature suggesting that the controlling factors driving boron concentrations have not yet been adequately identified and might be influenced by other seawater variables and species specific responses.

  14. Intra-shell boron isotope ratios in the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera: Implications for δ 11B vital effects and paleo-pH reconstructions

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.

    2010-03-01

    The boron isotope composition of marine carbonates is considered to be a seawater pH proxy. Nevertheless, the use of δ 11B has some limitations such as the knowledge of the fractionation factor ( α4-3) between boric acid and the borate ion and the amplitude of "vital effects" on this proxy that are not well constrained. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) we have examined the internal variability of the boron isotope ratio in the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera. Specimens were cultured at constant temperature (24 ± 0.1 °C) in seawater with pH ranging between 7.90 and 8.45. Intra-shell boron isotopes showed large variability with an upper limit value of ≈30‰. Our results suggest that the fractionation factor α4-3 of 0.97352 ( Klochko et al., 2006) is in better agreement with our experiments and with direct pH measurements in seawater vacuoles associated with the biomineralization process in these foraminifera. Despite the large variability of the skeletal pH values in each cultured specimen, it is possible to link the lowest calculated pH values to the experimental culture pH values while the upper pH limit is slightly below 9. This variability can be interpreted as follows: foraminifera variably increase the pH at the biomineralization site to about 9. This increase above ambient seawater pH leads to a range in δ 11B11B) for each seawater pH. This Δ 11B is linearly correlated with the culture seawater pH with a slope of -13.1 per pH unit, and is independent of the fractionation factor α4-3, or the δ 11B sw through time. It may also be independent of the p KB (the dissociation constant of boric acid) value. Therefore, Δ 11B in foraminifera can potentially reconstruct paleo-pH of seawater.

  15. Pseudoislet formation enhances gene expression, insulin secretion and cytoprotective mechanisms of clonal human insulin-secreting 1.1B4 cells.

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effects of cell communication on human beta cell function and resistance to cytotoxicity using the novel human insulin-secreting cell line 1.1B4 configured as monolayers and pseudoislets. Incubation with the incretin gut hormones GLP-1 and GIP caused dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from 1.1B4 cell monolayers and pseudoislets. The secretory responses were 1.5-2.7-fold greater than monolayers. Cell viability (MTT), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining) were investigated following 2-h exposure of 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H2O2, streptozotocin, glucose, palmitate or cocktails of proinflammatory cytokines. All agents tested decreased viability and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in both 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets. However, pseudoislets exhibited significantly greater resistance to cytotoxicity (1.5-2.7-fold increases in LD50) and lower levels of DNA damage (1.3-3.4-fold differences in percentage tail DNA and olive tail moment) and apoptosis (1.3-1.5-fold difference) compared to monolayers. Measurement of gene expression by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR showed that genes involved with insulin secretion (INS, PDX1, PCSK1, PCSK2, GLP1R and GIPR), cell-cell communication (GJD2, GJA1 and CDH1) and antioxidant defence (SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and CAT) were significantly upregulated in pseudoislets compared to monolayers, whilst the expression of proapoptotic genes (NOS2, MAPK8, MAPK10 and NFKB1) showed no significant differences. In summary, these data indicate cell-communication associated with three-dimensional islet architecture is important both for effective insulin secretion and for protection of human beta cells against cytotoxicity. PMID:25559846

  16. Gu-4 suppresses affinity and avidity modulation of CD11b and improves the outcome of mice with endotoxemia and sepsis.

    TingTing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic leukocyte activation and disseminated leukocyte adhesion will impair the microcirculation and cause severe decrements in tissue perfusion and organ function in the process of severe sepsis. Gu-4, a lactosyl derivative, could selectively target CD11b to exert therapeutic effect in a rat model of severe burn shock. Here, we addressed whether Gu-4 could render protective effects on septic animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On a murine model of endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, we found that the median effective dose (ED50 of Gu-4 was 0.929 mg/kg. In vivo treatment of Gu-4 after LPS challenge prominently attenuated LPS-induced lung injury and decreased lactic acid level in lung tissue. Using the ED50 of Gu-4, we also demonstrated that Gu-4 treatment significantly improved the survival rate of animals underwent sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. By adhesion and transwell migration assays, we found that Gu-4 treatment inhibited the adhesion and transendothelial migration of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. By flow cytometry and microscopy, we demonstrated that Gu-4 treatment inhibited the exposure of active I-domain and the cluster formation of CD11b on the LPS-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Western blot analyses further revealed that Gu-4 treatment markedly inhibited the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gu-4 improves the survival of mice underwent endotoxemia and sepsis, our in vitro investigations indicate that the possible underlying mechanism might involve the modulations of the affinity and avidity of CD11b on the leukocyte. Our findings shed light on the potential use of Gu-4, an interacting compound to CD11b, in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.

  17. Optical Potential Parameters for Halo Nucleus System 6He+12C from Transfer Reaction11B (7Li, 6He) 12C

    WU Zhen-Dong; XU Xin-Xing; BAI Chun-Lin; YU Ning; JIA Fei; LIN Cheng-Jian; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; LIU Zu-Hua; YANG Feng; AN Guang-Peng; ZHANG Chun-Lei; ZHANG Gao-Long; JIA Hui-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The optical potential parameters for the halo nucleus system 6He+12 C are extracted from fits to the measured angular distributions of 11B(7 Li, 6He)12C reaction at energies of 18.3 and 28.3 MeV with distorted-wave Born approximation analysis. The characters of the obtained optical potential parameters are basically consistent with the results extracted from the fits to the elastic-scattering angular distributions in the literature.

  18. Separation of carrier-free holmium and dysprosium produced in 70 MeV 11B5+ irradiated europium target by liquid-liquid extraction with HDEHP

    Heavy ion activation of natural europium oxide with 70 MeV 11B5+ results in the formation of carrier-free erbium isotopes, 157-160Er, and their corresponding decay products, 158-160Ho and 157Dy in the matrix. Carrier-free holmium and dysprosium isotopes have been separated from the bulk target matrix europium by employing di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as a liquid cation exchanger. (author)

  19. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

    Mohammad A. Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260∗, resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260∗ was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database. In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment.

  20. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy.

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Shati, Ayed A; Zou, Minjing; Alsuheel, Ali M; Alhayani, Abdullah A; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Gilban, Hessa M; Meyer, Brain F; Shi, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260 (∗) ), resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260 (∗) ) was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database). In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26265915

  1. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A.; Ayed A. Shati; Minjing Zou; Alsuheel, Ali M.; Alhayani, Abdullah A.; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M.; Gilban, Hessa M.; Meyer, Brain F.; Yufei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargem...

  2. Study for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 4He from 11B at energies 29, 40 and 50.5 MeV

    Full text: The angular distributions for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 4He projectiles from 11B have been measured in the isochronous cyclotron U-105 M located in INP NNC RK. The extracted α-particles were accelerated to energies 29, 40 and 50.5 MeV and then directed at the 11B target of thickness ∼ 0.2 mg/cm2. The experimental results were analyzed within the framework of both conventional optical model using different complex potentials and the double folding potential obtained with different density-dependent NN interactions which give the corresponding values of the nuclear incompressibility in the Hartree-Fock calculation of nuclear matter. The theoretical calculations were performed using the coupled channel method implemented in code FRESCO. The obtained deformation parameters for the 5/2- (E*=2.12 MeV) and 7/2- (E*=6.74 MeV) states of 11B nucleus are in a good agreement with the experimental value. The theoretical calculations for increasing the differential cross-section at backward angles in the elastic scattering channel could be enhanced by taking into account the effect of 7Li transfer. (author)

  3. Expression by Streptomyces lividans of the Rat α Integrin CD11b A-Domain as a Secreted and Soluble Recombinant Protein

    Dorra Zouari Ayadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We already reported the use of a long synthetic signal peptide (LSSP to secrete the Streptomyces sp. TO1 amylase by Streptomyces lividans strain. We herein report the expression and secretion of the rat CD11b A-domain using the same LSSP and S. lividans as host strain. We have used the Escherichia coli/Streptomyces shuttle vector pIJ699 for the cloning of the A-domain DNA sequence downstream of LSSP and under the control of the constitutive ermE-up promoter of Streptomyces erythraeus. Using this construct and S. lividans as a host strain, we achieved the expression of 8 mg/L of soluble secreted recombinant form of the A-domain of the rat leukocyte β2 integrin CD11/CD18 alpha M subunit (CD11b. This secreted recombinant CD11b A-domain reacted with a function blocking antibody showing that this protein is properly folded and probably functional. These data support the capability of Streptomyces to produce heterologous recombinant proteins as soluble secreted form using the “LSSP” synthetic signal peptide.

  4. Effects of spins and resonance parities of 12C on the mechanism of emission of three alpha particles in the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction

    This research thesis reports the study of the mechanism of emission of alpha particles in the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction with respect to the effects of spins and parities of the various resonances met between 150 keV and 4 MeV. From an experimental point of view, the reaction has been studied by two methods: the detection of alpha particles by a semiconductor-based counter located at a given angle with respect to the beam direction and study of continuous spectra of alpha particles with respect to projectile energies, and recording, for a given resonance, of alpha-alpha coincidences by using the multi-parametric technique with two semiconductor-based sensors with a varying relative angular position. After a discussion of the main characteristics of resonance and of the mechanism of emission of alpha particles, the author first reports the theoretical study of a reaction producing three particles in the final state, and then reports the theoretical calculation of direct alpha spectrum shapes in the case of the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction (statistic hypothesis, hypothesis of interaction with two particles in the final state). The next part reports the experimental study of the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction

  5. Light and temperature effects on δ11B and B / Ca ratios of the zooxanthellate coral Acropora sp.: results from culturing experiments

    P. Louvat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The boron isotopic composition (δ11B of marine carbonates (e.g. corals is increasingly utilised as a proxy for paleo-pH, with the strong correlation between δ11B of marine calcifiers and seawater pH now well documented. However, the potential roles of other environmental parameters that may also influence both the boron isotopic composition and boron concentration into coral aragonite are poorly known. To overcome this, the tropical scleractinian coral Acropora sp. was cultured under 3 different temperatures (22, 25 and 28 °C and two light conditions (200 and 400 μmol photon m−2 s−1. The δ11B indicates an increase in internal pH that is dependent on the light conditions. Changes in light intensities from 200 to 400 μmol photon m−2 s−1 seem to indicate an apparent decrease in pH at the site of calcification, contrary to what is expected in most models of light-enhanced calcification. Thus, variations in light conditions chosen to mimic average annual variations of the natural environments where Acropora sp. colonies can be found could bias pH reconstructions by about 0.05 units. For both light conditions, a significant impact of temperature on δ11B can be observed between 22 and 25 °C, corresponding to an increase of about 0.02 pH-units, while no further δ11B increase can be observed from 25 to 28 °C. This non-linear temperature effect complicates the determination of a correction factor. B / Ca ratios decrease with increasing light, consistent with the decrease in pH at the site of calcification under enhanced light intensities. When all the other parameters are constant, boron concentrations in Acropora sp. increase with increasing temperatures and increasing carbonate ion concentrations. These observations contradict previous studies where B / Ca in corals was found to vary inversely with temperature, suggesting that the controlling factors driving boron concentrations have not yet been adequately identified and might be

  6. Phenotypic, metabolic, and molecular genetic characterization of six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by novel mutations in the CYP11B1 gene.

    Nguyen, Huy-Hoang; Eiden-Plach, Antje; Hannemann, Frank; Malunowicz, Ewa M; Hartmann, Michaela F; Wudy, Stefan A; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of steroidogenesis. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) due to mutations in the CYP11B1 gene is the second most common form of CAH. In this study, 6 patients suffering from CAH were diagnosed with 11β-OHD using urinary GC-MS steroid metabolomics analysis. The molecular basis of the disorder was investigated by molecular genetic analysis of the CYP11B1 gene, functional characterization of splicing and missense mutations, and analysis of the missense mutations in a computer model of CYP11B1. All patients presented with abnormal clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. Their urinary steroid metabolomes were characterized by excessive excretion rates of metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol as well as metabolites of 11-deoxycorticosterone, and allowed definite diagnosis. Patient 1 carries compound heterozygous mutations consisting of a novel nonsense mutation p.Q102X (c.304C>T) in exon 2 and the known missense mutation p.T318R (c.953C>G) in exon 5. Two siblings (patient 2 and 3) were compound heterozygous carriers of a known splicing mutation c.1200+1G>A in intron 7 and a known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. Minigene experiments demonstrated that the c.1200+1G>A mutation caused abnormal pre-mRNA splicing (intron retention). Two further siblings (patient 4 and 5) were compound heterozygous carriers of a novel missense mutation p.R332G (c.994C>G) in exon 6 and the known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. A CYP11B1 activity study in COS-1 cells showed that only 11% of the enzyme activity remained in the variant p.R332G. Patient 6 carried a so far not described homozygous deletion g.2470_5320del of 2850 bp corresponding to a loss of the CYP11B1 exons 3-8. The breakpoints of the deletion are embedded into two typical 6 base pair repeats (GCTTCT) upstream and downstream of the gene. Experiments analyzing the influence of mutations on splicing and on enzyme

  7. Study of the higher excitation states of /sup 12/B via the /sup 11/B(n,n)/sup 11/B reaction. [Differential and total cross sections, 4. 0 to 8. 0 MeV, Monte Carlo method, R matrix, coupling, J, pi

    White, R.M.

    1977-06-01

    Differential cross sections for neutrons elastically scattered from an isotopically enriched sample of /sup 11/B were measured for nine laboratory angles from 20 to 160/sup 0/ at 17.5/sup 0/ increments for sixty incident neutron energies from 4.0 to 8.0 MeV. The data were corrected for incident neutron beam attenuation in the sample, air scattering of neutrons, and finite geometry and multiple scattering effects using a Monte Carlo code which included the energy-dependence of differential cross sections of multiple events necessary for light nuclei. Comparison of the present data is made with data previously measured in this energy region and all known differential neutron data on /sup 11/B were integrated and compared with recent high resolution total cross section measurements to gain information on the neutron inelastic scattering cross section. All the neutron elastic differential cross section measurements on /sup 11/B have been analyzed with a new R-matrix analysis program utilizing j-j coupling with most previous assignments of J/sup ..pi../ in the compound nucleus /sup 12/B confirmed, and new J/sup ..pi../ assignments made in the region of the present measurements. Finally, based on the results of the present measurements and analysis, recommendations for further neutron cross section measurements on /sup 11/B are made.

  8. Association Analysis between the Polymorphisms of HSD11B1 and H6PD and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Chinese Population.

    Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of HSD11B1 (rs846908 and H6PD (rs6688832 and rs17368528 are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in Chinese population.A case-control study was implemented to investigate the association between HSD11B1 and H6PD polymorphisms and PCOS. Patients with PCOS (n = 335 and controls (n = 354 were recruited in this study. Genetic variants of HSD11B1 (rs846908 and H6PD (rs6688832 and rs17368528 were analyzed by TaqMan method.We found a significantly 0.79-fold lower risk of G allele of rs6688832 in control group compared with the patients with PCOS (adjusted OR, 0.79; 95%CI = 0.63-0.99; P = 0.040. Additionally, significant difference in the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH was observed between AA and AG genotype in rs6688832. The rs6688832 AG genotype was associated with lower level of FSH (P = 0.039 and higher risk of hyperandrogenism (P = 0.016 in patients with PCOS. When all subjects were divided into different subgroups according to age and body mass index (BMI, we found that the frequency of G allele of rs6688832 was significantly higher in controls than that in PCOS patients in the subgroup of BMI > 23 (adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50-0.98; P = 0.037.Our findings showed a statistical association between H6PD rs6688832 and PCOS risk in Chinese population. The G allele of rs6688832 in H6PD might exert potential genetic protective role against the development of PCOS, especially in overweight women. PCOS patients with AG genotype of rs6688832 might confer risk to the phenotype of hyperandrogenemia of PCOS.

  9. Anisotropic Fermi Couplings due to Large Unquenched Orbital Angular Momentum: Q-band 1H, 14N and 11B ENDOR of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II)

    Myers, William K.; Scholes, Charles P.; Tierney, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We report Q-band ENDOR of 1H, 14N, and 11B at the g|| extreme of the EPR spectrum of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II), Co(Tp)2 and two structural analogs. This trigonally symmetric, high-spin (hs) S = 3/2 Co(II) complex shows large unquenched ground–state orbital angular momentum, which leads to highly anisotropic electronic g-values [g|| = 8.48, g⊥ = 1.02]. The large g-anisotropy is shown to result in large dipolar couplings near g|| and uniquely anisotropic 14N Fermi couplings, which arise from spin transferred to the nitrogen 2s orbital (2.2 %) via anti-bonding interactions with singly occupied metal dx2−y2 and dz2 orbitals. Large, well-resolved 1H and 11B dipolar couplings were also observed. Taken in concert with our previous X-band ENDOR measurements at g⊥ (Myers, et al, Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 6701–6710), the present data allow a detailed analysis of the dipolar hyperfine tensors of two of the four symmetry distinct protons in the parent molecule. In the substituted analogs, changes in hyperfine coupling due to altered metal-proton distances give further evidence of an anisotropic Fermi contact interaction. For the pyrazolyl 3H proton, the data indicate a 0.2 MHz anisotropic contact interaction and ~ 4 % transfer of spin away from Co(II). Dipolar coupling also dominates for the axial boron atoms, consistent with their distance from the Co(II) ion, and resolved 11B quadrupolar coupling showed ~ 30 % electronic inequivalence between the B-H and B-C sp3 bonds. This is the first comprehensive ENDOR study of any hs Co(II) species and lays the foundation for future development. PMID:19591466

  10. γ-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice augments development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates.

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Soveg, Frank; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2016-04-15

    γ-Tocopherol increases responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether γ-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether γ-tocopherol augments development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with γ-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to allergen challenge. The γ-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice increased the numbers of eosinophils twofold in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also about a twofold increase in pup lung CD11b(+) subsets of CD11c(+) dendritic cells and in numbers of these dendritic cells expressing the transcription factor IRF4. There was no change in several CD11b(-) dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased the number of fetal liver CD11b(+)CD11c(+) dendritic cells twofold in utero. In the pups, γ-tocopherol increased lung expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL11, amphiregulin, activin A, and IL-5. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and increased development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with γ-tocopherol in prenatal vitamins. PMID:26801566

  11. Cancer-induced Expansion and Activation of CD11b+Gr-1+ Cells Predispose Mice to Adenoviral-triggered Anaphylactoid-type Reactions

    Pande, Kalyan; Ueda, Roanna; Machemer, Todd; Sathe, Manjiri; Tsai,, J.F.; Brin, Elena; Delano, Matthew J; van Rooijen, Nico; McClanahan, Terrill K.; Talmadge, James E.; Moldawer, Lyle L; Phillips, Joseph H; Laface, Drake M.

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular delivery (1.5 × 109 particles and higher) of recombinant adenovirus (rAd) induces myeloid cell mediated, self-limiting hemodynamic responses in normal mice. However, we observed anaphylactoid-type reactions and exacerbated hemodynamic events following rAd injection in mice bearing malignant 4T1 mammary carcinoma. Because 4T1 tumors induce significant CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell expansion and activation, we set to determine whether this causes rAd-induced exaggerated responses. When...

  12. An Experimental Analysis of the Call Capacity of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Networks for VoIP Telephony

    Keegan, Brian, (Thesis); Davis, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from an experimental study of the call capacity of an IEEE 802.11b network when using VoIP telephony. Experiments include increasing the number of VoIP users in a wireless test-bed and increasing the level of background traffic until network saturation occurs. The experiments allow us to perform an analysis of the access point (AP) buffer dynamics. Results show that the network is capable of supporting up to 16 VoIP stations (STAs). Due to the operation of...

  13. Comparing modern measurements of the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C excitation function with previous values

    Cooper, Kevin W.; Massey, Thomas N.; Ingram, David C. [Ohio University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Edwards Accelerator Laboratory, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    A possible means of active interrogation of special nuclear materials is detection of signature emissions following induced photofission. This method requires a probe gamma-ray beam to induce the photofission. The {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction is a candidate for the source of this probe beam. The reaction is prolific and the produced 15.1 MeV gamma-ray is close to a photofission cross-section peak for {sup 235,238}U and {sup 238,239}Pu. In order to model an active interrogation system using the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction as a source probe an accurate value for its differential crosssection must be included in data libraries. Measurements of the differential cross-section for the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction have been carried out with a BGO detector and found to differ from previous measurements reported by Kavanagh (1958) and Kuan (1964). The discrepancy in the measurements may be explained by examining the detector response function used by Kavanagh and presumably Kuan to that modeled with MCNP5. A comparison of the MCNP5 and Kavanagh detector response functions normalized to the 15.1 MeV gamma-ray peak pulse height shows a factor of approximately 1.7 difference in integrated counts. Applying this correction to the differential cross-section previously reported by Kuan brings the values into agreement, within uncertainties, to the more recent measurements. The evaluation of the detector response function for the 15.1 MeV gamma-ray signal in the NaI detector reported by Kavanagh to that modeled by MCNP5 is shown. This result is applied to the comparison of recent measurements on the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction differential cross-section to those previously reported.

  14. Investigation of the neutron pick-up reactions on 10-11B nuclei at the energy of 25 MeV

    Full text: Investigation of nuclear reactions is the basic source of obtaining of the information about structure of nucleus, its properties and mechanisms of nuclear interaction. The most convenient mean of obtaining such information is investigation of direct reactions which occurs in the peripheral part of a nucleus. There are plenty of works on studying the direct reactions on the boron isotopes, but it should be said that they were mainly carried out at the energies 8 /18 MeV. We have obtained the experimental values of differential cross sections of the reaction (d,t) on the 10B and 11B isotopes at the energy Ed=25 MeV within the angular region 7o - 97o with step 2o on the isochronous cyclotron U-150-M of Institute of Nuclear Physics NNC of Kazakhstan. The statistics in the peaks corresponding to population of the ground states of nuclei 9B and 10B in the reactions 10B(d,t)9B and 11B(d,t)10B is 200-300 events. The (δE-E) - technique was used in the experiments for selection of the reaction products. The analysis of these processes has been carried out using the modified Distorted Wave Born Approximation which includes formalism of the distorted wave method dispersion approaches of the Direct Reaction Theory [1, 2]. For calculation of the distorted waves the optical potentials of interaction in the systems d+10B and d+11B have been used which were obtained from the analysis of deuterons elastic scattering by nuclei 10B and 11B in the energy interval 12 / 28 MeV within the framework of the optical model. The asymptotical normalization coefficients of the overlapping functions as well as the spectroscopic factors for the configurations (n+9B) and (n+10B) have been obtained. Further these data are planned to use for extrapolation of the cross sections of astrophysical radiative neutron capture to the area of very low energies. The Work is executed within the framework of the Project STCU 3081 at financial support of the State Department of USA. (author)

  15. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 Axes Contribute to the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells in Hypoxic Microenvironment of HNSCC

    Guiquan Zhu; Yaling Tang; Ning Geng; Min Zheng; Jian Jiang; Ling Li; Kaide Li; Zhengge Lei; Wei Chen; Yunlong Fan; Xiangrui Ma; Longjiang Li; Xiaoyi Wang; Xinhua Liang

    2014-01-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head an...

  16. Determination of the bond-angle distribution in vitreous B2O3 by 11B double rotation (DOR) NMR spectroscopy

    The B-O-B bond angle distributions for both ring and non-ring boron sites in vitreous B2O3 have been determined by 11B double rotation (DOR) NMR and multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR. The [B3O6] boroxol rings are observed to have a mean internal B-O-B angle of 120.0±0.7 deg. with a small standard deviation, σR=3.2±0.4 deg., indicating that the rings are near-perfect planar, hexagonal structures. The rings are linked predominantly by non-ring [BO3] units, which share oxygens with the boroxol ring, with a mean Bring-O-Bnon-ring angle of 135.1±0.6 deg. and σNR=6.7±0.4 deg. In addition, the fraction of boron atoms, f, which reside in the boroxol rings has been measured for this sample as f=0.73±0.01. - Graphical abstract: Connectivities and B-O-B bond angle distributions of ring and non-ring boron atoms in v-B2O3 have been determined by 11B double rotation (DOR) NMR, multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR and spin-diffusion DOR. Near-perfect planar, hexagonal [B3O6] boroxol rings are shown to be present. Display Omitted

  17. A high-energy X-ray diffraction, 31P and 11B solid-state NMR study of the structure of aged sodium borophosphate glasses

    The structure of aged melt-quenched sodium borophosphate glasses of composition (P2O5)40(B2O3)x(Na2O)60-x (with x in the range 10-40) has been studied by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), 31P and 11B magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. Similar to the fresh samples, both P-O-P and P-O-B linkages are found to be present in these glasses. All three techniques show that the cross-linking between borate and phosphate units increases with boron oxide content. Distinctively upon aging, the glass is found to hydrolyze causing the network to degrade. At the same time, crystalline phases are now also observed. XRD and DTA show that the samples have a higher tendency towards crystallization with increasing boron oxide content upon exposed to moisture. 31P and 11B MAS NMR results are in agreement with these findings. TGA data show that samples with higher boron oxide content take up more moisture upon aging, suggesting that crystallization may be associated with glass hydrolysis. HEXRD results also suggest that sodium ions are preferentially associated with borate units with increasing boron oxide content

  18. KELT-10b and KELT-11b: Two Sub-Jupiter Mass Planets well-Suited for Atmospheric Characterization in the Southern Hemisphere

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a photometric survey in both the northern and southern hemispheres for transiting planets around bright stars (8 inflated transiting sub-Jupiter mass planet (0.68 MJ) around a V=10.7 early G-star. It has the 3rd deepest transit (1.4%) in the southern hemisphere for a star V inflated transiting Saturn mass planet (0.22 MJ) orbiting one of the brightest planet-hosting stars in the southern hemisphere. Interestingly, KELT-11b's host star is a clear sub-giant star (log(g) ~ 3.7). I will discuss their impact for atmospheric characterization. For example, the highly inflated nature of the KELT-11b planet provides the ability to study a sub-Jupiter atmosphere at very low planetary gravity, while the sub-giant nature of its host star allows us to study the effects of post main sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter.

  19. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F. [Institute of Research Tecnology, Cidade Universitaria, SP, 05508-091 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  20. Measurements of the {sup 11}B(d,nγ{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C differential cross-section on thick and thin targets

    Cooper, Kevin W., E-mail: kc391106@ohio.edu; Massey, Thomas N.; Carter, D.E.; Ingram, David C.

    2013-06-15

    The differential cross-section for the 15.1 MeV gamma ray produced by the {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C reaction in a thick natural boron target has been measured for incident deuteron energies ranging from reaction threshold to 5 MeV. Measurements for a thin natural boron target have been carried out over a similar incident deuteron energy range. These results are compared to previous measurements made by Kavanagh (1958) and Kuan (1964). Measurements of the combined thick target yield for the 6.129, 6.917, and 7.116 MeV gamma rays from the {sup 19}F(p,αγ){sup 16}O reaction have been carried out on a stopping thickness sulfur hexafluoride gas cell for effective incident proton energies ranging from 1 to 4 MeV as a consistency check on the procedure used for normalization of the detector response function. The results for the {sup 11}B(d,nγ{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C yield a significantly lower cross-section than that previously reported, while the measurements of the {sup 19}F(p,αγ) reaction are consistent with previous measurements made by Fessler (2000) and Micklich (2003)

  1. Two WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX genes, PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b, are involved in adventitious root formation of poplar.

    Xu, Meng; Xie, Wenfan; Huang, Minren

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX (WOX) transcription factors play important roles in key developmental processes, but knowledge regarding functional characterization of WOX genes in poplar remains limited. To reveal genes and signaling pathways associated with adventitious rooting in poplar, here we isolated and characterized two WOX genes through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), sequence aligning, expression profiling, protoplast transfection and poplar transformation. Detailed information about the sequence similarity, structural features, evolutionary relationships, expression patterns and subcellular localization of the two genes were revealed. Overexpression of either PeWOX11a or PeWOX11b not only increased the number of adventitious roots on the cuttings but also induced ectopic roots in the aerial parts of transgenic poplars. Meanwhile, their overexpression in transgenic poplars affected axillary bud and leaf development. These results suggest that PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b were involved in multiple developmental processes of poplar, especially in adventitious root formation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation of poplar. PMID:25998748

  2. Structural nature of 7Li and 11B sites in the nonlinear optical material LiB3O5 using static NMR and MAS NMR

    The structural nature of the nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5 is analyzed using single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. The 3-coordinated trigonal [B(1) and B(2)] and 4-coordinated tetragonal [B(3)] sites are distinguished using the spectrum and the spin-lattice relaxation time in rotating frame T1ρ, which was obtained from the 11B MAS NMR. Moreover, the T1 and T1ρ values for 7Li and 11B are compared, and the activation energies were obtained. The T1ρ values of the boron nuclei in LiB3O5 show no significant changes. These results may be closely related to the largest second-order nonlinear optical coefficient. - Highlights: • The structural nature of the nonlinear optical properties of LiB3O5. • Single-crystal NMR and MAS NMR. • The 3-coordnated trigonal and 4-coordinated tetragonal. • The spin-lattice relaxation time in rotating frame T1ρ

  3. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells.

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  4. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  5. Fc block treatment, dead cells exclusion, and cell aggregates discrimination concur to prevent phenotypical artifacts in the analysis of subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) myelomonocytic cells.

    Kuonen, Francois; Touvrey, Cedric; Laurent, Julien; Ruegg, Curzio

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that cancer cells can recruit CD11b(+) myeloid cells to promote tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Increasing interest has emerged on the identification of subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) myeloid cells using flow cytometry techniques. In the literature, however, discrepancies exist on the phenotype of these cells (Coffelt et al., Am J Pathol 2010;176:1564-1576). Since flow cytometry analysis requires particular precautions for accurate sample preparation and trustable data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, some discrepancies might be due to technical reasons rather than biological grounds. We used the syngenic orthotopic 4T1 mammary tumor model in immunocompetent BALB/c mice to analyze and compare the phenotype of CD11b(+) myeloid cells isolated from peripheral blood and from tumors, using six-color flow cytometry. We report here that the nonspecific antibody binding through Fc receptors, the presence of dead cells and cell doublets in tumor-derived samples concur to generate artifacts in the phenotype of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) subpopulations. We show that the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) subpopulations analyzed without particular precautions was greatly reduced upon Fc block treatment, dead cells, and cell doublets exclusion. Phenotyping of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) cells was particularly sensitive to these parameters compared to circulating CD11b(+) cells. Taken together, our results identify Fc block treatment, dead cells, and cell doublets exclusion as simple but crucial steps for the proper analysis of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) cell populations. PMID:20824631

  6. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    Monaghan, P; Shneor, R; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi degli-Atti, C; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2014-08-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  7. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    Monaghan, P; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Atti, C Ciofi degli; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2013-01-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  8. Mass asymmetry dependence of fusion time-scales in 11B+237Np and 12C, 16O, 19F+232Th reactions in a dynamical trajectory model

    Dynamical trajectory calculations were carried out for the reactions of 11B+237Np and 12C, 16O and 19F+232Th, having mass asymmetries on either side of the Businaro-Gallone critical mass asymmetry αBG, in order to examine the mass asymmetry dependence of fusion reactions in these systems. The compound nucleus formation times were calculated as a function of the partial wave of the reaction for all the systems. This study brings out that for systems with αBG, the formation times are significantly larger than for α>αBG, which is caused by the dynamical effects involved in the large scale shape changes taking place in the fusion process as well as due to the interplay between the thermal and the collective motion during the collision process. The calculated time scales are comparable to the experimental values derived from the pre-fission neutron multiplicity measurements. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Calculation of fusion time scales in 11B + 237Np, 12C + 232Th and 16O + 232Th reactions in a dynamical trajectory model

    There are several theoretical models which treat the fusion process and energy dissipation in heavy ion collision in terms of a fluctuating force represented by the coupling between macroscopic and intrinsic degrees of freedom. One such dynamical model has been developed by Feldmeier (1987), where the properties of the dissipative force are determined from a microscopic picture of particle exchange between two nuclei. The macroscopic shapes of the nuclear system are represented by axially symmetric configuration with sharp surfaces. We have used the above model to calculate the fusion time scales for the systems 11B + 237Np, 12C +232Th and 16O + 232Th at 77, 86 and 104 MeV bombarding energies to examine the effect of mass asymmetry in fusion dynamics. (author). 2 figs

  10. Tourmaline geochemistry and δ11B variations as a guide to fluid-rock interaction in the Habachtal emerald deposit, Tauern Window, Austria

    Trumbull, Robert B.; Krienitz, Marc-Sebastian; Grundmann, Günter; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Tourmalines from the Habachtal emerald deposit in the Eastern Alps formed together with emerald in a ductile shear zone during blackwall metasomatism between pelitic country rocks and a serpentinite body. Electron microprobe and secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analyses provide a record of chemical and B-isotope variations in tourmalines which represent an idealized profile from metapelites into the blackwall sequence of biotite and chlorite schists. Tourmaline is intermediate schorl-dravite in the country rock and become increasingly dravitic in the blackwall zones, while F and Cr contents increase and Al drops. Metasomatic tourmaline from blackwall zones is typically zoned optically and chemically, with rim compositions rich in Mg, Ti, Ca and F compared with the cores. The total range in δ11B values is -13.8 to -5.1‰ and the within-sample variations are typically 3-5‰. Both of these ranges are beyond the reach of closed-system fractionation at the estimated 500-550°C conditions of formation, and at least two boron components with contrasting isotopic composition are indicated. A key observation from tourmaline core analyses is a systematic shift in δ11B from the country rock (-14 to -10‰) to the inner blackwall zones (-9 to -5‰). We suggest that two separate fluids were channeled and partially mixed in the Habachtal shear zone during blackwall alteration and tourmaline-emerald mineralization. A regional metamorphic fluid carried isotopically light boron as observed in the metapelite country rocks. The other fluid is derived from the serpentinite association and has isotopically heavier boron typical for MORB or altered oceanic crust.

  11. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  12. 老年小鼠CD11b+GR-1+髓源性抑制细胞免疫功能特点及机制研究%Study on characteristics and immune mechanisms of CD11b+GR-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells in elderly mice

    陈思文; 王翎; 苏楠; 张光波; 刘红梅; 潘旭东; 李洁

    2015-01-01

    目的 以健康青年小鼠为对照,探讨健康老年小鼠CD11b+ GR 1+髓源性抑制细胞(MDSCs)免疫功能特点及机制. 方法 随机选取健康C57BL/6青年鼠(1~2月龄)和老年鼠(>18月龄)各20只,采用免疫磁珠分选法获得足量健康青年鼠、老年鼠脾脏CD11b+ GR-1+ MDSCs,运用溴脱氧尿嘧啶核苷-酶联免疫吸附实验(BrdU Elisa)测定青年鼠、老年鼠CD11b+ GR-1+ MDSCs对T细胞增殖的影响.通过Transwcll小室共培养实验及实时荧光定量PCR法检测青年鼠、老年鼠CD11b+ GR 1+ MDSCs免疫抑制功能的差异. 结果 与青年鼠比较,老年鼠MDSCs能明显抑制T细胞增殖(t=8.67,P<0.001),而这一作用可被Transwell明显逆转(t=6.93,P<0.001);与青年鼠比较,老年鼠MDSCs的精氨酸酶-1、诱导型一氧化氮合成酶、活性氧、白介素-10、白介素-13和转化生长因子-β基因表达量明显增高(t值分别为9.04、4.86、7.04、6.92、4.51、5.46,P<0.05或P<0.01). 结论 健康老年小鼠CD11b+ GR-1+ MDSCs可通过细胞-细胞间接触抑制和分泌免疫抑制性介质两种途径显著抑制T细胞增殖.%Objective To study characteristics and immune mechanisms of CD11b+ GR-1-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (CD11b+ GR 1+ MDSCs) in elderly mice,as compared with those of healthy young mice.Methods Totally 20 healthy C57BL/6 young mice (aged 1-2 months) and 20 elderly mice (aged over 18 months) were randomly chosen and splenetic CD11b+ GR-1+ MDSCs were sorted with the MDSCs Isolation Kit.In vitro assays,the effects of young and elderly CD1 1b+ GR 1+ MDSCs on the proliferation of T cells were determined by Brdu Elisa.Transwell co-culture and real-timePCR were used to identify the mechanisms of different immune suppressive functions of CD11b+GR 1+ MDSCs sorted from young mice and elderly mice.Results Compared with young MDSCs,elderly MDSCs could evidently suppress the proliferation of T cells (t=8.67,P<0.001),and this function could be reversed by trans

  13. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-02-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC. PMID:24709424

  14. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 Axes Contribute to the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells in Hypoxic Microenvironment of HNSCC

    Guiquan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC.

  15. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  16. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression and IL-1beta concentrations induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation.

    Lan, W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Lidocaine has actions potentially of benefit during ischaemia-reperfusion. Neutrophils and endothelial cells have an important role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Isolated human neutrophil CD11b and CD18, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) ICAM-1 expression and supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in response to hypoxia-reoxygenation were studied in the presence or absence of different concentrations of lidocaine (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg mL(-1)). Adhesion molecule expression was quantified by flow cytometry and IL- 1beta concentrations by ELISA. Differences were assessed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls as appropriate. Data are presented as mean+\\/-SD. RESULTS: Exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation increased neutrophil CD11b (94.33+\\/-40.65 vs. 34.32+\\/-6.83 mean channel fluorescence (MCF), P = 0.02), CD18 (109.84+\\/-35.44 vs. 59.05+\\/-6.71 MCF, P = 0.03) and endothelial ICAM-1 (146.62+\\/-16.78 vs. 47.29+\\/-9.85 MCF, P < 0.001) expression compared to normoxia. Neutrophil CD18 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (71.07+\\/-10.14 vs. 109.84+\\/-35.44 MCF, P = 0.03). Endothelial ICAM-1 expression on exposure to hypoxia-reoxygenation was less in lidocaine (0.005 mg mL(-1)) treated cells compared to control (133.25+\\/-16.05 vs. 146.62+\\/-16.78 MCF, P = 0.03). Hypoxia-reoxygenation increased HUVEC supernatant IL-1beta concentrations compared to normoxia (3.41+\\/-0.36 vs. 2.65+\\/-0.21 pg mL(-1), P = 0.02). Endothelial supernatant IL-1beta concentrations in lidocaine-treated HUVECs were similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine at clinically relevant concentrations decreased neutrophil CD18 and endothelial ICAM-1 expression but not endothelial IL-1beta concentrations.

  17. Deep-sea coral δ13C: A tool to reconstruct the difference between seawater pH and δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH

    Martin, Patrick; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Foster, Gavin L.; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; White, Helen K.; Hennige, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of coral skeleton is a proxy for seawater pH. However, δ11B-based pH estimates must account for the pH difference between seawater and the coral calcifying fluid, ΔpH. We report that skeletal δ11B and ΔpH are related to the skeletal carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) in four genera of deep-sea corals collected across a natural pH range of 7.89-8.09, with ΔpH related to δ13C by ΔpH = 0.029 × δ13C + 0.929, r2 = 0.717. Seawater pH can be reconstructed by determining ΔpH from δ13C and subtracting it from the δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH. The uncertainty for reconstructions is ±0.12 pH units (2 standard deviations) if estimated from regression prediction intervals or between ±0.04 and ±0.06 pH units if estimated from confidence intervals. Our new approach quantifies and corrects for vital effects, offering improved accuracy relative to an existing δ11B versus seawater pH calibration with deep-sea scleractinian corals.

  18. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La11B6 and EuB6 as a function of temperature

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data and the local structure from La LIII-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) are presented for a La11B6 sample as a function of temperature (∼10 - 320K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB6 sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites obtained from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB6 indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB6 place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites

  19. Measurement and microscopic analysis of the 11B(p,p') reaction at Ep = 150 MeV. Part I: Inelastic scattering

    Cross sections and analyzing powers for the 11B(p.p') reaction have been measured using a 150 MeV polarized proton beam from the AGOR cyclotron at KVI. For the stronger inelastic transitions, also spin-flip probabilities have been extracted. A fully microscopic distorted-wave analysis of the elastic and inelastic data has been made, using density-dependent effective interactions and input from shell-model calculations in a complete (0+2) ℎω model space for normal parity transitions and in a 1 ℎω model space for non-normal parity transitions. With the help of these model calculations spin-isovector M1 strengths for the negative-parity states at excitation energies of 2.125 MeV (Jπ = 1/2-), 4.445 MeV (Jπ 5/2-), 5.020 MeV (Jπ = 3/2-) and 8.920 MeV (Jπ 5/2-) have been extracted and compared to known Gamow-Teller strengths for the analog transitions to 11C

  20. Two-dimensional analysis of three-body reactions 11B(p,αα) from 163 keV to MeV

    An experimental apparatus for two-dimensions analysis of the break-up of 12C* produced by the reaction 11B(p,αα)4He, at proton bombarding energies between 163 keV and 2 MeV, is described. It uses Si surface barrier detectors and, fast-slow coincidence techniques: the energy resolution is about 40 keV and time resolution 6 ns. A 4096 channel analyser and a small digital computer was used for information storage and data processing. The experimental set-up was tested on the C.E.N.G. 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The spectra of the 12C* decay products taken at proton bombarding energies of 163 keV and 680 keV at different angles between the two α-counters are shown. They indicate strong evidence for sequential decay of 12C* to the 8Be fundamental, first or second excited level. (authors)

  1. Estimation of covariances of 10B, 11B, 55Mn, 240Pu and 241Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 5 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are 10B, 11B, 55Mn, 240Pu, and 241Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. Covariances of nuclear model calculations were deduced by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author)

  2. Estimation of covariances of {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakajima, Yutaka; Murata, Toru

    1998-08-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 5 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. Covariances of nuclear model calculations were deduced by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author)

  3. Study on a compact and adaptable Thomson Spectrometer for laser-initiated 11B(p,α)8Be reactions and low-medium energy particle detection

    Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Bonasera, A.; Sura, J.; Andreoli, P.; Cristofari, G.; Cipriani, M.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Barbarino, M.; Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Yahia, V.

    2016-05-01

    Thomson Spectrometers are of primary importance in the discrimination of particles produced by laser-plasma interaction, according to their energy and charge-mass ratio. We describe here a detailed study on a set of Thomson Spectrometers, adaptable to different experimental situations, with the aim of being placed directly within the experimental chamber, rather than in additional extensions, in order to increase the solid angle of observation. These instruments are suitable for detection of low-medium energy particles and can be effectively employed in laser-plasma experiments of 11B(p,α)8Be fusion. They are provided with permanent magnets, have small dimensions and compact design. In these small configurations electric and magnetic fringing fields play a primary role for particle deflection, and their accurate characterization is required. It was accomplished by means of COMSOL electromagnetic solver coupled to an effective analytical model, very suitable for practical use of the spectrometers. Data from experimental measurements of the magnetic fields have been also used. We describe the application of the spectrometers to an experiment of laser-plasma interaction, coupled to Imaging Plate detectors. Data analysis for spectrum and yield of the detected radiation is discussed in detail.

  4. Illegitimate V(D)J recombination-mediated deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b are not sufficient for extensive clonal expansion and show minimal age or sex bias in frequency or junctional processing

    Champagne, Devin P., E-mail: devin.champagne@uvm.edu; Shockett, Penny E., E-mail: pshockett@selu.edu

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Examines illegitimate V(D)J deletion junctions in Notch1 and Bcl11b. • Suggests little influence of deletions alone on clonal outgrowth in wild-type mice. • No age or sex biases in frequency, clonality, or junctional processing observed. • Contrasts with previous results at TCRβ and HPRT1 loci. • Deletions in Bcl11b may be tolerated more easily than those in Notch1. - Abstract: Illegitimate V(D)J recombination at oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is implicated in formation of several T cell malignancies. Notch1 and Bcl11b, genes involved in developing T cell specification, selection, proliferation, and survival, were previously shown to contain hotspots for deletional illegitimate V(D)J recombination associated with radiation-induced thymic lymphoma. Interestingly, these deletions were also observed in wild-type animals. In this study, we conducted frequency, clonality, and junctional processing analyses of Notch1 and Bcl11b deletions during mouse development and compared results to published analyses of authentic V(D)J rearrangements at the T cell receptor beta (TCRβ) locus and illegitimate V(D)J deletions observed at the human, nonimmune HPRT1 locus not involved in T cell malignancies. We detect deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b in thymic and splenic T cell populations, consistent with cells bearing deletions in the circulating lymphocyte pool. Deletions in thymus can occur in utero, increase in frequency between fetal and postnatal stages, are detected at all ages examined between fetal and 7 months, exhibit only limited clonality (contrasting with previous results in radiation-sensitive mouse strains), and consistent with previous reports are more frequent in Bcl11b, partially explained by relatively high Recombination Signal Information Content (RIC) scores. Deletion junctions in Bcl11b exhibit greater germline nucleotide loss, while in Notch1 palindromic (P) nucleotides are more abundant, although average P nucleotide length is

  5. Illegitimate V(D)J recombination-mediated deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b are not sufficient for extensive clonal expansion and show minimal age or sex bias in frequency or junctional processing

    Highlights: • Examines illegitimate V(D)J deletion junctions in Notch1 and Bcl11b. • Suggests little influence of deletions alone on clonal outgrowth in wild-type mice. • No age or sex biases in frequency, clonality, or junctional processing observed. • Contrasts with previous results at TCRβ and HPRT1 loci. • Deletions in Bcl11b may be tolerated more easily than those in Notch1. - Abstract: Illegitimate V(D)J recombination at oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is implicated in formation of several T cell malignancies. Notch1 and Bcl11b, genes involved in developing T cell specification, selection, proliferation, and survival, were previously shown to contain hotspots for deletional illegitimate V(D)J recombination associated with radiation-induced thymic lymphoma. Interestingly, these deletions were also observed in wild-type animals. In this study, we conducted frequency, clonality, and junctional processing analyses of Notch1 and Bcl11b deletions during mouse development and compared results to published analyses of authentic V(D)J rearrangements at the T cell receptor beta (TCRβ) locus and illegitimate V(D)J deletions observed at the human, nonimmune HPRT1 locus not involved in T cell malignancies. We detect deletions in Notch1 and Bcl11b in thymic and splenic T cell populations, consistent with cells bearing deletions in the circulating lymphocyte pool. Deletions in thymus can occur in utero, increase in frequency between fetal and postnatal stages, are detected at all ages examined between fetal and 7 months, exhibit only limited clonality (contrasting with previous results in radiation-sensitive mouse strains), and consistent with previous reports are more frequent in Bcl11b, partially explained by relatively high Recombination Signal Information Content (RIC) scores. Deletion junctions in Bcl11b exhibit greater germline nucleotide loss, while in Notch1 palindromic (P) nucleotides are more abundant, although average P nucleotide length is

  6. Analysis of the {sup 11}B({sup 7}Li, {sup 7}Be){sup 11}Be reaction at 57 MeV in a microscopic approach

    Cappuzzello, F. E-mail: cappuzzello@lns.infn.it; Lenske, H.; Cunsolo, A.; Beaumel, D.; Fortier, S.; Foti, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Nociforo, C.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Winfield, J.S

    2004-07-12

    The {sup 11}B({sup 7}Li, {sup 7}Be){sup 11}Be charge exchange reaction has been studied at an incident energy of 57 MeV. Spectra were measured at forward angles, {theta}{sub cm}{<=}35 degrees. The good energy resolution ({approx}50 keV) allowed the identification of transitions both to the {sup 7}Be (3/2{sup -}, gs) and {sup 7}Be(1/2{sup -}, 429 keV) exit channels and hence the direct measurement of the ratio of the respective cross sections and angular distributions. Besides the bound ground and first excited state of {sup 11}Be several low lying excitations just above the neutron threshold are observed. A structure seen at E{sup *}=9.4 MeV with FWHM {approx}7 MeV is compatible with the spin dipole resonance (SDR). The data are analysed in a many-body approach. For the projectile transitions shell model results are used. In order to account properly for the special features of the weakly bound {sup 11}Be system the target transitions are described microscopically by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) and quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) theory. The HFB ground state densities and the QRPA transition densities, respectively, are used in folding calculations for the optical potentials and transition form factors. Spectra and {beta}-decay transitions strengths are reasonably well described. The measured cross section are well reproduced by one-step direct charge exchange distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) calculations. A dominance of unnatural parity transitions is found. This is explained in terms of the spin transfer behaviour of the nucleon-nucleon isovector interaction at low bombarding energy.

  7. CD326(lo)CD103(lo)CD11b(lo) dermal dendritic cells are activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin during contact sensitization in mice.

    Ochiai, Sotaro; Roediger, Ben; Abtin, Arby; Shklovskaya, Elena; Fazekas de St Groth, Barbara; Yamane, Hidehiro; Weninger, Wolfgang; Le Gros, Graham; Ronchese, Franca

    2014-09-01

    The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is produced by epithelia exposed to the contact sensitizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and it is critical for the induction of Th2 immune responses by DBP-FITC. TSLP is thought to act on dendritic cells (DC), but the precise DC subsets involved in the response to TSLP remain to be fully characterized. In this study we show that a subset of CD326(lo)CD103(lo)CD11b(lo) dermal DC, which we termed "triple-negative (TN) DC," is highly responsive to TSLP. In DBP-FITC-treated mice, TN DC upregulated expression of CD86 and rapidly migrated to the draining lymph node to become the most abundant skin-derived DC subset at 24 and 48 h after sensitization. None of these responses was observed in TSLPR-deficient mice. In contrast, TN DC numbers were not increased after treatment with the allergen house dust mite or the bacteria Escherichia coli and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, which increased other DC subsets. In vivo, treatment with rTSLP preferentially increased the numbers of TN DC in lymph nodes. In vitro, TN DC responded to rTSLP treatment with a higher level of STAT5 phosphorylation compared with other skin-derived DC subsets. The TN DC subset shared the morphology, phenotype, and developmental requirements of conventional DC, depending on FLT3 expression for their optimal development from bone marrow precursors, and CCR7 for migration to the draining lymph node. Thus, TN DC represent a dermal DC subset that should be considered in future studies of TSLP-dependent contact sensitization and skin immune responses. PMID:25057004

  8. 234U/238U - δ7Li - δ11B isotope systematics on aquifer groundwaters from deep scientific boreholes from the Meuse-Haute Marne site. Preliminary results

    direction more or less parallel to the groundwater flow, i.e. on a NWSE axis. The lowest activity ratios (0.54) are measured in the North (MSE 101 borehole), whereas sampling points located in the South (EST 322 borehole) display higher activity ratios, one of them being even slightly higher than the equilibrium (1.18). These U activities may still result from water-rock interaction processes, but may also indicate different flow rates of groundwaters characterized by U activity ratios largely lower than the equilibrium value at the recharge areas. In this case, the flow rate would be much higher in the North (234U/238U < 0.6) than in the South. Such a hypothesis is compatible with the presence of karstification at the recharge areas (Doc. Agence de l'Eau Rhin-Meuse). δ7Li and δ11B, measured in Oxfordian groundwaters range from 11.6 to 18.6 0/00 (with one exception) and from 0.75 to 19.9 0/00, respectively. Dogger groundwaters display lithium isotopic compositions that are comparable though more homogeneous (between 14.7 and 18 0/00), whereas boron isotopic compositions are much 'heavier', from 17.5 to 28.4 0/00. Hence waters derived from the two aquifers may be clearly distinguished when reported on a δ7Li vs. d11B diagram. It is noticeable that, in this diagram, Oxfordian groundwaters from boreholes EST 342 (this water may have been contaminated during sampling by contact to argillites which have been partly drilled before sampling of Oxfordian groundwater) and EST 421, as well as Dogger waters from boreholes EST 342 and EST 432 display isotopic signatures that are very comparable (δ11B ∼ 19 0/00; δ7Li ∼ 15.5 0/00). It is remarkable that these data are from the boreholes that are located on the Joinville - Commercy line (see above). Additional samples that have been recovered in the framework of the BULiTh research project are at present being analyzed. It is expected that the next results will help to propose a more comprehensive scheme for

  9. 云南汉族痤疮与CYP11B1基因多态性的相关性研究%Association of CYP11B1 gene polymorphisms with acne vulgaris in Han populations in Yunnan province

    杨婷; 何黎; 李玉明; 吴文娟; 涂颖; 杨智; 杨小燕; 起珏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨CYP11B1基因多态性与痤疮发病风险之间的相关性.方法 SNaPshot法对云南汉族403例痤疮患者(包括轻型痤疮166例、重型痤疮237例)和207例健康对照CYP11B1基因2个单核苷酸多态性位点:rs4736312和rs4534位点进行分型,ABI 3730XL扫描分型结果.结果 rs4736312位点:男性轻型痤疮组AA、AC和CC基因型频率分别为0、20.6%、79.4%,重型痤疮组为1.8%、26.8%、71.4%,男性健康对照组为7.6%、34.8%、57.6%.A等位基因的频率分布在男性痤疮组与健康对照组间、男性轻型痤疮与健康对照组间以及男性重型痤疮与健康对照组间,差异均具有统计学意义(分别为P< 0.01、<0.05、<0.05),而女性痤疮组、女性轻型痤疮组、女性重型痤疮组A、G等位基因频率分布与健康对照组相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).rs4534位点:男性、女性两组别的痤疮组、轻型痤疮组及重型痤疮组的AA、AG、GG基因型频率分布和A、G等位基因频率分布与各自健康对照组间,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CYP11B1基因中rs4736312位点与云南汉族男性痤疮发病相关,而rs4534位点与云南汉族痤疮的发病无相关.%Objective To analyze the association of CYP11B 1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of acne vulgaris in Han populations in Yunnan province.Methods Totally,403 patients with acne (including 166 cases of mild acne and 237 cases of severe acne) and 207 healthy controls of Han nationality in Yunnan province were recruited to this study.Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples of these subjects.A SNaPshot assay was performed to determine the genotypes of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP11B1 gene,including rs4736312 and rs4534.The extension products were analyzed by eleetrophoresis in an ABI Prism 3730xl DNA analyzer.Results The frequency of AA,AC and CC genotype of the SNP rs4736312 was 7.6%,34.8% and 57.6

  10. Method development to quantify Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b+ cells in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) exhibiting Anti-VEGF refractoriness.

    Catchpole, Timothy; Daniels, Tad; Perkins, Jill; Csaky, Karl G

    2016-07-01

    A subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) subjects appears to be refractory to the effects of anti-VEGF treatment and require frequent intravitreal injections. Prokineticin-2 (Bv8) expression in CD11b(+) cells has been linked to anti-VEGF response. We have developed a reproducible method to quantify gene expression in circulating CD11b + cells. Utilizing this method we tested the hypothesis that high Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b(+) cells is associated with anti-VEGF refractoriness in nvAMD patients. Two groups of nvAMD subjects undergoing treatment with anti-VEGF agents were recruited and classified as refractory or non-refractory to anti-VEGF treatment (n = 33 for each group). Two blood draws were obtained from each subject 1-9 months apart. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and CD11b(+) cells were purified via magnetic bead separation. RNA was purified, and relative expression of Bv8 among the subjects was compared via quantitative PCR analysis. Utilizing this approach no significant difference was detected in the mean LogRQ values between the first and second blood draws (t-test, p = 0.826) indicating low intra-patient variability and demonstrating good reproducibility of the assay. There was no significant difference in Bv8 expression between nvAMD subjects classified as refractory versus non-refractory. We were unable to find a correlation between Bv8 expression in CD11b + cells and anti-VEGF refractoriness in human nvAMD subjects. Relatively high expression in Bv8 in these subjects did not correlate with clinical treatment history, as measured by the frequency of injections. Utilizing this well characterized technique, studies are underway to examine alternative gene expression profiles in various circulating cell populations that may contribute to anti-VEGF refractoriness. PMID:27256991

  11. Immature myeloid Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells from lipopolysaccharide-immunosuppressed mice acquire inhibitory activity in the bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes to exert their suppressive function.

    Landoni, Veronica I; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Chiarella, Paula; Schierloh, Pablo; Isturiz, Martin A; Fernández, Gabriela C

    2016-02-01

    Secondary infections due to post-sepsis immunosuppression are a major cause of death in patients with sepsis. Repetitive inoculation of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice mimics the immunosuppression associated with sepsis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, Gr-1(+) CD11b(+)) are considered a major component of the immunosuppressive network, interfering with T-cell responses in many pathological conditions. We used LPS-immunosuppressed (IS) mice to address whether MDSCs acquired their suppressive ability in the bone marrow (BM) and whether they could migrate to lymph nodes (LNs) to exert their suppressive function. Our results showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells of IS mice already had the potential to inhibit T-cell proliferation in the BM. Moreover, soluble factors present in the BM from IS mice were responsible for inducing this inhibitory ability in control BM cells. In addition, migration of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) to LNs in vivo was maximal when cells obtained from the BM of IS mice were inoculated into an IS context. In this regard, we found chemoattractant activity in cell-free LN extracts (LNEs) from IS mice and an increased expression of the LN-homing chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in IS BM Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells. These results indicate that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells found in BM from IS mice acquire their suppressive activity in the same niche where they are generated, and migrate to LNs to exert their inhibitory role. A better understanding of MDSC generation and/or regulation of factors able to induce their inhibitory function may provide new and more effective tools for the treatment of sepsis-associated immunosuppression. PMID:26582821

  12. Changes of neutrophil CD11b in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者中性粒细胞表面黏附分子 CD11b 的变化研究

    张威; 聂秀红; 冯志红; 樊晓军; 孙雪静

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is to investigate the changes of CD11b expression in circulating PMNs in patients with different severity in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS) , and explore the probable mechanisms of cardiovascular dis-eases in patients with OSAHS .Methods Forty-eight subjects , who were diagnosed as OSAHS by PSG were selected and divid-ed into mild OSAHS, moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS group according to the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), another 12 cases who except for OSAHS by PSG in the same period were selected as normal group , PSG monitoring of continuous 7h was performed in all groups, and the AHI, Oxygen decrease index (ODI), percentage of cumulative time of (Sa(O2)) 0.05).The relative expression of CD11b in circulating PMNs was positively correlated with AHI, ODI and LAT (r=0.268, 0.328 and 0.311 respectively, all P<0.05), and was negatively correlated with Sa(O2) min (r=-0.301, P<0.05).Multiple regression analysis showed that the level of ODI was the independent risk factor to in -fluence the relative expression of CD11b in circulating PMNs in patients with OSAHS (R2 =0.108, P=0.010).Conclusion The relative expression of CD11b in circulating PMNs is positively correlated with the severity of OSAHS , intermittent hypoxia and hypoxia severity can influence the relative expression of CD 11 b in circulating PMNs in patients with OSAHS .%目的:观察不同程度阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征( OSAHS)患者中性粒细胞( PMNs)表面黏附分子CD11b的变化,探讨OSAHS患者发生心血管疾病的可能机制。方法选取经多导睡眠图( PSG )监测确诊为OSAHS患者48例,根据呼吸暂停低通气指数( AHI)分为轻度OSAHS组、中度OSAHS组、重度OSAHS组,选择同期行PSG筛查除外OS-AHS者12例作为正常组,各组均进行连续7 h的PSG监测获得AHI、氧减指数( ODI)、血氧饱和度[ Sa( O2)]<90%累计时间的百分率( SLT90%)

  13. Contribution to the study of (d,p) and (d,α> reactions on 16O and 11B from 200 keV to 1 MeV

    The reactions 16O(d,α0), (d,p0), (d,p1) and 11B(d,α0), (d,α2), (d,p0) have been studied from 200 keV to 1 MeV. The interpretation of (d,α) reactions by the compound nucleus theory has shown the presence of 18F levels (7,94 MeV, 1+; 8,09 MeV, 1+ ) and of 13C level (19 MeV, 3/2± or 5/2-). The interpretation of 16O(d,p1) and 11B(d,p0) reactions at energies lower than 400 keV has been given by a theory of Coulomb stripping. (author)

  14. Stable coordination of the inhibitory Ca2+ ion at MIDAS in integrin CD11b/CD18 by an antibody-derived ligand aspartate: Implications for integrin regulation and structure-based drug design

    Mahalingam, Bhuvaneshwari; Ajroud, Kaouther; Alonso, Jose Luis; Anand, Saurabh; Adair, Brian; Horenstein, Alberto L; Malavasi, Fabio; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of integrin interaction with physiologic ligands is the monodentate binding of a ligand carboxylate to a Mg2+ ion hexacoordinated at the metal-ion-dependent-adhesion site (MIDAS) in the integrin A-domain. This interaction stabilizes the A-domain in the high-affinity state, which is distinguished from the default low-affinity state by tertiary changes in the domain that culminate in cell adhesion. Small molecule ligand-mimetic integrin antagonists act as partial agonists, eliciting similar activating conformational changes in the A-domain, which has contributed to paradoxical adhesion and increased patient mortality in large clinical trials. As with other ligand-mimetic integrin antagonists, the function-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) 107 binds MIDAS of integrin CD11b/CD18 A-domain (CD11bA), but in contrast, it favors the inhibitory Ca2+ ion over Mg2+ at MIDAS. We determined the crystal structures of the Fab fragment of mAb 107 complexed to the low- and high-affinity states of CD11bA. Favored binding of Ca2+ at MIDAS is caused by the unusual symmetric bidentate ligation of a Fab-derived ligand Asp to a heptacoordinated MIDAS Ca2+. Binding of Fab 107 to CD11bA did not trigger the activating tertiary changes in the domain or in the full-length integrin. These data show that denticity of the ligand Asp/Glu can modify divalent cation selectivity at MIDAS and hence integrin function. Stabilizing the Ca2+ ion at MIDAS by bidentate ligation to a ligand Asp/Glu may provide one approach for designing pure integrin antagonists. PMID:22095715

  15. Libraries of 2,3,4,6,7,11b-Hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinolin-2-amine Derivatives via a Multicomponent Assembly Process/1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy

    Granger, Brett A.; Kaneda, Kyosuke; Martin, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    A Mannich-type multicomponent assembly process/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition strategy has been developed for the rapid and efficient construction of a parent tetrahydroisoquinoline fused isoxazolidine scaffold, which was subsequently functionalized using well-established protocols to access a diverse 70-membered library of novel 2,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline-2-amine derivatives.

  16. Early treatment with anti-VLA-4 mAb can prevent the infiltration and/or development of pathogenic CD11b+CD4+ T cells in the CNS during progressive EAE.

    John E Mindur

    Full Text Available Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the leukocyte adhesion molecule very late antigen (VLA-4, and is currently an approved therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. However, it is unknown whether natalizumab is beneficial for progressive forms of MS. Therefore, we assessed the effects of anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb therapy in a progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse model. Notably, we found that early therapy could significantly reduce the severity of progressive EAE, while treatment initiated at an advanced stage was less efficient. Furthermore, we observed the accumulation of a novel subset of GM-CSF-producing CD11b+CD4+ T cells in the CNS throughout disease progression. Importantly, early therapeutic anti-VLA-4 mAb treatment suppressed the accumulation of these GM-CSF-producing CD11b+CD4+ T cells in the CNS along with activated microglia/macrophages populations, and also conferred a protective effect against inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration, including demyelination and axonal loss. Collectively, our data suggest that early treatment with anti-VLA-4 mAb can provide neuroprotection against progressive CNS autoimmune disease by preventing the accumulation of pathogenic GM-CSF-producing CD11b+CD4+ T cells in the CNS.

  17. Binding of recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL) to antigen presenting cells prevents upregulation of CD11b and inhibits T cell activation and transfer of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Sinha, Sushmita; Miller, Lisa; Subramanian, Sandhya; McCarty, Owen; Proctor, Thomas; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Burrows, Gregory G.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Offner, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant T cell ligands (RTLs) ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in antigen specific manner. We evaluated effects of RTL401 (I-As α1β1 + PLP-139-151) on splenocytes from mice with EAE to study RTL- T cell-tolerance-inducing mechanisms. RTLs bound to B, macrophages and DCs, through RTL-MHC-α1β1 moiety. RTL binding reduced CD11b expression on splenic macrophages/DC, and RTL401-conditioned macrophages/DC, not B cells, inhibited T cell activation. Reduced ability of RT...

  18. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders; Damlund, Dina S M; Fink, Lisbeth N; Licht, Tine Rask; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally colonized (CONV) mice than in mono-colonized (MC) and germfree (GF) mice, and the CD4(+) T cell population established faster in CONV mice. At the day of birth, compared to GF mice, the expression...

  19. Functional characterization of human Cd33+ And Cd11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell subsets induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-cultured with a diverse set of human tumor cell lines

    Arger Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor immune tolerance can derive from the recruitment of suppressor cell populations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC. In cancer patients, MDSC accumulation correlates with increased tumor burden, but the mechanisms of MDSC induction remain poorly understood. Methods This study examined the ability of human tumor cell lines to induce MDSC from healthy donor PBMC using in vitro co-culture methods. These human MDSC were then characterized for morphology, phenotype, gene expression, and function. Results Of over 100 tumor cell lines examined, 45 generated canonical CD33+HLA-DRlowLineage- MDSC, with high frequency of induction by cervical, ovarian, colorectal, renal cell, and head and neck carcinoma cell lines. CD33+ MDSC could be induced by cancer cell lines from all tumor types with the notable exception of those derived from breast cancer (0/9, regardless of hormone and HER2 status. Upon further examination, these and others with infrequent CD33+ MDSC generation were found to induce a second subset characterized as CD11b+CD33lowHLA-DRlowLineage-. Gene and protein expression, antibody neutralization, and cytokine-induction studies determined that the induction of CD33+ MDSC depended upon over-expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, VEGF, and GM-CSF, while CD11b+ MDSC induction correlated with over-expression of FLT3L and TGFβ. Morphologically, both CD33+ and CD11b+ MDSC subsets appeared as immature myeloid cells and had significantly up-regulated expression of iNOS, NADPH oxidase, and arginase-1 genes. Furthermore, increased expression of transcription factors HIF1α, STAT3, and C/EBPβ distinguished MDSC from normal counterparts. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the universal nature of MDSC induction by human solid tumors and characterize two distinct MDSC subsets: CD33+HLA-DRlowHIF1α+/STAT3+ and CD11b+HLA-DRlowC/EBPβ+, which should enable the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for

  20. 11B NMR study of easter formation and complexing in the polyborate existence region of H3BO3-NaOH-H2O-2,3-butanediol system

    Interactions in concentrated solutions of boric acid and sodium hydroxide mixtures at pH 9 with 2,3-butanediol (BD) have been studied by 11B NMR spectroscopy method. With an increase in BD concentration a cyclic esters of boric acid (BD)BOH is formed, as well as complex anions [(BD)B(OH)2]-, [(BD)2B]- and [(BD)B3O3(OH)2]-. Polyion [B5O6(OH)4]- with addition of BD excess is partially hydrolyzed into monoborate-ion and boric acid, which react instantly with BD excess giving rise to formation of the relevant complex anions and ester

  1. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XIV. CoRoT-11b: a transiting massive "hot-Jupiter" in a prograde orbit around a rapidly rotating F-type star

    Gandolfi, D; Alonso, R; Deleuil, M; Guenther, E W; Fridlund, M; Endl, M; Eigmüller, P; Csizmadia, Sz; Havel, M; Aigrain, S; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Barge, P; Bonomo, A S; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; Bruntt, H; Cabrera, J; Carpano, S; Carone, L; Cochran, W D; Deeg, H J; Dvorak, R; Eislöffel, J; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Gazzano, J -C; Gibson, N P; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hartmann, M; Hatzes, A; Jorda, L; Kabath, P; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Lammer, H; MacQueen, P J; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Moutou, C; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Samuel, B; Schneider, J; Stecklum, B; Tingley, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015132

    2010-01-01

    The CoRoT exoplanet science team announces the discovery of CoRoT-11b, a fairly massive hot-Jupiter transiting a V=12.9 mag F6 dwarf star (M*=1.27 +/- 0.05 Msun, R*=1.37 +/- 0.03 Rsun, Teff=6440 +/- 120 K), with an orbital period of P=2.994329 +/- 0.000011 days and semi-major axis a=0.0436 +/- 0.005 AU. The detection of part of the radial velocity anomaly caused by the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect shows that the transit-like events detected by CoRoT are caused by a planet-sized transiting object in a prograde orbit. The relatively high projected rotational velocity of the star (vsini=40+/-5 km/s) places CoRoT-11 among the most rapidly rotating planet host stars discovered so far. With a planetary mass of mp=2.33+/-0.34 Mjup and radius rp=1.43+/-0.03 Rjup, the resulting mean density of CoRoT-11b (rho=0.99+/-0.15 g/cm^3) can be explained with a model for an inflated hydrogen-planet with a solar composition and a high level of energy dissipation in its interior.

  2. Comparison of protein patterns between Plasmodium falciparum mutant clone T9/94-M1-1(b3) induced by pyrimethamine and the original parent clone T9/94

    Kanchana Rungsihirunrat; Wanna Chaijaroenkul; Napaporn Siripoon; Aree Seugorn; Sodsri Thaithong; Kesara Na-Bangchang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the protein patterns from the extracts of the mutant clone T9/94-M1-1(b3) induced by pyrimethamine, and the original parent clone T9/94 following separation of parasite extracts by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Methods: Proteins were solubilized and separated according to their charges and sizes. The separated protein spots were then detected by silver staining and analyzed for protein density by the powerful image analysis software. Results:Differentially expressed protein patterns (up- or down-regulation) were separated from the extracts from the two clones. A total of 223 and 134 protein spots were detected from the extracts of T9/94 and T9/94-M1-1(b3) clones, respectively. Marked reduction in density of protein expression was observed with the extract from the mutant (resistant) clone compared with the parent (sensitive) clone. A total of 25 protein spots showed at least two-fold difference in density, some of which exhibited as high as ten-fold difference. Conclusions: These proteins may be the molecular targets of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to pyrimethamine. Further study to identify the chemical structures of these proteins by mass spectrometry is required.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) gene polymorphism and expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein on CD11b+ and IgM+ cells in cows naturally infected with bovine leukemia virus.

    Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Kaczmarczyk, E; Stachura, A; Kubińska, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether SNP at position -824 (promoter region) of the TNFα gene significantly differentiates the size of IgM+, CD5+ and CD11b+ cell subpopulations and affects the expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein (mTNFα) on these cells and their susceptibility to BLV infections. In this study, significant differences were determined for the first time between TNFα genotypes and the percentage of cells with the CD11b+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype. Furthermore, greater expansion of lymphocytes with the IgM+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype was reported in cows with the G/G genotype than in A/A homozygotes. Cells with the above immunophenotype were more frequently observed in cows with persistent leukocytosis than in aleukemic cattle. Our results suggest that polymorphism of the TNFα-824 A>G gene and mTNFα protein expression play an important role in the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukosis. PMID:26618585

  4. Numerical investigations on a compact magnetic fusion device for studying the effect of external applied magnetic field oscillations on the nuclear burning efficiency of D-T and p-11B fuels

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Larour, J.; Auvray, P.; Balcou, P.; Ducret, J.-E.; Martin, P.

    2015-05-01

    The burning process of high density (about 1018cm-3), high temperature (tens to hundreds of keV) plasma trapped by a high mirror-like magnetic field in a Compact Magnetic Fusion (CMF) device is numerically investigated.. The initial high density and high temperature plasma in the CMF device is produced by ultrashort high intensity laser beam interaction with clusters or thin foils, and two fuels, D-T and p-11B are studied. The spatio-temporal evolution of D-T and p-11B plasmas, the production of alphas, the generated electric fields and the high external applied magnetic field are described by a 1-D multifluid code. The initial values for the plasma densities, temperatures and external applied magnetic field (about 100 T) correspond to high β plasmas. The main objectives of the numerical simulations are: to study the plasma trapping, the neutron and alpha production for both fuels, and compare the effect of the external applied magnetic field on the nuclear burning efficiency for the two fuels.. The comparisons and the advantages for each fuel will be presented. The proposed CMF device and the potential operation of the device within the ELI-NP pillar will be discussed.

  5. Binding of recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL) to antigen presenting cells prevents upregulation of CD11b and inhibits T cell activation and transfer of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Sinha, Sushmita; Miller, Lisa; Subramanian, Sandhya; McCarty, Owen J T; Proctor, Thomas; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Huan, Jianya; Burrows, Gregory G; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

    2010-08-25

    Recombinant T cell ligands (RTLs) ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in an antigen-specific manner. We evaluated effects of RTL401 (I-A(s) alpha1beta1+PLP-139-151) on splenocytes from SJL/J mice with EAE to study RTL-T cell tolerance-inducing mechanisms. RTLs bound to B, macrophages and DCs, through RTL-MHC-alpha1beta1 moiety. RTL binding reduced CD11b expression on splenic macrophages/DC, and RTL401-conditioned macrophages/DC, not B cells, inhibited T cell activation. Reduced ability of RTL- incubated splenocytes to transfer EAE was likely mediated through macrophages/DC, since B cells were unnecessary for RTL treatment of EAE. These results demonstrate a novel pathway of T cell regulation by RTL-bound APCs. PMID:20546940

  6. Abundance of DLK1, differential expression of CYP11B1, CYP21A2 and MC2R, and lack of INSL3 distinguish testicular adrenal rest tumours from Leydig cell tumours

    Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Juul, Anders; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    cells (LCs), and masses consisting of such cells are occasionally misclassified as malignant testicular tumours, which may lead to erroneous orchiectomy in these patients. DESIGN: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of LC developmental markers and adrenal steroidogenic markers in the......OBJECTIVE: Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs) are a common finding in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These tumours constitute a diagnostic and management conundrum and may lead to infertility. TART cells share many functional and morphological similarities with Leydig...... differential diagnosis of TARTs and malignant LC tumours (LCTs). METHODS: We investigated mRNA and protein expression of testicular steroidogenic enzymes; CYP11A1 and HSD3B1/2, markers of adrenal steroidogenesis; CYP11B1, CYP21A2 and ACTH receptor/melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), and markers of LC maturation...

  7. Study of the (d,α) reactions on the nuclei 10B, 11B, 12C, and 13C and the reaction 13C(p,α)10B and their microscopic and semicroscopic analysis

    In the framework of a systematic analysis of many-particle transfer reactions on light nuclei in the present thesis the two-particle transfer reactions of the type (d,α) on the nucleus 10B at Esub(d) = 16 MeV and on the nuclei 11B, 12C and 13C at Esub(d) = 24 MeV as well as the three-particle transfer reaction 13C(p,α)10B at eight incident energies between 16 and 45 MeV have been studied. In the case of the residual nuclei 10B and 11B transitions up to an excitation energy Esub(x) approx.= 7.5 respectively approx.= 9,0 MeV, in the case of the residual nuclei 8Be and 9Be transitions up to Esub(x) approx.= 17 respectively 2.5 MeV were evaluated. Under the assumption that the studied reactions behave as direct one-stage transfer processes the measurement results were analyzed in the framework of the DWBA theory in zero-range approximation. The parameters for the optical potentials used in the DWBA calculations were taken from literature and partly modified by fitting to the angular distributions of the reactions studied here. Microscopic and semimicroscopic calculations were performed. In the semimicroscopic calculations the spectroscopic amplitudes calculated microscopically or in SU(3) approximation were used together with a cluster form factor, in the other case with a microscopically calculated form factor. For the residual nucleus for some higher excited states results on spin, parity, and isospin could be partly obtained, partly confirmed. (orig./HSI)

  8. Combined δ11B, δ13C, and δ18O analyses of coccolithophore calcite constrains the response of coccolith vesicle carbonate chemistry to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Tripati, Robert; Aciego, Sarah; Gilmore, Rosaleen; Ries, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophorid algae play a central role in the biological carbon pump, oceanic carbon sequestration, and in marine food webs. It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification on these organisms. Differences in the regulation of carbonate chemistry, pH, and carbon sources of the intracellular compartments where coccolith formation occurs may underlie the diverse calcification and growth responses to acidified seawater observed in prior experiments. Here we measured stable isotopes of boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) within coccolith calcite, and δ13C of algal tissue to constrain carbonate system parameters in two strains of Pleurochrysis carterae (P. carterae). The two strains were cultured under variable pCO2, with water temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity monitored. Notably, PIC, POC, and PIC/POC ratio did not vary across treatments, indicating that P. carterae is able to calcify and photosynthesize at relatively constant rates irrespective of pCO2 treatment. The δ11B data indicate that mean pH at the site of coccolith formation did not vary significantly in response to elevated CO2. These results suggest that P. carterae regulates calcifying vesicle pH, even amidst changes in external seawater pH. Furthermore, δ13C and δ18O data suggest that P. carterae may utilize carbon from a single internal DIC pool for both calcification and photosynthesis, and that a greater proportion of dissolved CO2 relative to HCO3‑ enters the internal DIC pool under acidified conditions. These results suggest that P. carterae is able to calcifyand photosynthesize at relatively constant rates across pCO2 treatments by maintaining pH homeostasis at their site of calcification and utilizing a greater proportion of aqueous CO2.

  9. Spain: Project control. Annex 11B

    This annex deals with project control. This annex outlines the method of accounting and coding of expenses during the various phases of transition from construction to long-term suspension. In this way costs can be accurately traced and assigned appropriately. This is an essential part of managing during the suspension phase. (author)

  10. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+ T cell population in the spleen

    Kristensen, Matilde B; Metzdorff, Stine B; Bergström, Anders; Damlund, Dina S M; Fink, Lisbeth N; Licht, Tine R; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b+Gr-1+ splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally colonized (CONV) mice than in mono-colonized (MC) and germfree (GF) mice, and the CD4+ T cell population established faster in CONV mice. At the day of birth, compared to GF mice, the expression of Cxcl2 was up-regulated and Arg1 down-regulated in livers of CONV mice. This coincided with lower abundance of polylobed cells in the liver of CONV mice. An earlier peak in the expression of the genes Tjp1, Cdh1, and JamA in intestinal epithelial cells of CONV mice indicated an accelerated closure of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, we have identified an important microbiota-dependent neonatal hematopoietic event, which we suggest impacts the subsequent development of the T cell population in the murine spleen. PMID:26417445