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Sample records for acidophilic microorganisms isolated

  1. Ardrea characterisation of acidophilic micro-organisms isolated from gold mines in Marmato, Colombia

    Edna Judith Márquez F.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral bio-oxidation improves the extraction of valuable metals and also decreases the impact caused by mining waste; however, the interactions between the micro-organisms so involved are little known. Double-layer solid culture media techniques and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction enzyme analysis (Ardrea, using Eco72I, Eco24I, XcmI and BsaAI enzymes, were used for characterising four micro-organisms isolated from gold mines located in Marmato, Colombia. This work was aimed at better understanding of native acidophilic micro-organisms’ microbial interactions in mixed cultures. Iron and sulphur oxidising isolates revealed similar restriction patterns to those previously reported for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans; however, one of them exhibited different colony morphology compared to previously reported morphology. The iron non-oxidising isolate presented a restriction pattern agreeing with theoretical analysis of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans database sequences. ARDREA proved to be a viable technique for differentiating between At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans; in turn, it enabled checking isolates’ identity with their physiological traits and colony morphology.

  2. Enumeration and Characterization of Acidophilic Microorganisms Isolated from a Pilot Plant Stirred-Tank Bioleaching Operation

    Okibe, Naoko; Gericke, Mariekie; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms were enumerated and isolated on selective solid media from a pilot-scale stirred-tank bioleaching operation in which a polymetallic sulfide concentrate was subjected to biologically accelerated oxidation at 45°C. Four distinct prokaryotes were isolated: three bacteria (an Acidithiobacillus caldus-like organism, a thermophilic Leptospirillum sp., and a Sulfobacillus sp.) and one archaeon (a Ferroplasma-like isolate). The relative numbers of these prokaryotes changed in the three...

  3. Metal resistance in acidophilic microorganisms and its significance for biotechnologies.

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2014-10-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms have an optimal pH of biomining for sulfide mineral dissolution, biosulfidogenesis to produce sulfide that can selectively precipitate metals from process streams, treatment of acid mine drainage, and bioremediation of acidic metal-contaminated milieux. This review describes how acidophilic microorganisms tolerate extremely high metal concentrations in biotechnological processes and identifies areas of future work that hold promise for improving the efficiency of these applications. PMID:25104030

  4. Acidophilic algae isolated from mine-impacted environments and their roles in sustaining heterotrophic acidophiles

    David Barrie Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two acidophilic algae, identified as strains of Chlorella protothecoides var. acidicola and Euglena mutabilis, were isolated in pure culture from abandoned copper mines in Spain and Wales and grown in pH- and temperature-controlled bioreactors. The Chlorella isolate grew optimally at pH 2.5 and 30 ˚C, with a corresponding culture doubling time of 9 hours. The isolates displayed similar tolerance (10-50 mM to four transition metals tested. Growth of the algae in liquid media was paralleled with increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Glycolic acid was identified as a significant component (12- 14% of total DOC. Protracted incubation resulted in concentrations of glycolic acid declining in both cases, and glycolic acid added to a culture of Chlorella incubated in the dark was taken up by the alga (~100% within three days. Two monosaccharides were identified in cell-free liquors of each algal isolate: fructose and glucose (Chlorella, and mannitol and glucose (Euglena. These were rapidly metabolised by acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria (Acidiphilium and Acidobacterium spp. though only fructose was utilised by the more fastidious heterotroph Acidocella aromatica. The significance of algae in promoting the growth of iron- (and sulfate- reducing heterotrophic acidophiles that are important in remediating mine-impacted waters is discussed.

  5. Acidophilic algae isolated from mine-impacted environments and their roles in sustaining heterotrophic acidophiles

    DavidBarrieJohnson

    2012-01-01

    Two acidophilic algae, identified as strains of Chlorella protothecoides var. acidicola and Euglena mutabilis, were isolated in pure culture from abandoned copper mines in Spain and Wales and grown in pH- and temperature-controlled bioreactors. The Chlorella isolate grew optimally at pH 2.5 and 30 ˚C, with a corresponding culture doubling time of 9 hours. The isolates displayed similar tolerance (10-50 mM) to four transition metals tested. Growth of the algae in liquid media was paralleled wi...

  6. Evidence of cell surface iron speciation of acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms in indirect bioleaching process.

    Nie, Zhen-yuan; Liu, Hong-chang; Xia, Jin-lan; Yang, Yi; Zhen, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2016-02-01

    While indirect model has been widely accepted in bioleaching, but the evidence of cell surface iron speciation has not been reported. In the present work the iron speciation on the cell surfaces of four typically acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganism (mesophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, moderately thermophilic Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans St, and extremely thermophilic Acidianus manzaensis YN25) grown on different energy substrates (chalcopyrite, pyrite, ferrous sulfate and elemental sulfur (S(0))) were studied in situ firstly by using synchrotron-based micro- X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Results showed that the cells grown on iron-containing substrates had apparently higher surface iron content than the cells grown on S(0). Both ferrous iron and ferric iron were detected on the cell surface of all tested AIOMs, and the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios of the same microorganism were affected by different energy substrates. The iron distribution and bonding state of single cell of A. manzaensis were then studied in situ by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy based on dual-energy contrast analysis and stack analysis. Results showed that the iron species distributed evenly on the cell surface and bonded with amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. PMID:26645388

  7. The acidophilic microorganisms diversity present in lignite and pit coal from Paroseni, Halânga, Turceni mines

    Carmen Madalina CISMASIU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution from coal combustion is the largest problem in the current use of coal and the biggest constraint on the increased use of coal. When these fossil fuels are combusted, sulphur-di-oxide is released into the atmosphere causing acid rains which dissolves buildings, kills forest. Knowing the physiological groups of microorganisms present in the coal samples has an ecological importance, completing the knowledge in the field of the microorganism’s ecology and a practical importance, being a source of new microorganisms with biotechnological potential. The microbial communities evidenced in such sites include both groups of chemolithotrophic microorganisms involved in the metals biosolubilization processes and groups of heterotrophic microorganisms involved in the processes of bioaccumulation or biofixation of metallic ions. In this context, this paper presents the study regarding the main physiological groups of microorganisms present in the pit coal and lignite samples after the industrial processing of coal. The results revealed that the microorganisms belonging to the following physiological groups: aerobic heterotrophic acidophilic bacteria, strictly anaerobic heterotrophic (sulphur-reducing, nitrifying bacteria (nitrite and nitrate bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria on Fe2+, on S0 and on S2O3.

  8. Metal uptake and Fe-, Ti-oxide biomineralization by acidophilic microorganisms in mine-waste environments, Elliot Lake, Canada

    Acidic effluent containing enhanced concentrations of toxic heavy metals discharges from a cumulative total of 104 ha of mine-tailings waste in Canada. Communities of acidophilic microorganisms, specifically the unicellular alga Euglena sp. and bacteria, thrive in many of the hostile, low-pH effluent environments, which are otherwise devoid of life. The microorganisms concentrate aqueous dissolved metals onto cell walls and at intracellular sites, during the life cycle, and strongly bind metals during early diagenesis. A sequence is observed in which amorphous Fe and Ti concentrated at cell walls are progressively transformed to microcrystalline aggregates of goethite, ferrihydrite, maghemite, magnetite, haematite, lepidocrocite, and ilmenite. The bioprecipitated Ti- and Fe-oxides and oxyhydroxides act as scavengers for heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Th. Acidophilic microorganisms play a central role in the toxic-metal budget of mine-tailings waste by efficiently sequestering aqueous metals and by promoting nucleation of oxide minerals whose inorganic formation is kinetically inhibited, thereby retarding toxic-metal dispersion into the natural environment

  9. Newly Isolated Penicillium ramulosum N1 Is Excellent for Producing Protease-Resistant Acidophilic Xylanase.

    Lin, Chaoyang; Shen, Zhicheng; Zhu, Tingheng; Qin, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium ramulosum N1 was isolated from decaying wood. This strain produces extracellular xylanases and cellulases. The highest activities of xylanases (250 U/ml) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase; 6.5 U/ml) were produced when 1% barley straw was added as a carbon source. The optimum temperature and pH for xylanase activity was 55 and 3.0 °C, respectively. The xylanases exhibited strong protease resistance. CMCase revealed maximum activities at pH 3.0 and in the range of 60-70 °C. Filter paper activity was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 55 °C. The zymograms produced by the SDS-PAGE resolution of the crude enzymes indicated that there are four bands of protein with xylanase activity and three bands of proteins with endoglucanase. The results revealed that P. ramulosum N1 is a promising acidophilic and protease-resistant xylanase-producing microorganism that has great potential to be used in animal feed and food industry applications. PMID:26431535

  10. Alicyclobacillus sp. strain CC2, a thermo-acidophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island (Antarctica) containing a thermostable superoxide dismutase enzyme

    Daniela N. Correa-Llantén; Maximiliano J. Amenábar; Patricio A. Muñoz; María T. Monsalves; Miguel E. Castro; Jenny M.Blamey

    2014-01-01

    A gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, thermo-acidophilic bacterium CC2 (optimal temperature 55℃and pH 4.0), belonging to the genus Alicyclobacillus was isolated from geothermal soil collected from“Cerro Caliente”, Deception Island, Antarctica. Owing to the harsh environmental conditions found in this territory, microorganisms are exposed to conditions that trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They must have an effective antioxidant defense system to deal with this oxidative stress. We focused on one of the most important enzymes: superoxide dismutase, which was partially purified and characterized. This study presents the ifrst report of a thermo-acidophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island with a thermostable superoxide dismutase (SOD).

  11. Uncovering a microbial enigma: isolation and characterization of the streamer-generating, iron-oxidizing, acidophilic bacterium "Ferrovum myxofaciens".

    Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B; Hedrich, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    A betaproteobacterium, shown by molecular techniques to have widespread global distribution in extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4) ferruginous mine waters and also to be a major component of "acid streamer" growths in mine-impacted water bodies, has proven to be recalcitrant to enrichment and isolation. A modified "overlay" solid medium was devised and used to isolate this bacterium from a number of mine water samples. The physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of a pure culture of an isolate from an abandoned copper mine ("Ferrovum myxofaciens" strain P3G) have been elucidated. "F. myxofaciens" is an extremely acidophilic, psychrotolerant obligate autotroph that appears to use only ferrous iron as an electron donor and oxygen as an electron acceptor. It appears to use the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway to fix CO2 and is diazotrophic. It also produces copious amounts of extracellular polymeric materials that cause cells to attach to each other (and to form small streamer-like growth in vitro) and to different solid surfaces. "F. myxofaciens" can catalyze the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and, like many other acidophiles, is tolerant of many (cationic) transition metals. "F. myxofaciens" and related clone sequences form a monophyletic group within the Betaproteobacteria distantly related to classified orders, with genera of the family Nitrosomonadaceae (lithoautotrophic, ammonium-oxidizing neutrophiles) as the closest relatives. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences of "F. myxofaciens" and other Betaproteobacteria, a new family, "Ferrovaceae," and order, "Ferrovales," within the class Betaproteobacteria are proposed. "F. myxofaciens" is the first extreme acidophile to be described in the class Betaproteobacteria. PMID:24242243

  12. Solid and liquid media for isolating and cultivating acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Rowe, Owen F; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Growth media have been developed to facilitate the enrichment and isolation of acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria (aSRB) from environmental and industrial samples, and to allow their cultivation in vitro The main features of the 'standard' solid and liquid devised media are as follows: (i) use of glycerol rather than an aliphatic acid as electron donor; (ii) inclusion of stoichiometric concentrations of zinc ions to both buffer pH and to convert potentially harmful hydrogen sulphide produced by the aSRB to insoluble zinc sulphide; (iii) inclusion of Acidocella aromatica (an heterotrophic acidophile that does not metabolize glycerol or yeast extract) in the gel underlayer of double layered (overlay) solid media, to remove acetic acid produced by aSRB that incompletely oxidize glycerol and also aliphatic acids (mostly pyruvic) released by acid hydrolysis of the gelling agent used (agarose). Colonies of aSRB are readily distinguished from those of other anaerobes due to their deposition and accumulation of metal sulphide precipitates. Data presented illustrate the effectiveness of the overlay solid media described for isolating aSRB from acidic anaerobic sediments and low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors. PMID:27036143

  13. Shift from Acetoclastic to H2-Dependent Methanogenesis in a West Siberian Peat Bog at Low pH Values and Isolation of an Acidophilic Methanobacterium Strain▿

    Kotsyurbenko, O R; Friedrich, M W; Simankova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A. N.; Golyshin, P N; Timmis, K N; Conrad, R.

    2007-01-01

    Methane production and archaeal community composition were studied in samples from an acidic peat bog incubated at different temperatures and pH values. H(2)-dependent methanogenesis increased strongly at the lowest pH, 3.8, and Methanobacteriaceae became important except for Methanomicrobiaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. An acidophilic and psychrotolerant Methanobacterium sp. was isolated using H(2)-plus-CO(2)-supplemented medium at pH 4.5.

  14. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2016-03-22

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  15. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2013-07-23

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  16. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2014-04-08

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  17. A Description of an Acidophilic, Iron Reducer, Geobacter sp. FeAm09 Isolated from Tropical Soils

    Healy, O.; Souchek, J.; Heithoff, A.; LaMere, B.; Pan, D.; Hollis, G.; Yang, W. H.; Silver, W. L.; Weber, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and plays a significant role controlling the geochemistry in soils, sediments, and aquatic systems. As part of a study to understand microbially-catalysed iron biogeochemical cycling in tropical soils, an iron reducing isolate, strain FeAm09, was obtained. Strain FeAm09 was isolated from acidic, Fe-rich soils collected from a tropical forest (Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico). Strain FeAm09 is a rod-shaped, motile, Gram-negative bacterium. Taxonomic analysis of the near complete 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain FeAm09 is 94.7% similar to Geobacter lovleyi, placing it in the genus Geobacter within the Family Geobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. Characterization of the optimal growth conditions revealed that strain FeAm09 is a moderate acidophile with an optimal growth pH of 5.0. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C. Growth of FeAm09 was coupled to the reduction of soluble Fe(III), Fe(III)-NTA, with H2, fumarate, ethanol, and various organic acids and sugars serving as the electron donor. Insoluble Fe(III), in the form of synthetic ferrihydrite, was reduced by strain FeAm09 using acetate or H2 as the electron donor. The use of H2 as an electron donor in the presence of CO2 and absence of organic carbon and assimilation of 14C-labelled CO2 into biomass indicate that strain FeAm09 is an autotrophic Fe(III)-reducing bacterium. Together, these data describe the first acidophilic, autotrophic Geobacter species. Iron reducing bacteria were previously shown to be as abundant in tropical soils as in saturated sediments (lake-bottoms) and saturated soils (wetlands) where Fe(III) reduction is more commonly recognized as a dominant mode of microbial respiration. Furthermore, Fe(III) reduction was identified as a primary driver of carbon mineralization in these tropical soils (Dubinsky et al. 2010). In addition to mineralizing organic carbon, Geobacter sp. FeAm09 is likely to also

  18. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Stott Matthew B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia. Results We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely

  20. Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.

    Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2015-02-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 °C (optimum 40 °C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ω-alicyclic (ω-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) ( = DSM 28700(T) = NBRC 108949(T) = NRIC 0938(T)). PMID:25505343

  1. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses

    N. Kip; Ouyang, W.J.; van der Winden, J.; Raghoebarsing, A.; van Niftrik, L.; De Pol, A.; Pan, Y.; L. Bodrossy; van Donselaar, E. G.; G. J. Reichart; M. S. M. Jetten; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Op den Camp, H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphapr...

  2. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; Van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op Den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphapr...

  3. Isolation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in Mediterranean waters

    Abu-Elgheit, M.A.; Yusef, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two species or strains of Penicillium were isolated by the enrichment technique from areas exposed to oil seepage. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that, after eight days of treatment, these microorganisms were capable of degrading paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in media made with Mediterranean waters. They could not, however, degrade crude oil.

  4. Isolated microorganisms from Iranian grapes and its derivatives

    S Maulani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to monitor the microorganisms isolated from grapes and its derivative traditional products produced in Iran.Material and Methods: Four kinds of grapes cultivated summer of 2010 in vineyard of Takestan and also grape derived products from Shahrod, Hamedan and Takestan were used for this study. The samples were cultured in specific media to isolate the microorganisms that might grow on or pollute the products.Results: Species of bacteria and fungi isolated from 4 kinds of grapes cultivated in Takestan graveyards and also from 2 kinds of derived traditional products; grape sap and sour grape (abe-ghure locally named, were taken from Takestan, Shahrod and Hamedan cities. Also, bacteria Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and fungus of Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were isolated.Conclusion: The isolated bacteria were common microorganisms that grow in soil or in the organic fertilizer and may appear from the environments that samples were collected. These bacteria were not pathogenic to human. The fungus isolated from the grapes may harm humans as they produce toxin. The results suggested that bacterial diversity on grapes and its derived traditional products are expected to be monitored and described in all Iranian graveyards as Iran has been known as one of the world’s biggest grape producers.

  5. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  6. Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    López, M J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S; Moreno, J; Bothast, R J

    2004-03-01

    Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 15 mM), and furfural (20 mM) as the carbon and energy sources, followed by an additional transfer into a corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) prepared using dilute acid. Subsequently, based on stable growth on these substrates, six isolates--including five bacteria related to Methylobacterium extorquens, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter aurescens, and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria--were chosen. All six isolates depleted toxic compounds from defined medium, but only C. ligniaria C8 (NRRL 30616) was effective at eliminating furfural and 5-HMF from CSH. C. ligniaria NRRL 30616 may be useful in developing a bioprocess for inhibitor abatement in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. PMID:12908085

  7. Isolation and evaluation of microorganisms for MEOR process; Yuyo biseibutsu no tansaku to hyoka

    Taguchi, M.; Asaumi, H.; Yonebayashi, E. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    JNOC has been carrying out isolation of microorganisms for MEOR since 1988. This process strongly depends on abilities of microorganisms. To increase temperature criterion for MEOR, a survey of thermophilic microorganisms has been carried out. As a result, five microorganisms which can survive at 80-85 degree C and produce gas and/or show emulsification were isolated. (author)

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  10. Community of thermoacidophilic and arsenic resistant microorganisms isolated from a deep profile of mine heaps.

    Casas-Flores, S; Gómez-Rodríguez, E Y; García-Meza, J V

    2015-12-01

    Soluble arsenic (As) in acidic feed solution may inhibit the copper (Cu) bioleaching process within mine heaps. To clarify the effect of soluble arsenic on the live biomass and bioxidative activity in heaps, toxicological assays were performed using a synthetic feed solution given by a mine company. The microorganisms had previously been isolated from two heap samples at up to 66 m depth, and cultured using specific media for chemolithotrophic acidophiles (pH 1-2) and moderate thermophiles (48°C), for arsenic tolerance assay. The four media with the highest biomass were selected to assay As-resistance; one culture (Q63h) was chosen to assay biooxidative activity, using a heap sample that contained chalcopyrite and covellite. We found that 0.5 g/L of As does not affect living biomass or biooxidative activity on Cu sulfides, but it dissolves Cu, while As precipitates as arsenic acid (H3AsO4·½H2O). The arsenic tolerant community, as identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was composed of three main metabolic groups: chemolithotrophs (Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus); chemolithoheterotrophs and organoheterotrophs as Acidovorax temperans, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and Sphingomonas spp. Leptospirillum spp. and S. thermosulfidooxidans were the dominant taxa in the Q63-66 cultures from the deepest sample of the oldest, highest-temperature heap. The results indicated arsenic resistance in the microbial community, therefore specific primers were used to amplify ars (arsenic resistance system), aio (arsenite oxidase), or arr (arsenate respiratory reduction) genes from total sample DNA. Presence of arsB genes in S. thermosulfidooxidans in the Q63-66 cultures permits H3AsO4-As(V) detoxification and strengthens the community's response to As. PMID:26283066

  11. A Novel Method Isolated Microorganisms in Soil Granule

    Liu Bao-ping; Xiang Wen-sheng; Wang Hong-yan; Fu Shi-cong

    2012-01-01

    A novel method isolated microorganisms in soil granule was built. The key steps included: repeated elutriation of soil by sterilized water, inoculation on the plates with the elutriated sediments, incubation of the plates and isolation of the actinomycetes by using selected culture medium. We formulated that most microflora included the dominant actinomycetes in the soil were carried away with the sterilized water in the elutriation procedure, some rare actinomycetes and few other microflora included bacteria were remained in the elutriated sediments, the other microflora were excluded to grew into colonies on the plates by using selective culture medium for actinomycetes in the elutriated sediments. Results showed the supposition. Non-streptomycete actinomycetes were isolated both from black soil samples from Chinese northeast area and compost samples from Chinese central area. Soil fungi in granule were isolated by using the selective conditions to favor fungi. The results showed that the method was effective

  12. Coaggregation occurs between microorganisms isolated from different environments.

    Stevens, Michael R E; Luo, Ting L; Vornhagen, Jay; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Marrs, Carl F; Møretrø, Trond; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-11-01

    Coaggregation, the specific recognition and adherence of different microbial species, is thought to enhance biofilm formation. To date, no studies have focused on the ability of microorganisms isolated from a broad range of environments to coaggregate with each other and it is unclear whether coaggregation promotes the transmission of microorganisms between environmental niches. We aimed to evaluate the coaggregation ability of 29 bacteria and one fungus, isolated from a range of different environments, and to characterize the cell-surface polymers that mediate coaggregation between selected pairs. Strains were categorized as belonging to one of the four microbial archetypes: aquatic, broad environment, human opportunistic pathogen or human oral. A total of 23 of the 30 strains (77%) coaggregated with at least one other and 21/30 (70%) coaggregated with strains belonging to other archetypes. Nasopharyngeal bacteria belonging to the human opportunistic pathogen archetype showed the least number of coaggregations, and five Haemophilus influenzae strains did not coaggregate. Protease and sugar treatments indicated that coaggregation between strains of different archetypes was often mediated by lectin-saccharide interactions (9 of 15 evaluated pairs). In conclusion, coaggregation can occur between taxonomically disparate species isolated from discrete environments. We propose that these organisms be labeled as 'cross-environment coaggregating organisms'. The ability to coaggregate may aid species to colonize non-indigenous biofilms. PMID:26475462

  13. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency. PMID:24459833

  14. Removal and Recovery of Uranium using Microorganisms Isolated from North American Uranium Deposits

    Takehiko Tsuruta

    2007-01-01

    Some attempts were made to remove and recover uranium that may be present in nuclear fuel effluents and mine tailings using microorganisms isolated from North American uranium deposits. To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, hundreds strains of microorganisms were screened. Of these strains of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium accumulating ability was found in some bacteria isolated from North American uranium deposits. These bacterial strains, such as Arth...

  15. Enhanced Productivity of a Lutein-Enriched Novel Acidophile Microalga Grown on Urea

    Carlos Vilchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccomyxa acidophila is an extremophile eukaryotic microalga isolated from the Tinto River mining area in Huelva, Spain. Coccomyxa acidophila accumulates relevant amounts of b-carotene and lutein, well-known carotenoids with many biotechnological applications, especially in food and health-related industries. The acidic culture medium (pH < 2.5 that prevents outdoor cultivation from non-desired microorganism growth is one of the main advantages of acidophile microalgae production. Conversely, acidophile microalgae growth rates are usually very low compared to common microalgae growth rates. In this work, we show that mixotrophic cultivation on urea efficiently enhances growth and productivity of an acidophile microalga up to typical values for common microalgae, therefore approaching acidophile algal production towards suitable conditions for feasible outdoor production. Algal productivity and potential for carotenoid accumulation were analyzed as a function of the nitrogen source supplied. Several nitrogen conditions were assayed: nitrogen starvation, nitrate and/or nitrite, ammonia and urea. Among them, urea clearly led to the best cell growth (~4 ´ 108 cells/mL at the end of log phase. Ammonium led to the maximum chlorophyll and carotenoid content per volume unit (220 mg·mL-1 and 35 mg·mL-1, respectively. Interestingly, no significant differences in growth rates were found in cultures grown on urea as C and N source, with respect to those cultures grown on nitrate and CO2 as nitrogen and carbon sources (control cultures. Lutein accumulated up to 3.55 mg·g-1 in the mixotrophic cultures grown on urea. In addition, algal growth in a shaded culture revealed the first evidence for an active xanthophylls cycle operative in acidophile microalgae.

  16. Strategies for the isolation of microorganisms responsible for polyphosphate accumulation

    Several strategies were used to isolate organisms involved in the uptake and subsequent release of inorganic phosphate from waste water sludge. These included direct staining for polyphosphates (polyP), growing in 32P inorganic phosphate followed by autoradiography, resistance to dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCCD), an ATPase inhibitor, and isolation on the basis of the buoyant density of the cell. Among those microorganisms isolated, three were identified as Acinetobacter Iwoffii, A. calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas vesicularis. The P. vesicularis culture had 31% of phosphate as polyP. 31P NMR analysis of the whole cells revealed the presence of polyP when the cultures were grown aerobically to the late stationary phase and its subsequent loss during anaerobic incubation. Loss of polyP was also associated with a decrease in buoyant density of the cell. In the presence of DCCD, there was a decrease in the polyP peak, but a substantial increase in the sugar phosphates which is consistent with a hypothesis that polyP is used as a reserve energy source. P. vesicularis cells showed a two-fold increase in the level of polyphosphatase during early stationary phase, but a thirty-fold increase in polyphosphate kinase activity during late stationary phase. This increased enzyme activity is consistent with the increased polyP synthesis during the late stationary phase. 31 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D10 values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x102 mold counts/g and 3-6x107 bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays. (Author)

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudomonas spp. AS AMOEBA-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN ISOLATES OF Acanthamoeba

    Vinicius José Maschio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a “Trojan horse” of the microbial world. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Pseudomonas as an amoeba-resistant microorganism in 12 isolates of Acanthamoeba. All isolates showed the genus Pseudomonas spp. as amoeba-resistant microorganisms. Thus, one can see that the Acanthamoeba isolates studied are hosts of Pseudomonas.

  19. Genomic insights into a new acidophilic, copper-resistant Desulfosporosinus isolate from the oxidized tailings area of an abandoned gold mine.

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Panova, Inna A; Beletsky, Alexey V; Avakyan, Marat R; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Antsiferov, Dmitry V; Banks, David; Frank, Yulia A; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Karnachuk, Olga V

    2016-08-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in acid mine drainage is still considered to be confined to anoxic conditions, although several reports have shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria occur under microaerophilic or aerobic conditions. We have measured sulfate reduction rates of up to 60 nmol S cm(-3) day(-1) in oxidized layers of gold mine tailings in Kuzbass (SW Siberia). A novel, acidophilic, copper-tolerant Desulfosporosinus sp. I2 was isolated from the same sample and its genome was sequenced. The genomic analysis and physiological data indicate the involvement of transporters and additional mechanisms to tolerate metals, such as sequestration by polyphosphates. Desulfosporinus sp. I2 encodes systems for a metabolically versatile life style. The genome possessed a complete Embden-Meyerhof pathway for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Complete oxidation of organic substrates could be enabled by the complete TCA cycle. Genomic analysis found all major components of the electron transfer chain necessary for energy generation via oxidative phosphorylation. Autotrophic CO2 fixation could be performed through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Multiple oxygen detoxification systems were identified in the genome. Taking into account the metabolic activity and genomic analysis, the traits of the novel isolate broaden our understanding of active sulfate reduction and associated metabolism beyond strictly anaerobic niches. PMID:27222219

  20. Radiosensitivity of microorganisms isolated from radioactive waste repository

    Bacteria are much more diverse in comparison with plants and animals. Among the huge diversity of bacteria there are microorganisms capable to grow at or adapt to extreme conditions. Some bacteria grow at temperature above 100 deg. C, other thrive in high salinity such as 20-30% NaCl, still others can live at pH lower than 2 or pH higher than 10 or exhibit high radioresistance. Due to accelerated disarmament and nuclear energy activities, large quantities of radioactive waste and nuclear fuel are being placed in storage areas. The awareness the microbial activity could potentially effect the performance of a system for geological disposal of radioactive waste gained acceptance in the early to middle 1980s, and as a result many countries considering developing programmes to study and quantify microbial effects in terms of their own particular disposal concept. A new research programme was launched in 1995, sponsored by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division, for studying microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in radioactive waste repositories and spent fuel storage area. Our programme concerns several major items that may have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides in direct and indirect ways thereby being important for the safety analysis. They are uptake and transport of radionuclides by microorganisms, diversity and distribution of subterranean bacteria in typical repository environments, environmental limitation and bacterial activity, effect of bacterial activity on the mobility of radionuclides, microbial gas production and consumption, bacterial recombination of hydrogen and oxygen from radiolysis, and microbially induced corrosion of waste canister. The Permian Boda Claystone Formation in the Mecsek Hill area is being considered for high level waste disposal. Groundwater, technical water, rock and surface samples were collected aseptically from different depths. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of aerobic and anaerobe isolates were

  1. Radiation-resistant micro-organisms isolated from textiles

    Towels from private homes and public offices and underwear contaminated by being used by employees at a public health laboratory were examined for occurrence of radiation-resistant bacteria and fungi. Three different methods were used for isolation of the most resistant organisms, one with multiplication of the microbial population prior to an irradiation used for selection, and two witout this multiplication and with the organisms placed on membrane filters or in situ on the textiles, respectively. A total of 44 different strains were isolated. Differences in the three methods used for selection of the most radiation-resistant microorganisms were not reflected in the results. 16 pigmentproducing Gram-positive cocci, tentatively classified as Micrococcus radiodurans, were the most radiation-resistant and were isolated in about half of the examinations. Other Gram-positive cocci, nonspore forming rods, some Nocardia and Candida parapsilosis strains and two Bacillus strains constituted the rest of the collection. With few exceptions dose-response curves for the strains were upward convex. D-6 values determined to be between 1.5 megarad for the most radiation sensitive, a Candida, and 5.7 megarad for the most resistant, tentatively classified as M. radiodurans. The D-6 values for the Bacillus strains were in both cases 1.8 megarad, consistent with a D-value of 0.3 megarad. The same resistance is reported to be the maximum resistance for B. pumilus, strain E601, commonly used as reference strain in the literature on radiation sterilization of medical devices and supplies. (author)

  2. The aerobic respiratory chain of the acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum: A membrane-bound complex oxidizing ferrous iron.

    Castelle, Cindy J; Roger, Magali; Bauzan, Marielle; Brugna, Myriam; Lignon, Sabrina; Nimtz, Manfred; Golyshina, Olga V; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Guiral, Marianne

    2015-08-01

    The extremely acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum is found in iron-rich biomining environments and is an important micro-organism in naturally occurring microbial communities in acid mine drainage. F. acidiphilum is an iron oxidizer that belongs to the order Thermoplasmatales (Euryarchaeota), which harbors the most extremely acidophilic micro-organisms known so far. At present, little is known about the nature or the structural and functional organization of the proteins in F. acidiphilum that impact the iron biogeochemical cycle. We combine here biochemical and biophysical techniques such as enzyme purification, activity measurements, proteomics and spectroscopy to characterize the iron oxidation pathway(s) in F. acidiphilum. We isolated two respiratory membrane protein complexes: a 850 kDa complex containing an aa3-type cytochrome oxidase and a blue copper protein, which directly oxidizes ferrous iron and reduces molecular oxygen, and a 150 kDa cytochrome ba complex likely composed of a di-heme cytochrome and a Rieske protein. We tentatively propose that both of these complexes are involved in iron oxidation respiratory chains, functioning in the so-called uphill and downhill electron flow pathways, consistent with autotrophic life. The cytochrome ba complex could possibly play a role in regenerating reducing equivalents by a reverse ('uphill') electron flow. This study constitutes the first detailed biochemical investigation of the metalloproteins that are potentially directly involved in iron-mediated energy conservation in a member of the acidophilic archaea of the genus Ferroplasma. PMID:25896560

  3. Genome Sequence of the Acidophilic Bacterium Acidocella sp. Strain MX-AZ02

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E.; Garrett, Roger A.; Amils, Ricardo;

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acidocella sp. strain MX-AZ02, an acidophilic and heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a geothermal lake in western Mexico.......Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Acidocella sp. strain MX-AZ02, an acidophilic and heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a geothermal lake in western Mexico....

  4. PCR-mediated detection of acidophilic, bioleaching-associated bacteria.

    De Wulf-Durand, P; Bryant, L J; Sly, L I

    1997-01-01

    The detection of acidophilic microorganisms from mining environments by culture methods is time consuming and unreliable. Several PCR approaches were developed to amplify small-subunit rRNA sequences from the DNA of six bacterial phylotypes associated with acidic mining environments, permitting the detection of the target DNA at concentrations as low as 10 fg.

  5. Isolation of a New Broad-Host-Range IncQ-Like Plasmid, pTC-F14, from the Acidophilic Bacterium Acidithiobacillus caldus and Analysis of the Plasmid Replicon

    Gardner, Murray N.; Deane, Shelly M.; Rawlings, Douglas E

    2001-01-01

    A moderately thermophilic (45 to 50°C), highly acidophilic (pH 1.5 to 2.5), chemolithotrophic Acidithiobacillus caldus strain, f, was isolated from a biooxidation process used to treat nickel ore. Trans-alternating field electrophoresis analysis of total DNA from the A. caldus cells revealed two plasmids of approximately 14 and 45 kb. The 14-kb plasmid, designated pTC-F14, was cloned and shown by replacement of the cloning vector with a kanamycin resistance gene to be capable of autonomous re...

  6. Draft genome sequence of extremely acidophilic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans DLC-5 isolated from acid mine drainage in Northeast China

    Peng Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans type strain DLC-5, isolated from Wudalianchi in Heihe of Heilongjiang Province, China. Here, we present the draft genome of strain DLC-5 which contains 4,232,149 bp in 2745 contigs with 57.628% GC content and includes 32,719 protein-coding genes and 64 tRNA-encoding genes. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. JNNH00000000.1.

  7. Diversity of cultivable microorganisms isolated from ixodid ticks

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Masaříková, J.; Švec, P.; Nováková, D.; Sedláček, I.; Mendel, Jan; Papoušek, Ivo

    Istanbul: International Union of Microbiological Societies, 2008. s. 153-154. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ticks * diversity * microorganisms * bacteria * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.iums2008.org/BAM_pdf.pdf

  8. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y; Jin, Haojie; Wang, S; Xu, F; Zhao, S; Geng, X

    2011-01-01

    isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene se-quence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas......, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms...

  9. Isolation of microorganisms capable of degrading isoquinoline under aerobic conditions.

    Aislabie, J; Rothenburger, S; Atlas, R M

    1989-01-01

    Isoquinoline-degrading microbial cultures were isolated from oil- and creosote-contaminated soils. The establishment of initial enrichment cultures required the use of emulsified isoquinoline. Once growth on isoquinoline was established, isoquinoline emulsification was no longer required for utilization of isoquinoline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen by these cultures. An isoquinoline-degrading Acinetobacter strain was isolated from one of the enrichment cultures. The degradation of...

  10. Isolation of Microorganisms Using Sub-Micrometer Constrictions

    Tandogan, Nil; Abadian, Pegah N.; Epstein, Slava; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Goluch, Edgar D.

    2014-01-01

    We present an automated method for isolating pure bacterial cultures from samples containing multiple species that exploits the cell's own physiology to perform the separation. Cells compete to reach a chamber containing nutrients via a constriction whose cross-sectional area only permits a single cell to enter, thereby blocking the opening and preventing other cells from entering. The winning cell divides across the constriction and its progeny populate the chamber. The devices are passive a...

  11. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D15value of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  12. Microorganisms Isolated from the Patients in the Intensive Care Unit and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities

    Harun Aðca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Aim:  It was aimed to investigate the microorganisms and their antibiotic susceptibilities isolated from various clinical specimens sent from the intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2010 and June 2011.Material and Method: Standard microbiological methods were assessed for the isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibilites were investigated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standards by disc diffusion method. Result: In 236 samples microorganisms were isolated through 538 various clinical specimens. The most common isolated microorganisms are Acinetobacter baumanii 49 (%21, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 49 (%21, Escherichia coli 47 (%20, Candida spp. 22 (%9 and Enterococcus spp. 21 (%9 respectively. One of the most common isolated bacteria Acinetobacter baumanii strains are extremely resistant and their suscepitibilty against amikacin and imipenem were both found to be %8. While in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were found to be %80 susceptibile to amikacin, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was %35. The highest resistance in E.coli was 87% against ampicillin and the least resistance was against imipeneme as 5%. While no resistance against  vancomycin in Enterococci, penicillin resistance was found to be 86%. Penicillin resistance in S. aureus was found 86% and oxacillin resistance was found 43%. Discussion: Knowledge of microorganism variety and the profile of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, especially in the ICU which is risky, against infectious disease is important in rational antibotic usage and infection control precautions.

  13. Removal and Recovery of Uranium using Microorganisms Isolated from North American Uranium Deposits

    Takehiko Tsuruta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some attempts were made to remove and recover uranium that may be present in nuclear fuel effluents and mine tailings using microorganisms isolated from North American uranium deposits. To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, hundreds strains of microorganisms were screened. Of these strains of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium accumulating ability was found in some bacteria isolated from North American uranium deposits. These bacterial strains, such as Arthrobacter and Bacillus sp., can accumulate about 2500 µmol uranium per gram dry wt. of microbial cells within one hour. These microbial cells can remove uranium from the uranium refining waste water with high efficiency. These microbial cells can also accumulate thorium as well as uranium with high efficiency. The microbial cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel have excellent handling characteristics and can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption cycles. These new microorganisms isolated from uranium deposits can be used as an adsorbing agent for the removal of the nuclear fuel elements, which may be present in nuclear fuel effluents, mine tailings and other waste sources.

  14. Biosorption of uranium by microorganisms isolated from soil

    The quantitative distribution of microbial species of different layers (surface layer, 1.5 m, 2.5 m, 3.5 m) isolated from intended as a low-level radioactive landfill site has been investigated using traditional plate colony count. Bio-sorption of U using two kinds of fungi isolated from 3.5 m layer is studied. Solution pH value, bio-sorption time, adsorbent dosage, U initial concentration and temperature are researched. The results showed that F1, F2 had marked absorption effect on U, but the interaction regular pattern between F1, F2 and U was different. The maximum removal rate 90% was gained for F1 at pH5, while the maximum removal rate 97% was got for F2 at pH4; The kinetics adsorption model of both F1 and F2 followed pseudo-second order model. Biosorption equilibrium of F1 was established in 2 h. While F2 needed 12 h to establish bio-sorption equilibrium; In the studied concentration range of uranium, the isotherms biosorption process of F1 conformed to Freundlich equation, while F2 fitted well to Langmuir equation. The adsorption rate of F1 presented a slow pace of decline in the range of 50-600 ℃. (authors)

  15. Taxonomical study of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms isolated from the denitrification unit biocenosis

    Elena Sláviková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of 8 strains of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms was isolated from the denitrification unit biocenosis fed with a synthetic medium containing methanol as a carbon source. These strains were identified as Candida boidinii, C. maltosa, Rhodotorula rubra and Trichosporon cutaneum.

  16. Taxonomical study of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms isolated from the denitrification unit biocenosis

    Elena Sláviková; Anna Grabińska-Łoniewska

    2014-01-01

    A set of 8 strains of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms was isolated from the denitrification unit biocenosis fed with a synthetic medium containing methanol as a carbon source. These strains were identified as Candida boidinii, C. maltosa, Rhodotorula rubra and Trichosporon cutaneum.

  17. Susceptibility Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated by Percutaneous Needle Biopsy in Nonbacteremic Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    Desoutter, Sophie; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Ghout, Idir; Issartel, Bertrand; Dinh, Aurélien; Martin, Arnaud; Carlier, Robert; Bernard, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is diagnosed according to several lines of evidence: clinical, biological, radiological, and histological. Definitive diagnosis requires the isolation of a causative pathogen or histological confirmation. The aim of our study was to describe the microorganisms isolated by percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) and to analyze their susceptibility patterns, in order to assess the possibility of empirical combination therapy for the treatment of nonbacteremic pati...

  18. Biodegradation of oil refinery residues using mixed-culture of microorganisms isolated from a landfarming

    Eduardo Beraldo de Morais; Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the potential for using an inoculum composed of a mixed-culture of bacteria and fungi, isolated from a landfarming at the Paulínia Oil Refinery, Brazil, to degrade oil residues generated in the process of petroleum refinement was investigated. The isolation of these microorganisms was carried out beforehand, assuming that they would be better adapted to petroleum hydrocarbons, as the landfarming consisted of an area impacted by the deposit of such compounds. The Bartha and Pram...

  19. Microorganisms Isolated from the Patients in the Intensive Care Unit and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities

    Harun Aðca

    2013-01-01

     Aim:  It was aimed to investigate the microorganisms and their antibiotic susceptibilities isolated from various clinical specimens sent from the intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2010 and June 2011.Material and Method: Standard microbiological methods were assessed for the isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibilites were investigated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards by disc diffusion me...

  20. Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria of Acidic Mine Waters

    Wichlacz, Paul L.; Unz, Richard F.

    1981-01-01

    Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and ...

  1. Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region

    Peng Wang, Yu Liu, Yonggang Yin, Haojie Jin, Shouxian Wang, Feng Xu, Shuang Zhao, Xiaoli Geng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus.

  2. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Vaginal Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in Bangalore, India

    Nagalakshmi Narayana-Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vagina contains dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and is, therefore, considered a complex environment. Among the microorganisms, bacteria have important repercussions on women’s health. The present study was conducted especially to elucidate this type of vaginal isolates and their sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sapthagiri Hospital, Bangalore, India from January 2012 to December 2013. All symptomatic women who had a high vaginal swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method (modified Kirby-Bauer method. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated microorganisms were studied. Results: Out of 200 patients, 95% had positive vaginal cultures. Fifteen types of microorganisms were isolated. The highest frequency of infection was observed at the age of 20-30 years, followed by 41-50 years and 31-40 years, and a low frequency of infection was observed above 50 years of age. The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae and diphtheroids with equal incidence. Among the antibiotics tested, isolated pathogens were completely resistant to nalidixic acid and highly sensitive to meropenem and imepenem. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gynaecological infections demands that patients with symptoms undergo thorough investigation with cultures and sensitivity essays. Changes in treatment protocols are required to treat vaginal infections effectively.

  3. Heavy metal resistance strategies of acidophilic bacteria and their acquisition: importance for biomining and bioremediation.

    Navarro, Claudio A; von Bernath, Diego; Jerez, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial solubilizing of metals in acid environments is successfully used in industrial bioleaching of ores or biomining to extract metals such as copper, gold, uranium and others. This is done mainly by acidophilic and other microorganisms that mobilize metals and generate acid mine drainage or AMD, causing serious environmental problems. However, bioremediation or removal of the toxic metals from contaminated soils can be achieved by using the specific properties of the acidophilic microorganisms interacting with these elements. These bacteria resist high levels of metals by using a few "canonical" systems such as active efflux or trapping of the metal ions by metal chaperones. Nonetheless, gene duplications, the presence of genomic islands, the existence of additional mechanisms such as passive instruments for pH and cation homeostasis in acidophiles and an inorganic polyphosphate-driven metal resistance mechanism have also been proposed. Horizontal gene transfer in environmental microorganisms present in natural ecosystems is considered to be an important mechanism in their adaptive evolution. This process is carried out by different mobile genetic elements, including genomic islands (GI), which increase the adaptability and versatility of the microorganism. This mini-review also describes the possible role of GIs in metal resistance of some environmental microorganisms of importance in biomining and bioremediation of metal polluted environments such as Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, a moderate acidophilic microorganism, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains ATCC 23270 and ATCC 53993, all extreme acidophiles able to tolerate exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Some of these bacteria contain variable numbers of GIs, most of which code for high numbers of genes related to metal resistance. In some cases there is an apparent correlation between the number of metal resistance genes and the metal tolerance of each of these

  4. Grazing of acidophilic bacteria by a flagellated protozoan.

    McGinness, S; Johnson, D B

    1992-01-01

    A biflagellated protozoan was isolated from an acidic drainage stream located inside a disused pyrite mine. The stream contained copious amounts of "acid streamer" bacterial growths, and the flagellate was observed in situ apparently grazing the streamer bacteria. The protozoan was obligately acidophilic, growing between pH 1.8 and 4.5, but not at pH 1.6 or 5.0, with optimum growth between pH 3 and 4. It was highly sensitive to copper, molybdenum, silver, and uranium, but tolerated ferrous and ferric iron up to 50 and 25 mM, respectively. In the laboratory, the protozoan was found to graze a range of acidophilic bacteria, including the chemolithotrophs Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, and the heterotroph Acidiphilium cryptum. Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Thiobacillus acidophilus were not grazed. Filamentous growth of certain acidophiles afforded some protection against being grazed by the flagellate. In mixed cultures of T. ferrooxidans and L. ferrooxidans, the protozoan isolate displayed preferential grazing of the former. The possibility of using acidophilic protozoa as a means of controlling bacteria responsible for the production of acid mine drainage is discussed. PMID:24192830

  5. Isolation of microorganisms involved in reduction of crystalline iron(III oxides in natural environments

    Tomoyuki eHori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides is one of the most important electron sinks for organic compound oxidation in natural environments. Yet a limited number of isolates makes it difficult to understand physiology and ecological impact of the microorganisms involved. Here, two-staged cultivation was implemented to selectively enrich and isolate crystalline iron(III reducers in soils and sediments. Firstly, iron reducers were enriched and other untargeted eutrophs were depleted by two-year successive culture on a crystalline ferric iron oxide (i.e., goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, or magnetite as electron acceptor. Fifty-eight out of 136 incubation conditions allowed the continued existence of microorganisms as confirmed by PCR amplification. High-throughput Illumina sequencing based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures on each of the ferric iron oxides contained bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria (mainly Geobacteraceae, followed by Firmicutes and Chloroflexi, which also comprised most of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified. The Venn diagrams indicated that the core OTUs enriched with all of the iron oxides were dominant in the Geobacteraceae. Secondly, 38 enrichment cultures including novel microorganisms were transferred to soluble-iron(III media in order to stimulate proliferation of the enriched iron reducers. Through extinction dilution-culture and single colony isolation, six strains within the Deltaproteobacteria were finally obtained; five strains belonged to the genus Geobacter and one strain to Pelobacter. These isolates had 94.8–98.1% sequence similarities of 16S rRNA genes to cultured relatives. All the isolates were able to grow on acetate and ferric iron but their physiological characteristics differed considerably in terms of growth rate. The results demonstrate the successful enrichment and isolation of novel iron(III reducers that were able to thrive by reducing highly

  6. Isolation and screening of microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of terpenic substrates

    Mário César Jucoski Bier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to isolate and select strains with potential to perform the biotransformation of terpenic substrates. Microorganisms obtained from a collection culture and also isolated from a natural source of terpene substrate were tested. Seventeen strains were selected by their resistance to terpenes in potato dextrose agar containing up to 1% of limonene or α-pinene and β-pinene (1:1. Subsequently, 10 strains were selected by their capacity of using these terpenes as sole carbon source in a mineral medium. The biotransformation capacity of these strains was tested and the products obtained were identified by GC-MS.

  7. Isolation of a microorganism capable of degrading poly-(L-lactide).

    Ikura, Yoko; Kudo, Toshiaki

    1999-10-01

    The isolation of poly-(L-lactide) (PLA)-degrading microorganisms was investigated. A PLA-degrading actinomycete, strain No. 3118, was isolated and tentatively identified as a member of the genus Amycolatopsis. The optimum conditions for degradation of PLA were 43 degrees C at about pH 7 in a mineral salt medium with a low concentration of organic nutrients (0.002% yeast extract). The original shape of PLA film (Mw=2.3x10(5) after sterilization, 20 &mgr;m thick) disappeared within 2 weeks. Lactic acid was detected after the film was incubated with culture supernatant. PMID:12501367

  8. Isolation of microorganisms with chinitase, protease and keratinase activities from petroleum contaminated soils

    Cervantes-Gonzalez, E.; Rojas-Avelizapa, L.; Cruz-Camarillo, R. [1 Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratorio de Enzimas Microbianas, Mexico City (Mexico); Rojas-Avelizapa, N.G. [Programa de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The most important part in one process of bio-remediation are the microorganisms with the capacities to degrade target compounds, this research is based to find microorganisms hydrocarbon-clastic with enzyme activities to degrade chicken feather (keratinolytic activity) which is also a contaminant and has been used such as sorbent of petroleum and can be composted after the oil spill cleanup is complete, the isolation was also to degrade shrimp waste (chitinolitic and proteolitic activity) which is waste material that can be used in compost or such as sorbent of petroleum too. We isolated mesofilic aerobic microorganisms from mexican soils located in Tabasco, Mexico. We achieved to isolate 105 bacteria from 10 soils, 90% was Bacillus Gram (-) which are common in soils and all were hydrocarbon-clastic, only 7 different bacteria had protease and chitinase activity and 12 bacteria had keratinase activity. So we found three fungi and one actinomycete with capacity to degrade hydrocarbons and presence of chitinase activity. The results of growth and enzyme activities in liquid culture showed that the protease activity was produced between 18 and 48 h in almost all bacteria, the chitinase activity started at 12 h but was slight , only 0.5 U/ml, and the keratinase activity was produced after 6 h of incubation and there were correlation between logarithmic phase of growth and enzymes production. With this study we showed the existence of some enzyme activities from microorganisms that live in hostile habitats. This, can be useful in bio-treatment soils by the possible use of this type of residues that can be bio-degraded at the same time that the hydrocarbons increasing the speed or the quality of cleanup in soils. (authors)

  9. Isolation of microorganisms with chinitase, protease and keratinase activities from petroleum contaminated soils

    The most important part in one process of bio-remediation are the microorganisms with the capacities to degrade target compounds, this research is based to find microorganisms hydrocarbon-clastic with enzyme activities to degrade chicken feather (keratinolytic activity) which is also a contaminant and has been used such as sorbent of petroleum and can be composted after the oil spill cleanup is complete, the isolation was also to degrade shrimp waste (chitinolitic and proteolitic activity) which is waste material that can be used in compost or such as sorbent of petroleum too. We isolated mesofilic aerobic microorganisms from mexican soils located in Tabasco, Mexico. We achieved to isolate 105 bacteria from 10 soils, 90% was Bacillus Gram (-) which are common in soils and all were hydrocarbon-clastic, only 7 different bacteria had protease and chitinase activity and 12 bacteria had keratinase activity. So we found three fungi and one actinomycete with capacity to degrade hydrocarbons and presence of chitinase activity. The results of growth and enzyme activities in liquid culture showed that the protease activity was produced between 18 and 48 h in almost all bacteria, the chitinase activity started at 12 h but was slight , only 0.5 U/ml, and the keratinase activity was produced after 6 h of incubation and there were correlation between logarithmic phase of growth and enzymes production. With this study we showed the existence of some enzyme activities from microorganisms that live in hostile habitats. This, can be useful in bio-treatment soils by the possible use of this type of residues that can be bio-degraded at the same time that the hydrocarbons increasing the speed or the quality of cleanup in soils. (authors)

  10. Isolation of marine microorganisms from the Peniche coast with high biotechnological potential

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents more than two thirds of our planet and although it is a possible source of natural products with bioactivity, is still largely unexplored, which represents a huge window of opportunity. During the last decades Marine Biotechnology has focused some of their efforts in the search and study of marine bacteria and fungi. These microorganisms have been a valuable tool in several scientific studies, basically because they grow with relative ease, achieving considerable densities of cell mass. This is an important feature because these organisms also produce bioactive compounds, with applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food area, among others. Such compounds frequently arise from defense mechanisms or as response to stress. Annually, a growing number of new compounds from marine organisms are discovered, characterized and identified, and from these most are originated from bacteria and fungi. In the search process for natural products with proven activity, it is generally accepted that one should have a diverse and largely unexplored repertoire of microorganisms, as it enlarges the possibility of obtaining new and diverse metabolites. In the present work, results concerning the isolation of microorganisms of marine origin, obtained from the water and sediments of the Peniche coast, are shown. The main objective is to create a database of isolated microorganisms, and at the same time obtaining a basic characterization, with some interesting features from the biotechnology point of view, on viability of long-term of their cultures, as well as prepare raw extracts for bioactivity screening. Also basic microbiology characteristics will be register: gram stain, catalase, oxidase, use of different sugars and amino acids as a carbon source and on different concentrations growths of salinity, relatively to 20 strains already isolated.

  11. Strain-resolved community proteomics reveals recombining genomes of acidophilic bacteria

    Lo, I [University of California, Berkeley; Denef, Vincent [University of California, Berkeley; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Goltsman, Daniela [University of California, Berkeley; DiBartolo, Genevieve [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tyson, Gene W. [University of California, Berkeley; Allen, Eric E. [University of California, Berkeley; Ram, Rachna J. [University of California, Berkeley; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Thelen, Michael P. [University of California, Berkeley; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

    2007-01-01

    Microbes comprise the majority of extant organisms, yet much remains to be learned about the nature and driving forces of microbial diversification. Our understanding of how microorganisms adapt and evolve can be advanced by genome-wide documentation of the patterns of genetic exchange, particularly if analyses target coexisting members of natural communities. Here we use community genomic data sets to identify, with strain specificity, expressed proteins from the dominant member of a genomically uncharacterized, natural, acidophilic biofilm. Proteomics results reveal a genome shaped by recombination involving chromosomal regions of tens to hundreds of kilobases long that are derived from two closely related bacterial populations. Inter-population genetic exchange was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing of isolates and of uncultivated natural consortia. The findings suggest that exchange of large blocks of gene variants is crucial for the adaptation to specific ecological niches within the very acidic, metalrich environment. Mass-spectrometry-based discrimination of expressed protein products that differ by as little as a single amino acid enables us to distinguish the behaviour of closely related coexisting organisms. This is important, given that microorganisms grouped together as a single species may have quite distinct roles in natural systems1-3 and their interactions might be key to ecosystem optimization. Because proteomic data simultaneously convey information about genome type and activity, strainresolved community proteomics is an important complement to cultivation-independent genomic (metagenomic) analysis4-6 of microorganisms in the natural environment.

  12. Bioleaching in brackish waters--effect of chloride ions on the acidophile population and proteomes of model species.

    Zammit, Carla M; Mangold, Stefanie; Jonna, Venkateswara rao; Mutch, Lesley A; Watling, Helen R; Dopson, Mark; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of chloride ions inhibit the growth of acidophilic microorganisms used in biomining, a problem particularly relevant to Western Australian and Chilean biomining operations. Despite this, little is known about the mechanisms acidophiles adopt in order to tolerate high chloride ion concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the impact of increasing concentrations of chloride ions on the population dynamics of a mixed culture during pyrite bioleaching and apply proteomics to elucidate how two species from this mixed culture alter their proteomes under chloride stress. A mixture consisting of well-known biomining microorganisms and an enrichment culture obtained from an acidic saline drain were tested for their ability to bioleach pyrite in the presence of 0, 3.5, 7, and 20 g L(-1) NaCl. Microorganisms from the enrichment culture were found to out-compete the known biomining microorganisms, independent of the chloride ion concentration. The proteomes of the Gram-positive acidophile Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans and the Gram-negative acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus grown in the presence or absence of chloride ions were investigated. Analysis of differential expression showed that acidophilic microorganisms adopted several changes in their proteomes in the presence of chloride ions, suggesting the following strategies to combat the NaCl stress: adaptation of the cell membrane, the accumulation of amino acids possibly as a form of osmoprotectant, and the expression of a YceI family protein involved in acid and osmotic-related stress. PMID:22124722

  13. Microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments and their importance for astrobiology and theoretical biology

    Sergiu Fendrihan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the article is a review of the very controversial microbial life in subsurfaceenvironments like caves, rocks, mines, deep subsurface water and springs, in very special extremeenvironments. Material and Methods: the methods of isolation of the bacteria and archaea fromsubsurface environments are discussed too and analysed. Results: the results of years of investigationsshowed the possiblilities of adaptation to extreme environments and survival on very long periods oftimes, even geological eras, of some microorganisms. The inner biochemical, physical, biological andenergetic mechanisms are still not elucidated, even some features were discovered. Conclusion: anextensive and intensive work of cooperation in this field of activity is required to discover themechanisms of long term survival in extreme conditions of the subsurface microorganisms.

  14. PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM PERIWINKLES IN CREEKS SOUTH-SOUTH OF NIGERIA

    P. NWIYI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty pieces of periwinkle were obtain each from Yenogoa and Oron Creek. The periwinkle were of two genera namely: Pachymelania aurita obtained from Oronk Creek located in Akwa-Ibom State, while the Tympanotonus fuscatus notably a brackish water habitat was obtained from Yenogoa in Bayelsa state both in south-south Nigeria. Evaluation of possible microbiological isolate was carried out according to Cowan and Steel’s Manuel for medical Bacterial identification. The Creek in Yenogoa presented high level of Coliform count 2.6×105cfug-1 while the Oron Creek had an unacceptable load of Salmonella count 6×106cfug-1. The total bacterial count was highest in Oron Creek 1.46×108cfug-1 from Tympanotonus fuscatus. The microorganisms isolated from both Creeks were Esherichia coli, proteus sp, salmonella sp, pseudomonas sp and Enterobacter sp. Proteus sp was the least isolated while Salmonella sp was the highest.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms in JSC Mars-1 Simulant Soil

    Mendez, Claudia; Garza, Elizabeth; Gulati, Poonam; Morris, Penny A.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated and identified in samples of JSC Mars-1, a Mars simulant soil. JSC Mars-1 is an altered volcanic ash from a cinder cone south of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This material was chosen because of its similarity to the Martian soil in physical and chemical composition. The soil was obtained by excavating 40 cm deep in a vegetated area to prevent contamination. In previous studies, bacteria from this soil has been isolated by culturing on different types of media, including minimal media, and using biochemical techniques for identification. Isolation by culturing is successful only for a small percentage of the population. As a result, molecular techniques are being employed to identify microorganisms directly from the soil without culturing. In this study, bacteria were identified by purifying and sequencing the DNA encoding the 16s ribosomal RNA (16s rDNA). This gene is well conserved in species and demonstrates species specificity. In addition, biofilm formation, an indicator of microbial life, was studied with this soil. Biofilms are microbial communities consisting of microbes and exopolysaccharides secreted by them. This is a protective way of life for the microbes as they are more resistant to environmental pressures.

  16. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    Akpomie O.OF

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas having the highest cellulose activity. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Trichoderma sp. and Penicllium chrysogenum with cellulose activities of 0.24 + 0.021 0.19 + 0.031, 0.23 + 0.05 and 0.23 + 0.028iu/ml respectively. All the isolates were able to degrade the sawdust to varying extent. The percentage degradation was highest with Micrococcus sp. (78.20% and least with Trichoderma sp. (65.83%. The study shows that is a potential source of cellulolytic microorganisms which could be employed in the degradation of sawdust.

  17. Assessment of lipolytic activity of isolated microorganisms from the savannah of the Tocantins

    Marysa de Kássia Guedes Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study assesses the biodiversity and selects lipase-producer microorganisms with industrial interest, from the savannah of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Seventeen pequi microorganisms (Caryocar brasiliense were isolated in the decomposition stage and 35 microorganisms were retrieved from the soil fraction under the collected pequi. Yarrowia lypolitica strain was used as positive control in all assays. The 52 strains were subjected to tests in a solid medium with Tween 20 for checking halos formed by crystals, indicating lipase production by inoculated strains. Another test to confirm lipase producers was conducted in microplates with liquid medium and enriched with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP monitored at 410 ηm. The AS16 and AP5 strains showed the highest activity for test conditions, namely, 0.072 and 0.067 U mL-1 respectively. Rates were higher than the lipase activity of Yarrowia lypolitica(0.052 U mL-1, a reference strain in current assay.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-Positive Nickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Sediments

    Van Nostrand, J. D.; Khijniak, T. V.; Gentry, T. J.; Novak, M. T.; Sowder, A. G.; Zhou, J. Z.; Bertsch, P. M.; Morris, P. J.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminated with high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerant microorganisms. Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positive heterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. These isolates were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomyces galbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatospora cystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional gene microarray containing gene probes for functions associated with biogeochemical cycling, metal homeostasis, and organic contaminant degradation showed little overlap among the four isolates. Fifteen of the genes were detected in all four isolates with only two of these related to metal resistance, specifically to tellurium. Each of the four isolates also displayed resistance to at least one of six antibiotics tested, with resistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin observed in at least two of the isolates. Further characterization of S. aureofaciens NR-3 and K. cystarginea NR-4 demonstrated that both isolates expressed Ni tolerance constitutively. In addition, both were able to grow in higher concentrations of Ni at pH 6 as compared with pH 7 (42.6 and 8.5 mM Ni at pH 6 and 7, respectively). Tolerance to Cd, Co, and Zn was also examined in these two isolates; a similar pH-dependent metal tolerance was observed when grown with Co and Zn. Neither isolate was tolerant to Cd. These findings suggest that Ni is exerting a selection pressure at this site for metal-resistant actinomycetes.

  19. A proton shelter inspired by the sugar coating of acidophilic archaea

    Xiumei Wang; Bei’er Lv; Guixin Cai; Long Fu; Yuanzi Wu; Xiang Wang; Bin Ren; Hongwei Ma

    2012-01-01

    The acidophilic archaeons are a group of single-celled microorganisms that flourish in hot acid springs (usually pH < 3) but maintain their internal pH near neutral. Although there is a lack of direct evidence, the abundance of sugar modifications on the cell surface has been suggested to provide the acidophiles with protection against proton invasion. In this study, a hydroxyl (OH)-rich polymer brush layer was prepared to mimic the OH-rich sugar coating. Using a novel pH-sensitive dithioacet...

  20. Exploring the multiple biotechnological potential of halophilic microorganisms isolated from two Argentinean salterns.

    Nercessian, Débora; Di Meglio, Leonardo; De Castro, Rosana; Paggi, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    The biodiversity and biotechnological potential of microbes from central Argentinean halophilic environments have been poorly explored. Salitral Negro and Colorada Grande salterns are neutral hypersaline basins exploded for NaCl extraction. As part of an ecological analysis of these environments, two bacterial and seven archaeal representatives were isolated, identified and examined for their biotechnological potential. The presence of hydrolases (proteases, amylases, lipases, cellulases and nucleases) and bioactive molecules (surfactants and antimicrobial compounds) was screened. While all the isolates exhibited at least one of the tested activities or biocompounds, the species belonging to Haloarcula genus were the most active, also producing antimicrobial compounds against their counterparts. In general, the biosurfactants were more effective against olive oil and aromatic compounds than detergents (SDS or Triton X-100). Our results demonstrate the broad spectrum of activities with biotechnological potential exhibited by the microorganisms inhabiting the Argentinean salterns and reinforce the importance of screening pristine extreme environments to discover interesting/novel bioactive molecules. PMID:26369649

  1. Enhanced Degradation of Melanoidin and Caramel in Biomethanated Distillery Spentwash by Microorganisms Isolated from Mangroves

    Nagaraj Naik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Four microorganisms isolated from samples of mangrove areas were found to be promising and significantly decolorized spent wash. Incidentally, they showed higher phenol degradation and COD reductionas well. The individual colorants imparting the color to spent wash were fractionated. Degradation of melanoidin and caramel was confirmed by UV and FTIR spectral analysis. Decrease in OD of melanoidin and caramel at their 8 max and appearance of new peaks and changes in functional groups of compounds in the IR spectra with respect to control suggest their degradation. K1 was the best melanoidin (77% as well as caramel (54% degrader followed by other three isolates (Ku3, Rtb2 and EB4.

  2. Corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 by microorganisms isolated from aircraft fuel tanks.

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Leard, Ryan; Bearce, Ktisten; Dante, James; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms frequently contaminate jet fuel and cause corrosion of fuel tank metals. In the past, jet fuel contaminants included a diverse group of bacteria and fungi. The most common contaminant was the fungus Hormoconis resinae. However, the jet fuel community has been altered by changes in the composition of the fuel and is now dominated by bacterial contaminants. The purpose of this research was to determine the composition of the microbial community found in fuel tanks containing jet propellant-8 (JP-8) and to determine the potential of this community to cause corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 (AA2024). Isolates cultured from fuel tanks containing JP-8 were closely related to the genus Bacillus and the fungi Aureobasidium and Penicillium. Biocidal activity of the fuel system icing inhibitor diethylene glycol monomethyl ether is the most likely cause of the prevalence of endospore forming bacteria. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and metallographic analysis of AA2024 exposed to the fuel tank environment indicated that the isolates caused corrosion of AA2024. Despite the limited taxonomic diversity of microorganisms recovered from jet fuel, the community has the potential to corrode fuel tanks. PMID:16522539

  3. Investigation and Isolation of Cellulase-Producing microorganisms in the Red Sea

    Fatani, Siham

    2016-05-01

    Cellulolytic microorganisms are considered to be key players in biorefinery, especially for the utilization of plant biomass. These organisms have been isolated from various environments. The Red Sea is one of the seas with high biodiversity and a unique environment, characterized by high water temperature and high salinity . However, there is little information regarding cellulases in Red Sea environments. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the Red Sea as a gene resource for microbial cellulase. I first surveyed microbial cellulases in the Red Sea using a method called metagenomes, and then investigated their abundance and diversity. My survey revealed that the Red Sea biome has a substantial abundance and a wide range of cellulase enzymes with substantial abundance, when compared with those in other environments. Next, I tried to isolate cellulase-active microorganisms from the Red Sea and I successfully obtained seven strains of four different taxonomic groups. These strains showed a similarity of 99% identity to Aspergillus ustus, 99% to Staphylococcus pasteuri, 99% to Bacillus aerius and 99% to Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme assay I conducted, revealed that these strains actually secreted active cellulases. These results suggest that the Red Sea environment can be, indeed, an excellent gene resource of microbial cellulases.

  4. Susceptibility Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated by Percutaneous Needle Biopsy in Nonbacteremic Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis.

    Desoutter, Sophie; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Ghout, Idir; Issartel, Bertrand; Dinh, Aurélien; Martin, Arnaud; Carlier, Robert; Bernard, Louis

    2015-12-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is diagnosed according to several lines of evidence: clinical, biological, radiological, and histological. Definitive diagnosis requires the isolation of a causative pathogen or histological confirmation. The aim of our study was to describe the microorganisms isolated by percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) and to analyze their susceptibility patterns, in order to assess the possibility of empirical combination therapy for the treatment of nonbacteremic patients without resorting to PNB. Based on a French prospective multicenter study of 351 patients with VO, we compiled clinical, biological, and radiological findings for 101 patients with microbiologically confirmed VO. Based on antibiotic susceptibility testing of PNB isolated pathogens, the suitabilities of four antibiotic combinations were analyzed: ofloxacin plus rifampin, levofloxacin plus rifampin, ciprofloxacin plus clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate. The main causative pathogens identified were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (26% of isolates), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptoccocus spp. (13%), and enterobacteria (21%). Empirical antibiotic combination therapy was effective in nearly 75% of cases, and the different combinations gave similar results, except for ofloxacin-rifampin, which was effective in only 58% of cases. A "perfect" empirical antibiotic therapy does not exist. If PNB is not possible, a combination of a fluoroquinolone with clindamycin or rifampin can be used, but the high risk of microbiological failure does not allow the exclusion of PNB. (This study has been registered with EudraCT, number 2006-000951-18, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00764114.). PMID:26438497

  5. Gene loss and horizontal gene transfer contributed to the genome evolution of the extreme acidophile Ferrovum

    Sophie Roxana Ullrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD, associated with active and abandoned mining sites, is a habitat for acidophilic microorganisms that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous iron and that thrive at pH below 4. Members of the recently proposed genus Ferrovum are the first acidophilic iron oxidizers to be described within the Betaproteobacteria. Although they have been detected as typical community members in AMD habitats worldwide, knowledge of their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is scarce. Genomics approaches appear to be most promising in addressing this lacuna since isolation and cultivation of Ferrovum has proven to be extremely difficult and has so far only been successful for the designated type strain Ferrovum myxofaciens P3G. In this study, the genomes of two novel strains of Ferrovum (PN-J185 and Z-31 derived from water samples of a mine water treatment plant were sequenced. These genomes were compared with those of Ferrovum sp. JA12 that also originated from the mine water treatment plant, and of the type strain (P3G. Phylogenomic scrutiny suggests that the four strains represent three Ferrovum species that cluster in two groups (1 and 2. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted metabolic pathways revealed that these groups harbor characteristic metabolic profiles, notably with respect to motility, chemotaxis, nitrogen metabolism, biofilm formation and their potential strategies to cope with the acidic environment. For example, while the F. myxofaciens strains (group 1 appear to be motile and diazotrophic, the non-motile group 2 strains have the predicted potential to use a greater variety of fixed nitrogen sources. Furthermore, analysis of their genome synteny provides first insights into their genome evolution, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and genome reduction in the group 2 strains by loss of genes encoding complete metabolic pathways or physiological features contributed to the observed

  6. Screening for isolation and characterisation of microorganisms and enzymes with usefull potential for degradation of celullose and hemicelluose

    José Fernando Mikán Venegas; Diana Edith Castellanos Suárez

    2007-01-01

    A practical, applied microbiology and biotechnology model is presented for isolating and characterising micro-organisms, this being a tiny part of the immense biodiversity of tropical soils. These microbes' ability to produce depolymerases and accessory hydrolases degrading xyloglucans-pectates or glucoarabinoxylans is analysed to evaluate their potential for degrading plant material. We propose culturing micro-organisms on the cell wall as main carbon source and as hydrolitic activity induce...

  7. Metal resistance or tolerance? Acidophiles confront high metal loads via both abiotic and biotic mechanisms

    Mark eDopson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All metals are toxic at high concentrations and consequently their intracellular concentrations must be regulated. Acidophilic microorganisms have an optimum growth pH < 3 and proliferate in natural and anthropogenic low pH environments. Some acidophiles are involved in the catalysis of sulfide mineral dissolution, resulting in high concentrations of metals in solution. Acidophiles are often described as highly metal resistant via mechanisms such as multiple and/or more efficient active resistance systems than are present in neutrophiles. However, this is not the case for all acidophiles and we contend that their growth in high metal concentrations is partially due to an intrinsic tolerance as a consequence of the environment in which they live. In this perspective, we highlight metal tolerance via complexation of free metals by sulfate ions and passive tolerance to metal influx via an internal positive cytoplasmic transmembrane potential. These tolerance mechanisms have been largely ignored in past studies of acidophile growth in the presence of metals and should be taken into account.

  8. Degradation of 14C-parathion 'in vitro' by microorganisms isolated from a gley humic soil

    It was determined 'in vitro' the degradation of Parathion by a bacterium and a fungus isolated from a sample of Gley Humic soil previously treated with repeated applications of the insecticide. In a qualitative colorimetric assay hydrolisis of parathion to p-nitrophenol just the bacterium gave a positive answer. In quantitative assays of 14C-parathion degradation in culture media containing both microorganisms, organic solvents extractions resulted in organic and aqueous phases, which were analysed by liquid scintillation counting and thin-layer chromatography. In a mineral salts medium plus buffer, the bacterium and the fungus behaved differently from the control, because part of the 14C-insecticide was metabolized to, at least, one metabolite and besides, the microorganisms presented smaller percentages of total recovery. The largest percentage of the radio carbon recovery from the extracts of the medium containing the fungus plus extract of yeast, was obtained from the aqueous phase and the existence of other metabolite was demonstrated by chromatograms of the organic phase. (Author)

  9. Uncovering a Microbial Enigma: Isolation and Characterization of the Streamer-Generating, Iron-Oxidizing, Acidophilic Bacterium “Ferrovum myxofaciens”

    Johnson, D. Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Hedrich, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    A betaproteobacterium, shown by molecular techniques to have widespread global distribution in extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4) ferruginous mine waters and also to be a major component of “acid streamer” growths in mine-impacted water bodies, has proven to be recalcitrant to enrichment and isolation. A modified “overlay” solid medium was devised and used to isolate this bacterium from a number of mine water samples. The physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of a pure culture of an isolat...

  10. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs and stable Cs by microorganisms isolated from mushroom substrata in the Japanese forests

    The pH values of wild mushroom substrata, the influence of pH in medium on the appearance frequencies of microorganisms from mushroom substrata, and growth and Cs uptake by several microorganisms were investigated. The results showed that the pH values of 42 mushroom substrata were slightly acidic. There was no remarkable difference in the appearance frequencies of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria at pH 5, 6 and 7, except in the samples of mushroom substrata from Mt. Fuji. The values of Cs concentration ratio (CR) for microorganisms isolated from mushroom substrata and for mushrooms were almost the same level, suggesting that those microorganisms could take up Cs in substrata and reserve Cs in their cells. (author)

  11. Dissimilatory Sb(V) reduction by microorganisms isolated from Sb-contaminated sediment

    Dovick, M. A.; Kulp, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    this isolate exhibited Sb(V)-dependent heterotrophic growth. These results suggest that the endogenous microbial community from this Sb-contaminated site includes anaerobic microorganisms capable of obtaining energy for growth by oxidizing heterotrophic electron donors using Sb(V) as the terminal electron acceptor. Ongoing work includes identification of the isolated organism using 16S rDNA phylogenetic markers as well as an inventory of known functional genes (e.g., arrA) within this isolate that may more typically encode for As(V)-reduction. These results elucidate the potentially significant role of microbiological transformations in controlling the speciation of Sb in the environment, and may help to identify potential bioremediation strategies for Sb contaminated waters.

  12. Biodegradation of oil refinery residues using mixed-culture of microorganisms isolated from a landfarming

    Eduardo Beraldo de Morais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential for using an inoculum composed of a mixed-culture of bacteria and fungi, isolated from a landfarming at the Paulínia Oil Refinery, Brazil, to degrade oil residues generated in the process of petroleum refinement was investigated. The isolation of these microorganisms was carried out beforehand, assuming that they would be better adapted to petroleum hydrocarbons, as the landfarming consisted of an area impacted by the deposit of such compounds. The Bartha and Pramer respirometric test was used to measure the rate of biodegradation of the hydrocarbons by the mixed-culture of microorganisms via the evolution of CO2. The results obtained with respect to the efficiency of biodegradation showed no significant differences (P>0.05, indicating no increase in the biodegradation process using the inoculum. The addition of nutrients (N, P, K also did not contribute to an increase in biodegradation of the oil residue studied.Neste estudo foi investigado o potencial de um inóculo composto de cultura mista de bactérias e fungos, isolados do landfarming da Refinaria de Paulínia, Brasil, em degradar resíduos oleosos gerados no processo de refinamento de petróleo. O isolamento desses microrganismos foi realizado previamente, supondo-se que estejam melhor adaptados aos hidrocarbonetos de petróleo uma vez que o landfarming consiste em área impactada por deposição de tais compostos. Utilizou-se o teste respirométrico de Bartha e Pramer no intuito de verificar a taxa de biodegradação dos hidrocarbonetos pela cultura mista de microrganismos através da evolução de CO2. Os resultados obtidos para a eficiência da biodegradação não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0.05 indicando que não houve aumento do processo de biodegradação com o uso do inóculo. A adição de nutrientes (N, P, K tampouco contribuiu para aumentar a biodegradação do resíduo oleoso estudado.

  13. Ferric Iron Reduction by Acidophilic Heterotrophic Bacteria

    Johnson, D. Barrie; McGinness, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Fifty mesophilic and five moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria were tested for the ability to reduce ferric iron in liquid and solid media under aerobic conditions; about 40% of the mesophiles (but none of the moderate thermophiles) displayed at least some capacity to reduce iron. Both rates and extents of ferric iron reduction were highly strain dependent. No acidophilic heterotroph reduced nitrate or sulfate, and (limited) reduction of manganese(IV) was note...

  14. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage. PMID:23762760

  15. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  16. Environmental factors influenting species composition of acidophilous grasslands patches in agricultural landscape

    Halas, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-27. ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : acidophilous grasslands * hemeroby * patch isolation * patch area * regression trees Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2012_01.pdf

  17. Environmental factors influencing the species composition of acidophilous grassland patches in agricultural lanscapes

    Halas, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-27. ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : acidophilous grasslands * hemeroby * patch isolation * regression trees * Bohemian-Moravian Highland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.geonika.cz/CZ/CZresearch/CZMgrArchive.html

  18. Lipase production from a novel thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophile Bacillus pumilus using palm oil as the substrate and treatment of palm oil-containing wastewater.

    Saranya, P; Sukanya Kumari, H; Prasad Rao, B; Sekaran, G

    2014-03-01

    The thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophilic microorganism Bacillus pumilus was isolated from the soil collected from a commercial edible-oil extraction industry. Optimisation of conditions for the lipase production was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of extremely acidic thermostable lipase were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; and concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the thermo-tolerant acidophilic lipase (TAL) was 55 kDa. The predominant amino acid in the TAL was glycine. The functional groups of lipase were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TAL exhibited enhanced activity (114 %) with dimethyl sulphoxide (20 %, v/v), and it showed a moderate activity with methanol, hexane and benzene. The optimum conditions for the treatment of palm oil in wastewater using the TAL were found to be time, 3 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C with pseudo second-order kinetic constant of 1.88 × 10(-3) L mol(-1) min(-1). The Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model and the nonlinear kinetic model were evaluated for the TAL. TAL established hydrolysis efficiency of 96 % for palm oil in wastewater at 50 °C. PMID:24293300

  19. Antagonistic Potential against Pathogenic Microorganisms and Hydrogen Peroxide Production of Indigenous Lactobacilli Isolated from Vagina of Chinese Pregnant Women

    HENG-YI XU; WAN-HONG TIAN; CUI-XIANG WAN; LI-JUN JIA; LAN-YIN WANG; JING YUAN; CHUN-MEI LIU; MING ZENG; HUA WEI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the indigenous lactobacilli from the vagina of pregnant women and to screen the isolates with antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods The strains were isolated from pregnant women's vagina and identified using the APISOCH system. The ability of the isolates to produce hydrogen peroxide was analyzed semi-quantitatively using the TMB-HRP-MRS agar. The antagonistic effects of the isolates on pathogenic microorganisms were determined with a double layer agar plate. Results One hundred and three lactobacilli strains were isolated from 60 samples of vaginal secretion from healthy pregnant women. Among them, 78 strains could produce hydrogen peroxide, in which 68%, 80%, 80%, and 88% had antagonistic effects against Candida albicans CMCC98001, Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003, Escherichia coli CMCC44113, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC10110, respectively. Conclusion The recovery of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli decreases with the increasing pregnant age and time. The most commonly isolated species from vagina of Chinese pregnant women are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus. Most of L. Acidophilus and L. Crispatus produce a high H2O2 level.

  20. Isolation and study of microorganisms from oil samples for application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from a reservoir beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. Stimulation of bacterial growth for biosurfactant production and degradation of heavy oil fractions by indigenous microorganisms can enhance the fluidity and reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. MEOR offers major advantages over conventional EOR, namely low...

  1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  2. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  3. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m-2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation

  5. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Bioleaching kinetics and multivariate analysis of spent petroleum catalyst dissolution using two acidophiles.

    Pradhan, Debabrata; Mishra, Debaraj; Kim, Dong J; Ahn, Jong G; Chaudhury, G Roy; Lee, Seoung W

    2010-03-15

    Bioleaching studies were conducted to evaluate the recovery of metal values from waste petroleum catalyst using two different acidophilic microorganisms, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Various leaching parameters such as contact time, pH, oxidant concentration, pulp densities, particle size, and temperature were studied in detail. Activation energy was evaluated from Arrhenius equation and values for Ni, V and Mo were calculated in case of both the acidophiles. In both cases, the dissolution kinetics of Mo was lower than those of V and Ni. The lower dissolution kinetics may have been due to the formation of a sulfur product layer, refractoriness of MoS(2) or both. Multivariate statistical data were presented to interpret the leaching data in the present case. The significance of the leaching parameters was derived through principle component analysis and multi linear regression analyses for both iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria. PMID:19879686

  7. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY COMBINED PREPARATIONS FOR CLINICAL STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH BACTERIAL VAGINIT

    Aslanian M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bacterial vaginit in some cases the cause of severe infectious diseases genitalia of the fetus and newborn, which can impair the health of future generations. It is noted that the treatment of antibacterial agents observed numerous negative side effects- reducing the biochemical activity of the intestinal microflora, abuse microbiota, leading to the development of dysbiosis, increasing the number of resistant strains of pathogens, the risk of allergic reaction sand immunological disorders. A study was conducted towards finding effective combinations of drugs from different pharmacological groups means to create a combination of drugs. The aim of the study was to develop and explore and Flamini combination of miramistin combined medicines to treat bacterial vaginit. As a result of studies in patients with bacterial vaginit pathological material was isolated and identified 72 strains of microorganisms (Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Enterococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Haemophillu sssp, Candida albican sand various strains of anaerobic microorganisms. For the combined treatment of infectious and in flammatory diseases (mixed infections in humans the combined drugin tablet form. All clinical strains of microorganisms isolated from patients with bacterial vaginit were tested for sensitivity to the combined preparation in tablet form with Flamini and miramistin. The greatest sensitivity to the drugs found clinical strains of microorganisms: Staphylococcu saureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Peptococcus niger (diameter zone growth retardation is 25,5-23,5 mm. composition tablets number 1 (0.05 g Flamini, miramistini 0.02 g, which was selected for further study shows bacteriostatic effect against a wide range of microorganisms and fungi Rod Candida. IPC for Staphylococcus sp was 20-25 pg / mL for Streptococcus sp 35,0-40,0 mg / ml, for intestinal group 35,0-40,0 for fungi 30,0 mg / ml unlike pills number 2 and number 3, where the

  8. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses. PMID:26231417

  9. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of omp-40, the gene coding for the major outer membrane protein from the acidophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Guiliani, N; Jerez, C A

    2000-06-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is one of the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria important in industrial biomining operations. Some of the surface components of this microorganism are probably involved in adaptation to their acidic environment and in bacterium-mineral interactions. We have isolated and characterized omp40, the gene coding for the major outer membrane protein from T. ferrooxidans. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Omp40 protein has 382 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 40,095.7. Omp40 forms an oligomeric structure of about 120 kDa that dissociates into the monomer (40 kDa) by heating in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The degree of identity of Omp40 amino acid sequence to porins from enterobacteria was only 22%. Nevertheless, multiple alignments of this sequence with those from several OmpC porins showed several important features conserved in the T. ferrooxidans surface protein, such as the approximate locations of 16 transmembrane beta strands, eight loops, including a large external L3 loop, and eight turns which allowed us to propose a putative 16-stranded beta-barrel porin structure for the protein. These results together with the previously known capacity of Omp40 to form ion channels in planar lipid bilayers strongly support its role as a porin in this chemolithoautotrophic acidophilic microorganism. Some characteristics of the Omp40 protein, such as the presence of a putative L3 loop with an estimated isoelectric point of 7.21 allow us to speculate that this can be the result of an adaptation of the acidophilic T. ferrooxidans to prevent free movement of protons across its outer membrane. PMID:10831405

  10. Studies on the Biodiversity of Halophilic Microorganisms Isolated from El-Djerid Salt Lake (Tunisia under Aerobic Conditions

    Abdeljabbar Hedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and archaeal aerobic communities were recovered from sediments from the shallow El-Djerid salt lake in Tunisia, and their salinity gradient distribution was established. Six samples for physicochemical and microbiological analyses were obtained from 6 saline sites in the lake for physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. All samples studied were considered hypersaline with NaCl concentration ranging from 150 to 260 g/L. A specific halophilic microbial community was recovered from each site, and characterization of isolated microorganisms was performed via both phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. Only one extreme halophilic organism, domain Archaea, was isolated from site 4 only, whereas organisms in the domain Bacteria were recovered from the five remaining sampling sites that contained up to 250 g/L NaCl. Members of the domain Bacteria belonged to genera Salicola, Pontibacillus, Halomonas, Marinococcus, and Halobacillus, whereas the only member of domain Archaea isolated belonged to the genus Halorubrum. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the ecological significance of these microorganisms in the breakdown of organic matter in Lake El-Djerid and their potential for industry applications.

  11. Isolation and identification of microorganisms and antibacterial activity of Laban Zeer, an Egyptian traditional fermented milk product

    Farag Ali Saleh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laban Zeer is a traditional Egyptian fermented milk product. The microorganisms of Laban Zeer were isolated and identified to species level, as well as the antibacterial activity of Laban Zeer was also studied against pathogenic bacteria. Total viable microorganisms, including, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, aerobic mesophilic bacterial, Enterococus and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. A total forty eight LAB and twenty eight yeast isolates were isolated from four Laban Zeer samples and identified by API 50 CHL and API 20C AUX identification system, respectively. The avenger of LAB counts were 7.4 cfu/g, while yeast and Enterococus counts were 4.67 and 4.39 cfu/g, respectively. It is noted that the count of bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae was not detected in all tested samples. The LAB species were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb.  plantarum, Lb. paracasei subsp paracasei, Lb. delbercii subsp bulgaricus, Lb. curvatus subsp curvatus and Lb acidophilus. The isolated yeasts were identified as Sccharomyces cervisiae, Candida kefyr, Candida utilis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The most frequently isolated species was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (37.5%, Lb. rhamnosus (20.8%, Sccharomyces cervisiae (41.9% and Candida kefyr (29.0%.  The antimicrobial activities of Laban Zeer were evaluated in vitro using an agar well diffusion method and in situ method. The major supernatants of Laban Zeer samples inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, belonging to Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Listeria and Staphylococcus genera in various degrees. The in situ method was performed by the inoculation of Staph. aureus and E. coli in Laban Zeer samples separately at an initial level around of 6 log cfu/ml. The count of Staph. aureus and E. coli were not detected after 12 and 3 days of refrigerated storage period,  respectively in samples number 2 and 3. Laban Zeer is

  12. In vitro characterization of the digestive stress response and immunomodulatory properties of microorganisms isolated from smear-ripened cheese.

    Adouard, Nadège; Foligné, Benoît; Dewulf, Joëlle; Bouix, Marielle; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2015-03-16

    Thirty-six microorganisms (twenty-one bacteria, twelve yeasts and three fungi) were isolated from surface-ripened cheeses and subjected to in vitro digestive stress. The approach mimicked gastric and/or duodenal digestion. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Saccharomyces boulardii were used as reference strains. We studied the microorganisms grown separately in culture medium and then included (or not) in a rennet gel. The microorganisms' immunomodulatory abilities were also assessed by profiling cytokine induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The loss of viability was less than 1 log CFU/mL for yeasts under all conditions. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria survived gastric and/or duodenal stress well but most of the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive (especially to gastric stress). Inclusion of sensitive Gram-positive bacteria in rennet gel dramatically improved gastric survival, when compared with a non-included cultured (with a 4 log CFU/mL change in survival). However, the rennet gel did not protect the bacteria against duodenal stress. The PBMC cytokine assay tests showed that the response to yeasts was usually anti-inflammatory, whereas the response to bacteria varied from one strain to another. PMID:25589362

  13. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage

    Sofía Borrego; Oderlaise Valdés; Isbel Vivar; Paola Lavin; Patricia Guiamet; Patricia Battistoni; Sandra Gómez de Saravia; Pedro Borges

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion m...

  14. Characterization of biofilm-forming microorganisms isolated from vaginal exudate in Portugal

    Alves, P.; Castro, J.; Cereija, Tatiana Barros Reis; Henriques, Ana Filipa Frutuoso Mendes; Cerca, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynaecological conditions affecting women in the reproductive age, and can lead to increase risk gynaecological infections and pre-term labour. The aetiology of this pathology is still poorly understood, but recent reports referring to the presence of anaerobic biofilms both in the healthy and BV vagina (with different microbial compositions) have led to the theory that the microorganisms that form biofilms may be relevant for the aetiology o...

  15. Gardnerella vaginalis virulence potential outcompetes with 30 other microorganisms isolated from BV patients

    Alves, P.; Castro, J.; Sousa, Cármen; Cereija, Tatiana Barros Reis; Cerca, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder affecting millions of women every year, and is usually associated with several adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth and acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. However, the etiology of BV is still under debate. Recently, new fastidious anaerobic bacteria have been associated with BV, but there are very few studies that comprehensively evaluate the virulence potential of these microorganisms, mainly due to difficult...

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Microorganisms Isolated from Blood Cultures of Hospitalized Patients in Intensive Care Units

    Emine Küçükateş

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate microorganism growth in blood cultures of hospitalized patients in our intensive care units and to determine appropriate antimicrobial agents for treatment. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the blood cultures obtained from the patients hospitalized in the Coronary and Surgical Intensive Care Units at the Institute of Cardiology, İstanbul University, between July 2013 and December 2014. All microorganisms were identified using the conventional methods. Results: A total of 1034 blood cultures were obtained from 324 patients. Microbial growth was detected in 174 (16.8% blood cultures of 68 patients. Among all microbial growth, 113 (58.55% were gram-positive bacteria, 69 (35.75% were gram-negative rods and 11 (5.7% were fungi. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent microorganism (48; 24.87%, followed by coagulasenegative Staphylococci (35; 18,13%, Enterococcus spp. (30; 15,54%, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. 60.4% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin-resistant and 65.7% of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were also methicillin-resistant. All Staphylococci and Enterococci were not resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline. All the gram-negative rods were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, followed by imipenem (71.6% and meropenem (70.7%. Conclusions: We assume that infection control measures must be increased due to high antibiotic resistance and besides, antibiotic policies should be improved.

  17. Isolation and 16S DNA characterization of soil microorganisms from tropical soils capable of utilizing the herbicides hexazinone and tebuthiuron.

    Mostafa, Fadwa I Y; Helling, Charles S

    2003-11-01

    Six non-fermentative bacteria were isolated from Colombian (South America) and Hawaiian (USA) soils after enrichment with minimal medium supplemented with two herbicides, hexazinone (Hex) and tebuthiuron (Teb). Microscopic examination and physiological tests were followed by partial 16S DNA sequence analysis, using the first 527 bp of the 16S rRNA gene for bacterial identification. The isolated microorganisms (and in brackets, the herbicide that each degraded) were identified as: from Colombia. Methylobacterium organophilum [Teb], Paenibacillus pabuli [Teb], and Micrmbacterium foliorum [Hex]; and from Hawaii, Methylobacterium radiotolerans [Teb], Paenibacillus illinoisensis [Hex], and Rhodococcus equi [Hex]. The findings further explain how these herbicides, which have potential for illicit coca (Erythroxylum sp.) control, dissipate following their application to tropical soils. PMID:14649709

  18. Methods for Observing Microbial Biofilms Directly on Leaf Surfaces and Recovering Them for Isolation of Culturable Microorganisms

    Morris, C. E.; Monier, J.; Jacques, M.

    1997-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to observe microbial biofilms directly on leaf surfaces. Biofilms were observed on leaves of all species sampled (spinach, lettuce, Chinese cabbage, celery, leeks, basil, parsley, and broad-leaved endive), although the epifluorescent images were clearest when pale green tissue or cuticle pieces were used. With these techniques, biofilms were observed that were about 20 (mu)m in depth and up to 1 mm in length and that contained copious exopolymeric matrices, diverse morphotypes of microorganisms, and debris. The epifluorescence techniques described here can be used to rapidly determine the abundance and localization of biofilms on leaves. An additional technique was developed to recover individual biofilms or portions of single biofilms from leaves and to disintegrate them for isolation of the culturable microorganisms they contained. Nineteen biofilms from broad-leaved endive, spinach, parsley, and olive leaves were thus isolated and characterized to illustrate the applications of this technique. PMID:16535579

  19. Metabolic response of environmentally isolated microorganisms to industrial effluents: Use of a newly described cell culture assay

    Ferebee, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    An environmental application using a microtiter culture assay to measure the metabolic sensitivity of microorganisms to petrochemical effluents will be tested. The Biomedical Operations and Research Branch at NASA JSC has recently developed a rapid and nondestructive method to measure cell growth and metabolism. Using a colorimetric procedure the uniquely modified assay allows the metabolic kinetics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to be measured. Use of such an assay if adapted for the routine monitoring of waste products, process effluents, and environmentally hazardous substances may prove to be invaluable to the industrial community. The microtiter method as described will be tested using microorganisms isolated from the Galveston Bay aquatic habitat. The microbial isolates will be identified prior to testing using the automated systems available at JSC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium, and lead will provide control toxic chemicals. The toxicity of industrial effluent from two industrial sites will be tested. An effort will be made to test the efficacy of this assay for measuring toxicity in a mixed culture community.

  20. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    Akpomie O.OF; Ubogun M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas...

  1. Selection of Streptomyces isolates from Turkish karstic caves against antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

    Yücel, Semra; Yamaç, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    In this work, actinomycetes isolates were isolated from rock wall and speleothem surfaces and soil samples of 19 karstic caves in Turkey. Out of 290 isolates isolated, 180 isolates (62%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against a panel of four bacteria, two yeasts and four filamentous fungi in the screening program. One of them, Streptomyces sp. 1492, was examined for antibiotic production in batch culture. The maximum of antimicrobial activity was shown at 5th day. Antimicrobial activity of the extracted active compound was recorded as dose dependent bacteriostatic or bactericidal against antibiotic resistant clinical bacteria strains; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterobacter faecium (VRE), and Acinetobacter baumanii. Minimum inhibitor concentration and minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined as lower than standard antibiotic streptomycin; 125 microg/ml and 250-1000 microg/ml, respectively. Active component was found as heat-stable. PMID:20067859

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-PositiveNickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Riparian Sediments

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Khijniak, Tatiana V.; Gentry, Terry J.; Novak, Michelle T.; Sowder, Andrew G.; Zhou, Jizhong Z.; Bertsch, PaulM.; Morris, Pamela J.

    2006-08-30

    Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminatedwith high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerantmicroorganisms. Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positiveheterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. Theseisolates were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomycesgalbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatosporacystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional genemicroarray containing gene probes for functions associated withbiogeochemical cycling, metal homeostasis, and organic contaminantdegradation showed little overlap among the four isolates. Fifteen of thegenes were detected in all four isolates with only two of these relatedto metal resistance, specifically to tellurium. Each of the four isolatesalso displayed resistance to at least one of six antibiotics tested, withresistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin observed in atleast two of the isolates. Further characterization of S. aureofaciensNR-3 and K. cystarginea NR-4 demonstrated that both isolates expressed Nitolerance constitutively. In addition, both were able to grow in higherconcentrations of Ni at pH 6 as compared to pH 7 (42.6 and 8.5 mM Ni atpH 6 and 7, respectively). Tolerance to Cd, Co, and Zn was also examinedin these two isolates; a similar pH-dependent metal tolerance wasobserved when grown with Co and Zn. Neither isolate was tolerant to Cd.These findings suggest that Ni is exerting a selection pressure at thissite for metal-resistant actinomycetes.

  3. [Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Coal Ashes Using Acidophilic Chemolithotrophic Microbial Communities].

    Muravyov, M I; Bulaev, A G; Melamud, V S; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2015-01-01

    A method for leaching rare earth elements from coal ash in the presence of elemental sulfur using communities of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms was proposed. The optimal parameters determined for rare element leaching in reactors were as follows: temperature, 45 degrees C; initial pH, 2.0; pulp density, 10%; and the coal ash to elemental sulfur ratio, 10 : 1. After ten days of leaching, 52.0, 52.6, and 59.5% of scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum, respectively, were recovered. PMID:26263628

  4. Specific single-cell isolation and genomic amplification of uncultured microorganisms

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lasken, R.S.; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group-specific pri...

  5. Isolation and evaluation of native cellulose degrading microorganisms for efficient bioconversion of weed biomass and rice straw.

    Mahanta, K; Jha, D K; Rajkhowa, D J; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose decomposing microorganisms (CDMs) are important for efficient bioconversion of plant biomasses. To this end, we isolated seven fungal isolates (Aspergillus wentii, Fusarium solani, Mucor sp., Penicillum sp., Trichoderma harzaianum, Trichoderma sp.1 and Trichoderma sp.2) and three bacterial isolates (bacterial isolate I, II and III) from partially decomposed farm yard manure, rice straw and vermicompost, and evaluated them for decomposition of rice straw (Oryza sativa), Ipomoea camea and Eichhornia crassipes biomass. CDMs inoculation, in general, reduced the composting period by 14-28 days in rice straw, 14-34 days in Eichhornia and 10-28 days in Ipomoea biomass over control. Of the 10 CDMs tested, Mucor sp. was found to be the most effective as Mucor-inoculated biomass required minimum time, i.e. 84, 68 and 80 days respectively for composting of rice straw, Eichhornia and Ipomoea biomass as against 112, 102 and 108 days required under their respective control. CDMs inoculation also narrowed down the C:N ratio of the composts which ranged from 19.1-22.7, 12.9-14.7 and 10.5-13.1 in rice straw, Eichhornia and Ipomoea biomass respectively as against 24.1, 17.1 and 16.2 in the corresponding control treatments. Aspergillus wentii, Fusarium solani, Mucor sp., and Penicillum sp. were found most effective (statistically at par) in reducing C:N ratio and causing maximum loss of carbon and dry matter in composted materials. These benefits of CDMs inoculation were also accompanied by significant increase in NPK contents in the composted materials. PMID:25004759

  6. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by microorganisms isolated from soils contaminated with radionuclides

    With the aim to evaluate the possibility of utilisation of autochtone population of soil organisms, alone or with participation of higher plants, in the processes of bioremediation the authors quantitatively determined a number of psychrophyllic and mezophyllic germs in the soils contaminated by low-level activities of Cs-137 (0.08 - 2.8 kBq/g). Hereafter they gained isolates of clean cultures of mushrooms and actinomycetes and they determined their bioacumulative activity of Cs-137 at growing conditions. The authors found out, that a number of reproductionable psychrophyllic and mezophyllic germs are significantly lower in the soils with the highest contamination by radionuclides than in the soils with low contamination. They gained the clean cultures of 5 isolates of micromycetes and 3 isolates of actinomycetes from contaminated soil. The micromycetes demonstrated the highest values of bioaccumulation of caesium 39 nmol/g of wet biomass at the growing conditions. In actionoomycetes these values were 4.7 nmol/g (approximately in one order lower). The significant part of cesium accumulated by cell matter at growing conditions were localised in cell matter and it could not be removed by washing with 0.9 percent of NaCl solution. The determined values of bioconcentration factor BCF recalculated on dry weight of biomass were in the range from 16.04 to 26.20 in micromycetes and 3.24 in actinomycetes. From this situation arise, that autochtone population of soil micromycetes and actionomycetes, which is found in contaminated soil, can relevantly participate in the processes of binding of biologically accessible forms of Cs-137 after a creation of suitable conditions for grow. (author)

  7. Enhanced degradation in soil of the herbicide EPTC and determination of its degradative pathway by an isolated soil microorganism

    A series of experiments was conducted to examine the ability of Ohio soils to develop enhanced degradation of the herbicide EPTC (s-ethyl N,N-dipropyl carbamothiaote) and to determine its metabolism by an isolated soil microorganism. Three soils selected to obtain an range in pH, texture, and organic carbon were treated with EPTC for 4 consecutive applications (6 weeks between applications). EPTC concentrations as measured by gas chromatography, decreased 80% or more one week after the second application in all three soils. Metabolism of unlabelled and labelled EPTC by an isolated soil microbe was followed by GC/MS and TLC/LSC analysis, respectively. Rapid decrease in 14-C activity in the organic fraction corresponded with rapid 14CO2 evolution and transient increase in 14-C activity in the aqueous fraction. Four metabolites were observed in the TLC analysis. Two were identified as EPTC-sulfoxide and N-depropyl EPTC with N-depropyl EPTC being confirmed by GC/MS analysis. The availability of different pathways for EPTC metabolism by soil microbes after repeated applications to the soil results in its very rapid degradation and loss of efficacy

  8. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms under In-vitro

    Husain Shahnaz Sultana; Mohammed Ali; Bibhu Prasad Panda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco on clinically isolated pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Extraction of volatile oil was carried out by Clevenger’s apparatus. Volatile chemical components were measured by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activity was carried by Agar well diffusion assay with reference to standard fluconazole and tetracycline. Results: The chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit peels of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) of Delhi Region was composed mainly monoterpenes (99.1 %) constituting l-limonene (92.4 %), γ-terpene (2.6 %) andβ-phellandrene (1.8 %). The volatile oil showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against the clinically isolated pathogenic microbial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Conclusions: The potential antimicrobial activity of volatile oil present in fruit peels of C. reticulata can be useful for treatment of skin disorder and/or in aroma. Therapy, it can be incorporated into cosmetic formulations.

  9. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. PMID:27136610

  10. Heterotrophic nitrogen removal by a newly-isolated alkalitolerant microorganism, Serratia marcescens W5.

    Wang, Teng; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Yan, Jingquan; Fan, Bing; Cha, Dongsu; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Yubei

    2016-07-01

    A new microbe, Serratia marcescens W5 was successfully isolated. Its feasibility in purification of excessively nitrogen-containing wastewater was evaluated using inorganic nitrogen media. Single factor tests showed that W5 exhibited high ammonium removal rates (above 80%) under different culture conditions (pH 7-10, C/N ratios of 6-20, 15-35°C, 0-2.5% of salinity, respectively). Besides various organic carbon sources, W5 was able to utilize calcium carbonate with 28.05% of ammonium removed. Further experiments indicated that W5 was capable of resisting high-strength ammonium (1200mg/L) with the maximum removal rate of 514.13mgL(-1)d(-1). The nitrogen removal pathway of W5 was also tested, showing that both nitrite and nitrate were efficiently removed only in the presence of ammonium, with hydroxylamine as intermediate, which was different from the conventional nitrogen removal pathway. All the results verified that W5 was a good candidate for the purification of excessively nitrogenous wastewater. PMID:27043057

  11. Comparison of decolorization of reactive azo dyes by microorganisms isolated from various sources

    S.Padamavathy; S.Sandhya; K.Swaminathan; Y.V.Subrahmanyam; S.N.Kaul

    2003-01-01

    Azo dyes are among the oldest man-made chemicals and they are still widely used in the textile, printing and the food industries. About 10%-15% of the total dyes used in the industry is released into the environment during the manufacturing and usage. Some dyes and some of their N-substituted aromatic bio-transformation products are toxic and/or carcinogenic and therefore these dyes are considered to be environmental pollutants and health hazards. These azo dyes are degraded by physico-chemical and biological methods. Of these, biological methods are considered to be the most economical and efficient. In this work, attempts were made to degrade these dyes aerobically. The organisms which were efficient in degrading the following azo dyes-Red RB, Remazol Red, Remazol Blue, Remazol Violet, Remazol Yellow, Golden Yellow, Remazol Orange, Remazol Black- were isolated from three different sources viz., wastewater treatment plant, paper mill effluent treatment plant and tannery wastewater treatment plant. The efficiency of azo dye degradation by mixed cultures from each source was analyzed. It was found that mixed cultures from tannery treatment plant worked efficiently in decolorizing Remazol Red, Remazol Orange, Remazol Blue and Remazol Violet, while mixed cultures from the paper mill effluent worked efficiently in decolorizing Red RB, Golden Yellow and Remazol Yellow. The mixed cultures from wastewater treatment plant efficiently decolorized Remazol Black.

  12. Biotechnical leaching of lean ores using heterotrophic microorganisms

    After reporting briefly on leaching with Thiobacillus, it is discussed whether in those cases where thiobacilli fail to work the limits of microbial leaching are reached or still other groups of microorganisms will be suitable. In this relation the great number of carbon-heterotrophic fungi and bacteria have to be considered which are partly oligotrophic and occur e.g. in weathering biotopes of rocks and minerals and which may even include heavy metals in the dissolving processes of weathering. The active agents are, as far as is known up to now, organic acids which are produced by microorganisms and given off to the medium where they may combine with metals to form water-soluble complex compounds. In order to detect and isolate suitable strains of fungi and bacteria it will be necessary to work out a screening program which proceeds from general to special selections. Experiments to identify the active agents and the conditions of their production will have to follow. It remains still an open question whether such studies will result in technical processes. Mass production processes which are possible with the carbon-autotrophic and acidophilic thiobacilli are less probable than special processes to get hold of rare and economically valuable metals whose extraction would be difficult by other means. (orig.)

  13. Isolation of microorganisms of cheese whey with lipolytic activity for removal of COD Isolamento de microrganismos do soro de queijo com atividade lipásica para remoção de DQO

    Eliane Hermes; Dayane C. da Rocha; Fábio Orssatto; Juliana F.R. Lucas; Simone D. Gomes; Luciane Sene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate microorganisms that produce lipase and to assess the efficiency of COD removal intreatment of cheese whey under different operating conditions. The microorganisms were isolated from cheese whey and a commercial product; it was selectedthreemicroorganisms that obtained the best response to the lipolytic activity test through the enzyme index. Then, the microorganisms were inoculated in sterilized cheese whey samples, for two pH values (6.2 and 7.0), incubat...

  14. Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction

    Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

    1989-05-10

    A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from two acidophilic strains of Pilimelia columellifera subsp. pallida and their antibacterial activities.

    Golińska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Tikar, Sagar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an eco-friendly approach by using different biological sources; for example, plants and microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria. In this report, we present the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by acidophilic actinomycetes SL19 and SL24 strains isolated from pine forest soil (pH < 4.0). The isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequence were identified as Pilimelia columellifera subsp. pallida. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by visual observations of colour change from light-yellow to dark-brown. The UV-vis spectra of AgNPs were recorded at 425 and 430 nm. The AgNPs were further characterized by Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FTIR analysis revealed the presence of proteins as a capping agent. TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical and polydispersed NPs of 12.7 and 15.9 nm sizes. The in vitro antibacterial activity of AgNPs alone and in combination with antibiotics was evaluated against clinical bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and uropathogens such as Enterobacter, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli. The lowest MIC (40 μg ml(-1) ) was demonstrated by AgNPs synthesized from SL24 against E. coli. However, the AgNPs of SL19 showed lowest MIC (70 μg ml(-1) ) against S. aureus. The activity of antibiotic was enhanced, when tested in combination with silver nanoparticles synthesized from both actinobacterial strains. PMID:27151174

  16. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  17. Genomics, physiology and applications of cold tolerant acidophiles

    Liljeqvist, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant acidophiles have gained increasing interest because of their importance in biomining operations in environments where the temperature falls well below 10°C during large parts of the year. Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is the only characterized acidophile with the ability to live a psychrotrophic lifestyle and is able to oxidize ferrous iron and inorganic sulfur compounds at low temperature. The A. ferrivorans SS3 genome sequence mirrors its low temperature chemolithotrophic li...

  18. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh

    Chatli, Anshu S.; Beri, Viraj; B S Sidhu

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The m...

  19. Usability application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of microorganisms isolated from urine of patients treated in cancer hospital

    Cybulski, Zefiryn; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Grabiec, Alicja; Talaga, Zofia; Bociąg, Piotr; Wojciechowicz, Jacek; Roszak, Andrzej; Kycler, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy. Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre...

  20. Lignite microorganisms

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  1. Heavy metal resistance of microorganisms isolated from coal mining environments of Santa Catarina Resistência a metais pesados em microrganismos isolados de ambientes da mineração do carvão de Santa Catarina

    Marcus Adonai Castro-Silva; André Oliveira de Souza Lima; Ana Valéria Gerchenski; Daniela Batista Jaques; André Luis Rodrigues; Pricila Lima de Souza; Leonardo Rubi Rörig

    2003-01-01

    The coal mining activity is characterized by the generation of large amount of by-products. One of them is pyrite, which tends to acidify the water, solubilizing heavy metals. As a consequence the environment becomes acid and rich in heavy metals, selecting microorganisms able to survive in this condition, which are of great interest as bioremediation agents. This work describes the isolation and characterization of microorganisms from a coal mining area in Santa Catarina. These microorganism...

  2. Prospect, isolation, and characterization of microorganisms for potential use in cases of oil bioremediation along the coast of Trindade Island, Brazil.

    Rodrigues, Edmo M; Kalks, Karlos H M; Tótola, Marcos R

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, acrylic coupons with a thin layer of oil on the surface were incubated in the coastal water of Trindade Island, Brazil, for 60 days. The microorganisms adhered to the coupons were isolated using enrichment medium with hexadecane and naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. A total of 15 bacterial isolates were obtained, and the ability of these isolates to use different hydrocarbons as the source of carbon and energy was investigated. None of the isolates produced biosurfactants under our experimental conditions. Subsequently, identification methods such as partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and analysis of fatty acids (MIDI) profile were employed. Among the 15 isolates, representatives of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria were detected. The isolates Rhodococcus rhodochrous TRN7 and Nocardia farcinica TRH1 were able to use all the hydrocarbons added to the culture medium (toluene, octane, xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, hexadecane, anthracene, eicosane, tetracosane, triacontane, and pentacontane). Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the DNA isolated by employing primers for catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, alkane dehydrogenase and the alpha subunit of hydroxylating dioxygenases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon rings genes demonstrated that various isolates capable of utilizing hydrocarbons do not exhibit genes of known routes of catabolism, suggesting the existence of unknown catabolic pathways in these microorganisms. Our findings suggest that the microbiota associated to the coast of tropical oceanic islands has the ability to assist in environmental regeneration in cases of accidents involving oil spills in its shore. Thus, it motivates studies to map bioremediation strategies using the autochthonous microbiota from these environments. PMID:25791233

  3. A proton shelter inspired by the sugar coating of acidophilic archaea

    Wang, Xiumei; Lv, Bei'er; Cai, Guixin; Fu, Long; Wu, Yuanzi; Wang, Xiang; Ren, Bin; Ma, Hongwei

    2012-11-01

    The acidophilic archaeons are a group of single-celled microorganisms that flourish in hot acid springs (usually pH polymer brush layer was prepared to mimic the OH-rich sugar coating. Using a novel pH-sensitive dithioacetal molecule as a probe, we studied the proton-resisting property and found that a 10-nm-thick polymer layer was able to raise the pH from 1.0 to > 5.0, indicating that the densely packed OH-rich layer is a proton shelter. As strong evidence for the role of sugar coatings as proton barriers, this biomimetic study provides insight into evolutionary biology, and the results also could be expanded for the development of biocompatible anti-acid materials.

  4. Deterioration study of a material for encapsulation of radioactive wastes, the Portland cement, by heterotrophic microorganisms isolated from natural media

    Soils and geologic formations selected for storage of radioactive waste storage contain microflora (nitrifying and sulfoxidizing bacteria, heterotrophic microorganisms) that can corrode cement through acidic metabolism products. Nutriments required for their development are also found in these biotopes. Corrosine effects of organic acids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms are: mass decrease, leaching (especially Ca), dissolution of portlandite crystals Ca (OH)2, increase of porosity and decrease of flexural strength. Excretion of corrosive organic acids by bacteria is promoted by high temperature and basic pH. Acidification by fungi requires also a high temperature but an acidic pH

  5. ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE MICRORGANISMOS ISOLADOS DO JACATUPÉ (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM YAM BEAN LEGUME (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban

    Tânia L. Montenegro STAMFORD

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de microrganismos produtores de enzimas de interesse comercial, utilizando tubérculos de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, foi o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Isolaram-se microrganismos endofíticos e epifíticos identificados por observação micromorfológica. A avaliação da atividade enzimática das linhagens foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. As sessenta e oito linhagens isoladas dos tubérculos de jacatupé foram cultivadas em meio sólido específico para amilase, lipase, protease e celulase por 96h a 280 C. Os microrganismos epifíticos encontrados foram Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% e Trichoderma (5,8%, e os endofíticos foram Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3%, Bacillus (19,0%, Staphylococcus (10,3% e Nocardiopsis (15%. As linhagens de Nocardiopsis sp. apresentaram atividade lipolítica superior à do padrão, porém a atividade amilolítica não apresentou diferença significativa comparada com o padrão. As linhagens de Mucor sp., Pithomyces sp. e Staphylococcus sp. produziram atividade proteolítica abaixo do padrão. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade celulolítica.The isolation and identification of microorganisms that produce enzyme of commercial interest utilizing tubers of yam bean legume (Pachyrrizus erosus L. Urban was the main objective of this work. Endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by micromorphologyc observation. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the enzymatic activity. Sixty-eight isolates from yam bean tubers were cultured at 280 C in solid medium specific to amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase for 96h. The epiphytic microorganisms Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% and Trichoderma (5,8% and the endophytic microorganisms Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3% Bacillus (19%, Staphylococcus (10,3% and Nocardiopsis (15% were isolated. Compared to the specific standard culture Nocardiopsis sp. showed

  6. Genomics and Metagenomics of Extreme Acidophiles in Biomining Environments

    Holmes, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over 160 draft or complete genomes of extreme acidophiles (pH metagenomic studies of such environments. This provides a rich source of latent data that can be exploited for understanding the biology of biomining environments and for advancing biotechnological applications. Genomic and metagenomic data are already yielding valuable insights into cellular processes, including carbon and nitrogen management, heavy metal and acid resistance, iron and sulfur oxido-reduction, linking biogeochemical processes to organismal physiology. The data also allow the construction of useful models of the ecophysiology of biomining environments and provide insight into the gene and genome evolution of extreme acidophiles. Additionally, since most of these acidophiles are also chemoautolithotrophs that use minerals as energy sources or electron sinks, their genomes can be plundered for clues about the evolution of cellular metabolism and bioenergetic pathways during the Archaean abiotic/biotic transition on early Earth. Acknowledgements: Fondecyt 1130683.

  7. Quantification of Antibiotic Residues and Determination of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Milk in Lebanon

    Sleiman Fawwak; Abi Khalil Pamela; Kassaify Zeina

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of dairy sectors in the Middle East, particularly in Lebanon, led to extensive use of antibiotics to enhance the health and productivity of animals. Prolonged usage may lead to antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin; hence, the emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Accurate data on the antibiotic usage in livestock treatment, antibiotic residues and antimicrobial resistances in raw milk in Lebanon are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the types an...

  8. The effects of sodium hypochlorite on the control of inter-kingdom biofilm formation by drinking water-isolated microorganisms

    Simões, Lúcia C; Chaves, Ana F.A.; Simões, Manuel; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) are responsible for several undesirable effects in water. One of the main drawbacks is their potential to protect pathogens from stress conditions. Microbial interactions in biofilms can benefit the survival of co existing microorganisms, including the increased resistance to antimicrobials. Chlorine disinfection is the main widespread strategy used in DWDS for microbial control. Even if new and alternative strategies are b...

  9. Biodiversity and interactions of acidophiles: Key to understanding and optimizing microbial processing of ores and concentrates

    D.B.JOHNSON

    2008-01-01

    Mining companies have become increasingly aware of the potential of microbiological approaches for recovering base and precious metals from low-grade ores,and for remediating acidic,metal-rich wastewaters that drain from both operating and abandoned mine sites.Biological systems offer a number of environmental and (sometimes) economical advantages over conventional approaches,such as pyrometallurgy,though their application is not appropriate in every situation.Mineral processing using micro-organisms has been exploited for extracting gold,copper,uranium and cobalt,and current developments are targeting other base metals.Recently,there has been a great increase in our knowledge and understanding of both the diversity of the microbiology of biomining environments,and of how the microorganisms interact with each other.The results from laboratory experiments which have simulated both stirred tank and heap bioreactor systems have shown that microbial consortia are more robust than pure cultures of mineral-oxidizing acidophiles,and also tend to be more effective at bioleaching and bio-oxidizing ores and concentrates.The paper presented a concise review of the nature and interactions of microbial consortia that are involved in the oxidation of sulfide minerals,and how these might be adapted to meet future challenges in biomining operations.

  10. Accompaniment of the biomass growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by microorganism isolated in oil wells; Acompanhamento do crescimento da biomassa e sintese de biosurfactantes por microorganismos isolados de pocos de petroleo

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Araujo, Manuelle Meike Silva de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: manuelle@eq.ufrn.br; Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are structurally diversified groups of active surface molecules synthesized by microorganisms as bacteria and fungi, cultivated in several carbon sources such as sucrose and hydrocarbons. These molecules, composed by a part hydrophilic and other hydrophobic one, they act preferentially in the interface among the flowing phases with different polarities linking interfaces oil/water or water/oil reducing the superficial tensions and interfacial among these phases. They have been used in environmental applications, such as bioremediation of soils, treatment of contaminated water fountains and in cleaning process of tanks and equipment. Oil reservoirs present conditions where some microorganisms can grow. These microorganisms when isolated and cultivated at laboratory can be characterized with relation to surfactants production. In this work, microorganisms were isolated of oil wells and the biosurfactants producers were selected, among the isolated ones, to form a culture bank with potential application in environmental pollution treatment and advanced oil recovery. A microorganism stump of the developed bank was cultivated in sucrose and hydrocarbon medium and the biosurfactant production was evaluated by superficial tension measurement. The microorganism biomass production was evaluated by optical density using a spectrophotometer and the substratum consumption by Dns method. (author)

  11. Antibacterial activity of (--cubebin isolated from Piper cubeba and its semisynthetic derivatives against microorganisms that cause endodontic infections

    Karen C.S. Rezende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent publications have highlighted the numerous biological activities attributed to the lignan (--cubebin (1, Piper cubeba L. f., Piperaceae, and ongoing studies have focused on its structural optimization, in order to obtain derivatives with greater pharmacological potential. The aim of this study was the obtainment of (1, its semisynthetic derivatives and evaluation of antibacterial activity. The extract of the seeds of P. cubeba was chromatographed, subjected to recrystallization and was analyzed by HPLC and spectrometric techniques. It was used for the synthesis of: (--O-methylcubebin (2, (--O-benzylcubebin (3, (--O-acetylcubebin (4, (--O-(N, N-dimethylamino-ethyl-cubebin (5, (--hinokinin (6 and (--6.6'-dinitrohinokinin (7. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity has been done by broth microdilution technique for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinomyces naeslundii, Bacteroides fragilis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. It was possible to make an analysis regarding the relationship between structure and antimicrobial activity of derivatives against microorganisms that cause endodontic infections. The most promising were minimum inhibitory concentration =50 µg/ml against P. gingivalis by (2 and (3, and minimum inhibitory concentration =100 µg/ml against B. fragilis by (6. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that (1 and its derivatives do not display toxicity.

  12. Thiol/Disulfide system plays a crucial role in redox protection in the acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptospirillum ferriphilum.

    Javiera Norambuena

    Full Text Available Thiol/disulfide systems are involved in the maintenance of the redox status of proteins and other molecules that contain thiol/disulfide groups. Leptospirillum ferriphilum DSM14647, an acidophilic bacterium that uses Fe(2+ as electron donor, and withstands very high concentrations of iron and other redox active metals, is a good model to study how acidophiles preserve the thiol/disulfide balance. We studied the composition of thiol/disulfide systems and their role in the oxidative stress response in this extremophile bacterium. Bioinformatic analysis using genomic data and enzymatic assays using protein extracts from cells grown under oxidative stress revealed that the major thiol/disulfide system from L. ferriphilum are a cytoplasmic thioredoxin system (composed by thioredoxins Trx and thioredoxin reductase TR, periplasmic thiol oxidation system (DsbA/DsbB and a c-type cytochrome maturation system (DsbD/DsbE. Upon exposure of L. ferriphilum to reactive oxygen species (ROS-generating compounds, transcriptional activation of the genes encoding Trxs and the TR enzyme, which results in an increase of the corresponding activity, was observed. Altogether these data suggest that the thioredoxin-based thiol/disulfide system plays an important role in redox protection of L. ferriphilum favoring the survival of this microorganism under extreme environmental oxidative conditions.

  13. Effect of VOCs and methane in the biological oxidation of the ferrous ion by an acidophilic consortium.

    Almenglo, F; Ramírez, M; Gómez, J M; Cantero, D; Revah, S; González-Sánchez, A

    2012-01-01

    During the elimination of H2S from biogas in an aqueous ferric sulphate solution, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methane are absorbed and may have an effect on the subsequent biological regeneration of ferric ion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of maximum concentrations of methane and some VOCs found in biogas on the ferrous oxidation of an acidophilic microbial consortium (FO consortium). The presence and impact of heterotrophic microorganisms on the activity of the acidophilic consortium was also evaluated. No effect on the ferrous oxidation rate was found with gas concentrations of 1500 mg toluene m(-3), 1400 mg 2-butanol m(-3) or 1250 mg 1,2-dichloroethane m(-3), nor with methane at gas concentrations ranging from 15-25% (v/v). A tenfold increase in VOCs concentrations totally inhibited the microbial activity of the FO consortium and the heterotrophs. The presence of a heterotrophic fungus may promote the autotrophic growth of the FO consortium. PMID:22629626

  14. Isolation, identification and characterisation of the dominant microorganisms of kule naoto: the Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya.

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Kutima, Phillip Museve; Mbugua, Samuel K; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2004-08-01

    From 22 samples of kule naoto, the traditional fermented milk products of the Maasai in Kenya, 300 lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated and phenotypically characterised by their ability to ferment different carbohydrates and by additional biochemical tests. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially the genus Lactobacillus, followed by Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc, dominated the microflora of these samples. The major Lactobacillus species was Lactobacillus plantarum (60%), with a lower frequency of isolation for Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Most strains produced enzymes such as beta-galactosidase and peptidases, which are of relevance to cultured dairy product processing, and exhibited similar patterns of enzymatic activity between species. Enterobacteriaceae could not be detected in 15 out of 22 samples (detection level 10(2)/ml). Conversely, yeasts (detection level 10(1)/ml) were detected in those samples in which Enterobacteriaceae were not found. The pH values of all these samples were < 4.5. PMID:15246238

  15. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. A universal protocol for the combined isolation of metabolites, DNA, long RNAs, small RNAs, and proteins from plants and microorganisms

    Valledor, Luis; Escandón, M.; Meijón, M.; Nukarinen, E.; Jesús Cañal, M.; Weckwerth, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2014), s. 173-180. ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : systems biology * combined isolation * RNA * small RNA * proteins * metabolites * Chlamydomonas reinhardtii * Arabidopsis thaliana * Populus sp. * Pinus sp. * technical advance Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  17. The most common isolated microorganisms and its clinical manifestation in hospitalised women suffering from urogenital diseases in Latvia

    Anatolijs Naum and #269;iks

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The monitoring of genital tract infections, especially sexually transmitted infections, is a vital part of health priority in many countries. One of the most common vaginal infections in women of childbearing age is bacterial vaginosis. Methods: This is a laboratory based retrospective study. We analysed 774 patients' cases (age range 18-35 years. Patients were subcategorized into three groups: patients with inflammation in genital tract, patients without inflammatory processes in genital tract, threatened abortion women. Laboratory tests also were divided depending on the type of examination. Results: There were 49 patients in the first group, 60 women in the second group and 236 pregnant women with threatened abortion in the third group. Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were the most common isolated bacteria in the first and second group. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were predominant in the third group. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in 11.8 % cases. In our study, Trichomonas vaginalis infection was found in 1.2%. Conclusions: The most common isolated bacteria were Coagulase-negative staphylococci and gram negative bacteria. Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in a decisive majority (38.9% of Mycoplasma species infections. In the first patients group and ndash; women with inflammatory process in genital tract were not found 3 bacteria, opposite to the second and third group. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 959-962

  18. Classifying Microorganisms.

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

  19. Degradation of olestra, a non caloric fat replacer, by microorganisms isolated from activated sludge and other environments.

    Lee, D M; Ventullo, R M

    1996-06-01

    Olestra is a non-caloric fat substitute consisting of fatty acids esterified to sucrose. Previous work has shown that olestra is not metabolized in the gut and is excreted unmodified in human feces. To better understand the fate of olestra in engineered and natural environments, aerobic bacteria and fungi that degrade olestra were enriched from sewage sludges, soils and municipal solid waste compost not previously exposed to olestra. Various mixed and pure cultures were obtained from these sources which were able to utilize olestra as a sole carbon and energy source. The fastest growing enrichment was obtained from activated sludge and later yielded an olestra-degrading pure culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This mixed culture extensively degraded both 14C-fatty acid labeled olestra and 14C-sucrose labeled olestra during 8 days of incubation. Longer-term incubation with pure cultures of P.aeruginosa demonstrated that > 98% of 14C-sucrose labeled olestra and > 72% of 14C-fatty acid labeled olestra was mineralized to CO2 after 69 days. These results indicate that olestra degraders are present in environments not previously exposed to olestra and that olestra can serve as a sole carbon and energy source. Furthermore, a common bacterial species was isolated from activated sludge and shown to have the ability to degrade olestra. PMID:8782396

  20. 高效秸秆降解菌株的分离与选育%Microorganism Isolation and Screening for Efficient Degradation of Straw

    叶长明; 杨艳琴; 任屹罡; 魏明宝

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to screen the microorganisms of efficient degradation of corn stalk. The method of sodium carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC-Na) medium combined with filter paper inorganic salt medium was adopted to isolate the microorganisms during the initial screening period,and then corn stalk medium was used for rescreening and the test of enzyme production,in which the cellulase activity and filter paper activity(FPA) of the strains were measured. Through the comprehensive comparison of their degradation ability, two strains of fungi PJ-2 and PJ-4 and an actinomycete GJ-1 were isolated,which were identified as Penicillium,As-pergillus and Streptomyces, respectively, by the preliminary biology identification. Then mutants were obtained by ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. After further screening and test of the enzyme production,mutants UV-1-1 from PJ-2,UV-2-2 and UV-2-4 from PJ-4 were obtained with better enzyme activity. The enzyme activity of three mutant strains were 45%, 20%, 10% higher than the original strain,respectively,suggesting that the capacity of corn stalk degradation of mutants increased significantly.%为了选育高效降解玉米秸秆的菌株,首先用羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC - Na)培养基结合滤纸条无机盐培养基,对从样品中分离的菌株进行初筛,再以玉米秸秆培养基复筛并进行发酵产酶试验,测定CMC- Na酶活和FPA酶活,最后对目的菌进行紫外诱变.通过筛选得到降解效果较好的2株真菌PJ -2、PJ -4和1株放线菌GJ -1.紫外诱变后获得正向突变菌3株,分别为PJ-2的突变菌UV-1-1,PJ -4的突变菌UV-2 -2和UV-2 -4,这3株突变株的CMC - Na酶活力相对原菌株分别提高45%、20%和10%以上,菌株降解秸秆能力也显著提高.

  1. Dissolution kinetics of spent petroleum catalyst using sulfur oxidizing acidophilic microorganisms.

    Mishra, Debaraj; Ahn, Jong G; Kim, Dong J; Roychaudhury, G; Ralph, David E

    2009-08-15

    Bioleaching studies of spent petroleum catalyst were carried out using sulfur oxidizing, Acidithiobacillus species. Leaching studies were carried out in two-stage, in the first stage bacteria were grown and culture filtrate was used in the second stage for leaching purpose. XRD analysis of spent petroleum catalyst showed oxides of V, Fe and Al and sulfides of Mo and Ni. The leaching kinetics followed dual rate, initial faster followed by slower rate and equilibrium could be achieved within 7 days. The leaching rate of Ni and V were high compared to Mo. The low Mo leaching rate may be either due to formation of impervious sulfur layer or refractoriness of sulfides or both. The leaching kinetics followed 1st order rate. Using leaching kinetics, rate equations for dissolution process for different metal ions were evaluated. The rate determining step observed to be pore diffusion controlled. PMID:19286311

  2. Precipitation of Phosphate Minerals by Microorganisms Isolated from a Fixed-Biofilm Reactor Used for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

    Almudena Rivadeneyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria isolated from a fixed-film bioreactor to precipitate phosphate crystals for the treatment of domestic wastewater in both artificial and natural media was studied. When this was demonstrated in artificial solid media for crystal formation, precipitation took place rapidly, and crystal formation began 3 days after inoculation. The percentage of phosphate-forming bacteria was slightly higher than 75%. Twelve major colonies with phosphate precipitation capacity were the dominant heterotrophic platable bacteria growing aerobically in artificial media. According to their taxonomic affiliations (based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, the 12 strains belonged to the following genera of Gram-negative bacteria: Rhodobacter, Pseudoxanthobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, Roseobacter, Ochrobactrum, Agromyce, Sphingomonas and Paracoccus. The phylogenetic tree shows that most of the identified populations were evolutionarily related to the Alphaproteobacteria (91.66% of sequences. The minerals formed were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX. All of these strains formed phosphate crystals and precipitated struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O, bobierrite [Mg3(PO42·8H2O] and baricite [(MgFe3(PO42·8H2O]. The results obtained in this study show that struvite and spherulite crystals did not show any cell marks. Moreover, phosphate precipitation was observed in the bacterial mass but also near the colonies. Our results suggest that the microbial population contributed to phosphate precipitation by changing the media as a consequence of their metabolic activity. Moreover, the results of this research suggest that bacteria play an active role in the mineral precipitation of soluble phosphate from urban wastewater in submerged fixed-film bioreactors.

  3. Microorganism Billiards

    Wahl, Colin; Spagnolie, Saverio E; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of such a body inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit, or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square ...

  4. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  5. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  6. Genomics, metagenomics and proteomics in biomining microorganisms.

    Valenzuela, Lissette; Chi, An; Beard, Simon; Orell, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas; Shabanowitz, Jeff; Hunt, Donald F; Jerez, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The use of acidophilic, chemolithotrophic microorganisms capable of oxidizing iron and sulfur in industrial processes to recover metals from minerals containing copper, gold and uranium is a well established biotechnology with distinctive advantages over traditional mining. A consortium of different microorganisms participates in the oxidative reactions resulting in the extraction of dissolved metal values from ores. Considerable effort has been spent in the last years to understand the biochemistry of iron and sulfur compounds oxidation, bacteria-mineral interactions (chemotaxis, quorum sensing, adhesion, biofilm formation) and several adaptive responses allowing the microorganisms to survive in a bioleaching environment. All of these are considered key phenomena for understanding the process of biomining. The use of genomics, metagenomics and high throughput proteomics to study the global regulatory responses that the biomining community uses to adapt to their changing environment is just beginning to emerge in the last years. These powerful approaches are reviewed here since they offer the possibility of exciting new findings that will allow analyzing the community as a microbial system, determining the extent to which each of the individual participants contributes to the process, how they evolve in time to keep the conglomerate healthy and therefore efficient during the entire process of bioleaching. PMID:16288845

  7. Enrichment of mesophilic acidophiles from the Underground Copper Mine Bor

    Conić Vesna T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, autotrophic growth of mesophilic acidophiles from the Underground Copper Mine Bor was performed. Two selected solution samples collected from the 'Tilva Roš' ore body were prepared in a 9K nutrient medium (Silverman and Lundgren, 1959. The first sample TR k-16 was obtained during the hole drilling of the ore body, and the second TR k-31 from the drainage channel. Two samples of 9K media (Silverman and Lundgren, 1959 were inoculated with two selected solution samples from the underground mine Tilva Roš. Inoculated culture media were incubated without prior autoclaving in the period of 6 days at a temperature of 28 ?C with purging air through the system with enough oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxidation rate of ferrous ions in the first 3 days of incubation was 14.8 and 10.7 wt.% Fe2+/day, the next 3 days 17.3 and 13.6 and for the total period of 6 days 98.3 and 74.8 wt.% for the first and second sample, respectively, i.e. 100 wt.% with initial percentage of ferrous ion in each medium. After centrifugation of enriched samples of culture media at 3000 rpm for 5 min, a plenty of mesophilic acidophiles were determined by microscopic method. According to Karavaiko [6], in the processes of incubition for 9K nutrient solution cells number reach a value of 108 cells/cm3.

  8. The taxonomic and physiologic diversity of the acidophilic bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus used in ores solubilization processes

    Carmen Mădălina Cişmaşiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biotechnological processes, based mainly on the activity of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic, proved their efficiency in recovering metals from sulphides ores and mining drains and in bioremediation of the polluted environment with residual inorganic substances, like the heavy metals ions and their compounds.Due to the influence of the physical-chemical factors on the development and the metabolic activity of the microorganism’s present in the industrial effluents, the study of these parameters was imposed for raising the efficiency of the processes of adsorption and biosolubilization of the metallic ions. A special importance for using bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus in the biosolubilization processes of heavy metals from acid mine tailings is represented by the resistance of these bacteria to high concentrations of metal ions.The experiments prove a strong relationship between the acidity of the medium and the behaviour of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria. The comparative analyses regarding the influence of metallic ions (Cu2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+ on the physiologic diversity of the Acidithiobacillus populations, isolated from the mining sites, demonstrated the higher resistance of these bacteria to higher concentrations of metallic ions.

  9. Microbial community profiling of the Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") hot spring in Beppu, Japan: isolation and characterization of Fe(III)-reducing Sulfolobus sp. strain GA1.

    Masaki, Yusei; Tsutsumi, Katsutoshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Okibe, Naoko

    2016-09-01

    Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") is located in the hot spring town of Beppu on the southern island of Kyushu in Japan, and is the site of a red-colored acidic geothermal pond. This study aimed to investigate the microbial population composition in this extremely acidic environment and to isolate/characterize acidophilic microorganism with metal-reducing ability. Initially, PCR (using bacteria- and archaea-specific primers) of environmental DNA samples detected the presence of bacteria, but not archaea. This was followed by random sequencing analysis, confirming the presence of wide bacterial diversity at the site (123 clones derived from 18 bacterial and 1 archaeal genera), including those closely related to known autotrophic and heterotrophic acidophiles (Acidithiobacillus sp., Sulfobacillus sp., Alicyclobacillus sp.). Nevertheless, successive culture enrichment with Fe(III) under micro-aerobic conditions led to isolation of an unknown archaeal organism, Sulfolobus sp. GA1 (with 99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Sulfolobus shibatae). Unlike many other known Sulfolobus spp., strain GA1 was shown to lack sulfur oxidation ability. Strain GA1 possessed only minor Fe(II) oxidation ability, but readily reduced Fe(III) during heterotrophic growth under micro-aerobic conditions. Strain GA1 was capable of reducing highly toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic/soluble Cr(III), demonstrating its potential utility in bioremediation of toxic metal species. PMID:27208660

  10. Sulfur metabolism in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus

    Stefanie eMangold

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of inorganic sulfur compounds. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and inorganic sulfur compound metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide quinone reductase (sqr, tetrathionate hydrolase (tth, two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ, sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor, and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC in A. caldus inorganic sulfur compound metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid, elemental sulfur versus planktonic cells. This study has provided insights into sulfur metabolism of this acidophilic chemolithotroph and gene expression during attachment to solid elemental sulfur.

  11. Heavy metal resistance of microorganisms isolated from coal mining environments of Santa Catarina Resistência a metais pesados em microrganismos isolados de ambientes da mineração do carvão de Santa Catarina

    Marcus Adonai Castro-Silva

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The coal mining activity is characterized by the generation of large amount of by-products. One of them is pyrite, which tends to acidify the water, solubilizing heavy metals. As a consequence the environment becomes acid and rich in heavy metals, selecting microorganisms able to survive in this condition, which are of great interest as bioremediation agents. This work describes the isolation and characterization of microorganisms from a coal mining area in Santa Catarina. These microorganisms comprised bacteria, fungi and yeasts resistant to zinc, nickel and cadmium.A atividade de mineração do carvão é responsável pela geração de diferentes sub-produtos. Entre esses, está a pirita que acidifica a água e acelera o processo de solubilização de metais. Como conseqüência, o ambiente torna-se ácido e rico em metais pesados, os quais selecionam os microrganismos capazes de sobreviver nestas condições. Esses microrganismos podem, por sua vez, serem empregados como agentes para a biorremediação de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados. No presente trabalho é descrito o isolamento e a caracterização de bactérias, fungos e leveduras resistentes aos metais zinco, níquel e cádmio.

  12. Construction of conjugative gene transfer system between E. coli and moderately thermophilic, extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus caldus MTH-04.

    Liu, Xiangmei; Lin, Jianqun; Zhang, Zheng; Bian, Jiang; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Ying; Lin, Jianqiang; Yan, Wangming

    2007-01-01

    A genetic transfer system for introducing foreign genes to biomining microorganisms is urgently needed. Thus, a conjugative gene transfer system was investigated for a moderately thermophilic, extremely acidophilic biomining bacterium, Acidithiobacillus caldus MTH-04. The broad-host-range IncP plasmids RP4 and R68.45 were transferred directly into A. caldus MTH-04 from Escherichia coli by conjugation at relatively high frequencies. Additionally the broad-host-range IncQ plasmids pJRD215, pVLT33, and pVLT35 were also transferred into A. caldus MTH-04 with the help of plasmid RP4 or strains with plasmid RP4 integrated into their chromosome, such as E. coli SM10. The Km(r) and Sm(r) selectable markers from these plasmids were successfully expressed in A. caldus MTH-04. Futhermore, the IncP and IncQ plasmids were transferred back into E. coli cells from A. caldus MTH-04, thereby confirming the initial transfer of these plasmids from E. coli to A. caldus MTH-04. All the IncP and IncQ plasmids studied were stable in A. caldus MTH-04. Consequently, this development of a conjugational system for A. caldus MTH-04 will greatly facilitate its genetic study. PMID:18051368

  13. Acquisition of useful and high ability genes for acidophilic bacteria; Kosansei saikin ni takai noryoku wo fuyosuru idenshi no kakutoku

    Senda, T.; Inoue, C.; Shinbori, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This effort aims at the development of high-performance bacteria usable in bio-leaching in metal smelting by acquiring genes capable of realizing such. A method is used of choosing some isolated strains exhibiting high-performance traits and acquiring target genes therefrom by use of genetic engineering. Approximately 200 kinds in the aggregate of acidophilic bacteria are currently available for the study, including isolated iron-oxidizing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, standard species acquired for the study, and strains previously isolated by the laboratory. The bacteria are tested with respect to their Fe{sup 2+}-oxidizing rates, sulfur-oxidizing capabilities, and strength to withstand inhibiting substances (Ag{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mo{sup 6+}, etc.), which results in the nomination of 8 strains. The study planned to follow includes processes involving the extraction of chromosome DNAs from the 8 strains and their refinement, gene cloning by the Southern hybridization method, determination of their base sequences, determination of the difference between the strains in point of gene expression, and investigations of the relations that the results of these processes bear toward the said high-performance traits. Also under way is a study about the infuence-exerting factors revealed during the evaluation of the abilities of acidphlic bacteria. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fatty acid profiles of marine benthic microorganisms isolated from the continental slope of bay of bengal: a possible implications in the benthic Food web

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Khan, S. Ajmal

    2007-12-01

    Marine bacteria, actinomycetes and fungal strains were isolated from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal and studied for fatty acid profile to investigate their involvement in the benthic food-web. Fifteen different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from bacterial isolates, 14 from actinomycetes and fungal isolates were detected. The total unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial isolates ranged from 11.85 to 37.26%, while the saturated fatty acid ranged between 42.34 and 80.74%. In actinomycetes isolates, total unsaturated fatty acids varied from 27.86 to 38.85% and saturated fatty acids ranged from 35.29 to 51.25%. In fungal isolates unsaturated fatty acids ranged between 44.62 and 65.52% while saturated FA ranged from 20.80 to 46.30%. The higher percentages of unsaturated fatty acids from the microbial isolates are helpful in anticipating the active participation in the benthic food-web of Bay of Bengal.

  15. Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.

    Shunsuke Hirooka

    Full Text Available Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0. These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems.

  16. Isolation and Screening of Microbes for The microorganism used as probiotics must be bio-safety, could be cheaply and easily

    Tresnawati Purwadaria

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available produced, and suitable with the environment of the digestive track. Isolation was carried out from commercial culture (containing mixture of Bacillus spp., digestive tract (proventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of local and broiler chickens, and commercial yoghurts (fermented milk. Neutral and acidic nutrient agars (NA were used as the media at room temperature and in the aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Separate colonies were isolated, stained with Gram and spore staining and observed under the microscope. The bacteria which were Gram positive bacillus and can form spores were further identified. Eight different species of Bacillus spp.: B. laterosporus, B. coagulans, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis B. bodius, B. pasteurii, and B. macroides were isolated from the commercial mixture. From the digestive tracts of local and broiler chickens, 13 bacteria and 2 yeasts were isolated, while 5 yeast were obtained from two commercial yoghurts. Those bacteria were facultative aerobic and only grew in neutral condition and not in acidic condition (pH 4.5, while the yeast were either facultative anaerobic also can grow in pH neutral and 4.5. The ability of each isolates to grow in the media containing mixture of minerals and glucose, sucrose or molasses were evaluated. Incubation was carried out in the shaker incubator at 40°C, 150 rpm for 48 hours. Dry matter of the biomass was determined as the growth parameter. All isolates of bacteria and yeast can grow in the substrate containing glucose, sucrose and molasses. Variance analyses show that there were interactions between kind of bacteria and carbon source or between kind of yeast and carbon source (P<0.05. Three isolates of bacteria that had highest production of biomass were B. coagulans on sucrose (the third for molasses, Sp. 9 on glucose, and B. apiarius on sucrose (the sixth on molasses. B. apiarius isolated from digestive tract of local chicken will be useful to be developed as

  17. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  18. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  19. Microbial Iron Cycling in Acidic Geothermal Springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating Molecular Surveys, Geochemical Processes, and Isolation of Novel Fe-Active Microorganisms

    Mark A Kozubal; Macur, Richard E.; Zack J Jay; Jake P Beam; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Susannah Green Tringe; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Thomas eBorch; Inskeep, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly si...

  20. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  1. Technological characterization and probiotic traits of yeasts isolated from Altamura sourdough to select promising microorganisms as functional starter cultures for cereal-based products.

    Perricone, Marianne; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2014-04-01

    The main topic of this research was to select some suitable functional starter cultures for cereal-based food or beverages. This aim was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, as well as on the evaluation of the probiotic traits of yeasts; the technological characterization relied on the assessment of enzymatic activities (catalase, urease, β-glucosidase), growth under various conditions (pH, temperature, addition of salt, lactic and acetic acids) and leavening ability. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; thus, the most technologically relevant 18 isolates underwent a second selection for their probiotic traits (survival at pH 2.5 and with bile salts added, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial activity towards foodborne pathogens, hydrophobic properties and biofilm production) and were identified through genotyping. Two isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2 and S. cerevisiae strain 4) were selected and analyzed in the last step for the simulation of the gastric transit; these isolates showed a trend similar to S. cerevisiae var. boulardii ATCC MYA-796, a commercial probiotic yeast used as control. PMID:24290622

  2. Isolation of microorganisms of cheese whey with lipolytic activity for removal of COD Isolamento de microrganismos do soro de queijo com atividade lipásica para remoção de DQO

    Eliane Hermes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate microorganisms that produce lipase and to assess the efficiency of COD removal intreatment of cheese whey under different operating conditions. The microorganisms were isolated from cheese whey and a commercial product; it was selectedthreemicroorganisms that obtained the best response to the lipolytic activity test through the enzyme index. Then, the microorganisms were inoculated in sterilized cheese whey samples, for two pH values (6.2 and 7.0, incubated at 35 °C and 150 rpm in shaker and the lipolityc activity and the efficiency of COD removal were measured in two time periods (24 and 48h. After incubation, it was observed that the treatments showed a good removal efficiency of COD for the pre-treatment and the isolated microorganism (S1 from the cheese whey showed the highest lipase production. Regarding the pH and time variables, there was not significant effect between the two evaluated factors. Among all treatments, T2 (S1, pH 7.0 and 24h obtained more enzyme production (4.87 U mL-1.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar microrganismos produtores de lipase e avaliar a eficiência de remoção de DQO no tratamento de soro de leite sob diferentes condições operacionais. Os microrganismos foram isolados a partir do soro de queijo e de um produto comercial,e foram selecionados os três microrganismos que obtiveram a melhor resposta no teste da atividade lipolítica, através do índice enzimático. Em seguida, inocularam-se os micro-organismos em amostras de soro de queijo esterilizado, para dois valores de pH (6,2 e 7,0, incubaram-se a 35 ºC e 150 rpm em shaker e mensuram-se em dois períodos de tempo (24 e 48 h a atividade lipásica e a eficiência de remoção de DQO.Após a incubação, observou-se que os tratamentos apresentaram boa eficiência de remoção de DQO para o pré-tratamento,e o microrganismo (S1 isolado a partir do soro de queijo apresentou a maior produção de lipase. Com relação

  3. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov., a fungus-like eukaryotic micro-organism (Stramenopila, Pythiales) isolated from snow-covered ryegrass leaves.

    Chenari Bouket, Ali; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Tojo, Motoaki; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah

    2015-08-01

    Pythiumkandovanense sp. nov. (ex-type culture CCTU 1813T = OPU 1626T = CBS 139567T) is a novel oomycete species isolated from Lolium perenne with snow rot symptoms in a natural grassland in East-Azarbaijan province, Iran. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-rDNA, coxI and coxII mitochondrial genes clustered our isolates in Pythium group E as a unique, well supported clade. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the other closely related species in this clade, namely Pythium rostratifingens and Pythium rostratum. Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. can be distinguished from these two species by its cylindrical sporangia and lower temperatures for optimum and maximum growth rate. The development of zoospores released through a shorter discharge tube is an additional morphological feature which can be used to differentiate Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. from Pythium rostratifingens. Laboratory inoculation tests demonstrated the pathogenicity of Pythium kandovanense sp. nov. to L. perenne under wet cold (0-3 °C) conditions. PMID:25933619

  4. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.; Miller, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a...

  5. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.;

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  6. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  7. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    Shimizu Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Shimizu,1 Hiroshi Toshida,1 Rio Honda,1 Asaki Matsui,1 Toshihiko Ohta,1 Yousuke Asada,2 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods: The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX cefamezin (CEZ, gentamicin (GM and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results: There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2% had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002 and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005. Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%, followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%, blepharitis (50.0%, dacryoadenitis (45.5%, conjunctivitis (38.2%, infectious corneal ulcer (28.5% and endophthalmitis (24.7%. LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin

  8. Biochemistry and Ecology of Novel Cytochromes Catalyzing Fe(II) Oxidation by an Acidophilic Microbial Community

    Singer, S. W.; Jeans, C. J.; Thelen, M. P.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Hettich, R. C.; Chan, C. S.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    An acidophilic microbial community found in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA forms abundant biofilms in extremely acidic (pHoxidation is critical to the metabolic functioning of the community, and in turn this process generates acid mine drainage, causing an environmental catastrophe. Two conspicuous novel proteins isolated from these biofilms were identified as gene products of Leptospirillum group II and were characterized as cytochromes with unique properties. Sulfuric acid extraction of biofilm samples liberated one of these proteins, a 16 kDa cytochrome with an unusual alpha-band absorption at 579 (Cyt579). Genomic sequencing of multiple biofilms indicated that several variants of Cyt579 were present in Leptospirillum strains. Intact protein MS analysis identified the dominant variants in each biofilm and documented multiple N-terminal cleavage sites for Cyt579. By combining biochemical, geochemical and microbiological data, we established that the sequence variation and N-terminal processing of Cyt579 are selected by ecological conditions. In addition to the soluble Cyt579, the second cytochrome appears as a much larger protein complex of ~210 kDa predominant in the biofilm membrane fraction, and has an alpha-band absorption at 572 nm. The 60 kDa cytochrome subunit, Cyt572, resides in the outer membrane of LeptoII, and readily oxidizes Fe(II) at low pH (0.95 - 3.0). Several genes encoding Cyt572 were localized within a recombination hotspot between two strains of LeptoII, causing a large range of variation in the sequences. Genomic sequencing and MS proteomic studies established that the variants were also selected by ecological conditions. A general mechanistic model for Fe(II) oxidation has been developed from these studies. Initial Fe(II) oxidation by Cyt572 occurs at the outer membrane. Cyt572 then transfers electrons to Cyt579, perhaps representing an initial step in energy flow to the biofilm community. Amino acid variations and post

  9. STUDY ON ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY AND TOXICITY OF CLOVE ETHANOL EXTRACT ON CLINICALLY ISOLATED MICROORGANISM STRAINS%丁香乙醇提取液对临床分离菌株的抗菌作用及毒性试验

    袁文静

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究丁香乙醇提取液的体外抗菌作用和毒性.方法 采用抑菌试验和动物试验方法,观察了丁香乙醇提取液对结核分枝杆菌、蜡状芽孢杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌等临床分离菌株和大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌等标准菌株的抑菌环直径均大于7 mm.在40 mg/ml的浓度下对细胞无毒性伤害.小鼠急性毒理试验LD50值大于5 000mg/kg,长期毒理试验LD50值大于5 000 mg/kg.结论 丁香乙醇提取液具有良好的体外抗临床菌株作用,毒性低,具有开发成消毒液的前景.%Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of the ethanol extract from clove. Methods Antibacterial method and animal test were used to observe the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract from clove. Results The diameters of bacterial inhibition zones of clinically isolated microorganism strains including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus suhtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and standard microorganism strains including Escherkhia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the clove ethanol extract were > 7 mm. The mouse acute oral LD50 was >5 000 mg/kg, the mouse long - time toxicity LD50 was > 5 000 mg/kg. Conclusion The clove ethanol extract has good clinically antimicrobial efficacy and low toxicity. It can be developed as a disinfectant in the future.

  10. Characterization of a novel thiosulfate dehydrogenase from a marine acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain SH.

    Sharmin, Sultana; Yoshino, Eriko; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Kamimura, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    A marine acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strain SH, was isolated to develop a bioleaching process for NaCl-containing sulfide minerals. Because the sulfur moiety of sulfide minerals is metabolized to sulfate via thiosulfate as an intermediate, we purified and characterized the thiosulfate dehydrogenase (TSD) from strain SH. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 44 kDa and was purified 71-fold from the solubilized membrane fraction. Tetrathionate was the product of the TSD-oxidized thiosulfate and ferricyanide or ubiquinone was the electron acceptor. Maximum enzyme activity was observed at pH 4.0, 40 °C, and 200 mM NaCl. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NaCl-stimulated TSD activity. TSD was structurally different from the previously reported thiosulfate-oxidizing enzymes. In addition, TSD activity was strongly inhibited by 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline N-oxide, suggesting that the TSD is a novel thiosulfate:quinone reductase. PMID:26393925

  11. In vitro minocycline activity on superinfecting microorganisms isolated from chronic periodontitis patients Atividade in vitro de minociclina sobre microrganismos superinfectantes isolados de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Luciana Fernandes de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is the most common type of periodontitis and it is associated with various species of microorganisms. Enteric rods, Pseudomonas, Staphyloccocus and Candida have been retrieved from periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis and correlated to cases of superinfection. Local or systemic antibiotic therapy is indicated to reinforce the effects of the conventional mechanical therapy. Minocycline has been suggested as one of the most effective drugs against periodontal pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of minocycline on superinfecting microorganisms isolated from the periodontal pocket and the oral cavity of individuals with chronic periodontitis. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 25, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 25, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 9 and Candida spp. (n = 25 were included in the study. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of minocycline were determined using the Müeller-Hinton agar dilution method. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were the most sensitive to minocycline with a MIC of 8 µg/mL, followed by Enterobacteriaceae with a MIC of 16 µg/mL. The concentration of 16 µg/mL inhibited 96% of Candida spp. isolates. The MIC for 88.8% of the isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 128 µg/mL. A concentration of 1,000 µg/mL was not enough to inhibit 100% of the tested isolates.Periodontite crônica é a forma mais comum de periodontite e está associada a diversas espécies de microrganismos. Enterobactérias, Pseudomonas, Staphyloccocus e Candida têm sido recuperados de bolsas periodontais de indivíduos com periodontite crônica e implicados em casos de superinfecção. A terapia antimicrobiana local ou sistêmica pode ser utilizada para reforçar os efeitos da terapia mecânica convencional, e a minociclina tem sido sugerida como antimicrobiano eficaz frente a periodontopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a concentração inibit

  12. Selective removal of transition metals from acidic mine waters by novel consortia of acidophilic sulfidogenic bacteria

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2011-01-01

    Summary Two continuous‐flow bench‐scale bioreactor systems populated by mixed communities of acidophilic sulfate‐reducing bacteria were constructed and tested for their abilities to promote the selective precipitation of transition metals (as sulfides) present in synthetic mine waters, using glycerol as electron donor. The objective with the first system (selective precipitation of copper from acidic mine water containing a variety of soluble metals) was achieved by maintaining a bioreactor p...

  13. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  14. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes a w...... wide variety of organisms. The article focuses on the functional role of microbes in the biosphere and in different types of habitats - especially in terms of flow of energy and matter....

  15. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  16. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  17. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  18. Detection and validation of a small broad-host-range plasmid pBBR1MCS-2 for use in genetic manipulation of the extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus sp.

    Hao, Likai; Liu, Xiangmei; Wang, Huiyan; Lin, Jianqun; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2012-09-01

    An efficient genetic system for introducing genes into biomining microorganisms is essential not only to experimentally determine the functions of genes predicted based on bioinformatic analysis, but also for their genetic breeding. In this study, a small broad-host-range vector named pBBR1MCS-2, which does not belong to the IncQ, IncW, or IncP groups, was studied for the feasibility of its use in conjugative gene transfer into extremely acidophilic strains of Acidithiobacillus. To do this, a recombinant plasmid pBBR-tac-Sm, a derivative of pBBR1MCS-2, was constructed and the streptomycin resistant gene (Sm(r)) was used as the reporter gene. Using conjugation, pBBR-tac-Sm was successfully transferred into three tested strains of Acidithiobacillus. Then we measured its transfer frequency, its stability in Acidithiobacillus cells, and the level of resistance to streptomycin of the transconjugants and compared this with the IncQ plasmid pJRD215 control. Our results indicate that pBBR1MCS-2 provides a new and useful tool in the genetic manipulation of Acidithiobacillus strains. PMID:22705922

  19. Isolation of Resistance-Bearing Microorganisms

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri, J.; Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parang A.; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Osman, Shariff

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  20. Enhanced bioleaching on attachment of indigenous acidophilic bacteria to pyrite surface

    Wi, D. W.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, bioleaching has been widely applied on an industrial scale due to the advantages of low cost and environment friendliness. The direct contact mechanism of bioleaching assumes the action of a metal sulfide-attached cell oxidizing the mineral by an enzyme system with oxygen to sulfate and metal cations. Fundamental surface properties of sulfide particles and leaching-bacteria in bioleaching play the key role in the efficiency of this process. The aim of this work is to investigate of direct contact bioleaching mechanism on pyrite through attachment properties between indigenous acidophilic bacteria and pyrite surfaces. The bacteria were obtained from sulfur hot springs, Hatchobaru thermal electricity plant in Japan. And pyrite was collected from mine waste from Gwang-yang abandoned gold mines, Korea. In XRD analyses of the pyrite, x-ray diffracted d-value belong to pyrite was observed. The indigenous acidophilic bacteria grew well in a solution and over the course of incubation pH decreased and Eh increased. In relation to a bacterial growth-curve, the lag phase was hardly shown while the exponential phase was very fast. Bioleaching experiment result was showed that twenty days after the indigenous acidophilic bacteria were inoculated to a pyrite-leaching medium, the bacterial sample had a greater concentration of Fe and Zn than within the control sample. In SEM-EDS analyses, rod-shaped bacteria and round-shaped microbes were well attached to the surface of pyrite. The size of the rod-shaped bacteria ranged from 1.05~1.10 ? to 4.01~5.38 ?. Round-shaped microbes were more than 3.0 ? in diameter. Paired cells of rod-shaped bacteria were attached to the surface of pyrite linearly.

  1. Photochemical performance of the acidophilic red alga Cyanidium sp. in a pH gradient

    Kvíderová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2-3 (2012), s. 223-234. ISSN 0169-6149. [European Workshop on Astrobiology of the European-Astrobiology-Network-Association (EANA) /11/. German Aerosp Ctr, Cologne, 11.07.2011-14.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : acidophilic red alga * pH gradient * photochemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2012

  2. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author)

  3. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

    Özbilge Hatice; Kaya Esma; Er Özgür; Kahraman Yasemin; Asyalı Musa H; Aksebzeci Bekir H; Kara Sadık

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identific...

  4. The yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis

    Alena Sláviková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic studies of the yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the denitrification unit biocenosis were carried out. A set of 13 strains of these microorganisms were examined for their morphological and physiological characters. Considering their special features and some relation to the known species, the isolated microorganisms were classified to the 3 genera: Candida, Geotrichium and Hansenula.

  5. Iron homeostasis and responses to iron limitation in extreme acidophiles from the Ferroplasma genus.

    Potrykus, Joanna; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Dopson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Extremely acidophilic archaea from the genus Ferroplasma inhabit iron-rich biomining environments and are important constituents of naturally occurring microbial consortia that catalyze the production of acid mine drainage. A combined bioinformatic, transcript profiling, and proteomic approach was used to elucidate iron homeostasis mechanisms in "F. acidarmanus" Fer1 and F. acidiphilum Y(T) . Bioinformatic analysis of the "F. acidarmanus" Fer1 genome sequence revealed genes encoding proteins hypothesized to be involved in iron-dependent gene regulation and siderophore biosynthesis; the Fhu and NRAMP cation acquisition systems; iron storage proteins; and the SUF machinery for the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters. A subset of homologous genes was identified on the F. acidiphilum Y(T) chromosome by direct PCR probing. In both strains, some of the genes appeared to be regulated in a ferrous/ferric iron-dependent manner, as indicated by RT-PCR. A detailed gel-based proteomics analysis of responses to iron depletion showed that a putative isochorismatase, presumably involved in siderophore biosynthesis, and the SufBCD system were upregulated under iron-limiting conditions. No evidence was obtained for iron sparing response during iron limitation. This study constitutes the first detailed investigation of iron homeostasis in extremely acidophilic archaea. PMID:21182194

  6. Bioleaching of spent hydro-processing catalyst using acidophilic bacteria and its kinetics aspect.

    Mishra, Debaraj; Kim, Dong J; Ralph, David E; Ahn, Jong G; Rhee, Young H

    2008-04-15

    Bioleaching of metals from hazardous spent hydro-processing catalysts was attempted in the second stage after growing the bacteria with sulfur in the first stage. The first stage involved transformation of elemental sulfur particles to sulfuric acid through an oxidation process by acidophilic bacteria. In the second stage, the acidic medium was utilized for the leaching process. Nickel, vanadium and molybdenum contained within spent catalyst were leached from the solid materials to liquid medium by the action of sulfuric acid that was produced by acidophilic leaching bacteria. Experiments were conducted varying the reaction time, amount of spent catalysts, amount of elemental sulfur and temperature. At 50 g/L spent catalyst concentration and 20 g/L elemental sulfur, 88.3% Ni, 46.3% Mo, and 94.8% V were recovered after 7 days. Chemical leaching with commercial sulfuric acid of the similar amount that produced by bacteria was compared. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the nature of reaction was found to be exothermic. Leaching kinetics of the metals was represented by different reaction kinetic equations, however, only diffusion controlled model showed the best correlation here. During the whole process Mo showed low dissolution because of substantiate precipitation with leach residues as MoO3. Bioleach residues were characterized by EDX and XRD. PMID:17825485

  7. Bioleaching of spent hydro-processing catalyst using acidophilic bacteria and its kinetics aspect

    Mishra, Debaraj [Mineral and Material Processing Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong J. [Mineral and Material Processing Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: djkim@kigam.re.kr; Ralph, David E. [AJ Parker CRC for Hydrometallurgy, Murdoch University, South Street Murdoch, Perth 6153 (Australia); Ahn, Jong G. [Mineral and Material Processing Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Young H. [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Bioleaching of metals from hazardous spent hydro-processing catalysts was attempted in the second stage after growing the bacteria with sulfur in the first stage. The first stage involved transformation of elemental sulfur particles to sulfuric acid through an oxidation process by acidophilic bacteria. In the second stage, the acidic medium was utilized for the leaching process. Nickel, vanadium and molybdenum contained within spent catalyst were leached from the solid materials to liquid medium by the action of sulfuric acid that was produced by acidophilic leaching bacteria. Experiments were conducted varying the reaction time, amount of spent catalysts, amount of elemental sulfur and temperature. At 50 g/L spent catalyst concentration and 20 g/L elemental sulfur, 88.3% Ni, 46.3% Mo, and 94.8% V were recovered after 7 days. Chemical leaching with commercial sulfuric acid of the similar amount that produced by bacteria was compared. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the nature of reaction was found to be exothermic. Leaching kinetics of the metals was represented by different reaction kinetic equations, however, only diffusion controlled model showed the best correlation here. During the whole process Mo showed low dissolution because of substantiate precipitation with leach residues as MoO{sub 3}. Bioleach residues were characterized by EDX and XRD.

  8. Bioleaching of spent hydro-processing catalyst using acidophilic bacteria and its kinetics aspect

    Bioleaching of metals from hazardous spent hydro-processing catalysts was attempted in the second stage after growing the bacteria with sulfur in the first stage. The first stage involved transformation of elemental sulfur particles to sulfuric acid through an oxidation process by acidophilic bacteria. In the second stage, the acidic medium was utilized for the leaching process. Nickel, vanadium and molybdenum contained within spent catalyst were leached from the solid materials to liquid medium by the action of sulfuric acid that was produced by acidophilic leaching bacteria. Experiments were conducted varying the reaction time, amount of spent catalysts, amount of elemental sulfur and temperature. At 50 g/L spent catalyst concentration and 20 g/L elemental sulfur, 88.3% Ni, 46.3% Mo, and 94.8% V were recovered after 7 days. Chemical leaching with commercial sulfuric acid of the similar amount that produced by bacteria was compared. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the nature of reaction was found to be exothermic. Leaching kinetics of the metals was represented by different reaction kinetic equations, however, only diffusion controlled model showed the best correlation here. During the whole process Mo showed low dissolution because of substantiate precipitation with leach residues as MoO3. Bioleach residues were characterized by EDX and XRD

  9. Auto- and heterotrophic acidophilic bacteria enhance the bioremediation efficiency of sediments contaminated by heavy metals.

    Beolchini, Francesca; Dell'Anno, Antonio; De Propris, Luciano; Ubaldini, Stefano; Cerrone, Federico; Danovaro, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    This study deals with bioremediation treatments of dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals based on the bioaugmentation of different bacterial strains. The efficiency of the following bacterial consortia was compared: (i) acidophilic chemoautotrophic, Fe/S-oxidising bacteria, (ii) acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria able to reduce Fe/Mn fraction, co-respiring oxygen and ferric iron and (iii) the chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria reported above, pooled together, as it was hypothesised that the two strains could cooperate through a mutual substrate supply. The effect of the bioremediation treatment based on the bioaugmentation of Fe/S-oxidising strains alone was similar to the one based only on Fe-reducing bacteria, and resulted in heavy-metal extraction yields typically ranging from 40% to 50%. The efficiency of the process based only upon autotrophic bacteria was limited by sulphur availability. However, when the treatment was based on the addition of Fe-reducing bacteria and the Fe/S oxidizing bacteria together, their growth rates and efficiency in mobilising heavy metals increased significantly, reaching extraction yields >90% for Cu, Cd, Hg and Zn. The additional advantage of the new bioaugmentation approach proposed here is that it is independent from the availability of sulphur. These results open new perspectives for the bioremediation technology for the removal of heavy metals from highly contaminated sediments. PMID:19118863

  10. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at −1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process

  11. Transfer of IncP plasmids to extremely acidophilic Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    Thiobacillus thiooxidans is an acidophilic, obligately autotrophic bacterium which derives its energy by oxidizing reduced or partially reduced sulfur compounds and obtains its carbon by fixing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The strain is able to live in inorganic, acidic environments and is present in large numbers in coal mine drainage and in mineral ores. T. thiooxidans has been used industrially in metal leaching from mineral ores and in the microbial desulfurization of coal in combination with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Although T. thiooxidans has been well studied physiologically, very little is known about it genetics. The broad-host-range IncP plasmids RP4, R68.45, RP1::Tn501, and pUB307 were transferred directly to extremely acidophilic Thiobacillus thiooxidans from Escherichia coli by conjugation at frequencies of 10-5 to 10-7 per recipient. The ability of T. thiooxidans to receive and express the antibiotic resistance markers was examined. The plasmid RP4 was transferred back to E. coli from T. thiooxidans at a frequency of 1.0 x 10-3 per recipient

  12. Properties of thermophilic microorganisms

    Microorganisms are called thermophilic or extreme thermophilic (caldo-active) if they grow and reproduce over 470C and 700C, respectively. A survey of growth characteristics of thermophiles is presented and it includes those which also live at extreme pH. The prevalent but not completely emcompassing theory of the ability of thermophiles to grow at high temperatures is that they have macromolecules and cell organelles with high thermostability. Work on some proteins and cell organelles from thermophiles is reviewed. The thermostabilities of these components are compared with those of the living cells, and factors which may govern optimum as well as minimum growth temperatures of microorganisms are discussed. Examples are from the literature but also include enzymes involved in tetrahydrofolate metabolism and other proteins of acetogenic therhmophilic bacteria which are presently studied in the author's laboratory

  13. Interactions between plants and microorganisms

    Allelopathic microorganisms comprise rhizobacteria and fungi that colonize the surfaces of plant roots, and produce and release phytotoxic metabolites, similar to allelochemicals, that detrimentally affect growth of their host plants. The allelopathic microorganisms are grouped separately from typic...

  14. Detecting the presence of microorganisms

    Wilkins, Judd R. (Inventor); Stoner, Glenn E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium which is in contact with a measuring electrode and a reference electrode and detecting a change in potential between the electrodes caused by the presence of the microorganisms in the medium with a high impedance potentiometer.

  15. 嗜酸糖苷水解酶研究进展%Research Progress on Acidophilic Glycoside Hydrolase

    罗会颖; 姚斌; 范云六

    2013-01-01

    随着极端微生物及极端酶的广泛研究,嗜酸酶因其在极端酸性环境中具有高的酶活性和稳定性而倍受关注,并取得了较大的研究进展。嗜酸糖苷水解酶是嗜酸酶中最重要的一类,在生物能源、饲料、食品等工业中具有重要的应用前景。综述了重要嗜酸糖苷水解酶,包括嗜酸淀粉酶、嗜酸纤维素酶、嗜酸木聚糖酶和甘露聚糖酶在基因的挖掘、表达、分子改良嗜酸机制研究以及应用等方面国内外的研究进展,展望了嗜酸糖苷水解酶未来可能的研究方向和发展前景。%Extremophiles and enzymes from extremophiles are widely studied. Of them, acidophilic enzyme attracts much attention, due to its high activity and stability under extreme acidic conditions, and this research has made rapid progress. Acidophilic glycosyl hydrolase is one of the most important acidophilic enzymes, and has significant application prospect in bio-energy, animal feed, food and other industries. This paper reviewed the gene cloning, heterologous expression, molecular modification and acidophilic mechanisms of important acidophilic glycosyl hydrolases, including amylase, cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase. The research orientation and development prospects were also elucidated in this paper.

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Growth of the acidophilic iron-sulfur bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans under Mars-like geochemical conditions

    Bauermeister, Anja; Rettberg, Petra; Flemming, Hans-Curt

    2014-08-01

    The question of life on Mars has been in focus of astrobiological research for several decades, and recent missions in orbit or on the surface of the planet are constantly expanding our knowledge on Martian geochemistry. For example, massive stratified deposits have been identified on Mars containing sulfate minerals and iron oxides, which suggest the existence of acidic aqueous conditions in the past, similar to acidic iron- and sulfur-rich environments on Earth. Acidophilic organisms thriving in such habitats could have been an integral part of a possibly widely extinct Martian ecosystem, but remains might possibly even exist today in protected subsurface niches. The chemolithoautotrophic strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was selected as a model organism to study the metabolic capacities of acidophilic iron-sulfur bacteria, especially regarding their ability to grow with in situ resources that could be expected on Mars. The experiments were not designed to accurately simulate Martian physical conditions (except when certain single parameters such as oxygen partial pressure were considered), but rather the geochemical environment that can be found on Mars. A. ferrooxidans could grow solely on the minerals contained in synthetic Mars regolith mixtures with no added nutrients, using either O2 as an external electron acceptor for iron oxidation, or H2 as an external electron donor for iron reduction, and thus might play important roles in the redox cycling of iron on Mars. Though the oxygen partial pressure of the Martian atmosphere at the surface was not sufficient for detectable iron oxidation and growth of A. ferrooxidans during short-term incubation (7 days), alternative chemical O2-generating processes in the subsurface might yield microhabitats enriched in oxygen, which principally are possible under such conditions. The bacteria might also contribute to the reductive dissolution of Fe3+-containing minerals like goethite and hematite, which are

  18. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  19. Diversity and adaptations of deep-sea microorganisms

    Raghukumar, C.

    from moderately barophilic or barotolerant microorganisms. The effect of pressure on cell membrane, protein and gene expression are studied in detail in some of these microorganisms. Cold temperatures and high pressures decrease membrane fluidity... and affect a number of membrane-associated processes including ion and nutrient flux and DNA replication (Bartlett, 1992). A barotolerant strain of Alteromonas isolated from 4033 m in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench, Japan showed an increase in the proportion...

  20. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis.

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose) concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60-80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w) on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h(-1)). Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w), against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions. PMID:26295411

  1. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  2. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60–80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h−1. Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w, against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  3. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  4. Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat Products

    FARKOVÁ, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis and description of microorganisms occurring in meat products. The work is by definition enter the search character, so the method chosen as the research literature analysis and the subsequent description of findings. The first chapter focuses on the characteristics of microorganisms and their distribution in several respects. Chapter 2 is already covered by specific genera of microorganisms that have been using a wide range of literary sources characterize...

  5. Biooxidación de sulfuros mediante cepas nativas de acidófilos compatibles con Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans y thiooxidans, mina de oro El Zancudo, (Titiribí, Colombia Sulphide bioxidation using native Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiooxidans, related acidophile strains from "El Zancudo" gold mine (Titiribí, Colombia

    Márquez G. Marco A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar a escala de laboratorio la acción de microorganismos acidófilos nativos compatibles con las especies Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans y thiooxidans, aislados de la mina El Zancudo, Titiribí (Antioquia sobre la oxidación de sulfuros donde predominan la pirita y arsenopirita, variando las concentraciones de sustrato (8% y 16%, y el tamaño de partícula (75 um y 106 xm. Los resultados de las mediciones diarias de pH y potencial redox realizadas por un tiempo de 25 días, demuestran que hubo una actividad de oxidación eficiente y se llegó a valores de pH de 1,4 y potencial redox de 600 mV, además de encontrarse en solución niveles altos de alrededor de 20 g/L de As y 60 g/L de Fe. Por los análisis de DRX, FTIR y SEM/EDX, se evidencia la presencia de productos propios de la oxidación bacteriana, como jarosita y arsenatos de hierro, además de una corrosión inicial y avanzada en los granos de pirita y arsenopirita, respectivamente. Palabras clave: quimiolitotrofos, biolixiviación, pirita, arsenopirita, mineralogía aplicada.This investigation was aimed at a laboratory evaluation of the action of native Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans-and thiooxidans-related acidophile micro-organism (isolated from El Zancudo gold mine in Titiribí, Colombia on the oxidation of sulphides, mainly consisting of pyrite and arsenopyrite; sulphide concentration varied from 8% to 16% and particle size from 75 um to 106 um. pH and redox potential measurement revealed efficient oxidation for each culture over a 25-day period, reaching 1,4 pH and 600 mV redox potential. 20 g/L As and 60 g/L Fe levels were reached in solution. XRD, FTIR and SEM/EDX analysis revealed the presence of bacterial oxidation products such as jarosite and iron arsenates, as well as low and high corrosion in pyrites and arsenopyrites, respectively. Key words: chemolithotrophics, bioleaching, pyrite, arsenopyrite, applied mineralogy.

  6. Gene Identification and Substrate Regulation Provide Insights into Sulfur Accumulation during Bioleaching with the Psychrotolerant Acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans

    Liljeqvist, Maria; Rzhepishevska, Olena I.; Dopson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The psychrotolerant acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans has been identified from cold environments and has been shown to use ferrous iron and inorganic sulfur compounds as its energy sources. A bioinformatic evaluation presented in this study suggested that Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans utilized a ferrous iron oxidation pathway similar to that of the related species Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, the inorganic sulfur oxidation pathway was less clear, since the Acidithiobacillus...

  7. Technetium in micro-organisms

    This paper reports the results of experimental work on the interaction of technetium with the following aquatic micro-organisms and untreated and sterilised sediments: Flavobacterium halmephilum, Uronema marinum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella bioculata, Mytilus edulis, and marine sediments, collected near Coxyde, containing a mixed population of micro-organisms, and sterilised by autoclaving. (UK)

  8. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

  9. Selection of mesophilic microorganisms with biodesulfuration capacity

    The development of bio desulfurization (BDS) processes for hydrocarbons requires fast and reliable methods for the screening of microorganisms. This work shows the results of the screening process for indigenous Colombian strains with a BDS potential capacity. The main criteria for the screening were the qualitative and quantitative determination of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) as the typical metabolite of the 4S specific pathway. Microorganisms were cultured by two methodologies, A and B, using DBT as the model compound. The quantitative determination of metabolites was made by HPLC. Thirteen strains were evaluated, including the strain Rhodococcus rhodocrous IGTS8, by methods A and B. In method A, the inoculum was exposed to DBT since the beginning of the culture. Method B, employed two stages: (i) Growth period under limiting sulfur conditions, (ii) Transforming period, in which the pre-grown inoculum was exposed to the organic sulfur substrate. The culture of mesophilic microorganisms isolated by method B, served to find a mechanism for the organic sulfur metabolism, and the evaluation of the sulfur removal capability of five indigenous strains. In the cultures of these strains, 2- hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) was detected as a byproduct of DBT metabolism, both qualitatively and quantitatively

  10. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors. PMID:25639037

  11. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganisms. The following recipient microorganisms are eligible for...

  12. Radiation resistance of microorganisms from radiation sterilization processing environments

    The radiation resistance of microorganisms was examined on the samples of dust collected from the radiation sterilization processing environments including assembly, storage, and sterilization plant areas. The isolation of radiation resistant strains was performed by irradiation with screening doses ranging from 10 to 35 kGy and test pieces containing 106 to 108 CFU in dried serum-broth, representing 100 to 5000 colonies of primary cultures of microorganisms from 7 different sites. In an examination of 16900 colonies of aerobic microorganisms from 3 hygienically controlled production sites and 4 uncontrolled ones, 30 strains of bacteria were isolated. Of those 15 were classified as genus Bacillus, 9 as Micrococcus and 6 as Sarcina. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Toxicity of select organic acids to the slightly thermophilic acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    Aston, John E; Apel, William A; Lee, Brady D; Peyton, Brent M

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 microM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 microM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids. PMID:18803441

  14. Toxicity of Select Organic Acids to the Slightly Thermophilic Acidophile Acidithiobaccillus Caldus

    John E Aston; William A Apel; Brady D Lee; Brent M Peyton

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 µM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 µM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  15. RNA transcript sequencing reveals inorganic sulfur compound oxidation pathways in the acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans.

    Christel, Stephan; Fridlund, Jimmy; Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Buck, Moritz; Watkin, Elizabeth L; Dopson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrivoransis an acidophile implicated in low-temperature biomining for the recovery of metals from sulfide minerals.Acidithiobacillus ferrivoransobtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds, and genes encoding several alternative pathways have been identified. Next-generation sequencing ofAt. ferrivoransRNA transcripts identified the genes coding for metabolic and electron transport proteins for energy conservation from tetrathionate as electron donor. RNA transcripts suggested that tetrathionate was hydrolyzed by thetetH1gene product to form thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Despite two of the genes being truncated, RNA transcripts for the SoxXYZAB complex had higher levels than for thiosulfate quinone oxidoreductase (doxDAgenes). However, a lack of heme-binding sites insoxXsuggested that DoxDA was responsible for thiosulfate metabolism. Higher RNA transcript counts also suggested that elemental sulfur was metabolized by heterodisulfide reductase (hdrgenes) rather than sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor). The sulfite produced as a product of heterodisulfide reductase was suggested to be oxidized by a pathway involving thesatgene product or abiotically react with elemental sulfur to form thiosulfate. Finally, several electron transport complexes were involved in energy conservation. This study has elucidated the previously unknownAt. ferrivoranstetrathionate metabolic pathway that is important in biomining. PMID:26956550

  16. Effect of physical characteristics on bioleaching using indigenous acidophilic bacteria for recovering the valuable resources

    Wi, D.; Kim, B.; Cho, K.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Bioleaching technology which is based on the ability of bacteria to transform solid compounds into soluble or extractable elements that can be recovered, has developed rapidly in recent decades for its advantages, such as mild reaction, low energy consumption, simple process, environmentally friendly and suitable for low-grade mine tailing and residues. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of copper matte under batch experimental conditions (various mineral particle size) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acidic hot spring in Hatchnobaru, Japan. We conducted the batch experiments at three different mineral particle sizes: 0.06, 0.16 and 1.12mm. The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample increased than initial condition, possibly due to buffer effects by phosphate ions in growth medium. After 22 days from incubation the leached accumulation content of Cu was 0.06 mm - 1,197 mg/L, 0.16 mm - 970 mg/L and 1.12 mm - 704 mg/L. Additionally, through SEM analysis we found of gypsum formed crystals which coated the copper matte surface 6 days after inoculation in 1.12mm case. This study informs basic knowledge when bacteria apply to eco-/economic resources utilization studies including the biomining and the recycling of mine waste system.

  17. Proteogenomic basis for ecological divergence of closely related bacteria in natural acidophilic microbial communities

    Denef, Vincent [University of California, Berkeley; Kalnejals, Linda [University of California, Berkeley; Muller, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Wilmes, P [University of California, Berkeley; Baker, Brett J. [University of California, Berkeley; Thomas, Brian [University of California, Berkeley; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial species concepts are controversial. More widely accepted is the need to understand how differences in gene content and sequence lead to ecological divergence. To address this relationship in ecosystem context, we investigated links between genotype and ecology of two genotypic groups of Leptospirillumgroup II bacteria in comprehensively characterized, natural acidophilic biofilm communities. These groups share 99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and 95% average amino acid identity between their orthologs. One genotypic group predominates during early colonization, and the other group typically proliferates in later successional stages, forming distinct patches tens to hundreds of micrometers in diameter. Among early colonizing populations, we observed dominance of five genotypes that differed from each other by the extent of recombination with the late colonizing type. Our analyses suggest that the specific recombinant variant within the early colonizing group is selected for by environmental parameters such as temperature, consistent with recombination as a mechanism for ecological fine tuning. Evolutionary signatures, and strain-resolved expression patterns measured via mass spectrometry based proteomics, indicate increased cobalamin biosynthesis, (de)methylation, and glycine cleavage in the late colonizer. This may suggest environmental changes within the biofilm during development, accompanied by redirection of compatible solutes from osmoprotectants toward metabolism. Across 27 communities, comparative proteogenomic analyses show that differential regulation of shared genes and expression of a small subset of the 15% of genes unique to each genotype are involved in niche partitioning. In summary, the results show how subtle genetic variations can lead to distinct ecological strategies.

  18. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  19. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  20. Geochemical Niches of Iron-Oxidizing Acidophiles in Acidic Coal Mine Drainage

    Jones, Daniel S.; Kohl, Courtney; Grettenberger, Christen; Larson, Lance N.; Burgos, William D.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    A legacy of coal mining in the Appalachians has provided a unique opportunity to study the ecological niches of iron-oxidizing microorganisms. Mine-impacted, anoxic groundwater with high dissolved-metal concentrations emerges at springs and seeps associated with iron oxide mounds and deposits. These deposits are colonized by iron-oxidizing microorganisms that in some cases efficiently remove most of the dissolved iron at low pH, making subsequent treatment of the polluted stream water less ex...

  1. Sensor arrays for detecting microorganisms

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Freund, Michael S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A sensor array for detecting a microorganism comprising first and second sensors electrically connected to an electrical measuring apparatus, wherein the sensors comprise a region of nonconducting organic material and a region of conducting material compositionally that is different than the nonconducting organic material and an electrical path through the regions of nonconducting organic material and the conducting material. A system for identifying microorganisms using the sensor array, a computer and a pattern recognition algorithm, such as a neural net are also disclosed.

  2. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  3. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T. [Department of Environmental and Life Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Hiraishi, A. [Department of Environmental and Life Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan and Electronics-inspired Interdisciplinary Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum 'TM7' as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L{sup −1} was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  4. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain

    Bacteria isolated from ground water samples taken from 31 springs during 1993 were collected and processed according to procedures described in earlier reports. These procedures required aseptic collection of surface water samples in sterile screw-capped containers, transportation to the HRC microbiology laboratory, and culture by spread plating onto R2A medium. The isolates were further processed for identification using a gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes. This work generated a presumptive identification of 113 bacterial species distributed among 45 genera using a database obtained from Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, Delaware (MIDI). A preliminary examination of the FAME data was accomplished using cluster analysis and principal component analysis software obtained from MIDI. Typically, bacterial strains that cluster at less than 10 Euclidian distance units have fatty acid patterns consistent among members of the same species. Thus an organism obtained from one source can be recognized if it is isolated again from the same or any other source. This makes it possible to track the distribution of organisms and monitor environmental conditions or fluid transport mechanisms. Microorganisms are seldom found as monocultures in natural environments. They are more likely to be closely associated with other genera with complementary metabolic requirements. An understanding of the indigenous microorganism population is useful in understanding subtle changes in the environment. However, classification of environmental organisms using traditional methods is not ideal because differentiation of species with small variations or genera with very similar taxonomic characteristics is beyond the capabilities of traditional microbiological methods

  5. Dynamic of active microorganisms inhabiting a bioleaching industrial heap of low‐grade copper sulfide ore monitored by real‐time PCR and oligonucleotide prokaryotic acidophile microarray

    Remonsellez, Francisco; Galleguillos, Felipe; Moreno‐Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Víctor; Acosta, Mauricio; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bioleaching of metal sulfide has developed into a very important industrial process and understanding the microbial dynamic is key to advancing commercial bioleaching operations. Here we report the first quantitative description of the dynamic of active communities in an industrial bioleaching heap. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was the most abundant during the first part of the leaching cycle, while the abundance of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Ferroplasma acidiphilum increase...

  6. Molecular Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression of omp-40, the Gene Coding for the Major Outer Membrane Protein from the Acidophilic Bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans†

    Guiliani, Nicolas; Jerez, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is one of the chemolithoautotrophic bacteria important in industrial biomining operations. Some of the surface components of this microorganism are probably involved in adaptation to their acidic environment and in bacterium-mineral interactions. We have isolated and characterized omp40, the gene coding for the major outer membrane protein from T. ferrooxidans. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Omp40 protein has 382 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight ...

  7. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection

    Rogério Santos Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37°C por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L. was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  8. Recent Researches of Bioactive Metabolites in Marine Organisms-associated Microor-ganisms

    GU Qianqun; LU Jia; CUI Chengbin; ZHU Tianjiao; FANG Yuchun; LIU Hongbing; ZHU Weiming

    2004-01-01

    Recent researches have shown that some compounds isolated from marine organisms have striking structural similarities with the metabolites from known microorganisms. It is inferred from the researches that the symbiotic or associated marine microorganisms may be the true sources of those compounds or at least involved in the biosynthesizing process. This view has been further evidenced by the researches for many sponges and sponge-associated microorganisms. Importantly, growing evidence has highlighted that the symbiotic or associated marine microorganisms live in the microenvironment within the hosts, and they also produce secondary metabolites which are new and original in structure and unique in activity. All these suggest that the microorganisms associated with marine organisms are the sources with very high potential to be new natural bioactive agents. This article reviews briefly the research advances in the study of new bioactive metabolites from marine organisms-associated microorganisms since 2000.

  9. Role of effective microorganism in unfertile soil

    Yasotha Chandramohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluvate the effect of Effective microorganisms (EM.The EM isolation is very important for agricultural fields. For this study used the different kinds of natural ingrediends such as banana, papaya, pumpkin, egg, cane molasses and neem powder to added and mixed and wait for the fermentation. After 45 days the samples were collected.The collected sample were identified using plating technique, microscopic studies and Biochemical test. The identified effective organism was Bacillus megaterium. These Effective organisms acting against the pathogen. The results concluded miximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Such as E.coil (16mm, P.aeruginosa (18mm, K.pneumoniae (19mm, S.aureus (17mm, S.epidermis (16mm

  10. Draft genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19377 provides insights into the evolution of the Acidithiobacillus genus.

    Valdes, Jorge; Ossandon, Francisco; Quatrini, Raquel; Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2011-12-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans is a mesophilic, extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur and inorganic sulfur compounds. Here we present the draft genome sequence of A. thiooxidans ATCC 19377, which has allowed the identification of genes for survival and colonization of extremely acidic environments. PMID:22123759