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Sample records for acidic sea urchin

  1. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis

    López Jiménez, José Ángel; Barberá, C.; Fernández Jover, D.; González Silvera, D.; Hinz, H; Moranta, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments. In the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands S. purpureus occurs in soft red algal beds, and can reach high densities. The diet of S. purpureus is unknown and it is particularly difficult to analyze the stomach contents of this group; therefore, we analyzed the fatty acid...

  2. Phosphoproteomes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth matrix: identification of a major acidic sea urchin tooth phosphoprotein, phosphodontin

    Mann Matthias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sea urchin is a major model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization research. However, identification of proteins involved in larval skeleton formation and mineralization processes in the embryo and adult, and the molecular characterization of such proteins, has just gained momentum with the sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the introduction of high-throughput proteomics into the field. Results The present report contains the determination of test (shell and tooth organic matrix phosphoproteomes. Altogether 34 phosphoproteins were identified in the biomineral organic matrices. Most phosphoproteins were specific for one compartment, only two were identified in both matrices. The sea urchin phosphoproteomes contained several obvious orthologs of mammalian proteins, such as a Src family tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C-delta 1, Dickkopf-1 and other signal transduction components, or nucleobindin. In most cases phosphorylation sites were conserved between sea urchin and mammalian proteins. However, the majority of phosphoproteins had no mammalian counterpart. The most interesting of the sea urchin-specific phosphoproteins, from the perspective of biomineralization research, was an abundant highly phosphorylated and very acidic tooth matrix protein composed of 35 very similar short sequence repeats, a predicted N-terminal secretion signal sequence, and an Asp-rich C-terminal motif, contained in [Glean3:18919]. Conclusions The 64 phosphorylation sites determined represent the most comprehensive list of experimentally identified sea urchin protein phosphorylation sites at present and are an important addition to the recently analyzed Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth proteomes. The identified phosphoproteins included a major, highly phosphorylated protein, [Glean3:18919], for which we suggest the name phosphodontin. Although not sequence-related to such highly phosphorylated

  3. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin Spatangus purpureus elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis.

    Barberá, C; Fernández-Jover, D; López Jiménez, J A; González Silvera, D; Hinz, H; Moranta, J

    2011-05-01

    Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments. In the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands S. purpureus occurs in soft red algal beds, and can reach high densities. The diet of S. purpureus is unknown and it is particularly difficult to analyze the stomach contents of this group; therefore, we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of the gonads and potential food resources in order to assess the trophic relationships of this species. The FA profiles of the gonads of S. purpureus agree well with the FA composition of the potential trophic resources (algae and sediment) and reveals changes between localities with different available resources. Three polyunsaturated FAs mainly contributes in the composition in the S. purpureus gonads: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), both abundant in the macroalgal material, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), which is characteristic of sediment samples. Trophic markers of bacterial input and carnivorous feeding were significantly more abundant in sea urchins caught on bottoms with less vegetation. The current study demonstrates that the FA content of S. purpureus gonads is a useful marker of diet, as differences in the profiles reflected the variations in detritus composition. The results of this study show that this species has omnivorous feeding behavior; however, viewed in conjunction with available abundance data the results suggest that phytodetritus found within algal beds is an important carbon source for this species. PMID:21334740

  4. Comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat

    Sam Churl Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a small pen trial in which we investigated comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat. A total of 108 male broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control, 1% sea urchin shell powder, and 1% feed additives with 3 replicates of 12 chicks per pen in a completely randomized design for 28 days. The following parameters have been investigated: proximate composition (DM, CP, EE, and ash, physicochemical properties (pH, TBARS, cooking loss and DPPH radical scavenging, meat color and fatty acid profiles. No remarkable effects between treatment and storage day were observed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, meat color and fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, diets with 1% sea urchin shell powder have the ability to increase DPPH radical scavenging and unsaturated fatty acid, indicating an opportunity for partial diet substitution in comparison with 1% feed additives.

  5. The sea urchin immune system

    LC Smith

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Metchnikoff’s use of sea star larvae to observe encapsulation and phagocytosis, which was followedmuch later by allograft rejection kinetics, revealed that echinoderms had an innate immune system thatwas lacking of adaptive attributes. Larval sea urchins mount defenses in response to contact withmicrobes, which are mediated by phagocytic blastocoelar cells and pigment cells. In the adult, thecoelomocytes mediate immune responses through phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign particles inaddition to degranulation of antimicrobial molecules. Molecular analysis of immune functions in the seaurchin has demonstrated a complement system that appears to have multiple alternative pathways andseveral activators of the lectin pathway, but may be missing the terminal pathway. Other genes andproteins involved in the sea urchin immunity include expanded sets of lectins, proteins with scavengerreceptor cysteine-rich repeats, Toll-like receptors and associated signalling proteins. A vast array ofproteins belonging to the 185/333 family are expressed in coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharideand show a surprising level of diversity. The sea urchin innate immune system has a number of largegene families with unexpected complexities and elevated levels of diversification.

  6. Spiculisporic Acids B–D, Three New γ-Butenolide Derivatives from a Sea Urchin-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. HDf2

    Xian-Ming Tang; Quan-Ying Feng; Ming-Qiu Yang; Ming-Hui Shen; Tian-Mi Liu; Rong Wang; Xiang-Min Li

    2012-01-01

    Three new γ-butenolide derivatives 1–3, named spiculisporic acids B–D, were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. HDf2, a marine-derived fungus that resides in the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina. The structures of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including MS and 2D NMR techniques. Their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cell lines (SGC-7901, human gastric adenocarcinoma and SPC-A-1, human lung adenocarcinom...

  7. Isolation and properties of the acid site-specific endonuclease from mature eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    An acid site-specific endonuclease has been detected in mature sea urchin eggs and cells of embryos at early stages of differentiation. Fractionation with ammonium sulfate, followed by chromatography on columns with DEAE, phosphocellulose, and hydroxyapatite resulted in an 18,000-fold purification. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined at ∼ 29,000, the optimum pH 5.5. The activity of the enzyme does not depend on divalent metal ions, EDTA, ATP, and tRNA, but it is modulated to a substantial degree by NaCl. The maximum rate of cleavage of the DNA supercoil (form I) is observed at 100 mM NaCl. Increasing the NaCl concentration to 350 mM only slightly lowers the rate of cleavage of form I, yielding form II, but entirely suppresses the accumulation of form III. Restriction analysis of the products of enzymatic hydrolysis of Co1E1 and pBR322 DNA showed that at the early stages of hydrolysis the enzyme exhibits pronounced specificity for definite sites, the number of which is 12 for Co1 E1 DNA and 8 sites for pBR322 DNA

  8. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification?

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  9. Spiculisporic Acids B–D, Three New γ-Butenolide Derivatives from a Sea Urchin-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. HDf2

    Xian-Ming Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new γ-butenolide derivatives 1–3, named spiculisporic acids B–D, were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. HDf2, a marine-derived fungus that resides in the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina. The structures of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including MS and 2D NMR techniques. Their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cell lines (SGC-7901, human gastric adenocarcinoma and SPC-A-1, human lung adenocarcinoma and inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 51650 were investigated.

  10. Spiculisporic acids B–D, three new γ-butenolide derivatives from a sea urchin-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. HDf2.

    Wang, Rong; Liu, Tian-Mi; Shen, Ming-Hui; Yang, Ming-Qiu; Feng, Quan-Ying; Tang, Xian-Ming; Li, Xiang-Min

    2012-01-01

    Three new γ-butenolide derivatives 1–3, named spiculisporic acids B–D, were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. HDf2, a marine-derived fungus that resides in the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina. The structures of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including MS and 2D NMR techniques. Their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cell lines (SGC-7901, human gastric adenocarcinoma and SPC-A-1, human lung adenocarcinoma) and inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 51650 were investigated. PMID:23128094

  11. Biobanking of a Marine Invertebrate Model Organism: The Sea Urchin

    Estefania Paredes

    2016-01-01

    The sea urchin has long been used as an invertebrate model organism in developmental biology, membrane transport and sperm oocyte interactions, and for the assessment of marine pollution. This review explores the effects of cryopreservation and biobanking in the biology and development of sea urchins, all the way from germaplasm through to juveniles. This review will provide an integral view of the process and all that is known so far about the biology of cryopreserved sea urchins, as well as...

  12. Sea urchin vault structure, composition, and differential localization during development

    Dickey-Sims Carrie; Lang Jennifer; Makabi Miriam; Stewart Phoebe L; Robertson Anthony J; Coffman James A; Suprenant Kathy A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaults are intriguing ribonucleoprotein assemblies with an unknown function that are conserved among higher eukaryotes. The Pacific coast sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is an invertebrate model organism that is evolutionarily closer to humans than Drosophila and C. elegans, neither of which possesses vaults. Here we compare the structures of sea urchin and mammalian vaults and analyze the subcellular distribution of vaults during sea urchin embryogenesis. Resul...

  13. Actin gene expression in developing sea urchin embryos.

    Crain, W R; Durica, D S; Van Doren, K

    1981-01-01

    We show that the synthesis of actin is regulated developmentally during early sea urchin embryogenesis and that the level of synthesis of this protein parallels the steady-state amounts of the actin messenger ribonucleic acids (RNA). An in vitro translation and RNA blotting analysis of embryo RNA from several stages of early development indicated that during the first 8 h after fertilization there was a low and relatively constant level of actin messenger RNA in the embryo. Between 8 and 13 h...

  14. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum in the southern North Sea: Selective feeding and its contribution to the benthic carbon budget

    Boon, A.R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic–pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioning of the heart urchins in the benthic system. Ingestion selection factors for both component groups were relatively high, 5 to 9 for chlorophyll a and 9 to 130 for total fatty acids. The data point to at l...

  15. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins

    Varrella, Stefano; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G.; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  16. Pantropic retroviruses as a transduction tool for sea urchin embryos.

    Core, Amanda B; Reyna, Arlene E; Conaway, Evan A; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2012-04-01

    Sea urchins are an important model for experiments at the intersection of development and systems biology, and technical innovations that enhance the utility of this model are of great value. This study explores pantropic retroviruses as a transduction tool for sea urchin embryos, and demonstrates that pantropic retroviruses infect sea urchin embryos with high efficiency and genomically integrate at a copy number of one per cell. We successfully used a self-inactivation strategy to both insert a sea urchin-specific enhancer and disrupt the endogenous viral enhancer. The resulting self-inactivating viruses drive global and persistent gene expression, consistent with genomic integration during the first cell cycle. Together, these data provide substantial proof of principle for transduction technology in sea urchin embryos. PMID:22431628

  17. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Ageenko, Natalya V; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2011-01-01

    One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sult transcripts were detected, whereas no transcripts of these genes were observed in spermatozoids. The addition of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments, to zygotes and embryos increased the expression of the pks and sult genes. Our findings, including the development of specific conditions to promote pigment cell differentiation of embryonic sea urchin cells in culture, represent a definitive study on the molecular signaling pathways that are involved in the biosynthesis of pigments during sea urchin development. PMID:21804858

  18. Sea urchin vault structure, composition, and differential localization during development

    Dickey-Sims Carrie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaults are intriguing ribonucleoprotein assemblies with an unknown function that are conserved among higher eukaryotes. The Pacific coast sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is an invertebrate model organism that is evolutionarily closer to humans than Drosophila and C. elegans, neither of which possesses vaults. Here we compare the structures of sea urchin and mammalian vaults and analyze the subcellular distribution of vaults during sea urchin embryogenesis. Results The sequence of the sea urchin major vault protein (MVP was assembled from expressed sequence tags and genome traces, and the predicted protein was found to have 64% identity and 81% similarity to rat MVP. Sea urchin MVP includes seven ~50 residue repeats in the N-terminal half of the protein and a predicted coiled coil domain in the C-terminus, as does rat MVP. A cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM reconstruction of isolated sea urchin vaults reveals the assembly to have a barrel-shaped external structure that is nearly identical to the rat vault structure. Analysis of the molecular composition of the sea urchin vault indicates that it contains components that may be homologs of the mammalian vault RNA component (vRNA and protein components (VPARP and TEP1. The sea urchin vault appears to have additional protein components in the molecular weight range of 14–55 kDa that might correspond to molecular contents. Confocal experiments indicate a dramatic relocalization of MVP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during sea urchin embryogenesis. Conclusions These results are suggestive of a role for the vault in delivering macromolecules to the nucleus during development.

  19. Determination of sialic acids in immune system cells (coelomocytes) of sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, using capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    İzzetoğlu, Savaş; Şahar, Umut; Şener, Ecem; Deveci, Remziye

    2014-01-01

    Coelomocytes are considered to be immune effectors of sea urchins. Coelomocytes are the freely circulating cells in the body fluid contained in echinoderm coelom and mediate the cellular defence responses to immune challenges by phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity and the production of antimicrobial agents. Coelomocytes have the ability to recognize self from non-self. Considering that sialic acids play important roles in immunity, we determined the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of Paracentrotus lividus. Homogenized coelomocytes were kept in 2 M aqueous acetic acid at 80 °C for 3 h to liberate sialic acids. Sialic acids were determined by derivatization with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenediaoxy-benzene dihydrochloride (DMB) followed by capillary liquid-chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (CapLC-ESI-MS/MS). Standard sialic acids; Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc, KDN and bovine submaxillary mucin showing a variety of sialic acids were used to confirm sialic acids types. We found ten different types of sialic acids (Neu5Gc, Neu5Ac, Neu5Gc9Ac, Neu5Gc8Ac, Neu5,9Ac2, Neu5,7Ac2, Neu5,8Ac2, Neu5,7,9Ac3, Neu5Gc7,9Ac2, Neu5Gc7Ac) isolated in limited amounts from total coelomocyte population. Neu5Gc type of sialic acids in coelomocytes was the most abundant type sialic acid when compared with other types. This is the first report on the presence of sialic acid types in coelomocytes of P. lividus using CapLC-ESI-MS/MS-Ion Trap system (Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Tandem Mass Spectrometry). PMID:24215912

  20. Biobanking of a Marine Invertebrate Model Organism: The Sea Urchin

    Estefania Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin has long been used as an invertebrate model organism in developmental biology, membrane transport and sperm oocyte interactions, and for the assessment of marine pollution. This review explores the effects of cryopreservation and biobanking in the biology and development of sea urchins, all the way from germaplasm through to juveniles. This review will provide an integral view of the process and all that is known so far about the biology of cryopreserved sea urchins, as well as provide an insight on the applications of the biobanking of these model organisms.

  1. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change

    Elizabeth Sherman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C that was then heated at 0.16–0.3 °C min−1 and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (TLoR and the righting time at temperatures below the TLoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean TLoR than E. lucunter. The mean TLoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher TLoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean TLoR was between 3.07–3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79–5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity

  2. For the Classroom: The Sea Urchin Fertilization and Embryology Lab.

    Brevoort, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The sea urchin provides an ideal embryology laboratory because it is visually representative of the fertilization process in higher animals. Procedures for conducting such a laboratory (including methods for securing specimens) are provided. (JN)

  3. The Sea Urchin Embryo: A Remarkable Classroom Tool.

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the uses of sea urchins in research and their usefulness and advantages in the classroom investigation of embryology. Ideas for classroom activities and student research are presented. Lists 25 references. (CW)

  4. Sea Urchin Recruitment: Effect of Substrate Selection on Juvenile Distribution

    Cameron, R. A.; Schroeter, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Intertidal field observations have shown that juvenile purple sea urchins Strongylocentwtus purpuratus are found in higher densities near adults . The same is true for subtidal populations of juvenile red sea urchins 5. franciscanus. These distribution patterns could be influenced by any of three elements: substrate selection, early juvenile mortality or juvenile migration. Using laboratory-reared larvae, we conducted experiments designed to gauge the effect of substrate selection on ju...

  5. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum in the southern North Sea: Selective feeding and its contribution to the benthic carbon budget

    Boon, Arjen R.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic-pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioning of the heart urchins in the benthic system. Ingestion selection factors for both component groups were relatively high, 5 to 9 for chlorophyll a and 9 to 130 for total fatty acids. The data point to at least partially different sources of the pigments and of the fatty acids. Next to algal detritus, small infauna relatively rich in fatty acids might be preferentially co-ingested with the detritus. Due to digestive breakdown and absorption, the concentrations of pigments and fatty acids were importantly decreased, indicating a rather high digestion efficiency for this subsurface deposit feeder, up to 80%. The results indicate that E. cordatum increases its energy acquisition by strong selectivity and a high digestive efficiency. Optimal foraging is likely to apply on deposit-feeding invertebrates in relatively food-rich coastal environments as much as it does in the food-poor deep-sea environment. Using chlorophyll a as a proxy for carbon, the contribution of the urchin population to the momentary benthic carbon budget was calculated at 7% to 42%.

  6. Cryopreservation of sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) sperm.

    Adams, Serean L; Hessian, Paul A; Mladenov, Philip V

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed for cryopreserving sperm of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus. Sperm fertilisation ability, mitochondrial function and membrane integrity were assessed before and after cryopreservation. Highest post-thaw fertilisation ability was achieved with lower concentrations (2.5%-7.5%) of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In contrast, post-thaw mitochondrial function and membrane integrity were higher for sperm frozen in intermediate and high DMSO concentrations (5%-15%). Surprisingly, some sperm frozen in seawater only, without DMSO, were able to survive post-thawing, although the fertilisation ability (10(6) sperm/ml; approximately 50% fertilisation), mitochondrial function and membrane integrity of these sperm were notably lower than of sperm frozen with DMSO (10(6) sperm cells/ml; 2.5%-7.5% DMSO; >85% fertilisation) at the concentrations tested. Amongst sperm from individual males, fertilisation ability varied before and after cryopreservation for both males frozen with and without cryoprotectant. Specific differences among males also varied. Sperm mitochondrial function and membrane integrity was similar among males before cryopreservation but differed considerably after cryopreservation. Cryopreserved sperm were able to fertilise eggs and develop to pluteus stage larvae. This study has practical applications and will provide benefits such as reduced broodstock conditioning costs, control of parental input and opportunities for hybridisation studies. PMID:15375439

  7. Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; Dupont, Sam; Arboleda, Enrique; Hausen, Harald; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2011-01-01

    Different sea urchin species show a vast variety of responses to variations in light intensity; however, despite this behavioral evidence for photosensitivity, light sensing in these animals has remained an enigma. Genome information of the recently sequenced purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) allowed us to address this question from a previously unexplored molecular perspective by localizing expression of the rhabdomeric opsin Sp-opsin4 and Sp-pax6, two genes essential for photoreceptor function and development, respectively. Using a specifically designed antibody against Sp-Opsin4 and in situ hybridization for both genes, we detected expression in two distinct groups of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) located in the animal's numerous tube feet. Specific reactivity of the Sp-Opsin4 antibody with sea star optic cushions, which regulate phototaxis, suggests a similar visual function in sea urchins. Ultrastructural characterization of the sea urchin PRCs revealed them to be of a microvillar receptor type. Our data suggest that echinoderms, in contrast to chordates, deploy a microvillar, r-opsin–expressing PRC type for vision, a feature that has been so far documented only in protostome animals. Surprisingly, sea urchin PRCs lack any associated screening pigment. Indeed, one of the tube foot PRC clusters may account for directional vision by being shaded through the opaque calcite skeleton. The PRC axons connect to the animal internal nervous system, suggesting an integrative function beyond local short circuits. Because juveniles display no phototaxis until skeleton completion, we suggest a model in which the entire sea urchin, deploying its skeleton as PRC screening device, functions as a huge compound eye. PMID:21536888

  8. Involvement of the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult in bacterial defense response of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Kiselev, Konstantin V; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kurilenko, Valeria V

    2013-03-26

    Bacterial infections are one of the most important problems in mass aquaculture, causing the loss of millions of juvenile organisms. We isolated 22 bacterial strains from the cavity fluid of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus and used phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences to separate the bacterial strains into 9 genera (Aliivibrio, Bizionia, Colwellia, Olleya, Paenibacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio). Incubating Strongylocentrotus intermedius larvae with a strain from each of the 9 bacterial genera, we investigated the viability of the larvae, the amount of pigment cells, and the level of polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression. Results of the assay on sea urchin development showed that all bacterial strains, except Pseudoalteromonas and Bizionia, suppressed sea urchin development (resulting in retardation of the embryos' development with cellular disorders) and reduced cell viability. We found that pks expression in the sea urchin larvae after incubation with the bacteria of 9 tested genera was significantly increased, while the sult expression was increased only after the treatment with Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Shikimic acid, which is known to activate the biosynthesis of naphthoquinone pigments, increased the tolerance of the sea urchin embryos to the bacteria. In conclusion, we show that the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult are involved in the bacterial defense response of sea urchins. PMID:23548362

  9. Sea urchin immune cells as sentinels of environmental stress.

    Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    Echinoderms, an ancient and very successful phylum of marine invertebrates, play a central role in the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and are constantly exposed to environmental pressure, including: predation, changes in temperature and pH, hypoxia, pathogens, UV radiation, metals, toxicants, and emerging pollutants like nanomaterials. The annotation of the sea urchin genome, so closely related to humans and other vertebrate genomes, revealed an unusually complex immune system, which may be the basis for why sea urchins can adapt to different marine environments and survive even in hazardous conditions. In this review, we give a brief overview of the morphological features and recognized functions of echinoderm immune cells with a focus on studies correlating stress and immunity in the sea urchin. Immune cells from adult Paracentrotus lividus, which have been introduced in the last fifteen years as sentinels of environmental stress, are valid tools to uncover basic molecular and regulatory mechanisms of immune responses, supporting their use in immunological research. Here we summarize laboratory and field studies that reveal the amenability of sea urchin immune cells for toxicological testing. PMID:25463510

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compounds from Sea Urchin

    Febrina Olivia Akerina,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available method, toxicity potential using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT method, bioactive compound using phytochemical method, and proximate composition by AOAC. This research was devided into two phases, the preliminary research was to determine the best body part of sea urchin showing antibacterial activity. Sea urchins were collected from Pramuka Island and extracted by meseration method. For the preliminary research, gonad extract showed the high antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus at 1.83 ± 0.74 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. The main research includes the determination of proximate composition, toxicity, bioactive compound, and antibacterial activity from the best body part of sea urchin. The proximate composition from gonad of sea urchin showed that water content 64.97 ± 0.08%; ash 2.72 ± 0.13%; lipid 19.73 ± 0.04%; protein 12.26 ± 0.3%, and 0.33 ± 0.17%, respectively. The detected bioactive compounds from the three different solvents of gonads extracts were steroid, triterpenoid and saponin. The result of lethal toxicity (LC50 from the three gonads extract was 471.861 ppm (n-hexane, 563.226 ppm (ethyl acetate and 577.531 ppm (methanolic, respectively. Gonads ethyl acetate extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity than n-hexane and methanolic extract, its inhibition zone was 2.71 mm against S. aureus and 4.13 against E. coli.

  11. Sea urchin granuloma Granulomas por ouriços-do-mar

    André Luiz Rossetto; Jamesson de Macedo Mora; Vidal Haddad Junior

    2006-01-01

    Injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in humans. The phylum Echinoderma include more than 6000 species of starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers some of which have been found responsible for injuries to humans. Initial injuries by sea urchins are associated with trauma and envenomation, but later effects can be observed. Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration...

  12. Sea urchin fisheries, management and policy review (Activity A4.2.1 of the URCHIN project)

    James, Philip; Noble, Chris; Hannon, Colin; STEFANSSON, Gudmundur; Thórarinsdóttir, Gudrún; Sloane, Roderick; Ziemer, Nikoline; Lochead, Janet

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to the URCHIN project, funded by the Northern Peripheries and Arctic Programme (NPA). The scope of the report is also outlined. This is followed by a summary of the sea urchin fishery management techniques that are used in sea urchin fisheries around the world. These are listed in order of size of the fisheries and include a brief description of the history of the fishery and what management practices have led to the current state of the fishery....

  13. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin

    Boon, A.R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic–pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioni

  14. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of negligible senescence: insight from the sea urchin

    Bodnar, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchins exhibit a very different life history from humans and short-lived model animals and therefore provide the opportunity to gain new insight into the complex process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, regenerate damaged appendages, and reproduce throughout their lifespan. Some species show no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Nevertheless, different species of sea urchins have very different reported lifespans ranging from 4 to more than 100 years, thus providing ...

  15. Mass isolation and culture of sea urchin micromeres.

    Harkey, M A; Whiteley, A H

    1985-02-01

    A procedure is described for large-scale isolation of micromeres from 16-cell stage sea urchin embryos. One to two grams of greater than 99% pure, viable micromeres (2.3 to 4.6 X 10(8) cells) are routinely isolated in a single preparation. In culture, these cells uniformly proceed through their normal development, in synchrony with micromeres in whole embryos, ultimately differentiating typical larval skeletal structures. The attributes of this procedure are: (a) the very early time of isolation of the cells, directly after the division that establishes the cell line; (b) the large yield of cells; (c) the purity of the preparation of cell; and (d) their synchronous development in culture through skeletogenesis. The procedure greatly aids in making sea urchin micromeres a favorable material for molecular analysis of development. PMID:4008427

  16. The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    SEA URCHIN GENOME SEQUENCING CONSORTIUM; SODERGREN E; WEINSTOCK GM; DAVIDSON EH; CAMERON RA; GIBBS RA; ANGERER RC; ANGERER LM; ARNONE MI; BURGESS DR; BURKE RD; COFFMAN JA; Dean, M.; ELPHICK MR; ETTENSOHN CA

    2006-01-01

    We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or ...

  17. A Genomic View of the Sea Urchin Nervous System

    Burke, RD; Angerer, LM; Elphick, MR; Humphrey, GW; Yaguchi, S; Kiyama, T.; Liang, S.; Mu, X.; Agca, C; Klein, WH; Brandhorst, BP; Rowe, M.; Wilson, K.; Churcher, AM; Taylor, JS

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome provides a unique opportunity to investigate the function and evolution of neural genes. The neurobiology of sea urchins is of particular interest because they have a close phylogenetic relationship with chordates, yet a distinctive pentaradiate body plan and unusual neural organization. Orthologues of transcription factors that regulate neurogenesis in other animals have been identified and several are expressed in neurogenic domains...

  18. Sea Urchin as an alternative feed for fish.

    Omolo, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    The Objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of sea urchin stuff as an alternative fish food of Oreochromis niloticus during growth. This African cichlid is widely distributed where temperature and food are suitable for ill growth and reproduction. In many Countries, it was introduced for vegetation control, pond culture, and recreational and commercial fishing because of its excellent aqua culture potential, fast growth, omnivorous feeding habits and tolerance to low wate...

  19. Juvenile skeletogenesis in anciently diverged sea urchin clades

    Gao, Feng; Thompson, Jeffrey R.; Petsios, Elizabeth; Erkenbrack, Eric; Moats, Rex A.; Bottjer, David J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of evolutionary divergence in animal body plans devolves from analysis of those developmental processes that, in forms descendant from a common ancestor, are responsible for their morphological differences. The last common ancestor of the two extant subclasses of sea urchins, i.e., euechinoids and cidaroids, existed well before the Permian/Triassic extinction (252 mya). Subsequent evolutionary divergence of these clades offers in principle a rare opportunity to solve...

  20. Robustness and Accuracy in Sea Urchin Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks

    Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    Developmental gene regulatory networks robustly control the timely activation of regulatory and differentiation genes. The structure of these networks underlies their capacity to buffer intrinsic and extrinsic noise and maintain embryonic morphology. Here I illustrate how the use of specific architectures by the sea urchin developmental regulatory networks enables the robust control of cell fate decisions. The Wnt-βcatenin signaling pathway patterns the primary embryonic axis while the BMP signaling pathway patterns the secondary embryonic axis in the sea urchin embryo and across bilateria. Interestingly, in the sea urchin in both cases, the signaling pathway that defines the axis controls directly the expression of a set of downstream regulatory genes. I propose that this direct activation of a set of regulatory genes enables a uniform regulatory response and a clear cut cell fate decision in the endoderm and in the dorsal ectoderm. The specification of the mesodermal pigment cell lineage is activated by Delta signaling that initiates a triple positive feedback loop that locks down the pigment specification state. I propose that the use of compound positive feedback circuitry provides the endodermal cells enough time to turn off mesodermal genes and ensures correct mesoderm vs. endoderm fate decision. Thus, I argue that understanding the control properties of repeatedly used regulatory architectures illuminates their role in embryogenesis and provides possible explanations to their resistance to evolutionary change. PMID:26913048

  1. Skeletogenesis in sea urchin larvae under modified gravity conditions

    Marthy, H.-J.; Gasset, G.; Tixador, R.; Eche, B.; Schatt, P.; Dessommes, A.; Marthy, U.; Bacchieri, R.

    From many points of view, skeletogenesis in sea urchins has been well described. Based on this scientific background and considering practical aspects of sea urchin development (i.e. availability of material, size of larvae, etc.), we wanted to know whether orderly skeletogenesis requires the presence of gravity. The objective has been approached by three experiments successfully performed under genuine microgravity conditions (in the STS-65 IML-2 mission of 1994; in the Photon-10 IBIS mission of 1995 and in the STS-76 S/MM-03 mission of 1996). Larvae of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis were allowed to develop in microgravity conditions for several days from blastula stage onwards (onset of skeletogenesis). At the end of the missions, the recovered skeletal structures were studied with respect to their mineral composition, architecture and size. Live larvae were also recovered for post-flight culture. The results obtained clearly show that the process of mineralisation is independent of gravity: that is, the skeletogenic cells differentiate correctly in microgravity. However, abnormal skeleton architectures were encountered, particularly in the IML-2 mission, indicating that the process of positioning of the skeletogenic cells may be affected, directly or indirectly, by environmental factors, including gravity. Larvae exposed to microgravity from blastula to prism/early pluteus stage for about 2 weeks (IBIS mission), developed on the ground over the next 2 months into normal metamorphosing individuals.

  2. Male chromosomes of sea urchin hybrid andromerogones created with cryopreserved sperm.

    Saotome, Kyoko; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Kurokura, Hisashi; Hirano, Reijiro

    2002-02-01

    We developed a method for preparing male chromosomes from sea urchin hybrid andromerogones created with cryopreserved sperm. We obtained hybrid andromerogones by heterospermic insemination of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus non-nucleate egg fragments produced by centrifuging unfertilized eggs in a stepwise saccharose density gradient. The hybrid andromerogones showed cleavage rates of 1%-93%, cleaved successively into two- and four- blastomeres and developed to early blastulae. The morulae or early blastulae were treated with colchicine (0.1-1.0 mg/ml), dissociated into single blastomeres by pippeting, swollen with 7%-10% sodium citrate for 10 min and fixed with methanol:acetic acid (3:1). The fixed cells were dropped on slides and air-dried. The andromerogones for 5 sperm species showed a half of their respective diploid chromosome numbers without chromosome elimination. This method is applicable for analysis of the haploid male chromosome complement in sea urchin species for which only sperm can be obtained. PMID:12012781

  3. Juvenile skeletogenesis in anciently diverged sea urchin clades.

    Gao, Feng; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Petsios, Elizabeth; Erkenbrack, Eric; Moats, Rex A; Bottjer, David J; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistic understanding of evolutionary divergence in animal body plans devolves from analysis of those developmental processes that, in forms descendant from a common ancestor, are responsible for their morphological differences. The last common ancestor of the two extant subclasses of sea urchins, i.e., euechinoids and cidaroids, existed well before the Permian/Triassic extinction (252 mya). Subsequent evolutionary divergence of these clades offers in principle a rare opportunity to solve the developmental regulatory events underlying a defined evolutionary divergence process. Thus (i) there is an excellent and fairly dense (if yet incompletely analyzed) fossil record; (ii) cladistically confined features of the skeletal structures of modern euechinoid and cidaroid sea urchins are preserved in fossils of ancestral forms; (iii) euechinoids and cidaroids are among current laboratory model systems in molecular developmental biology (here Strongylocentrotus purpuratus [Sp] and Eucidaris tribuloides [Et]); (iv) skeletogenic specification in sea urchins is uncommonly well understood at the causal level of interactions of regulatory genes with one another, and with known skeletogenic effector genes, providing a ready arsenal of available molecular tools. Here we focus on differences in test and perignathic girdle skeletal morphology that distinguish all modern euechinoid from all modern cidaroid sea urchins. We demonstrate distinct canonical test and girdle morphologies in juveniles of both species by use of SEM and X-ray microtomography. Among the sharply distinct morphological features of these clades are the internal skeletal structures of the perignathic girdle to which attach homologous muscles utilized for retraction and protraction of Aristotles׳ lantern and its teeth. We demonstrate that these structures develop de novo between one and four weeks after metamorphosis. In order to study the underlying developmental processes, a method of section whole mount in

  4. The sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus test and spine proteomes

    Mann Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix of biominerals plays an important role in biomineral formation and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin, which is an important model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified and characterized at the protein level. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of possible matrix proteins at the gene level, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy, proteomic analysis. Results We identified 110 proteins as components of sea urchin test and spine organic matrix. Fourty of these proteins occurred in both compartments while others were unique to their respective compartment. More than 95% of the proteins were detected in sea urchin skeletal matrices for the first time. The most abundant protein in both matrices was the previously characterized spicule matrix protein SM50, but at least eight other members of this group, many of them only known as conceptual translation products previously, were identified by mass spectrometric sequence analysis of peptides derived from in vitro matrix degradation. The matrices also contained proteins implicated in biomineralization processes previously by inhibition studies using antibodies or specific enzyme inhibitors, such as matrix metalloproteases and members of the mesenchyme-specific MSP130 family. Other components were carbonic anhydrase, collagens, echinonectin, a α2-macroglobulin-like protein and several proteins containing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. A few possible signal transduction pathway components, such as GTP-binding proteins, a semaphorin and a possible tyrosine kinase were also identified. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive

  5. Enhancement Effect of Sea Urchin Grow-out Cages in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Maria Celia Defrance Malay; Helen Grace Bangi; Marie Antonette Juinio-Meñez

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the environmental impact of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla Linnaeas) grow-out culture in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. It was hypothesized that the feces generated by the caged urchins (~6,000 individuals at any one time) might cause localised sediment organic enrichment and subsequent shifts in benthic faunal communities. Results from preliminary surveys conducted in April and August of 1999 indicated minimal impact of sea urchin grow-out culture on the ...

  6. Predators of the destructive sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis on the Norwegian coast

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Fagerli, Camilla With; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    most efficient sea urchin predator, and it was more abundant at kelp forest sites than on barren grounds. Stocks of C. pagurus have increased dramatically in central Norway since the 1990s, and predation by C. pagurus may contribute to the decline in sea urchin densities, allowing kelp recovery and...... conferring resilience of the new kelp forest state....

  7. INHIBITING MAP KINASE ACTIVITY PREVENTS CALCIUM TRANSIENTS AND MITOSIS ENTRY IN EARLY SEA URCHIN EMBRYOS

    Philipova, Rada; Larman, Mark G.; Leckie, Calum P.; Harrison, Patrick K.; Groigno, Laurence; Whitaker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A transient calcium increase triggers nuclear envelope breakdown (mitosis entry) in sea urchin embryos. Cdk1/cyclin B kinase activation is also known to be required for mitosis entry. More recently MAP kinase activity has also been shown to increase during mitosis. In sea urchin embryos both kinases show a similar activation profile, peaking at the time of mitosis entry.

  8. Pigment cell differentiation in sea urchin blastula-derived primary cell cultures.

    Ageenko, Natalya V; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2014-07-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  9. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    Natalya V. Ageenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential.

  10. The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Davidson, Eric H; Cameron, R Andrew; Gibbs, Richard A; Angerer, Robert C; Angerer, Lynne M; Arnone, Maria Ina; Burgess, David R; Burke, Robert D; Coffman, James A; Dean, Michael; Elphick, Maurice R; Ettensohn, Charles A; Foltz, Kathy R; Hamdoun, Amro; Hynes, Richard O; Klein, William H; Marzluff, William; McClay, David R; Morris, Robert L; Mushegian, Arcady; Rast, Jonathan P; Smith, L Courtney; Thorndyke, Michael C; Vacquier, Victor D; Wessel, Gary M; Wray, Greg; Zhang, Lan; Elsik, Christine G; Ermolaeva, Olga; Hlavina, Wratko; Hofmann, Gretchen; Kitts, Paul; Landrum, Melissa J; Mackey, Aaron J; Maglott, Donna; Panopoulou, Georgia; Poustka, Albert J; Pruitt, Kim; Sapojnikov, Victor; Song, Xingzhi; Souvorov, Alexandre; Solovyev, Victor; Wei, Zheng; Whittaker, Charles A; Worley, Kim; Durbin, K James; Shen, Yufeng; Fedrigo, Olivier; Garfield, David; Haygood, Ralph; Primus, Alexander; Satija, Rahul; Severson, Tonya; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Jackson, Andrew R; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Tong, Mark; Killian, Christopher E; Livingston, Brian T; Wilt, Fred H; Adams, Nikki; Bellé, Robert; Carbonneau, Seth; Cheung, Rocky; Cormier, Patrick; Cosson, Bertrand; Croce, Jenifer; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Genevière, Anne-Marie; Goel, Manisha; Kelkar, Hemant; Morales, Julia; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Robertson, Anthony J; Goldstone, Jared V; Cole, Bryan; Epel, David; Gold, Bert; Hahn, Mark E; Howard-Ashby, Meredith; Scally, Mark; Stegeman, John J; Allgood, Erin L; Cool, Jonah; Judkins, Kyle M; McCafferty, Shawn S; Musante, Ashlan M; Obar, Robert A; Rawson, Amanda P; Rossetti, Blair J; Gibbons, Ian R; Hoffman, Matthew P; Leone, Andrew; Istrail, Sorin; Materna, Stefan C; Samanta, Manoj P; Stolc, Viktor; Tongprasit, Waraporn; Tu, Qiang; Bergeron, Karl-Frederik; Brandhorst, Bruce P; Whittle, James; Berney, Kevin; Bottjer, David J; Calestani, Cristina; Peterson, Kevin; Chow, Elly; Yuan, Qiu Autumn; Elhaik, Eran; Graur, Dan; Reese, Justin T; Bosdet, Ian; Heesun, Shin; Marra, Marco A; Schein, Jacqueline; Anderson, Michele K; Brockton, Virginia; Buckley, Katherine M; Cohen, Avis H; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Hibino, Taku; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Majeske, Audrey J; Messier, Cynthia; Nair, Sham V; Pancer, Zeev; Terwilliger, David P; Agca, Cavit; Arboleda, Enrique; Chen, Nansheng; Churcher, Allison M; Hallböök, F; Humphrey, Glen W; Idris, Mohammed M; Kiyama, Takae; Liang, Shuguang; Mellott, Dan; Mu, Xiuqian; Murray, Greg; Olinski, Robert P; Raible, Florian; Rowe, Matthew; Taylor, John S; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Wang, D; Wilson, Karen H; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Gaasterland, Terry; Galindo, Blanca E; Gunaratne, Herath J; Juliano, Celina; Kinukawa, Masashi; Moy, Gary W; Neill, Anna T; Nomura, Mamoru; Raisch, Michael; Reade, Anna; Roux, Michelle M; Song, Jia L; Su, Yi-Hsien; Townley, Ian K; Voronina, Ekaterina; Wong, Julian L; Amore, Gabriele; Branno, Margherita; Brown, Euan R; Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Duboc, Véronique; Duloquin, Louise; Flytzanis, Constantin; Gache, Christian; Lapraz, François; Lepage, Thierry; Locascio, Annamaria; Martinez, Pedro; Matassi, Giorgio; Matranga, Valeria; Range, Ryan; Rizzo, Francesca; Röttinger, Eric; Beane, Wendy; Bradham, Cynthia; Byrum, Christine; Glenn, Tom; Hussain, Sofia; Manning, Gerard; Miranda, Esther; Thomason, Rebecca; Walton, Katherine; Wikramanayke, Athula; Wu, Shu-Yu; Xu, Ronghui; Brown, C Titus; Chen, Lili; Gray, Rachel F; Lee, Pei Yun; Nam, Jongmin; Oliveri, Paola; Smith, Joel; Muzny, Donna; Bell, Stephanie; Chacko, Joseph; Cree, Andrew; Curry, Stacey; Davis, Clay; Dinh, Huyen; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fowler, Jerry; Gill, Rachel; Hamilton, Cerrissa; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Hume, Jennifer; Jackson, Laronda; Jolivet, Angela; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Nazareth, Lynne V; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Parker, David; Pu, Ling-Ling; Thorn, Rachel; Wright, Rita

    2006-11-10

    We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes. PMID:17095691

  11. Sea Urchin Spines as a Model-System for Permeable, Light-Weight Ceramics with Graceful Failure Behavior. Part I. Mechanical Behavior of Sea Urchin Spines under Compression

    V. Presser; S. Schultheiβ; C. Berthold; K. G. Nickel

    2009-01-01

    The spines of pencil and lance urchins Heterocentrotus mammillatus and Phyllacanthus imperialis were studied as a model of light-weight material with high impact resistance. The complex and variable skeleton construction ("stereom") of body and spines of sea urchins consists of highly porous Mg-bearing calcium carbonate. This basically brittle material with pronounced single-crystal cleavage does not fracture by spontaneous catastrophic device failure but by graceful failure over the range of tens of millimeter of bulk compression instead. This was observed in bulk compression tests and blunt indentation experiments on regular, infiltrated and latex coated sea urchin spine segments. Microstructural characterization was carried out using X-ray computer tomography, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The behavior is interpreted to result from the hierarchic structure of sea urchin spines from the macroscale down to the nanoscale. Guidelines derived from this study see ceramics with layered porosity as a possible biomimetic construction for appropriate applications.

  12. Isolating specific embryonic cells of the sea urchin by FACS.

    Juliano, Celina; Swartz, S Zachary; Wessel, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Isolating cells based on specific gene expression enables a focused biochemical and molecular analysis. While cultured cells and hematopoietic cells, for example, are routinely isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), early embryonic cells are a relatively untapped source for FACS applications often because the embryos of many animals are quite limiting. Furthermore, many applications require genetic model organisms in which cells can be labeled by fluorescent transgenes, or antibodies against cell surface antigens. Here we define conditions in the sea urchin embryo for isolation of embryonic cells based on expression of specific proteins. We use the sea urchin embryo for which a nearly unlimited supply of embryonic cells is available and demonstrate the conditions for separation of the embryo into single cells, fixation of the cells for antibody penetration into the cells, and conditions for FACS of a rare cell type in the embryo. This protocol may be adapted for analysis of mRNA, chromatin, protein, or carbohydrates and depends only on the probe availability for the cell of interest. We anticipate that this protocol will be broadly applicable to embryos of other species. PMID:24567215

  13. [Morphology of gametes in sea urchins from Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan].

    Drozdov, A L; Vinnikova, V V

    2010-01-01

    The fine structure of the gametes in six sea urchin species of the Sea of Japan was studied. The spermatozoons in Strongylocentrotus nudus, S. intermedius, Echinocardium cordatum, Scaphechinus mirabilis, Sc. grizeus and Echinarachnius parma are species-specific. The conical head and symmetrically disposed ring-shape mitochondrion are common to regular sea urchin sperm cells. S. nudus is characterized by the bulb-shaped head of the zoosperm; S. intermedius, by a bullet-shaped one. The zoosperm spearhead and small amount of postacrosome material are common to irregular sea urchins; the sperm width: length ratio varies for different species, with the highest for Sc. mirabilis. The zoosperm of Sc. griseus is characterized by two lipid drops in the cell center. Asymmetrical mitochondrion disposal is usual for E. parma. Actin filaments are found in the postacrosome material in the zoosperm of cordiform sea urchins. The differences in the fine structure of zoosperm in eurybiont species Ech. cordatum inhabiting the Sea of Japan and coastal areas of the Northeast Atlantic may bear record to the complex existence of species Ech. cordatum. The fine structure of zoosperm is unique for each of the studied families, Strongylocentrotidae, Scutellidae, and Loveniidae. The eggs of all the species are characterized by vitelline and tremelloid membranes. The vitelline membrane is formed by cytoplasm protrusions; the area between them is filled with fubrillary material. The tremelloid membrane is formed by fubrillary material associated with apical parts of microvilli of the vitelline membrane. The irregular sea urchins Sc. griseus, Sc. mirabilis and E. parma are characterized by chromatophores situated in the tremelloid membrane, with the highest abundance in Sc. mirabilis. PMID:20184121

  14. Effects of gravity on spicule formation in cultured micromeres of sea urchin embryo

    Izumi-Kurotani, A.; Kiyomoto, M.; Imai, M.; Eguchi, H.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gravity on morphogenesis at the cellular level, we have proposed a new experimental system with micromeres from sea urchin embryos [Izumi-Kurotani, A., Kiyomoto, M. Morphogenesis and gravity in a whole Amphibian Embryo and in isolated blastomeres of sea urchins, in: Marthy, H. -J. (Ed.), Developmental Biology Research in Space. Adv. Space Biol. Med. vol. 9, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 83 99, 2003]. We studied spicule formation in cultured micromeres of sea urchin embryo under various conditions of gravity: hypergravity by a centrifuge and simulated microgravity in a vertical clinostat. Spicule elongation was suppressed under both experimental conditions.

  15. Accumulation of 95mTc by marine algae and sea urchin

    It is necessary to investigate the accumulation of technetium by marine algae popular in Japan and it is also important to examine the contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide by sea urchin which grazes algae. In the laboratory tracer experiment, some species of algae and sea urchin were kept separately for 7 days in sea water containing 95mTc (uptake experiment) and then transferred into non-radioactive sea water to be held for 28 days with the frequent renewal of the sea water (excretion experiment). No food was given during the uptake experiment to prevent the urchins from accumulating 95mTc through food. Another experiment was done by feeding urchins with 95mTc labeled algae in the non-radioactive sea water. Five species of brown algae showed CFs in the range of 900 and 35000 but CFs of green and red algae were 1-4. Sea urchin accumulated more 95mTc through food (brown algae) than directly from sea water, so that the main pathway of technetium accumulation by sea urchin was estimated to be brown algae which were the most favorite food of the organism. (author)

  16. Acetylcholine synthesis and possible functions during sea urchin development

    C Angelini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurotransmitter system molecules were found to play a role during fertilisation and early cell cycles of a large number of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. In this study, we investigated the presence and possible function of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the biosynthetic enzyme of acetylcholine in gametes of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, through localisation and functional studies. ChAT-like molecules were detected in oocytes, mature eggs and zygotes with indirect immunofluorescence methods. Positive immunoreactivity was found in the ovarian egg cytoplasm and surface as well as at the zygote surface. This suggests the eggs' capacity to autonomously synthesise acetylcholine (ACh, the signal molecule of the cholinergic system. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, the lytic enzyme of acetylcholine was also found in ovarian eggs, with a similar distribution; however, it disappeared after fertilisation. Ultrastructural ChAT localisation in sperms, which was carried out with the immuno-gold method, showed immunoreactivity in the acrosome of unreacted sperms and at the head surface of reacted sperms. In order to verify a functional role of ACh during fertilization and sea urchin development, in vivo experiments were performed. Exposure of the eggs before fertilisation to 1 mM ACh + 1 ?M eserine caused an incomplete membrane depolarisation and consequently enhanced polyspermy, while lower concentrations of ACh caused developmental anomalies. The exposure of zygotes to 0,045 AChE Units/mL of sea water caused developmental anomalies as well, in 50% of the embryos. Altogether, these findings and other previously obtained results, suggest that the cholinergic system may subserve two different tasks during development, according to which particular type of ACh receptor is active during each temporal window. The first function, taking place in the course of fertilisation is a result of autonomously synthesised ACh in sperms, while the

  17. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  18. Development of an underwater high sensitivity Cherenkov detector: Sea Urchin

    The need for a high gain, high sensitivity Cherenkov light sensor to be used in a deep underwater muon and neutrino detector (DUMAND) array has led to the design of the Sea Urchin detector. In this design a spherical photocathode PMTis optically coupled through a glass hemisphere to a large number of glass spines, each of which is filled with a wavelength-shifting (WLS) solution of a high quantum efficiency phosphor. The Cherenkov radiation is absorbed in the spine, isotropically re-radiated at a longer wavelength, and a fraction of the fluorescent light is internally reflected in the spine, and guided to the photomultiplier concentrically located in the glass hemisphere. Experiments measuring the optical characteristics of the spines and computer programs simulating light transformation and detection cross sections are described. Overall optical gains in the range 5-10 are achieved. The WLS solution is inexpensive, and may have other applications. (orig.)

  19. Expression of Pigment Cell-Specific Genes in the Ontogenesis of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Natalya V. Ageenko; Konstantin V. Kiselev; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the polyketide compounds, the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome, is synthesized in sea urchin pigment cells. We analyzed polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius from various stages of development and in specific tissues of the adults. We observed the highest level of expression of the pks and sult genes at the gastrula stage. In unfertilized eggs, only trace amounts of the pks and sul...

  20. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    Natalya V. Ageenko; Konstantin V. Kiselev; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchin...

  1. Stated Preferences for Consumption of Sea Urchin: A Choice Experiment in Sardinia (Italy

    Roberto Furesi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus roe is a basic ingredient for several dishes (e.g. pasta, pizza, croutons and its demand is constantly increasing. However marketable value of local sea urchin appears to be potentially higher than the current value. This paper aims to estimate the value of a based sea urchin dish according to the stated preference of consumers. A Choice Experiment (CE analysis on 475 consumers was carried out in order to estimate their willingness to pay (WTP for consuming sea urchin. Seafood was proposed as alternative to sea urchin. CE concerned two attributes:certification of local origin and place where dishes are consumed. Findings suggest that WTP for a generic dish is significantly higher for sea urchin (11.65 Euros than for seafood (7.94 Euros based dish. Furthermore, we found that WTP is higher when both foods are consumed with spaghetti and as raw fresh product, whereas an opposite effect is associated to pizza. Finally, the influence of some socio‐economic characteristics of responders on their preferences was estimated.

  2. Experimental evidence that intra-specific competition in seagrass meadows reduces reproductive potential in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck)

    Tomàs Nash, Fiona; Romero, Javier; Turon Barrera, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the biological controls that regulate sea urchin dynamics, we studied the effects of potential inter- and intra-specific competition for food on several biological variables of the main sea urchin in the Mediterranean (Paracentrotus lividus). We carried out a caging experiment in which we manipulated sea urchin density (natural vs. high density) and herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa) accessibility (free access vs. exclusion) in a Posidonia oceanica meadow. No evidence of comp...

  3. Isolation and structural studies of a sulfated sialosphingolipid from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum.

    Kochetkov, N K; Smirnova, G P; Chekareva, N V

    1976-02-23

    Three sialosphingolipids have been isolated from a lipid extract of gonads of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum by partition dialysis and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The structure of the sialosphingolipid containing sulfate group has been established. On the basis of the results of total and partial acid hydrolysis, methanolysis, methylation, periodate oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis with neuraminidase the sulfated sialosphingolipid was identified as 8-sulfate-sialyl-alpha-(2 leads to 6)glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 1)ceramide. The long-chain bases were mainly phytosphingosine and its C16 homologue. The fatty acids of the sialosphingolipid were the mixture of normal and alpha-hydroxy fatty acids, their compositions were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. PMID:1252492

  4. First insights into the biochemistry of tube foot adhesive from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea, Echinodermata).

    Santos, R; da Costa, G; Franco, C; Gomes-Alves, P; Flammang, P; Coelho, A V

    2009-01-01

    Sea urchins are common inhabitants of wave-swept shores. To withstand the action of waves, they rely on highly specialized independent adhesive organs, the adoral tube feet. The latter are extremely well-designed for temporary adhesion being composed by two functional subunits: (1) an apical disc that produces an adhesive secretion to fasten the sea urchin to the substratum, as well as a deadhesive secretion to allow the animal to move and (2) a stem that bears the tensions placed on the animal by hydrodynamism. Despite their technological potential for the development of new biomimetic underwater adhesives, very little is known about the biochemical composition of sea urchin adhesives. A characterization of sea urchin adhesives is presented using footprints. The latter contain inorganic residues (45.5%), proteins (6.4%), neutral sugars (1.2%), and lipids (2.5%). Moreover, the amino acid composition of the soluble protein fraction revealed a bias toward six amino acids: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, and asparagine/aspartic acid, which comprise 56.8% of the total residues. In addition, it also presents higher levels of proline (6.8%) and half-cystine (2.6%) than average eukaryotic proteins. Footprint insolubility was partially overcome using strong denaturing and reducing buffers, enabling the visualization of 13 proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The conjugation of mass spectrometry with homology-database search allowed the identification of six proteins: alpha and beta tubulin, actin, and histones H2B, H3, H2A, and H4, whose location and function in the adhesive are discussed but require further investigation. For the remaining unidentified proteins, five de novo-generated peptide sequences were found that were not present in the available protein databases, suggesting that they might be novel or modified proteins. PMID:19221839

  5. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents. PMID:26042548

  6. Hsp70 as a stress marker of sea urchin coelomocytes in short term cultures.

    Matranga, Valeria; Bonaventura, Rosa; Di Bella, Gloria

    2002-06-01

    Coelomocytes are the immune effectors of the sea urchin and have shown to respond to environmental and experimental challenge by the activation of stress markers. We extended our in vivo studies to in vitro short term cultures of sea urchin coelomocytes by analysing their response to temperature being stress, acid pH and heavy metals, using the hsp70 protein as a stress marker. We found that the in vitro time course of temperature stress recapitulates results obtained in vivo where the highest overexpression was observed after 1 hour. Coelomocytes overexpress hsp70 in a time-dependent manner when cultured for 1 to 6 hr at pH 4.7 +/- 0.2 in isotonic buffer, supplemented with EDTA as anticoagulant. A peak in the level of hsp70 expression was observed at 2 hr of culture, corresponding to a 10-fold increase over the levels of control coelomocytes cultured at pH 7.3 +/- 0.2. The effect of different concentrations of CdCl2 in the culture over a period of 4 hr was also tested. We found that CdCl2 greatly increases the hsp70 expression, with 10(-3) M the dose at which the highest overexpression is observed. PMID:12064441

  7. Sperm chemotaxis promotes individual fertilization success in sea urchins.

    Hussain, Yasmeen H; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Zimmer, Richard K; Stocker, Roman; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive success fundamentally shapes an organism's ecology and evolution, and gamete traits mediate fertilization, which is a critical juncture in reproduction. Individual male fertilization success is dependent on the ability of sperm from one male to outcompete the sperm of other males when searching for a conspecific egg. Sperm chemotaxis, the ability of sperm to navigate towards eggs using chemical signals, has been studied for over a century, but such studies have long assumed that this phenomenon improves individual male fitness without explicit evidence to support this claim. Here, we assessed fertilization changes in the presence of a chemoattractant-digesting peptidase and used a microfluidic device coupled with a fertilization assay to determine the effect of sperm chemotaxis on individual male fertilization success in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus We show that removing chemoattractant from the gametic environment decreases fertilization success. We further found that individual male differences in chemotaxis to a well-defined gradient of attractant correlate with individual male differences in fertilization success. These results demonstrate that sperm chemotaxis is an important contributor to individual reproductive success. PMID:26994183

  8. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  9. Gal4-gene-dependent alterations of embryo development and cell growth in primary culture of sea urchins.

    Bulgakov, V P; Odintsova, N A; Plotnikov, S V; Kiselev, K V; Zacharov, E V; Zhuravlev, Y N

    2002-10-01

    Primary cell cultures from sea urchins have a low proliferative level that prevents the establishment of long-term cultures. To increase expression levels of the genes regulating cell growth in sea urchins, and thus enhance cell growth, we used the transcriptional activator gene Gal4 found earlier in yeast. Sea urchin embryos were treated with plasmid DNA containing the Gal4 gene. Expression of the transgene was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. When the fully functional gene was used, embryos effectively formed teratoma-like structures after 50 to 55 hours of cultivation. In contrast, the Gal4 gene, devoid of acidic activating regions, possessed little activity as a teratogen. The Gal4-treated cells in blastula-derived culture showed higher DNA synthesis and higher proliferative activity than control cells. We suggest that formation of the teratoma-like structures in embryos, activation of DNA synthesis, and significant increase of cell number in embryo-derived cell cultures could be attributed to Gal4 gene action. PMID:14961241

  10. Enhancement Effect of Sea Urchin Grow-out Cages in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Maria Celia Defrance Malay

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted on the environmental impact of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla Linnaeas grow-out culture in Lucero, Bolinao, Pangasinan. It was hypothesized that the feces generated by the caged urchins (~6,000 individuals at any one time might cause localised sediment organic enrichment and subsequent shifts in benthic faunal communities. Results from preliminary surveys conducted in April and August of 1999 indicated minimal impact of sea urchin grow-out culture on the local reef flat community. Some enhancement of faunal abundance and sediment organic matter content in the cage area were noted; however, the impact was limited to a radius of 5-25 meters from the grow-out cages. The enhancement effects appeared to be seasonal occurrences that were dependent on local currents and degree of wave exposure. Epiphyte biomass, total suspended solids, sediment grain size, and relative water movement seemed largely unaffected by sea urchin grow-out culture. However, more frequent and thorough samplings are needed to validate these initial results. The presence of localised enrichment in sediment organic content and epibenthic faunal density suggest the possibility of converting the sea urchin grow-out area into polyculture systems that would make more efficient use of the food resources available while minimizing potential anthropogenic impacts on the environment.

  11. Revision of new species of Eocene sea urchins from Istria, described in the 19th and 20th centuries

    Vasja Mikuž

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In paper are presented drawings and pictures of sea urchins from original works of authors who determined and documented new species from Istria. TARAMELLI (1874, BITTNER (1880, OPPENHEIM (1901, TONIOLO (1909 and DEGLI INNOCENTI (1924 a, b established in Paleogene beds of Istria 18 new species of Eocene sea urchins. Determined were four species of regular sea urchins of genera Stereocidaris, Phyllacanthus, “Eucidaris” and Arachniopleurus,and fourteen species of irregular sea urchins of nine genera - Conoclypus, Echinolampas, Rhyncholampas,Gitolampas, Ditremaster, Pericosmus, Prenaster, Brissopsis and Cyclaster. The highest species diversity was recorded within genus Echinolampas. New sea urchins species originate prevailingly in the Middle Eocene – Lutetian beds of localities in the narrower and broader surroundings of Koper, Buzet, Roč, Grdoselo, Pazin, Pićan, Ćepić and Labin.

  12. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis in freezing injury of sea urchin embryonic cells.

    Boroda, Andrey V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2016-08-01

    Sea urchins have recently been reported to be a promising tool for investigations of oxidative stress, UV light perturbations and senescence. However, few available data describe the pathway of cell death that occurs in sea urchin embryonic cells after cryopreservation. Our study is focused on the morphological and functional alterations that occur in cells of these animals during the induction of different cell death pathways in response to cold injury. To estimate the effect of cryopreservation on sea urchin cell cultures and identify the involved cell death pathways, we analyzed cell viability (via trypan blue exclusion test, MTT assay and DAPI staining), caspase activity (via flow cytometry and spectrophotometry), the level of apoptosis (via annexin V-FITC staining), and cell ultrastructure alterations (via transmission electron microscopy). Using general caspase detection, we found that the level of caspase activity was low in unfrozen control cells, whereas the number of apoptotic cells with activated caspases rose after freezing-thawing depending on cryoprotectants used, also as the number of dead cells and cells in a late apoptosis. The data using annexin V-binding assay revealed a very high apoptosis level in all tested samples, even in unfrozen cells (about 66%). Thus, annexin V assay appears to be unsuitable for sea urchin embryonic cells. Typical necrotic cells with damaged mitochondria were not detected after freezing in sea urchin cell cultures. Our results assume that physical cell disruption but not freezing-induced apoptosis or necrosis is the predominant reason of cell death in sea urchin cultures after freezing-thawing with any cryoprotectant combination. PMID:27364314

  13. A carbohydrate-based mechanism of species recognition in sea urchin fertilization

    P.A.S. Mourão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we describe a systematic study of the sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates, which led to the discovery of a carbohydrate-based mechanism of sperm-egg recognition during sea urchin fertilization. We have described unique polymers present in these organisms, especially sulfated fucose-rich compounds found in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. The polysaccharides have simple, linear structures consisting of repeating units of oligosaccharides. They differ among the various species of sea urchins in specific patterns of sulfation and/or position of the glycosidic linkage within their repeating units. These polysaccharides show species specificity in inducing the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm, providing a clear-cut example of a signal transduction event regulated by sulfated polysaccharides. This distinct carbohydrate-mediated mechanism of sperm-egg recognition coexists with the bindin-protein system. Possibly, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these sulfated fucans did not evolve in concordance with evolutionary distance but underwent a dramatic change near the tip of the Strongylocentrotid tree. Overall, we established a direct causal link between the molecular structure of a sulfated polysaccharide and a cellular physiological event - the induction of the sperm acrosome reaction in sea urchins. Small structural changes modulate an entire system of sperm-egg recognition and species-specific fertilization in sea urchins. We demonstrated that sulfated polysaccharides - in addition to their known function in cell proliferation, development, coagulation, and viral infection - mediate fertilization, and respond to evolutionary mechanisms that lead to species diversity.

  14. Cyclic GMP-specific Phosphodiesterase-5 Regulates Motility of Sea Urchin Spermatozoa

    Su, Yi-Hsien; Vacquier, Victor D.

    2006-01-01

    Motility, chemotaxis, and the acrosome reaction of animal sperm are all regulated by cyclic nucleotides and protein phosphorylation. One of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) substrates in sea urchin sperm is a member of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) family. The molecular identity and in vivo function of this PDE remained unknown. Here we cloned and characterized this sea urchin sperm PDE (suPDE5), which is an ortholog of human PDE5. The recombinant catalytic domain of suPDE5 hydroly...

  15. Pattern formation during gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo.

    McClay, D R; Armstrong, N A; Hardin, J

    1992-01-01

    The sea urchin embryo follows a relatively simple cell behavioral sequence in its gastrulation movements. To form the mesoderm, primary mesenchyme cells ingress from the vegetal plate and then migrate along the basal lamina lining the blastocoel. The presumptive secondary mesenchyme and endoderm then invaginate from the vegetal pole of the embryo. The archenteron elongates and extends across the blastocoel until the tip of the archenteron touches and attaches to the opposite side of the blastocoel. Secondary mesenchyme cells, originally at the tip of the archenteron, differentiate to form a variety of structures including coelomic pouches, esophageal muscles, pigment cells and other cell types. After migration of the secondary mesenchyme cells from their original position at the tip of the archenteron, the endoderm fuses with an invagination of the ventral ectoderm (the stomodaem), to form the mouth and complete the process of gastrulation. A larval skeleton is made by primary mesenchyme cells during the time of archenteron and mouth formation. A number of experiments have established that these morphogenetic movements involve a number of cell autonomous behaviors plus a series of cell interactions that provide spatial, temporal and scalar information to cells of the mesoderm and endoderm. The cell autonomous behaviors can be demonstrated by the ability of micromeres or endoderm to perform their morphogenetic functions if either is isolated and grown in culture. The requirement for cell interactions has been demonstrated by manipulative experiments where it has been shown that axial information, temporal information, spatial information and scalar information is obtained by mesoderm and endoderm from other embryonic cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1299366

  16. Contrasting recruitment seasonality of sea urchin species in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (eastern Atlantic

    S. GARCIA-SANZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite sea-urchins can play an important role affecting the community structure of subtidal bottoms, factors controlling the dynamics of sea-urchin populations are still poorly understood. We assessed the seasonal variation in recruitment of three sea-urchin species (Diadema africanum, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula at Gran Canaria Island (eastern Atlantic via monthly deployment of artificial collectors throughout an entire annual cycle on each of four adjacent habitat patches (seagrasses, sandy patches, ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens and macroalgal-dominated beds within a shallow coastal landscape. Paracentrotus lividus and A. lixula had exclusively one main recruitment peak in late winter-spring. Diadema africanum recruitment was also seasonal, but recruits appeared in late summer-autumn, particularly on ‘urchin-grazed’ barrens with large abundances of adult conspecifics. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated non-overlapping seasonal recruitment patterns of the less abundant species (P. lividus and A. lixula with the most conspicuous species (D. africanum in the study area.

  17. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Mann Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  18. Photoquadrat Analysis of how Sea Urchins Reduce Abundance of Kappaphycus and Analysis of Regrowth of Coral on Plots in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001022)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment was performed to assess the potential to use native sea urchins as biocontrols for alien/invasive seaweeds. One species of urchin, tripneustes...

  19. Photoquadrat analysis of how sea urchins reduce abundance of Kappaphycus and analysis of regrowth of coral on plots in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 2002 (NODC Accession 0001022)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment was performed to assess the potential to use native sea urchins as biocontrols for alien/invasive seaweeds. One species of urchin, tripneustes...

  20. Solvothermal synthesis and high optical performance of three-dimensional sea-urchin-like TiO2

    Graphical abstract: I–V characteristics of different TiO2 microspheres based DSSCs (a) 3D sphere-like, (b) 3D flower-like, (c) 3D sea-urchin-like. - Highlights: • 3D sea-urchin-like TiO2 was synthesized by solvothermal method. • The effects of preparation parameters on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. • The photoelectric properties of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO2 were studied upon DSSCs. • The PCE of the 3D sea-urchin-like TiO2 was higher than that of other morphologies. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) sea-urchin-like TiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesised by solvothermal method. The effects of preparation parameters including reaction temperature, concentration and mass fraction of precursor, and solvent volume on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the preparation parameters played a critical role in the morphology of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO2. In addition, when the sea-urchin-like TiO2 nanostructures were used as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) anode, the power-conversion efficiency was higher than that of other morphologies, which was due to the special 3D hierarchical nanostructure, large specific surface area, and enhanced absorption of UV–vis of the TiO2 nanostructures

  1. Solvothermal synthesis and high optical performance of three-dimensional sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2}

    Zhou, Yi, E-mail: zhouyihn@163.com; Wang, Yutang; Li, Mengyao; Li, Xuzhi; Yi, Qin; Deng, Pan; Wu, Hongyan

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: I–V characteristics of different TiO{sub 2} microspheres based DSSCs (a) 3D sphere-like, (b) 3D flower-like, (c) 3D sea-urchin-like. - Highlights: • 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by solvothermal method. • The effects of preparation parameters on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. • The photoelectric properties of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} were studied upon DSSCs. • The PCE of the 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} was higher than that of other morphologies. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microspheres were successfully synthesised by solvothermal method. The effects of preparation parameters including reaction temperature, concentration and mass fraction of precursor, and solvent volume on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the preparation parameters played a critical role in the morphology of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2}. In addition, when the sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were used as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) anode, the power-conversion efficiency was higher than that of other morphologies, which was due to the special 3D hierarchical nanostructure, large specific surface area, and enhanced absorption of UV–vis of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures.

  2. Antimicrobial and antistaphylococcal biofilm activity from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Schillaci, D.; Arizza, V.; Parrinello, N.;

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections are resistant to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new agents are needed to treat them. With this aim, we focused on the effector cells (coelomocytes) of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immune system. Methods and Results: We tested the...

  3. Detection of DNA damage in mussels and sea urchins exposed to crude oil using comet assay

    The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay or the comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage of dispersed crude oil on sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). Sea urchins were exposed to 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L dispersed crude oil in a continuous flow system, while the mussels were exposed to 0.015, 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L dispersed crude oil. Sea urchin coelomocytes and mussel haemocytes were sampled after 4 and 5 weeks exposure, respectively. In the sea urchin coelomocytes, there was a significant concentration-related increase in the percentage of DNA in comet tail. In mussel haemocytes, there was a significantly higher percentage of DNA in comet tail for all treatments compared to the control. The responses were concentration-related up to 0.06 mg/L oil. The two highest exposure concentrations of mussels were not significantly different from each other. These results indicate that the comet assay can be used for biomonitoring of DNA damage in marine invertebrates following oil contamination. (author)

  4. Identification and developmental expression of the ets gene family in the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus).

    Rizzo, Francesca; Fernandez-Serra, Montserrat; Squarzoni, Paola; Archimandritis, Aristea; Arnone, Maria I

    2006-12-01

    A systematic search in the available scaffolds of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome has revealed that this sea urchin has 11 members of the ets gene family. A phylogenetic analysis of these genes showed that almost all vertebrate ets subfamilies, with the exception of one, so far found only in mammals, are each represented by one orthologous sea urchin gene. The temporal and spatial expression of the identified ETS factors was also analyzed during embryogenesis. Five ets genes (Sp-Ets1/2, Sp-Tel, Sp-Pea, Sp-Ets4, Sp-Erf) are also maternally expressed. Three genes (Sp-Elk, Sp-Elf, Sp-Erf) are ubiquitously expressed during embryogenesis, while two others (Sp-Gabp, Sp-Pu.1) are not transcribed until late larval stages. Remarkably, five of the nine sea urchin ets genes expressed during embryogenesis are exclusively (Sp-Ets1/2, Sp-Erg, Sp-Ese) or additionally (Sp-Tel, Sp-Pea) expressed in mesenchyme cells and/or their progenitors. Functional analysis of Sp-Ets1/2 has previously demonstrated an essential role of this gene in the specification of the skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage. The dynamic, and in some cases overlapping and/or unique, developmental expression pattern of the latter five genes suggests a complex, non-redundant function for ETS factors in sea urchin mesenchyme formation and differentiation. PMID:16997294

  5. Functional diversification of sea urchin ABCC1 (MRP1) by alternative splicing.

    Gökirmak, Tufan; Campanale, Joseph P; Reitzel, Adam M; Shipp, Lauren E; Moy, Gary W; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-06-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family encodes a diverse repertoire of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with multiple roles in development, disease, and homeostasis. Understanding MRP evolution is central to unraveling their roles in these diverse processes. Sea urchins occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of vertebrate proteins and have been an important invertebrate model system for study of ABC transporters. We used phylogenetic analyses to examine the evolution of MRP transporters and functional approaches to identify functional forms of sea urchin MRP1 (also known as SpABCC1). SpABCC1, the only MRP homolog in sea urchins, is co-orthologous to human MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 (ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC6) transporters. However, efflux assays revealed that alternative splicing of exon 22, a region critical for substrate interactions, could diversify functions of sea urchin MRP1. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicate that while MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 transporters potentially arose from a single transporter in basal deuterostomes, alternative splicing appears to have been the major mode of functional diversification in invertebrates, while duplication may have served a more important role in vertebrates. These results provide a deeper understanding of the evolutionary origins of MRP transporters and the potential mechanisms used to diversify their functions in different groups of animals. PMID:27053522

  6. Monodictyquinone A: a new antimicrobial anthraquinone from a sea urchin-derived fungus Monodictys sp.

    El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Koimaru, Keiichiro; Ohta, Tomihisa; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    A new antimicrobial anthraquinone, 1,8-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone, monodictyquinone A (1), was isolated from a culture of a marine-derived fungus of the genus Monodictys which was isolated from the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina, along with three known compounds, pachybasin (2), chrysophanol (3), and emodin (4). PMID:17603212

  7. Determinants of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin recruitment under oligotrophic conditions: Implications for conservation management.

    Oliva, Silvia; Farina, Simone; Pinna, Stefania; Guala, Ivan; Agnetta, Davide; Ariotti, Pierre Antoine; Mura, Francesco; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins may deeply shape the structure of macrophyte-dominated communities and require the implementation of sustainable management strategies. In the Mediterranean, the identification of the major recruitment determinants of the keystone sea urchin species Paracentrotus lividus is required, so that source areas of the populations can be identified and exploitation or programmed harvesting can be spatially managed. In this study a collection of eight possible determinants, these encompassing both the biotic (larvae, adult sea urchins, fish, encrusting coralline algae, habitat type and spatial arrangement of habitats) and abiotic (substrate complexity and nutritional status) realms was considered at different spatial scales (site, area, transect and quadrat). Data from a survey including sites subject to different levels of human influence (i.e. from urbanized to protected areas), but all corresponding to an oligotrophic and low-populated region were fitted by means of a generalized linear mixed model. Despite the extensive sampling effort of benthic quadrats, an overall paucity of recruits was found, recruits being aggregated in a very small number of quadrats and in few areas. The analysis of data detected substrate complexity, and adult sea urchin and predatory fish abundances as the momentous determinants of Paracentrotus lividus recruitment. Possible mechanisms of influence are discussed beyond the implications of conservation management. PMID:27043483

  8. Involvement of l(-)-rhamnose in sea urchin gastrulation. Part II: α-l-Rhamnosidase.

    Liang, Jing; Aleksanyan, Heghush; Metzenberg, Stan; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    The sea urchin embryo is recognized as a model system to reveal developmental mechanisms involved in human health and disease. In Part I of this series, six carbohydrates were tested for their effects on gastrulation in embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Only l-rhamnose caused dramatic increases in the numbers of unattached archenterons and exogastrulated archenterons in living, swimming embryos. It was found that at 30 h post-fertilization the l-rhamnose had an unusual inverse dose-dependent effect, with low concentrations (1-3 mM) interfering with development and higher concentrations (30 mM) having little to no effect on normal development. In this study, embryos were examined for inhibition of archenteron development after treatment with α-l-rhamnosidase, an endoglycosidase that removes terminal l-rhamnose sugars from glycans. It was observed that the enzyme had profound effects on gastrulation, an effect that could be suppressed by addition of l-rhamnose as a competitive inhibitor. The involvement of l-rhamnose-containing glycans in sea urchin gastrulation was unexpected, since there are no characterized biosynthetic pathways for rhamnose utilization in animals. It is possible there exists a novel l-rhamnose-containing glycan in sea urchins, or that the enzyme and sugar interfere with the function of rhamnose-binding lectins, which are components of the innate immune system in many vertebrate and invertebrate species. PMID:26168775

  9. Sulphation as a metabolic pathway for oestradiol in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus

    Creange, John E.; Szego, Clara M.

    1967-01-01

    1. Aerobic incubation of [14C]oestradiol, in the presence of surviving gut tissue of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, or a soluble enzyme system prepared therefrom, resulted in rapid formation of a water-soluble metabolite, identified as oestradiol 3-sulphate. 2. No evidence was obtained for the formation of other metabolic derivatives by the urchin-gut enzymes, or for the presence of the sulphating capacity in any other tissues of the organism under the conditions used. 3. The data are consistent with the possibility that oestradiol, previously detected in the gonads, is synthesized therein and excreted in a conjugated, highly water-soluble form via the gut. PMID:16742507

  10. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD50 values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H2O2, MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  11. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda); Bodnar, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bodnar@bios.edu [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda)

    2012-11-15

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD{sub 50} values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  12. Genome editing in sea urchin embryos by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Lin, Che-Yi; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2016-01-15

    Sea urchin embryos are a useful model system for investigating early developmental processes and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Most functional studies using sea urchin embryos rely on antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown gene functions. However, major concerns related to this technique include off-target effects, variations in morpholino efficiency, and potential morpholino toxicity; furthermore, such problems are difficult to discern. Recent advances in genome editing technologies have introduced the prospect of not only generating sequence-specific knockouts, but also providing genome-engineering applications. Two genome editing tools, zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have been utilized in sea urchin embryos, but the resulting efficiencies are far from satisfactory. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system serves as an easy and efficient method with which to edit the genomes of several established and emerging model organisms in the field of developmental biology. Here, we apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the sea urchin embryo. We designed six guide RNAs (gRNAs) against the well-studied nodal gene and discovered that five of the gRNAs induced the expected phenotype in 60-80% of the injected embryos. In addition, we developed a simple method for isolating genomic DNA from individual embryos, enabling phenotype to be precisely linked to genotype, and revealed that the mutation rates were 67-100% among the sequenced clones. Of the two potential off-target sites we examined, no off-target effects were observed. The detailed procedures described herein promise to accelerate the usage of CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing in sea urchin embryos. PMID:26632489

  13. Advances in the cryopreservation of sea-urchin embryos: Potential application in marine water quality assessment.

    Bellas, Juan; Paredes, Estefanía

    2011-06-01

    Among the most widely used biological techniques in marine pollution assessment, the sea-urchin embryo-larval bioassay is in an advanced developmental stage. Cryopreservation might help to overcome the problem of the spawning seasonality and therefore strengthen the use of those embryo-larval bioassays. This work investigates different factors influencing cryopreservation of sea-urchin embryos, including the cooling rates and holding temperatures, the seeding, or the impact of plunging into liquid nitrogen. The blastula stage yielded better results than the fertilised egg, and the most effective cryoprotectants combination was dimethyl sulfoxide 1.5M plus trehalose 0.04M. The optimised protocol developed begins with an initial hold at 4°C for 2min, followed by cooling at -1°Cmin(-1) to -12°C. At this point a seeding step was incorporated with a 2min hold, followed by a second cooling at -1°Cmin(-1) to -80°C. After a final hold of 2min the cryovials are transferred into liquid nitrogen for storage. Although the cryopreservation processes might cause a delay in the development of sea-urchin embryos, high larval growth (71-98% of controls) was obtained when cryopreserved blastulae were further incubated for 72-96h in artificial seawater. We conclude that embryo-larval bioassays with cryopreserved sea-urchin blastulae are suitable for use in marine pollution monitoring programs and may be considered as an acceptable solution to the reproductive seasonality of sea-urchin species. PMID:21338597

  14. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    Matthew C. Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is

  15. Effects of produced water on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus)

    The author examined the effects of a chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) discharge on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites with distances ranging from 5m to 1,000m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks and each cage held 25 urchins. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of gonad mass as determined by analysis of covariance. The author found that there was a significant negative relationship between gonad mass and cage distance for both sexes, indicating that urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetic bioassay that holds the concentration of eggs constant and varies the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a kinetics model. Significant differences were found in the fertilizability of eggs between cages. This showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. The findings indicate that while adult urchins exposed to a produced water outfall produced larger gonads, they suffered a marked decreases in gamete performance

  16. Physiological compensation for environmental acidification is limited in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    Taylor, J. R.; Lovera, C.; Whaling, P. J.; Buck, K. R.; Pane, E. F.; Barry, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals - particularly, calcifiers - are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, during two long-term exposure experiments (1 month and 4 month) at three levels of reduced pH at in situ O2 levels of approx. 10% saturation, and also to control pH at 100% O2 saturation. During the first experiment, internal acid-base balance was investigated during a one-month exposure; results show S. fragilis has limited ability to compensate for the respiratory acidosis brought on by reduced pH, due in part to low non-bicarbonate extracellular fluid buffering capacity. During the second experiment, longer-term effects of hypercapnia and variable O2 on locomotion, feeding, growth, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were investigated; results show significant mortality and correlation of all measured parameters with environmental acidification at pH 6.6. Transient adverse effects on locomotion and feeding were seen at pH 7.2, without compromise of growth or GSI. Based on the expected changes in ocean pH and oxygen, results suggest extinction of S. fragilis in the eastern North Pacific is unlikely. Rather, we expect a shoaling and contraction of its bathymetric range.

  17. Physiological compensation for environmental acidification is limited in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    J. R. Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ. Deep-sea animals – particularly, calcifiers – are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, during two long-term exposure experiments (1 month and 4 month at three levels of reduced pH at in situ O2 levels of approx. 10% saturation, and also to control pH at 100% O2 saturation. During the first experiment, internal acid-base balance was investigated during a one-month exposure; results show S. fragilis has limited ability to compensate for the respiratory acidosis brought on by reduced pH, due in part to low non-bicarbonate extracellular fluid buffering capacity. During the second experiment, longer-term effects of hypercapnia and variable O2 on locomotion, feeding, growth, and gonadosomatic index (GSI were investigated; results show significant mortality and correlation of all measured parameters with environmental acidification at pH 6.6. Transient adverse effects on locomotion and feeding were seen at pH 7.2, without compromise of growth or GSI. Based on the expected changes in ocean pH and oxygen, results suggest extinction of S. fragilis in the eastern North Pacific is unlikely. Rather, we expect a shoaling and contraction of its bathymetric range.

  18. Cathepsin B/X is secreted by Echinometra lucunter sea urchin spines, a structure rich in granular cells and toxins

    Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Neves, Adriana da Costa; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinometra lucunter is a common American sea urchin responsible for the majority of the marine accidents in Brazil. Although not lethal, these accidents are reported to be extremely painful. Recently, our group described the presence of toxins in its spines that contribute to the pathological reactions. Additionally, we have observed that the E. lucunter spines can regenerate when broken. In the present work we evaluated the enzymatic activities of sea urchin spine extracts in ord...

  19. Sperm velocity and longevity trade off each other and influence fertilization in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    Levitan, D R

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical prediction that fast sperm should be more effective at fertilizing eggs has never been documented empirically. Interspecific comparisons suggest an inverse relationship between sperm velocity and sperm longevity but this trade-off has never been demonstrated within a species. Here I investigate how sperm velocity and sperm longevity influence the patterns of fertilization in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. In the laboratory I examined 11 male female pairs of sea urchins ...

  20. RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Differential MicroRNA Expression during Development of Sea Urchin and Sea Star

    Kadri, Sabah; Hinman, Veronica F.; Benos, Panayiotis V.

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20–23 nt), non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA gene expression. They have been implicated in regulation of developmental processes in diverse organisms. The echinoderms, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) and Patiria miniata (sea star) are excellent model organisms for studying development with well-characterized transcriptional networks. However, to date, nothing is known about the role of miRNAs d...

  1. Characteristics of palindromic sequences in DNA of the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus intermedius

    The fraction of palindromic sequences in the nuclear DNA of the sea urchin S. intermedius was characterized. Using chromatography on hydroxyapatite and treatment with S1 nuclease, it was shown that the fraction of palindromic sequences more than doubles when the sodium concentration in solution is increased or the temperature of reassociation is lowered. The increase is due to the involvement of inverted repeats in reassociation, which are characterized by a substantial nonhomologous character and/or the presence of an extended intervening DNA sequence. It was found by the method of reassociation of a nicked palindrome fraction with an excess of total homologous DNA that most of the inverted repeats in the sea urchin genome are unique sequences. The complexity of the palindrome fraction was estimated at 8.2 x 107 nucleotide pairs, and the number of palindromes per haploid genome ∼ 500,000

  2. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    D. Privitera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments, that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  characterization of anthropogenic or climate changes effects on their settlement, population structure, feeding behaviour and reproductive condition, may be useful to describe future scenarios regarding the whole marine community. The present paper represents a short review of the possible applications of eco-toxicity bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus gametes and embryos. Further, examples of ecological researches, involving sea urchins, aiming at the definition of future scenarios will be preserved.

  3. Reduced O2 and elevated ROS in sea urchin embryos leads to defects in ectoderm differentiation.

    Agca, Cavit; Klein, William H; Venuti, Judith M

    2009-07-01

    The sea urchin oral-aboral (OA) axis is established in part by Nodal signaling. The OA axis is also influenced by treatments affecting respiration and Nodal transcription is influenced by redox-dependent transcription factors. This suggests that intracellular redox state plays a role in OA axis specification. Since cellular redox state can be altered by the formation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hypoxia and paraquat generate ROS in cells, we asked whether these treatments affected specification of the OA axis and Nodal expression. Embryos cultured under conditions that elevate ROS, demonstrate perturbed ectoderm specification, but other territories are not affected. Immunohistochemical and Q-RT-PCR analyses revealed that both oral and aboral ectoderm genes are downregulated. Our results argue that elevating ROS in sea urchin embryos by these treatments blocks early steps in ectoderm differentiation preceding the polarization of the ectoderm into oral and aboral territories. PMID:19517573

  4. High ordered biomineralization induced by carbon nanoparticles in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    A surprising and unexpected biomineralization process was observed during toxicological assessment of carbon nanoparticles on Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) pluteus larvae. The larvae activate a process of defense against external material, by incorporating the nanoparticles into microstructures of aragonite similarly to pearl oysters. Aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon, the larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles and the biomineralization products were analyzed by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the possible influence of Sp-CyP-1 expression on this biomineralization process by larvae, analyses of gene expression (Sp-CyP-1) and calcein labeling were performed. Overall, we report experimental evidence about the capability of carbon nanoparticles to induce an increment of Sp-CyP-1 expression with the consequent activation of a biomineralization process leading to the production of a new pearl-like biomaterial never previously observed in sea urchins. (paper)

  5. Didymium-like myxogastrids (class Mycetozoa) as endocommensals of sea urchins (Sphaerechinus granularis)

    Dyková, Iva; Lom, Jiří; Dvořáková, Helena; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-12. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2384; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Didymium-like myxogastrids * Myxogastrea * sea-urchin amoeba strains * SSU rDNA * flagellar apparatus * phylogeny Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2007

  6. Cloning of the sea urchin mitochondrial RNA polymerase and reconstitution of the transcription termination system

    Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Deceglie, Stefania; Falkenberg, Maria; Roberti, Marina; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2007-01-01

    Termination of transcription is a key process in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression in animal cells. To investigate transcription termination in sea urchin mitochondria, we cloned the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) of Paracentrotus lividus and used a recombinant form of the enzyme in a reconstituted transcription system, in the presence of the DNA-binding protein mtDBP. Cloning of mtRNAP was performed by a combination of PCR with degenerate primers and library screening. T...

  7. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    Privitera, D; M.G. Aluigi; C Falugi; Chiantore, M.

    2011-01-01

    Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments), that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  character...

  8. Effects of oscillatory flow on fertilization in the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

    Kregting, Louise T.; Bass, Anna L.; Guadayol, Òscar; Yund, Philip O.; Thomas, Florence I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Broadcast spawning invertebrates that live in shallow, high-energy coastal habitats are subjected to oscillatory water motion that creates unsteady flow fields above the surface of animals. The frequency of the oscillatory fluctuations is driven by the wave period, which will influence the stability of local flow structures and may affect fertilization processes. Using an oscillatory water tunnel, we quantified the percentage of eggs fertilized on or near spawning green sea urchins, Strongylo...

  9. The immune gene repertoire encoded in the purple sea urchin genome.

    Hibino, Taku; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Messier, Cynthia; Majeske, Audrey J; Cohen, Avis H; Terwilliger, David P; Buckley, Katherine M; Brockton, Virginia; Nair, Sham V; Berney, Kevin; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Anderson, Michele K; Pancer, Zeev; Cameron, R Andrew; Smith, L Courtney; Rast, Jonathan P

    2006-12-01

    Echinoderms occupy a critical and largely unexplored phylogenetic vantage point from which to infer both the early evolution of bilaterian immunity and the underpinnings of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Here we present an initial survey of the purple sea urchin genome for genes associated with immunity. An elaborate repertoire of potential immune receptors, regulators and effectors is present, including unprecedented expansions of innate pathogen recognition genes. These include a diverse array of 222 Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and a coordinate expansion of directly associated signaling adaptors. Notably, a subset of sea urchin TLR genes encodes receptors with structural characteristics previously identified only in protostomes. A similarly expanded set of 203 NOD/NALP-like cytoplasmic recognition proteins is present. These genes have previously been identified only in vertebrates where they are represented in much lower numbers. Genes that mediate the alternative and lectin complement pathways are described, while gene homologues of the terminal pathway are not present. We have also identified several homologues of genes that function in jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity. The most striking of these is a gene cluster with similarity to the jawed vertebrate Recombination Activating Genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/2). Sea urchins are long-lived, complex organisms and these findings reveal an innate immune system of unprecedented complexity. Whether the presumably intense selective processes that molded these gene families also gave rise to novel immune mechanisms akin to adaptive systems remains to be seen. The genome sequence provides immediate opportunities to apply the advantages of the sea urchin model toward problems in developmental and evolutionary immunobiology. PMID:17027739

  10. The immune gene repertoire encoded in the purple sea urchin genome

    Hibino, Taku; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Messier, Cynthia; Majeske, Audrey J.; Cohen, Avis H.; Terwilliger, David P.; Buckley, Katherine M.; Brockton, Virginia; Nair, Sham V.; Berney, Kevin; Fugmann, Sebastian D.; Anderson, Michele K.; Pancer, Zeev; Cameron, R. Andrew; Smith, L Courtney

    2006-01-01

    Echinoderms occupy a critical and largely unexplored phylogenetic vantage point from which to infer both the early evolution of bilaterian immunity and the underpinnings of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Here we present an initial survey of the purple sea urchin genome for genes associated with immunity. An elaborate repertoire of potential immune receptors, regulators and effectors is present, including unprecedented expansions of innate pathogen recognition genes. These include a di...

  11. Inhibition of glycoprotein processing blocks assembly of spicules during development of the sea urchin embryo

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated an 130-kD glycoprotein containing complex, N-linked oligosaccharide chain(s) in the process of spicule formation in sea urchin embryos. To ascertain whether the processing of high mannose oligosaccharides to complex oligosaccharides is necessary for spiculogenesis, intact embryos and cultures of spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells were treated with glycoprotein processing inhibitors. In both the embryonic and cell culture systems 1- deoxymannojirimycin (1...

  12. Aggregation of sea urchin phagocytes is augmented in vitro by lipopolysaccharide.

    Majeske, Audrey J; Bayne, Christopher J; Smith, L Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Development of protocols and media for culturing immune cells from marine invertebrates has not kept pace with advancements in mammalian immune cell culture, the latter having been driven by the need to understand the causes of and develop therapies for human and animal diseases. However, expansion of the aquaculture industry and the diseases that threaten these systems creates the need to develop cell and tissue culture methods for marine invertebrates. Such methods will enable us to better understand the causes of disease outbreaks and to develop means to avoid and remedy epidemics. We report a method for the short-term culture of phagocytes from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, by modifying an approach previously used to culture cells from another sea urchin species. The viability of cultured phagocytes from the purple sea urchin decreases from 91.6% to 57% over six days and phagocyte morphology changes from single cells to aggregates leading to the formation of syncytia-like structures. This process is accelerated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide suggesting that phagocytes are capable of detecting this molecular pattern in culture conditions. Sea urchin immune response proteins, called Sp185/333, are expressed on the surface of a subset of phagocytes and have been associated with syncytia-like structures. We evaluated their expression in cultured phagocytes to determine their possible role in cell aggregation and in the formation of syncytia-like structures. Between 0 and 3 hr, syncytia-like structures were observed in cultures when only ~10% of the cells were positive for Sp185/333 proteins. At 24 hr, ~90% of the nuclei were Sp185/333-positive when all of the phagocytes had aggregated into syncytia-like structures. Consequently, we conclude that the Sp185/333 proteins do not have a major role in initiating the aggregation of cultured phagocytes, however the Sp185/333 proteins are associated with the clustered nuclei within the

  13. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specificatio...

  14. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line

    Gian Luigi Russo; Maria Russo; Immacolata Castellano; Alessandra Napolitano; Anna Palumbo

    2014-01-01

    Ovothiols are histidine-derived thiols isolated from sea urchin eggs, where they play a key role in the protection of cells toward the oxidative burst associated with fertilization by controlling the cellular redox balance and recycling oxidized glutathione. In this study, we show that treatment of a human liver carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2, with ovothiol A, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus oocytes, results in a decrease of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of a...

  15. Muscles advance the teeth in sand dollars and other sea urchins

    Ellers, O.; Telford, M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate the action of the dental promoter muscles in advancing the continuously growing teeth of sand dollars and sea urchins. Teeth wear at the occlusal end, while new calcite is added to the opposite end. Dental ligaments rigidly hold teeth during chewing, but soften and reform during advancement. The source of forces that advance the teeth was unknown until our discovery of the dental promoter muscles. The muscles, which underly the tooth, attach centrally to the stereom of the pyra...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Altererythrobacter troitsensis JCM 17037, Isolated from the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Zhou, Peng; Wu, Yue-Hong; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The habitats of the genus Altererythrobacter are various, including marine sediment, seawater, rhizosphere of wild rice, desert sand, etc. The genome of the type strain of Altererythrobacter troitsensis JCM 17037, isolated from sea urchin, was sequenced. This study would not only facilitate the understanding of the physiology, adaptation, and evolution of the Altererythrobacter species, but also provide a good resource for the study of synthesis of astaxanthin, since several enzymes involved in the production of astaxanthin were predicted. PMID:26769941

  17. Innate immune complexity in the purple sea urchin: diversity of the Sp185/333 system

    L Courtney Smith

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. Several large gene families that function in immunity in this species includes the Sp185/333 gene family with ~50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence...

  18. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  19. Absence of postzygotic isolating mechanisms: evidence from experimental hybridization between two species of tropical sea urchins*

    Rahman, M. Aminur; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Arshad, Aziz; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor

    2012-01-01

    Two reef margin species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. C (Ec) and Echinometra oblonga (Eo), occur sympatrically on Okinawa intertidal reefs in southern Japan. Hybridization between these species was examined through a series of cross-fertilization experiments. At limited sperm concentrations, where conspecific crosses reached near 100% fertilization, both heterospecific crosses showed high fertilization rates (81%–85%). The compatibility of the gametes demonstrated that if gamete re...

  20. Morphological evolution in sea urchin development: hybrids provide insights into the pace of evolution.

    Byrne, Maria; Voltzow, Janice

    2004-04-01

    Hybridisations between related species with divergent ontogenies can provide insights into the bases for evolutionary change in development. One example of such hybridisations involves sea urchin species that exhibit either standard larval (pluteal) stages or those that develop directly from embryo to adult without an intervening feeding larval stage. In such crosses, pluteal features were found to be restored in fertilisations of the eggs of some direct developing sea urchins (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) with the sperm of closely (Heliocidaris tuberculata) and distantly (Pseudoboletia maculata) related species with feeding larvae. Such results can be argued to support the punctuated equilibrium model-conservation in pluteal regulatory systems and a comparatively rapid switch to direct development in evolution.1,2 Generation of hybrids between distantly related direct developers may, however, indicate evolutionary convergence. The 'rescue' of pluteal features by paternal genomes may require maternal factors from H. erythrogramma because the larva of this species has pluteal features. In contrast, pluteal features were not restored in hybridisations with the eggs of Holopneustes purpurescens, which lacks pluteal features. How much of pluteal development can be lost before it cannot be rescued in such crosses? The answer awaits hybridisations among indirect and direct developing sea urchins differing in developmental phenotype, in parallel with investigations of the genetic programs involved. PMID:15057932

  1. Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.

    Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology. PMID:24002666

  2. The use of cryopreserved sea urchin embryos (Paracentrotus lividus) in marine quality assessment.

    Paredes, E; Bellas, J

    2015-06-01

    We have established for first time an ecotoxicological bioassay using cryopreserved sea urchin embryos (Paracentotus lividus) and provided a comparison to the already standardized sea urchin embryo-larval bioassay, using selected (organic and inorganic) pollutants and sediment elutriates from 4 different locations from Ria de Vigo harbour (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula). A cryopreservation protocol was designed in order to enable the successful cryopreservation and cryobanking of gametes and embryos to be used for marine quality assessment and ensure the accessibility to high quality reproductive material all year round, as an option to conditioning adults for out of season reproduction. The calculated EC50 using the cryopreserved blastula was 53.7 μg L(-1) for copper, 81.0 μg L(-1) for lead, 300.6 μg L(-1) for BP-3 and 300.6 μg L(-1) for 4-MBC. The sensitivity of the classic sea urchin embryo-larval bioassay was compared with the bioassay conducted with cryopreserved blastula. The results showed that the use of cryopreserved blastula bioassay allows detecting lower concentrations of pollutants in comparison with the classic bioassay. PMID:25725396

  3. Cryopreservation of sea urchin embryos (Paracentrotus lividus) applied to marine ecotoxicological studies.

    Paredes, Estefanía; Bellas, Juan

    2009-12-01

    Current strategies for marine pollution monitoring are based on the integration of chemical and biological techniques. The sea urchin embryo-larval bioassays are among the biological methods most widely used worldwide. Cryopreservation of early embryos of sea urchins could provide a useful tool to overcome one of the main limitations of such bioassays, the availability of high quality biological material all year round. The present study aimed to determine the suitability of several permeant (dimethyl sulfoxide, Me(2)SO; propylene glycol, PG; and ethylene glycol, EG) and non-permeant (trehalose, TRE; polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) and their combination, for the cryopreservation of eggs and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. On the basis of the CPAs toxicity, PG and EG, in combination with PVP, seem to be most suitable for the cryopreservation of P. lividus eggs and embryos. Several freezing procedures were also assayed. The most successful freezing regime consisted on cooling from 4 to -12 degrees C at 1 degrees C/min, holding for 2 min for seeding, cooling to -20 degrees C at 0.5 degrees C/min, and then cooling to -35 degrees C at 1 degrees C/min. Maximum normal larvae percentages of 41.5% and 68.5%, and maximum larval growth values of 42.9% and 60.5%, were obtained for frozen fertilized eggs and frozen blastulae, respectively. PMID:19786009

  4. Cell mediated immune response of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus after PAMPs stimulation.

    Romero, A; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2016-09-01

    The Mediterranean sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) is of great ecological and economic importance for the European aquaculture. Yet, most of the studies regarding echinoderm's immunological defense mechanisms reported so far have used the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus as a model, and information on the immunological defense mechanisms of Paracentrotus lividus and other sea urchins, is scarce. To remedy this gap in information, in this study, flow cytometry was used to evaluate several cellular immune mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, cell cooperation, and ROS production in P. lividus coelomocytes after PAMP stimulation. Two cell populations were described. Of the two, the amoeboid-phagocytes were responsible for the phagocytosis and ROS production. Cooperation between amoeboid-phagocytes and non-adherent cells resulted in an increased phagocytic response. Stimulation with several PAMPs modified the phagocytic activity and the production of ROS. The premise that the coelomocytes were activated by the bacterial components was confirmed by the expression levels of two cell mediated immune genes: LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). These results have helped us understand the cellular immune mechanisms in P. lividus and their modulation after PAMP stimulation. PMID:27113124

  5. Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm revealed by a microfluidic chemotaxis device.

    Haixin Chang

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis refers to a process whereby cells move up or down a chemical gradient. Sperm chemotaxis is known to be a strategy exploited by marine invertebrates such as sea urchins to reach eggs efficiently in moving water. Less is understood about how or whether chemotaxis is used by mammalian sperm to reach eggs, where fertilization takes place within the confinement of a reproductive tract. In this report, we quantitatively assessed sea urchin and mouse sperm chemotaxis using a recently developed microfluidic model and high-speed imaging. Results demonstrated that sea urchin Arbacia punctulata sperm were chemotactic toward the peptide resact with high chemotactic sensitivity, with an average velocity Vx up the chemical gradient as high as 20% of its average speed (238 μm/s, while mouse sperm displayed no statistically significant chemotactic behavior in progesterone gradients, which had been proposed to guide mammalian sperm toward eggs. This work demonstrates the validity of a microfluidic model for quantitative sperm chemotaxis studies, and reveals a biological insight that chemotaxis up a progesterone gradient may not be a universal strategy for mammalian sperm to reach eggs.

  6. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    Nahon, Sarah [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Castro Porras, Viviana A. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Pruski, Audrey M. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Charles, Francois [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France)], E-mail: charles@obs-banyuls.fr

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m{sup -2}, fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m{sup -2} and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m{sup -2} UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment.

  7. [Standardization of larval development of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, as tool for the assessment sea water quality].

    Pétinay, Stéphanie; Chataigner, Claire; Basuyaux, Olivier

    2009-12-01

    All stages of development of the sea urchin are of interest in ecotoxicology; the largest number of prior works concerns studies on gametes. Previous studies indicated that the use of sea urchin larvae was difficult because of the need to obtain the parent generations and good quality gametes. Progress in sea urchin culture has allowed one to standardize the method. The proposed technique is based on an evaluation of the number of non-developing fertilized eggs, on the frequency of malformations, and on the length of the larvae at 96 hours, using parents raised under well-controlled conditions. Temperature (18-22 degrees C), salinity (28-34 ppt) and pH (8-8.4) have been fixed to standardize the proposed biological test. Thirty micrograms per litre of copper reduce significantly the length of the larvae and could be used as a positive control. On the other hand, reconstituted sea water permits an optimal development of the larvae and may be used as negative control. A seasonal follow-up of water quality has been achieved to validate the use of this technique in a surveillance network of water quality. The method may be used whatever the salinity, including fresh and brackish waters. PMID:19931848

  8. Physiological effects of environmental acidification in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    Taylor, J. R.; Lovera, C.; Whaling, P. J.; Buck, K. R.; Pane, E. F.; Barry, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 and variable O2 on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, a species whose range of 200-1200 m depth includes the OMZ and spans a pCO2 range of approx. 600-1200 μatm (approx. pH 7.6 to 7.8). Individuals were evaluated during two exposure experiments (1-month and 4 month) at control and three levels of elevated pCO2 at in situ O2 levels of approx. 10% air saturation. A treatment of control pCO2 at 100% air saturation was also included in experiment two. During the first experiment, perivisceral coelomic fluid (PCF) acid-base balance was investigated during a one-month exposure; results show S. fragilis has limited ability to compensate for the respiratory acidosis brought on by elevated pCO2, due in part to low non-bicarbonate PCF buffering capacity. During the second experiment, individuals were separated into fed and fasted experimental groups, and longer-term effects of elevated pCO2 and variable O2 on righting time, feeding, growth, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were investigated for both groups. Results suggest that the acidosis found during experiment one does not directly correlate with adverse effects during exposure to realistic future pCO2 levels.

  9. Sea urchin mtDBP is a two-faced transcription termination factor with a biased polarity depending on the RNA polymerase

    Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Roberti, Marina; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Montoya, Julio; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2001-01-01

    The sea urchin mitochondrial displacement (D)-loop binding protein mtDBP has been previously identified and cloned. The polypeptide (348 amino acids) displays a significant homology with the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor mTERF. This similarity, and the observation that the 3′ ends of mitochondrial RNAs coded by opposite strands mapped in correspondence of mtDBP-binding sites, suggested that mtDBP could function as transcription termination factor in sea urchin mitochondria. To investigate such a role we tested the capability of mtDBP bound to its target sequence in the main non-coding region to affect RNA elongation by mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases. We show that mtDBP was able to terminate transcription bidirectionally when initiated by human mitochondrial RNA polymerase but only unidirectionally when initiated by T3 or T7 RNA polymerases. Time-course experiments indicated that mtDBP promotes true transcription termination rather than transcription pausing. These results indicate that mtDBP is able to function as a bipolar transcription termination factor in sea urchin mitochondria. The functional significance of such an activity could be linked to the previously proposed dual role of the protein in modulating mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. PMID:11713324

  10. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development

    Mocko-Strand, Julie A.; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W.; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J.; Klein, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. PMID:26962139

  11. Characterization of an Alpha Type Carbonic Anhydrase from Paracentrotus lividus Sea Urchin Embryos.

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Costa, Caterina; Zito, Francesca; Brümmer, Franz; Matranga, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the sea urchin, CA has a role in the formation of the calcitic skeleton during embryo development. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence from embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, referred to as Pl-can. The complete coding sequence was identified with the aid of both EST databases and experimental procedures. Pl-CAN is a 447 aa-long protein, with an estimated molecular mass of 48.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.83. The in silico study of functional domains showed, in addition to the alpha type CA-specific domain, the presence of an unexpected glycine-rich region at the N-terminal of the molecule. This is not found in any other species described so far, but probably it is restricted to the sea urchins. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Pl-CAN is evolutionarily closer to human among chordates than to other species. The putative role(s) of the identified domains is discussed. The Pl-can temporal and spatial expression profiles, analyzed throughout embryo development by comparative qPCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH), showed that Pl-can mRNA is specifically expressed in the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) of the embryo and levels increase along with the growth of the embryonic skeleton, reaching a peak at the pluteus stage. A recombinant fusion protein was produced in E. coli and used to raise specific antibodies in mice recognized the endogenous Pl-CAN by Western blot in embryo extracts from gastrula and pluteus. PMID:27230618

  12. [Juvenile production of the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Baja California, Mexico].

    Salas-Garza, A; Carpizo-Ituarte, E; Parés-Sierra, G; Martínez-López, R; Quintana-Rodríguez, R

    2005-12-01

    The red sea urchin Strongylocentrotusfranciscanus (Agassiz 1863) is harvested commercially in Baja California, Mexico, since 1970; however, in the last ten years the capture per unit effort (CPUE) has decreased from 310 kg/fishing unit/day to 120 kg/fishing unit/day. For this reason, actions were taken to develop a culture technology allowing massive production of juveniles for re-stocking natural populations or for growing them commercially. We summarize some of the basic studies and main achievements in this effort. In Baja California, considerably faster larval development (approximately 21 days) has been attained than in the US northwest coast (62 days). Spawning of red sea urchins was routinely induced with KCI while egg fertilization was performed using a 100,000-sperm/ml solution. Six microalgae species were tested and Rhodomonas sp. produced the best larval development. The mean survival rate at the end of the larval period was 25%, but results varied widely with bactch. From the feed ratios tested, best results were obtained using 7000 cel/ml during the first week of larval development, followed by 10,000 cel/ml during the second and 15,000 cel/ml during the third week. KCl proved the most consistent metamorphic inducer, regularly yielding metamorphosis percentages higher than 90%. Metamorphosis was considered complete when the functional jaw that juveniles use for first benthic feeding appeared (as soon as 20 days after induction). With this method several thousands of red sea urchin juveniles were produced. They reached up to 1.5 mm in size during the first 50 days of culture after metamorphosis, showing the great potential for mass production of this species in the laboratory. PMID:17469265

  13. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture.

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%). PMID:26049089

  14. Development of scientifically base management towards a sustainable fishery of the common sea urchin, Paracentrotus Lividus, in Sardinia

    Secci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years sea urchins have become a premium commodity in the world where both males and females of the species are harvested for their gonads, generally referred to as “roe” in the fishery and catering market. Fishing for sea urchins can be a very profitable business during the first 5 to 10 years operations on a new fishing ground. However, after that short period of time, wild populations decline due to the high efficiency and selectivity of the employed fishing techniques. In several...

  15. Role of fibronectin in primary mesenchyme cell migration in the sea urchin

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effect of fibronectin (FN) on the behavior of primary mesenchyme cells isolated from sea urchin mesenchyme blastulae in vitro using a time-lapse technique. The migration of isolated primary mesenchyme cells reconstituted in seawater and horse serum is dependent on the presence or absence of exogenous FN in the culture media. The cells in FN, 4 and 40 micrograms/ml, show a high percentage of migration and migrate long distances, whereas a higher concentration of FN at 400 microg...

  16. Aggregation of sea urchin phagocytes is augmented in vitro by lipopolysaccharide.

    Audrey J Majeske

    Full Text Available Development of protocols and media for culturing immune cells from marine invertebrates has not kept pace with advancements in mammalian immune cell culture, the latter having been driven by the need to understand the causes of and develop therapies for human and animal diseases. However, expansion of the aquaculture industry and the diseases that threaten these systems creates the need to develop cell and tissue culture methods for marine invertebrates. Such methods will enable us to better understand the causes of disease outbreaks and to develop means to avoid and remedy epidemics. We report a method for the short-term culture of phagocytes from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, by modifying an approach previously used to culture cells from another sea urchin species. The viability of cultured phagocytes from the purple sea urchin decreases from 91.6% to 57% over six days and phagocyte morphology changes from single cells to aggregates leading to the formation of syncytia-like structures. This process is accelerated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide suggesting that phagocytes are capable of detecting this molecular pattern in culture conditions. Sea urchin immune response proteins, called Sp185/333, are expressed on the surface of a subset of phagocytes and have been associated with syncytia-like structures. We evaluated their expression in cultured phagocytes to determine their possible role in cell aggregation and in the formation of syncytia-like structures. Between 0 and 3 hr, syncytia-like structures were observed in cultures when only ~10% of the cells were positive for Sp185/333 proteins. At 24 hr, ~90% of the nuclei were Sp185/333-positive when all of the phagocytes had aggregated into syncytia-like structures. Consequently, we conclude that the Sp185/333 proteins do not have a major role in initiating the aggregation of cultured phagocytes, however the Sp185/333 proteins are associated with the clustered

  17. Innate Immune Complexity in the Purple Sea Urchin: Diversity of the Sp185/333 System

    Smith, L. Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks o...

  18. Aryl sulfate formation in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) ingesting marine algae (Fucus distichus) containing 2,6-dimethylnapthalene

    The metabolism of tritiated 2,6-dimethylnapthalene (2,6-DMN) was studied in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) feeding on marine algae (Fucus distichus). The Fucus accumulated this hydrocarbon from sea water without converting it to metabolites. Most of the tritium accumulated by the sea urchins (e.g., 70.8% after 3 days) from feeding on 2,6-DMN-exposed Fucus was present in the exoskeleton (shell and spines). Moreover, after 3 days feeding, about 90% of the tritium in the total metabolite fraction of the gonads and digestive tract of the sea urchin was present as sulfate derivatives. These metabolites were identified through hydrolysis with aryl sulfatase, followed by thin-layer chromatography of the products. After 14 days of feeding, the tritium associated with the sulfate derivatives decreased in the gonads and digestive tract to 61 and 65%, respectively, of the total metabolite fraction. Hydroxy compounds from sulfatase hydrolysis were chromatographed using multiple elutions with toluene. The hydroxy isomers were separated and the R/sub f/ values were compared to those of pure reference compounds. The data indicated that 80% of the 2,6-dimethylnaphtyl sulfate contained the sulfate on the 1 and/or 3 position of the aromatic ring. Moreover, 6-methyl-2-naphthalenemethanol was not detected, which implies that sea urchins, unlike fish, metabolize alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons primarily through aromatic ring oxidations

  19. Expression of tryptophan 5-hydroxylase gene during sea urchin neurogenesis and role of serotonergic nervous system in larval behavior.

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Katow, Hideki

    2003-11-10

    Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. cDNA cloning of TPH was carried out, and the occurrence of spatiotemporal transcription of TPH message was examined in larvae of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (HpTPH), with in situ hybridization by using the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) technique and Northern hybridization. Based on deduced amino acids sequence of HpTPH, phylogenetically sea urchin locates at the closest position to vertebrates among invertebrates, and HpTPH had common conserved sequences in a catalytic domain. Initiation of HpTPH transcription occurred at the late gastrula stage exclusively in serotonin cells of apical ganglion (SAG) that was composed of a cluster of HpTPH-positive cells and the negative cells in between. In situ hybridization showed that the mRNA expression pattern was similar to the immunohistochemical localization of serotonin cells reported before (Bisgrove and Burke [1986] Dev. Growth Differ. 28:557-569; Yaguchi et al. [2000] Dev. Growth Differ. 42:479-488). p-Chlorophenylalanine (CPA), an irreversible inhibitor of TPH activity, considerably decreased serotonin content in the serotonin cells, whereas the HpTPH expression pattern and timing, and the extension of neurofibers from SAG cells were apparently unaffected, suggesting CPA exclusively perturbed synthesis of serotonin but not nervous system organization. CPA-treated larvae did not swim, despite the occurrence of ciliary beating in culture chamber, suggesting that proper serotonin synthesis is necessary for normal swimming of the larvae. PMID:14528449

  20. Mechanism of Calcite Co-Orientation in the Sea Urchin Tooth

    Killian, Christopher; Metzler, Rebecca; Gong, Y. U. T.; Olson, Ian; Aizenberg, Joanna; Politi, Yael; Wilt, Fred; Scholl, Andreas; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea urchin teeth are remarkable and complex calcite structures, continuously growing at the forming end and self-sharpening at the mature grinding tip. The calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) crystals of tooth components, plates, fibers, and a high-Mg polycrystalline matrix, have highly co-oriented crystallographic axes. This ability to co-orient calcite in a mineralized structure is shared by all echinoderms. However, the physico-chemical mechanism by which calcite crystals become co-oriented in echinoderms remains enigmatic. Here, we show differences in calcite c-axis orientations in the tooth of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and microbeam X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD). All plates share one crystal orientation, propagated through pillar bridges, while fibers and polycrystalline matrix share another orientation. Furthermore, in the forming end of the tooth, we observe that CaCO{sub 3} is present as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). We demonstrate that co-orientation of the nanoparticles in the polycrystalline matrix occurs via solid-state secondary nucleation, propagating out from the previously formed fibers and plates, into the amorphous precursor nanoparticles. Because amorphous precursors were observed in diverse biominerals, solid-state secondary nucleation is likely to be a general mechanism for the co-orientation of biomineral components in organisms from different phyla.

  1. A Protocol for Bioinspired Design: A Ground Sampler Based on Sea Urchin Jaws.

    Frank, Michael B; Naleway, Steven E; Wirth, Taylor S; Jung, Jae-Young; Cheung, Charlene L; Loera, Faviola B; Medina, Sandra; Sato, Kirk N; Taylor, Jennifer R A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired design is an emerging field that takes inspiration from nature to develop high-performance materials and devices. The sea urchin mouthpiece, known as the Aristotle's lantern, is a compelling source of bioinspiration with an intricate network of musculature and calcareous teeth that can scrape, cut, chew food and bore holes into rocky substrates. We describe the bioinspiration process as including animal observation, specimen characterization, device fabrication and mechanism bioexploration. The last step of bioexploration allows for a deeper understanding of the initial biology. The design architecture of the Aristotle's lantern is analyzed with micro-computed tomography and individual teeth are examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify the microstructure. Bioinspired designs are fabricated with a 3D printer, assembled and tested to determine the most efficient lantern opening and closing mechanism. Teeth from the bioinspired lantern design are bioexplored via finite element analysis to explain from a mechanical perspective why keeled tooth structures evolved in the modern sea urchins we observed. This circular approach allows for new conclusions to be drawn from biology and nature. PMID:27166636

  2. Sea urchin-like cobalt-iron phosphide as an active catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction

    Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana; Su, Dong; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-02-01

    Sea urchin-like (CoxFe1-x)2P shows Co/Fe-composition dependent catalysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 0.1 M KOH. The (Co0.54Fe0.46)2P is the most efficient OER catalyst, reaching 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 0.37 V (vs. RHE). The report offers a new synergistic approach to tune and optimize the electrocatalysis of OER.Sea urchin-like (CoxFe1-x)2P shows Co/Fe-composition dependent catalysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 0.1 M KOH. The (Co0.54Fe0.46)2P is the most efficient OER catalyst, reaching 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 0.37 V (vs. RHE). The report offers a new synergistic approach to tune and optimize the electrocatalysis of OER. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08763e

  3. Functional analysis of the sea urchin-derived arylsulfatase (Ars)-element in mammalian cells.

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Watanabe, Sachiko; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Sato, Masahiro; Akasaka, Koji

    2006-09-01

    An insulator is a DNA sequence that has both enhancer-blocking activity, through its ability to modify the influence of neighboring cis-acting elements, and a barrier function that protects a transgene from being silenced by surrounding chromatin. Previously, we isolated and characterized a 582-bp-long element from the sea urchin arylsulfatase gene (Ars). This Ars-element was effective in sea urchin and Drosophila embryos and in plant cells. To investigate Ars-element activity in mammalian cells, we placed the element between the cytomegalovirus enhancer and a luciferase (luc) expression cassette. In contrast to controls lacking the Ars-element, NIH3T3 and 293T cells transfected with the element-containing construct displayed reduced luciferase activities. The Ars-element therefore acts as an enhancer-blocking element in mammalian cells. We assessed the barrier activity of the Ars-element using vectors in which a luc expression cassette was placed between two elements. Transfection experiments demonstrated that luc activity in these vectors was approximately ten-fold higher than in vectors lacking elements. Luc activities were well maintained even after 12 weeks in culture. Our observations demonstrate that the Ars-element has also a barrier activity. These results indicated that the Ars-element act as an insulator in mammalian cells. PMID:16923122

  4. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin.

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    The process of germ line determination involves many conserved genes, yet is highly variable. Echinoderms are positioned at the base of Deuterostomia and are crucial to understanding these evolutionary transitions, yet the mechanism of germ line specification is not known in any member of the phyla. Here we demonstrate that small micromeres (SMics), which are formed at the fifth cell division of the sea urchin embryo, illustrate many typical features of primordial germ cell (PGC) specification. SMics autonomously express germ line genes in isolated culture, including selective Vasa protein accumulation and transcriptional activation of nanos; their descendants are passively displaced towards the animal pole by secondary mesenchyme cells and the elongating archenteron during gastrulation; Cadherin (G form) has an important role in their development and clustering phenotype; and a left/right integration into the future adult anlagen appears to be controlled by a late developmental mechanism. These results suggest that sea urchin SMics share many more characteristics typical of PGCs than previously thought, and imply a more widely conserved system of germ line development among metazoans. PMID:22991443

  5. Recombinant sea urchin vascular endothelial growth factor directs single-crystal growth and branching in vitro.

    Knapp, Regina T; Wu, Ching-Hsuan; Mobilia, Kellen C; Joester, Derk

    2012-10-31

    Biomineralization in sea urchin embryos is a crystal growth process that results in oriented single-crystalline spicules with a complex branching shape and smoothly curving surfaces. Uniquely, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) that construct the endoskeleton can be cultured in vitro. However, in the absence of morphogenetic cues secreted by other cells in the embryo, spicules deposited in PMC culture lack the complex branching behavior observed in the embryo. Herein we demonstrate that recombinant sea urchin vascular endothelial growth factor (rVEGF), a signaling molecule that interacts with a cell-surface receptor, induces spiculogenesis and controls the spicule shape in PMC culture. Depending on the rVEGF concentration, PMCs deposit linear, "h"- and "H"-shaped, or triradiate spicules. Remarkably, the change from linear to triradiate occurs with a switch from bidirectional crystal growth parallel to the calcite c axis to growth along the three a axes. This finding has implications for our understanding of how cells integrate morphogenesis on the multi-micrometer scale with control over lattice orientation on the atomic scale. The PMC model system is uniquely suited to investigate this mechanism and develop biotechnological approaches to single-crystal growth. PMID:23066927

  6. Expression of recombinant sea urchin cellulase SnEG54 using mammalian cell lines.

    Okumura, Fumihiko; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Takao; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2010-05-01

    We previously identified the cellulase SnEG54 from Japanese purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus, the molecular mass of which is about 54kDa on SDS-PAGE. It is difficult to express and purify a recombinant cellulase protein using bacteria such as Escherichia coli or yeast. In this study, we generated mammalian expression vectors encoding SnEG54 to transiently express SnEG54 in mammalian cells. Both SnEG54 expressed in mammalian cells and SnEG54 released into the culture supernatant showed hydrolytic activity toward carboxymethyl cellulose. By using a retroviral expression system, we also established a mammalian cell line that constitutively produces SnEG54. Unexpectedly, SnEG54 released into the culture medium was not stable, and the peak time showing the highest concentration was approximately 1-2days after seeding into fresh culture media. These findings suggest that non-mammalian sea urchin cellulase can be generated in human cell lines but that recombinant SnEG54 is unstable in culture medium due to an unidentified mechanism. PMID:20381456

  7. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin Hox Cluster

    Cameron, R A; Rowen, L; Nesbitt, R; Bloom, S; Rast, J P; Berney, K; Arenas-Mena, C; Martinez, P; Lucas, S; Richardson, P M; Davidson, E H; Peterson, K J; Hood, L

    2005-10-11

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3 gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5-Hox1, 2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  8. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin HoxCluster

    Richardson, Paul M.; Lucas, Susan; Cameron, R. Andrew; Rowen,Lee; Nesbitt, Ryan; Bloom, Scott; Rast, Jonathan P.; Berney, Kevin; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Martinez, Pedro; Davidson, Eric H.; Peterson, KevinJ.; Hood, Leroy

    2005-05-10

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3' gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5'-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, '11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3)'. The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  9. Cloning of the sea urchin mitochondrial RNA polymerase and reconstitution of the transcription termination system

    Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Deceglie, Stefania; Falkenberg, Maria; Roberti, Marina; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2007-01-01

    Termination of transcription is a key process in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression in animal cells. To investigate transcription termination in sea urchin mitochondria, we cloned the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) of Paracentrotus lividus and used a recombinant form of the enzyme in a reconstituted transcription system, in the presence of the DNA-binding protein mtDBP. Cloning of mtRNAP was performed by a combination of PCR with degenerate primers and library screening. The enzyme contains 10 phage-like conserved motifs, two pentatricopeptide motifs and a serine-rich stretch. The protein expressed in insect cells supports transcription elongation in a promoter-independent assay. Addition of recombinant mtDBP caused arrest of the transcribing mtRNAP when the enzyme approached the mtDBP-binding site in the direction of transcription of mtDNA l-strand. When the polymerase encountered the protein-binding site in the opposite direction, termination occurred in a protein-independent manner, inside the mtDBP-binding site. Pulse-chase experiments show that mtDBP caused true transcription termination rather than pausing. These data indicate that mtDBP acts as polar termination factor and suggest that transcription termination in sea urchin mitochondria could take place by two alternative modes based on protein-mediated or sequence-dependent mechanisms. PMID:17392338

  10. The potential for cryopreserving larvae of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

    Adams, Serean L; Hessian, Paul A; Mladenov, Philip V

    2006-02-01

    Larvae of the sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus, at varying stages of development, were assessed for their potential to survive cryopreservation. Ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO), at concentrations of 1-2 M, were evaluated as cryoprotectants (CPAs) in freezing regimes initially based on methods established for freezing larvae of other sea urchin species. Subsequent work varied cooling rate, holding temperature, holding time, and plunge temperature. Ethylene glycol was less toxic to larvae than Me2SO. However, no larvae survived freezing and thawing in EG. Larvae frozen in Me2SO at the gastrula stage and 4-armed pluteus stage regained motility post-thawing. The most successful freezing regime cooled straws containing larvae in 1.5 M Me2SO from 0 to -35 degrees C at 2.5 degrees C min(-1), held at -35 degrees C for 5 min, then plunged straws into liquid nitrogen. Motility was high 2-4 h post-thawing using this regime but decreased markedly within 24 h. Some 4-armed pluteus larvae that survived beyond this time developed through to metamorphosis and settled. Different Me2SO concentrations and supplementary trehalose did not improve long-term survival. Large variation in post-thaw survival was observed among batches of larvae produced from different females. PMID:16321369

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A+T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins. PMID:24409862

  12. Use of specific glycosidases to probe cellular interactions in the sea urchin embryo.

    Idoni, Brian; Ghazarian, Haike; Metzenberg, Stan; Hutchins-Carroll, Virginia; Oppenheimer, Steven B; Carroll, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    We present an unusual and novel model for initial investigations of a putative role for specifically conformed glycans in cellular interactions. We have used alpha- and ss-amylase and alpha- and ss-glucosidase in dose-response experiments evaluating their effects on archenteron organization using the NIH designated sea urchin embryo model. In quantitative dose-response experiments, we show that defined activity levels of alpha-glucosidase and ss-amylase inhibited archenteron organization in living Lytechinus pictus gastrula embryos, whereas all concentrations of ss-glucosidase and alpha-amylase were without substantial effects on development. Product inhibition studies suggested that the enzymes were acting by their specific glycosidase activities and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that there was no detectable protease contamination in the active enzyme samples. The results provide evidence for a role of glycans in sea urchin embryo cellular interactions with special reference to the possible structural conformation of these glycans based on the differential activities of the alpha- and ss-glycosidases. PMID:20435035

  13. Molecular Response to Toxic Diatom-Derived Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Stefano Varrella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world’s oceans and represent a major food source for zooplankton and benthic filter-feeders. However, their beneficial role in sustaining marine food webs has been challenged after the discovery that they produce secondary metabolites, such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs, which negatively affect the reproductive success of many invertebrates. Here, we report the effects of two common diatom PUAs, heptadienal and octadienal, which have never been tested before at the molecular level, using the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, as a model organism. We show that both PUAs are able to induce teratogenesis (i.e., malformations, as already reported for decadienal, the better-studied PUA of this group. Moreover, post-recovery experiments show that embryos can recover after treatment with all three PUAs, indicating that negative effects depend both on PUA concentrations and the exposure time of the embryos to these metabolites. We also identify the time range during which PUAs exert the greatest effect on sea urchin embryogenesis. Finally, we report the expression levels of thirty one genes (having a key role in a broad range of functional responses, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxification processes in order to identify the common targets affected by PUAs and their correlation with morphological abnormalities. This study opens new perspectives for understanding how marine organisms afford protection from environmental toxicants through an integrated network of genes.

  14. Developmental effects of two different copper oxide nanomaterials in sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) embryos.

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Keller, Arturo A; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-08-01

    Copper oxide nanomaterials (nano-CuOs) are widely used and can be inadvertently introduced into estuarine and marine environments. We analyzed the effects of different nano-CuOs (a synthesized and a less-pure commercial form), as well as ionic copper (CuSO4) on embryo development in the white sea urchin, a well-known marine model. After 96 h of development with both nano-CuO exposures, we did not detect significant oxidative damage to proteins but did detect decreases in total antioxidant capacity. We show that the physicochemical characteristics of the two nano-CuOs play an essential role in their toxicities. Both nano-CuOs were internalized by embryos and their differential dissolution was the most important toxicological parameter. The synthesized nano-CuO showed greater toxicity (EC50 = 450 ppb of copper) and had increased dissolution (2.5% by weight over 96 h) as compared with the less-pure commercial nano-CuO (EC50 = 5395 ppb of copper, 0.73% dissolution by weight over 96 h). Copper caused specific developmental abnormalities in sea urchin embryos including disruption of the aboral-oral axis as a result in changes to the redox environment caused by dissolution of internalized nano-CuO. Abnormal skeleton formation also occurred. PMID:26643145

  15. Embryotoxicity of Copper and Zinc in Tropical Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    Brisneve Edullantes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the individual toxicity of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. Bioassay using inhibitions on fertilization, early cleavage, mid cleavage, late cleavage and blastulation as endpoints involved exposure of viable gametes to Cu and Zn for 0.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h, respectively. Inhibitions increased significantly with concentration of Cu and Zn. Probit analysis estimated EC50 values for Cu and Zn, respectively, at 32 and 67 μg·L-1 on fertilization; 31 and 93 μg·L-1 on early cleavage; 43 and 61 μg·L-1 on mid cleavage; 42 and 42 μg·L-1 on late cleavage; and 20 and 44 μg·L-1 on blastulation. Results showed that toxicity of Cu is significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of Zn in all developmental stages, except in late cleavage. Also, the inhibitions elicited by Cu showed sensitivity to life stages. This study provided evidence on heavy metal species-sensitive, concentration-dependent and stage-specif ic inhibitions on embryonic development in T. gratilla to Cu and Zn. Keywords: Embryotoxicity, sea urchin development, individual toxicity, heavy metals

  16. Cadmium induces the expression of specific stress proteins in sea urchin embryos

    Marine organisms are highly sensitive to many environmental stresses, and consequently, the analysis of their bio-molecular responses to different stress agents is very important for the understanding of putative repair mechanisms. Sea urchin embryos represent a simple though significant model system to test how specific stress can simultaneously affect development and protein expression. Here, we used Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos to study the effects of time-dependent continuous exposure to subacute/sublethal cadmium concentrations. We found that, between 15 and 24 h of exposure, the synthesis of a specific set of stress proteins (90, 72-70, 56, 28, and 25 kDa) was induced, with an increase in the rate of synthesis of 72-70 kDa (hsps), 56 kDa (hsp), and 25 kDa, which was dependent on the lengths of treatment. Recovery experiments in which cadmium was removed showed that while stress proteins continued to be synthesized, embryo development was resumed only after short lengths of exposure

  17. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    De Nicola, Elena [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Meric, Suereyya [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gallo, Marialuisa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Iaccarino, Mario [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Della Rocca, Claudio [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Lofrano, Giusy [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, Teresa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Pagano, Giovanni [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it

    2007-03-15

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels {>=}1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects.

  18. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels ≥1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects

  19. In the beginning...animal fertilization and sea urchin development.

    Briggs, Elissa; Wessel, Gary M

    2006-12-01

    What I most wished to discover [in my study] was the role that spermatozoids play in fertilization. In order to determine this, I put a droplet of red liquid, and at a small distance, a similar droplet of white liquid in a little trough on the viewing slide of the microscope; then, after covering all of this with a thin strip of glass, I added a drop of sea water. I was then able to watch the spermatozoids advance progressively towards the eggs. Some of [the eggs] were soon encircled by a compact mass of moving corpuscles; others, farther away, only found themselves in contact with a very small number [of sperm]; in both cases, I saw the signs of fertilization. The first apparent effect of this union is the almost immediate appearance of a perfectly transparent envelope that encircles the yolk at a certain distance, which is manifested by the appearance of a circular line. I saw this envelope manifest when in contact with a very small number of spermatozoids (three or four, sometimes even one only). PMID:17070796

  20. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro.

    Takei, Masao; Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2006-05-15

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 microg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naïve T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-gamma and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3beta. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3beta. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16197973

  1. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 μg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-γ and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3β. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3β. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

  2. Cloning and characterisation of mtDBP, a DNA-binding protein which binds two distinct regions of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA.

    Loguercio Polosa, P; Roberti, M; Musicco, C; Gadaleta, M N; Quagliariello, E.; Cantatore, P

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA for the sea urchin mitochondrial D-loop-binding protein (mtDBP), a 40 kDa protein which binds two homologous regions of mitochondrial DNA (the D-loop region and the boundary between the oppositely transcribed ND5 and ND6 genes), has been cloned. Four different 3'-untranslated regions have been detected that are related to each other in pairs and do not contain the canonical polyadenylation signal. The in vitro synthesised mature protein (348 amino acids), deprived of the putative sig...

  3. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. PMID:26595392

  4. Physiological compensation for environmental acidification is limited in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    J. R. Taylor; C. Lovera; P. J. Whaling; Buck, K.R.; E. F. Pane; Barry, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals – particularly, calcifiers – are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, during two long-term exposure experiments (1 month and 4 month) at three levels of reduced pH at in ...

  5. Social-Ecological Scale Mismatches and the Collapse of the Sea Urchin Fishery in Maine, USA

    Robert L. Vadas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale mismatches result in incomplete or ambiguous feedback that impairs the ability to learn and adapt and, ultimately, to sustain natural resources. Our aim is to examine the sea urchin fishery in Maine, USA to better understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that are important for the design of institutions that might be able to sustain the resource. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the Maine sea urchin fishery was a classic gold rush fishery. In the beginning, the fishery was characterized by an abundant resource with little to no harvesting activity, followed by a period of rapid increase in landings and effort that led to a subsequent and persistent decline in the sea urchin population and a significant reduction in effort. We conducted semistructured interviews with scientists and experienced fishermen to understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that influence fishermen's harvesting strategies, and the implications of this for the design of institutions for successful resource management. The current co-management system includes an advisory body made up of industry members and scientists it also includes limited entry, and additional input control mechanisms. Many of these measures are implemented at a very broad scale; however, we find that the ecological conditions relevant to the sustainable processes occur at the scale of individual fishing sites or ledges, which is a much finer scale than current management. Therefore, the co-management system maintains an open access system and leaves few incentives for the development of sustainable harvesting strategies among fishermen. The clear suggestion is that the appropriate management system would be one that directly addresses the fine scale ecological and social dynamics within this fishery and gives fishermen property rights over individual ledges (for example, leases. After having briefly reviewed experiences in Canada and Chile, we found that

  6. A Facile Method for Synthesizing TiO2 Sea-Urchin-Like Structures and Their Applications in Solar Energy Harvesting

    WANG Wen-Hui; WANG Wen-Zhong; XU Hong-Xing

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method to prepare TiO2 sea-urchin-like structures,which involves the initial formation of tubular nanostructures and subsequent self-assembly of the nanotubes into micrometer-scale sea-urchin-like structures.We also investigate the important role of alkali aqueous conditions in the preparation of TiO2 sea-urchin-like structures. This facile and cost-effective approach provides a new route for the preparation of self-assembled TiO2 structures.In addition,the performance of the as-synthesized TiO2 sea-urchin-like structures as the active layer of an efficient solar energy harvester is also studied and discussed.

  7. Use of a free ocean CO₂ enrichment (FOCE) system to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on the foraging behavior of a deep-sea urchin.

    Barry, James P; Lovera, Chris; Buck, Kurt R; Peltzer, Edward T; Taylor, Josi R; Walz, Peter; Whaling, Patrick J; Brewer, Peter G

    2014-08-19

    The influence of ocean acidification in deep-sea ecosystems is poorly understood but is expected to be large because of the presumed low tolerance of deep-sea taxa to environmental change. We used a newly developed deep-sea free ocean CO2 enrichment (dp-FOCE) system to evaluate the potential consequences of future ocean acidification on the feeding behavior of a deep-sea echinoid, the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis. The dp-FOCE system simulated future ocean acidification inside an experimental enclosure where observations of feeding behavior were performed. We measured the average movement (speed) of urchins as well as the time required (foraging time) for S. fragilis to approach its preferred food (giant kelp) in the dp-FOCE chamber (-0.46 pH units) and a control chamber (ambient pH). Measurements were performed during each of 4 trials (days -2, 2, 24, 27 after CO2 injection) during the month-long period when groups of urchins were continuously exposed to low pH or control conditions. Although urchin speed did not vary significantly in relation to pH or time exposed, foraging time was significantly longer for urchins in the low-pH treatment. This first deep-sea FOCE experiment demonstrated the utility of the FOCE system approach and suggests that the chemosensory behavior of a deep-sea urchin may be impaired by ocean acidification. PMID:25051305

  8. Hydrodynamism and its influence on the reproductive condition of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Gianguzza, Paola; Bonaviri, Chiara; Prato, Ermelinda; Fanelli, Giovanni; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Privitera, Davide; Luzzu, Filippo; Agnetta, Davide

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large body of work published in the last two decades on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the reproductive aspects linked to hydrodynamic conditions and their influence on gonad production remain poorly understood. The present paper aims to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamism on the reproductive cycle of P. lividus. Variability in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) of P. lividus was estimated seasonally from 2007 to 2008 at two shallow sub-littoral flat basaltic areas at Ustica Island (Western Mediterranean). GSI was higher in the sites characterized by low hydrodynamism than in those with high hydrodynamism. Results also suggest a possible role for hydrodynamism in triggering processes of resource limitation (food shortage), probably by interfering with P. lividus feeding activity. PMID:23333347

  9. [Embryonic development of the sea urchin after low-temperature preservation].

    Gakhova, E N; Krasts, I V; Naĭdenko, T Kh; Savel'eva, N A; Bessonov, B I

    1988-01-01

    The sea urchin embryos were cooled to -196 degrees by two-step freezing with the use of 1-1.5 M dimethyl sulfoxide as a cryoprotectant. The embryos were equilibrated with the cryoprotectant for 20-30 min at 0 +/- 2 degrees. At -7 degrees ice crystallization was induced and the embryos were cooled to -38-42 degrees at a rate of 6-8 degrees /min. The embryos were then transferred into liquid nitrogen. The embryos were thawed in a water bath at 19 degrees. No less than 90% of the embryos frozen at the stages of blastula, gastrula, or pluteus were capable of recovery and normal development. The length of cryopreservation did not affect the survival of the embryos. PMID:3387042

  10. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  11. Innate immune complexity in the purple sea urchin: diversity of the Sp185/333 system

    L. Courtney Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. Several large gene families that function in immunity in this species includes the Sp185/333 gene family with ~50 (±10 members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus SNPs within the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. An Sp185/333-positive BAC insert has a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes. RNA editing is detectible throughout the messages and putative post-translational modifications to the proteins result in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full-length and truncated proteins, including some with missense sequence. Current results suggest that both native and a recombinant Sp185/333 protein bind bacteria and are likely important in sea urchin

  12. Design strategies of sea urchin teeth: structure, composition and micromechanical relations to function.

    Wang, R Z; Addadi, L; Weiner, S

    1997-01-01

    The teeth of sea urchins comprise a variety of different structural entities, all of which are composed of magnesium-bearing calcite together with a small amount of organic material. The teeth are worn down continuously, but in such a way that they remain sharp and functional. Here we describe aspects of the structural, compositional and micromechanical properties of the teeth of Paracentrotus lividus using scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectrometry, atomic absorption. X-ray diffraction and microindentation. The S-shaped single crystalline calcitic fibres are one of the main structural elements of the tooth. They extend from the stone part to the keel. The diameter of the fibres increases gradually from less than 1 micron at the stone tip to about 20 microns at the keel end, while their MgCO3 contents decrease from about 13 mol% to about 4.5 mol%. Each fibre is coated by a thin organic sheath and surrounded by polycrystalline calcitic discs containing as much as 35 mol% MgCO3. This structure constitutes a unique kind of gradient fibre-reinforced ceramic matrix composite, whose microhardness and toughness decrease gradually from the stone part to the keel. Primary plates are also important structural elements of the tooth. Each primary plate has a very unusual sandwich-like structure with a calcitic envelope surrounding a thin apparently amorphous CaCO3 layer. This central layer, together with the primary plate/disc interface, improves the toughness of this zone by stopping and blunting cracks. The self-sharpening function of the teeth is believed to result from the combination of the geometrical shape of the main structural elements and their spatial arrangement, the interfacial strength between structural elements, and the hardness gradient extending from the working stone part to the surrounding zones. The sea urchin tooth structure possesses an array of interesting functional design features, some of which may possibly be applicable to materials science

  13. Regulation of membrane fusion and secretory events in the sea urchin embryo

    Membrane fusion and secretory events play a key role in fertilization and early development in the sea urchin embryo. To investigate the mechanism of membrane fusion, the effect of inhibitors of metalloendoprotease activity was studied on two model systems of cell fusion; fertilization and spiculogenesis by primary mesenchyme cells in the embryo. Both the zinc chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, and peptide metalloprotease substrates were found to inhibit both fertilization and gamete fusion, while peptides that are not substrates of metalloproteases did not affect either process. Primary mesenchyme cells form the larval skeleton in the embryo by deposition of mineral and an organic matrix into a syncytial cavity formed by fusion of filopodia of these cells. Metalloprotease inhibitors were found to inhibit spiculogenesis both in vivo and in cultures of isolated primary mesenchyme cells, and the activity of a metalloprotease of the appropriate specificity was found in the primary mesenchyme cells. These two studies implicate the activity of a metalloprotease in a necessary step in membrane fusion. Following fertilization, exocytosis of the cortical granules results in the formation of the fertilization envelope and the hyaline layer, that surround the developing embryo. The hatching enzyme is secreted by the blastula stage sea urchin embryo, which proteolyzes the fertilization envelope surrounding the embryo, allowing the embryo to hatch. Using an assay that measures 125I-fertilization envelope degradation, the hatching enzyme was identified as a 33 kDa metalloprotease, and was purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from the hatching media of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos. The hatching enzyme showed a substrate preference for only a minor subset of fertilization envelope proteins

  14. Membrane permeability characteristics and osmotic tolerance limits of sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) eggs.

    Adams, Serean L; Kleinhans, F W; Mladenov, Philip V; Hessian, Paul A

    2003-08-01

    Development of effective cryopreservation protocols relies on knowledge of the fundamental cryobiological characteristics for a particular cell type. These characteristics include osmotic behaviour, membrane permeability characteristics, and osmotic tolerance limits. Here, we report on measures of these characteristics for unfertilized and fertilised eggs of the sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus). In NaCl solutions of varying osmolalities, sea urchin eggs behaved as ideal linear osmometers. The osmotically inactive volume (vb) was similar for unfertilized and fertilised eggs, 0.367+/-0.008 (mean+/-SE) and 0.303+/-0.007, respectively. Estimates of water solubility (Lp) and solute permeability (Ps) and their respective activation energies (Ea) for unfertilized and fertilised eggs were determined following exposure to cryoprotectant (CPA) solutions at different temperatures. Irrespective of treatment, fertilised eggs had higher values of Lp and Ps. The presence of a CPA decreased Lp. Among CPAs, solute permeability was highest for propylene glycol followed by dimethyl sulphoxide and then ethylene glycol. Measures of osmotic tolerance limits of the eggs revealed unfertilized eggs were able to tolerate volumetric changes of -20% and +30% of their equilibrium volume; fertilised eggs were able to tolerate changes +/-30%. Using membrane permeability data and osmotic tolerance limits, we established effective methods for loading and unloading CPAs from the eggs. The results of this study establish cryobiological characteristics for E. chloroticus eggs of use for developing an effective cryopreservation protocol. The approach we outline can be readily adapted for determining cryobiological characteristics of other species and cell types, as an aid to successful cryopreservation. PMID:12963407

  15. Neurogenesis in sea urchin embryos and the diversity of deuterostome neurogenic mechanisms.

    Garner, Sarah; Zysk, Ivona; Byrne, Glynis; Kramer, Marabeth; Moller, Daniel; Taylor, Valerie; Burke, Robert D

    2016-01-15

    A single origin to the diverse mechanisms of metazoan neurogenesis is suggested by the involvement of common signaling components and similar classes of transcription factors. However, in many forms we lack details of where neurons arise, patterns of cell division, and specific differentiation pathway components. The sea urchin larval nervous system is composed of an apical organ, which develops from neuroepithelium and functions as a central nervous system, and peripheral neurons, which differentiate in the ciliary band and project axons to the apical organ. To reveal developmental mechanisms of neurogenesis in this basal deuterostome, we developed antibodies to SoxC, SoxB2, ELAV and Brn1/2/4 and used neurons that develop at specific locations to establish a timeline for neurogenesis. Neural progenitors express, in turn, SoxB2, SoxC, and Brn1/2/4, before projecting neurites and expressing ELAV and SynB. Using pulse-chase labeling of cells with a thymidine analog to identify cells in S-phase, we establish that neurons identified by location are in their last mitotic cycle at the time of hatching, and S-phase is coincident with expression of SoxC. The number of cells expressing SoxC and differentiating as neurons is reduced in embryos injected with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to SoxC, SoxB2 or Six3. Injection of RNA encoding SoxC into eggs does not enhance neurogenesis. In addition, inhibition of FGF receptors (SU5402) or a morpholino to FGFR1 reduces expression of SoxC. These data indicate that there are common features of neurogenesis in deuterostomes, and that sea urchins employ developmental mechanisms that are distinct from other ambulacraria. PMID:26511925

  16. Characterization of the bacterial communities associated with the bald sea urchin disease of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus.

    Becker, Pierre T; Egea, Emilie; Eeckhaut, Igor

    2008-06-01

    The microbial communities involved in the bald sea urchin disease of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus are investigated using culture-independent techniques. Lesions of diseased specimens from two locations in France, La Ciotat (Mediterranean Sea) and Morgat (Atlantic Ocean), are examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the diversity of their microbiota is analysed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clones libraries construction. Microscopic observations demonstrated that only the central area of the lesions is invaded by bacteria but not the peripheral zone and the surrounding healthy tissues. Molecular analysis identified at least 24 bacterial genomospecies in bald sea urchin lesions: 5 are Alphaproteobacteria, 10 are Gammaproteobacteria, 8 are CFB bacteria and 1 is a Fusobacteria. Out of them, 4 are observed in both locations while 10 occur only in the Atlantic Ocean and 10 only in the Mediterranean Sea. Gammaproteobacteria are the most represented in clones libraries from both locations, with respectively 65% and 43% of the total clones. CFB and Alphaproteobacteria accounted for the majority of the remaining clones and were detected by DGGE in virtually all samples from both stations. Our results demonstrate that bacterial communities observed on diseased individuals of the same echinoid species but originating from distinct locations are not similar and thus support the hypothesis that bacteria involved in the worldwide echinoid disease commonly called the bald sea urchin disease are opportunistic and not specific. PMID:18191940

  17. Identification of a New Sea Urchin Ets Protein, SpEts4, by Yeast One-Hybrid Screening with the Hatching Enzyme Promoter

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Robert C.; Angerer, Lynne M.

    1999-01-01

    We report the use of a yeast one-hybrid system to isolate a transcriptional regulator of the sea urchin embryo hatching enzyme gene, SpHE. This gene is asymmetrically expressed along the animal-vegetal axis of sea urchin embryos under the cell-autonomous control of maternal regulatory activities and therefore provides an excellent entry point for understanding the mechanism that establishes animal-vegetal developmental polarity. To search for transcriptional regulators, we used a fragment of ...

  18. Comparison of the disposition of several nitrogen-containing compounds in the sea urchin and other marine invertebrates

    Landrum, P.F.; Crosby, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    1. The disposition of an aromatic amine and three aromatic nitro compounds was investigated in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. 2. The sea urchin rapidly eliminated injected compounds. The elimination rate constants decreased in the order p-toluidine greater than p-nitroanisole . p-nitrophenol greater than p-nitrotoluene. The fraction of total injected compound eliminated in 8 h was lowest for p-nitrophenol less than p-toluidine less than p-nitrotoluene less than p-nitroanisole. 3. Biotransformation for the sea urchin was primarily reduction of the nitro group followed by acetylation of the amine. 4. Other animals, starfish (Pisaster ochraceus), sea cucumber (Cucumaria miniata), gum boot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) and mussels (Mytilus californianus), injected with p-nitroanisole exhibited a trend toward oxidative biotransformation. 5. Elimination of parent compound was the major pathway for reducing body burden of xenobiotics for the invertebrates studied. 6. p-Toluidine oxidizes during analysis and was thus not suitable for studying biotransformation.

  19. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  20. Developmental gene regulatory networks in sea urchins and what we can learn from them [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Megan L. Martik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin embryos begin zygotic transcription shortly after the egg is fertilized.  Throughout the cleavage stages a series of transcription factors are activated and, along with signaling through a number of pathways, at least 15 different cell types are specified by the beginning of gastrulation.  Experimentally, perturbation of contributing transcription factors, signals and receptors and their molecular consequences enabled the assembly of an extensive gene regulatory network model.  That effort, pioneered and led by Eric Davidson and his laboratory, with many additional insights provided by other laboratories, provided the sea urchin community with a valuable resource.  Here we describe the approaches used to enable the assembly of an advanced gene regulatory network model describing molecular diversification during early development.  We then provide examples to show how a relatively advanced authenticated network can be used as a tool for discovery of how diverse developmental mechanisms are controlled and work.

  1. The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from a sea-cucumber, a starfish and a sea-urchin.

    Ohama, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from three echinoderms, a sea-cucumber Stichopus oshimae, a starfish Asterina pectinifera and a sea-urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus have been determined. These 5S rRNAs are all 120 nucleotides long. The echinoderm sequences are more related to the sequences of proterostomes animals such as mollusc, annelids and some others (87% identity on average) than to those of vertebrates (82% identity on average).

  2. Augmentative biocontrol in natural marine habitats: persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Javier Atalah

    Full Text Available Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m(-2. Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m(-2. Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests.

  3. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Oriana Migliaccio; Immacolata Castellano; Paola Cirino; Giovanna Romano; Anna Palumbo

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased p...

  4. New regulatory circuit controlling spatial and temporal gene expression in the sea urchin embryo oral ectoderm GRN

    Li, Enhu; Materna, Stefan C.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2013-01-01

    The sea urchin oral ectoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) model has increased in complexity as additional genes are added to it, revealing its multiple spatial regulatory state domains. The formation of the oral ectoderm begins with an oral-aboral redox gradient, which is interpreted by the cis-regulatory system of the nodal gene to cause its expression on the oral side of the embryo. Nodal signaling drives cohorts of regulatory genes within the oral ectoderm and its derived subdomains. Acti...

  5. Cis-regulatory control of the nodal gene, initiator of the sea urchin oral ectoderm gene network

    Nam, Jongmin; Su, Yi-Hsien; Lee, Pei Yun; Robertson, Anthony J; Coffman, James A.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the nodal gene initiates the gene regulatory network which establishes the transcriptional specification of the oral ectoderm in the sea urchin embryo. This gene encodes a TGFβ ligand, and in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus its transcription is activated in the presumptive oral ectoderm at about the 30-cell stage. Thereafter Nodal signaling occurs among all cells of the oral ectoderm territory, and nodal expression is required for expression of oral ectoderm regulatory genes. The ...

  6. "Spiral asters" and cytoplasmic rotation in sea urchin eggs: induction in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs by elevated temperature

    1985-01-01

    "Spiral asters" composed of swirls of subcortical microtubules were recently described in fertilized eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In our study, these structures did not occur at culture temperatures below 16 degrees C. When the culture temperature was elevated, however, "spiral asters" routinely appeared during a susceptible period before mitotic prophase when the sperm aster-diaster normally exists. A massive and protracted rotation of the cytoplasm (excluding an imm...

  7. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

    Hakim, Joseph A.; Koo, Hyunmin; Dennis, Lacey N.; Kumar, Ranjit; Ptacek, Travis; Morrow, Casey D.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Powell, Mickie L; Bej, Asim K.; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition of the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria a...

  8. Production, characterization and biocompatibility of marine collagen matrices from an alternative and sustainable source : the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Cristiano Di Benedetto; Alice Barbaglio; Tiziana Martinello; Valentina Alongi; Dario Fassini; Emanuele Cullorà; Marco Patruno; Francesco Bonasoro; Mario Adolfo Barbosa; Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali; Michela Sugni

    2014-01-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM)...

  9. Augmentative Biocontrol in Natural Marine Habitats: Persistence, Spread and Non-Target Effects of the Sea Urchin Evechinus chloroticus

    Javier Atalah; Hopkins, Grant A.; Forrest, Barrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiord...

  10. The Coordination of Centrosome Reproduction with Nuclear Events of the Cell Cycle in the Sea Urchin Zygote

    Hinchcliffe, Edward H.; Cassels, Grizzel O.; Rieder, Conly L.; Sluder, Greenfield

    1998-01-01

    Centrosomes repeatedly reproduce in sea urchin zygotes arrested in S phase, whether cyclin-dependent kinase 1–cyclin B (Cdk1-B) activity remains at prefertilization levels or rises to mitotic values. In contrast, when zygotes are arrested in mitosis using cyclin B Δ-90, anaphase occurs at the normal time, yet centrosomes do not reproduce. Together, these results reveal the cell cycle stage specificity for centrosome reproduction and demonstrate that neither the level nor the cycling of Cdk1-B...

  11. Protein synthesis and the cell cycle: centrosome reproduction in sea urchin eggs is not under translational control

    1990-01-01

    The reproduction, or duplication, of the centrosome is an important event in a cell's preparation for mitosis. We sought to determine if centrosome reproduction is regulated by the synthesis and accumulation of cyclin proteins and/or the synthesis of centrosome-specific proteins at each cell cycle. We continuously treat sea urchin eggs, starting before fertilization, with a combination of emetine and anisomycin, drugs that have separate targets in the protein synthetic pathway. These drugs in...

  12. Effect of Diets Supplemented with Different Sources of Astaxanthin on the Gonad of the Sea Urchin Anthocidaris crassispina

    Jiang-Hai Wang; Jian-Ping Yuan; Juan Peng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain t...

  13. GRAZING ACTIVITY OF THE SEA URCHIN TRIPNEUSTES GRATILLA IN TROPICAL SEAGRASS BEDS OF BUTON ISLAND, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Ma’ruf Kasim

    2009-01-01

    The research on grazing activity of a sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla) in tropical seagrass beds wasconducted in Buton Island. The objectives of the research were to study the grazing activity such as foodpreference, grazing rate and grazing times of T. gratilla in tropical seagrass community. The results of theresearch showed that Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides are primary food items of T. gratilla andcontained on average of 55 % and 31 % of the gut contents, respectively. The g...

  14. Cis-regulatory control of the nuclear receptor Coup-TF gene in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo.

    Lamprini G Kalampoki

    Full Text Available Coup-TF, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor super family, has a fundamental role in the development of metazoan embryos. The study of the gene's regulatory circuit in the sea urchin embryo will facilitate the placement of this transcription factor in the well-studied embryonic Gene Regulatory Network (GRN. The Paracentrotus lividus Coup-TF gene (PlCoup-TF is expressed throughout embryonic development preferentially in the oral ectoderm of the gastrula and the ciliary band of the pluteus stage. Two overlapping λ genomic clones, containing three exons and upstream sequences of PlCoup-TF, were isolated from a genomic library. The transcription initiation site was determined and 5' deletions and individual segments of a 1930 bp upstream region were placed ahead of a GFP reporter cassette and injected into fertilized P.lividus eggs. Module a (-532 to -232, was necessary and sufficient to confer ciliary band expression to the reporter. Comparison of P.lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus upstream Coup-TF sequences, revealed considerable conservation, but none within module a. 5' and internal deletions into module a, defined a smaller region that confers ciliary band specific expression. Putative regulatory cis-acting elements (RE1, RE2 and RE3 within module a, were specifically bound by proteins in sea urchin embryonic nuclear extracts. Site-specific mutagenesis of these elements resulted in loss of reporter activity (RE1 or ectopic expression (RE2, RE3. It is proposed that sea urchin transcription factors, which bind these three regulatory sites, are necessary for spatial and quantitative regulation of the PlCoup-TF gene at pluteus stage sea urchin embryos. These findings lead to the future identification of these factors and to the hierarchical positioning of PlCoup-TF within the embryonic GRN.

  15. Production, Characterization and Biocompatibility of Marine Collagen Matrices from an Alternative and Sustainable Source: The Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Cristiano Di Benedetto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM, mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30–400 nm and mesh < 2 μm and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s. In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices.

  16. Maintenance of somatic tissue regeneration with age in short- and long-lived species of sea urchins.

    Bodnar, Andrea G; Coffman, James A

    2016-08-01

    Aging in many animals is characterized by a failure to maintain tissue homeostasis and the loss of regenerative capacity. In this study, the ability to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerative potential was investigated in sea urchins, a novel model to study longevity and negligible senescence. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, regenerate damaged appendages and reproduce throughout their lifespan and yet different species are reported to have very different life expectancies (ranging from 4 to more than 100 years). Quantitative analyses of cell proliferation and apoptosis indicated a low level of cell turnover in tissues of young and old sea urchins of species with different lifespans (Lytechinus variegatus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Mesocentrotus franciscanus). The ability to regenerate damaged tissue was maintained with age as assessed by the regrowth of amputated spines and tube feet (motor and sensory appendages). Expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (pcna), telomere maintenance (tert) and multipotency (seawi and vasa) was maintained with age in somatic tissues. Immunolocalization of the Vasa protein to areas of the tube feet, spines, radial nerve, esophagus and a sub-population of circulating coelomocytes suggests the presence of multipotent cells that may play a role in normal tissue homeostasis and the regenerative potential of external appendages. The results indicate that regenerative potential was maintained with age regardless of lifespan, contrary to the expectation that shorter lived species would invest less in maintenance and repair. PMID:27095483

  17. Expression of the invertebrate sea urchin P16 protein into mammalian MC3T3 osteoblasts transforms and reprograms them into "osteocyte-like" cells.

    Alvares, Keith; Ren, Yinshi; Feng, Jian Q; Veis, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    P16 is an acidic phosphoprotein important in both sea urchin embryonic spicule development and transient mineralization during embryogenesis, syncytium formation, and mineralization in mature urchin tooth. Anti-P16 has been used to localize P16 to the syncytial membranes and the calcite mineral. Specific amino acid sequence motifs in P16 are similar to sequences in DSPP, a protein common to all vertebrate teeth, and crucial for their mineralization. Here, we examine the effect of P16 on vertebrate fibroblastic NIH3T3 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. Transfection of NIH3T3 cells with P16 cDNA resulted in profound changes in the morphology of the cells. In culture, the transfected cells sent out long processes that contacted processes from neighboring cells forming networks or syncytia. There was a similar change in morphology in cultured osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. In addition, the MC3T3 developed numerous dendrites as found in osteocytes. Importantly, there was also a change in the expression of the osteoblast and osteocyte specific genes. MC3T3 cells transfected with P16 showed an 18-fold increase in expression of the osteocyte specific Dentin matrix protein (DMP1) gene, accompanied by decreased expression of osteoblast specific genes: Bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), and β-catenin decreased by 70%, 64%, and 68 %, respectively. Thus, invertebrate urchin P16 with no previously known analog in vertebrates was able to induce changes in both cell morphology and gene expression, converting vertebrate-derived osteoblast-like precursor cells to an "osteocyte-like" phenotype, an important process in bone biology. The mechanisms involved are presently under study. PMID:26581835

  18. Innate immune complexity in the purple sea urchin: diversity of the sp185/333 system.

    Smith, L Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus single nucleotide polymorphisms-based variants of the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. Sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome insert shows a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites in which the Sp185/333 genes and flanking regions are located, are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes plus flanking regions. RNA editing is detectible throughout the mRNAs based on comparisons to the genes, which, in combination with putative post-translational modifications to the proteins, results in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full

  19. Development of the GABA-ergic signaling system and its role in larval swimming in sea urchin.

    Katow, Hideki; Abe, Kouki; Katow, Tomoko; Zamani, Alemeh; Abe, Hirokazu

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the development and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic regulation of larval swimming in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus by cloning glutamate decarboxylase (Hp-gad), GABAA receptor (Hp-gabrA) and GABAA receptor-associated protein (Hp-gabarap), and by performing immunohistochemistry. The regulation of larval swimming was increasingly dependent on the GABAergic system, which was active from the 2 days post-fertilization (d.p.f.) pluteus stage onwards. GABA-immunoreactive cells were detected as a subpopulation of secondary mesenchyme cells during gastrulation and eventually constituted the ciliary band and a subpopulation of blastocoelar cells during the pluteus stage. Hp-gad transcription was detected by RT-PCR during the period when Hp-Gad-positive cells were seen as a subpopulation of blastocoelar cells and on the apical side of the ciliary band from the 2 d.p.f. pluteus stage. Consistent with these observations, inhibition of GAD with 3-mercaptopropioninc acid inhibited GABA immunoreactivity and larval swimming dose dependently. Hp-gabrA amplimers were detected weakly in unfertilized eggs and 4 d.p.f. plutei but strongly from fertilized eggs to 2 d.p.f. plutei, and Hp-GabrA, together with GABA, was localized at the ciliary band in association with dopamine receptor D1 from the two-arm pluteus stage. Hp-gabarap transcription and protein expression were detected from the swimming blastula stage. Inhibition of the GABAA receptor by bicuculline inhibited larval swimming dose dependently. Inhibition of larval swimming by either 3-mercaptopropionic acid or bicuculline was more severe in older larvae (17 and 34 d.p.f. plutei) than in younger ones (1 d.p.f. prism larvae). PMID:23307803

  20. Physiological effects of environmental acidification in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    J. R. Taylor; C. Lovera; P. J. Whaling; Buck, K.R.; E. F. Pane; Barry, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 and variable O2 on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, a species whose range of 200–1200 m depth includes the OMZ and spans a pCO2 range of approx. 600–1200 μatm (ap...

  1. Production, characterization and biocompatibility of marine collagen matrices from an alternative and sustainable source: the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Benedetto, Cristiano Di; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Carnevali, Maria Daniela Candia; Sugni, Michela

    2014-09-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30-400 nm and mesh urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices. PMID:25255130

  2. Assessment of the toxic effect exerted by fluorescent pseudomonads on embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus.

    Beleneva, I A; Shamshurina, E V; Eliseikina, M G

    2015-05-01

    Strains of bacteria capable of growing on artificial culture media were isolated from the fouling of brass plates submerged in Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, and from tissues of the seastar Distolasterias nipon, caught in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. According to the complex of data of genetic and physiological/biochemical analyzes, two strains of cultivated bacteria were identified by us as the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two strains as Pseudomonas fluorescens, and one strain as Ruegeria sp. It was shown that the cultivated strains of P. aeruginosa released exotoxins, particularly phenazine pigments, into the environment. Production of the toxins did not depend on presence of a target organism in the system and was aimed at regulation of interactions in the microbial community. The toxicity of the studied natural isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads was analyzed by using embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus, which are the sensitive and dynamic toxicological sea-urchin embryo test (SET) system. As was established, exotoxins produced by the strains of P. aeruginosa inhibit activity of cilia in sea urchin larvae, as well as disturb processes of cell differentiation in embryos and larvae. Their toxic influence is accompanied by disturbances of protein synthesis and the disruptions of cytoskeleton in the course of zygote cleavage and larval development. Unlike P. aeruginosa, the strains of P. fluorescens and Ruegeria sp. did not exert the toxic effect on SET. The obtained data allow considering objects of the environment as the natural reservoir of opportunistic microorganisms posing a potential threat to human, whereas the use of SET for determination of toxicity of isolated bacteria provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms of their interactions with organisms in marine ecosystems. PMID:25728358

  3. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Oriana Migliaccio

    Full Text Available Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6 and 3.6 x 10(-5 M, respectively on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  4. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10-6 and 3.6 x 10-5 M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals. PMID:26125595

  5. Developmental expression of a cell surface protein involved in sea urchin skeleton formation

    The authors have previously used a monoclonal antibody (1223) to identify a 130 Kd cell surface protein involved in skeleton formation is sea urchin embryos. In the current study the authors have examined the expression of the 1223 antigen over the course of development of embryos of two species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus. The 130 Kd protein is detected in S. purp eggs on immunoblots. Labeling with [3H] leucine and immunoaffinity chromatography show that it also is synthesized shortly after fertilization. Immunofluroescence reveals that at this early stage the 1223 antigen is uniformly distributed on all of the cells. Synthesis decreases to a minimum by the time of hatching (18 h), as does the total amount of antigen present in the embryo. A second period of synthesis commences at the mesenchyme blastula stage, when the spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) have appeared. During this later stage, synthesis and cell surface expression are restricted to the PMCs. In contrast to S. purp., in L. pictus the 130 Kd protein does not appear until the PMCs are formed. Hybrid embryos demonstrate a pattern of expression of the maternal species. These results suggest that early expression of 1223 antigen in S. purp. is due to utilization of maternal transcripts present in the egg. In both species later expression in PMCs appears to be the result of cell-type specific synthesis, perhaps encoded by embryonic transcripts

  6. Central Spindle Self-Organization and Cytokinesis in Artificially Activated Sea Urchin Eggs.

    Henson, John H; Buckley, Mary W; Yeterian, Mesrob; Weeks, Richard M; Simerly, Calvin R; Shuster, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microtubules of the mitotic apparatus to control the positioning and initiation of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis was first established from studies on early echinoderm embryos. However, the identity of the microtubule population that imparts cytokinetic signaling is unclear. The two main--and not necessarily mutually exclusive--candidates are the central spindle and the astral rays. In the present study, we examined cytokinesis in ammonia-activated sea urchin eggs, which lack paternally derived centrosomes and undergo mitosis mediated by unusual anastral, bipolar mini-spindles. Live cell imaging and immunolabeling for microtubules and the centralspindlin constituent and kinesin-related protein, MKLP1, demonstrated that furrowing in ammonia-activated eggs was associated with aligned arrays of centralspindlin-linked, opposed bundles of antiparallel microtubules. These autonomous, zipper-like arrays were not associated with a mitotic apparatus, but did possess characteristics similar to the central spindle region of control, fertilized embryos. Our results highlight the self-organizing nature of the central spindle region and its ability to induce cytokinesis-like furrowing, even in the absence of a complete mitotic apparatus. PMID:27132131

  7. Effects of warm acclimation on physiology and gonad development in the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Delorme, Natalí J; Sewell, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    The physiology of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus was evaluated through feeding, respiration, growth and gonad growth in adult animals acclimated for 90days at 18°C (annual mean temperature) and 24°C (ambient summer temperature (21°C) +3°C). Measured parameters with representative rates of assimilation efficiency were used to calculate scope for growth (SfG) for each treatment. All physiological parameters were negatively affected at 24°C, showing a decrease in feeding rate which coincided with negative growth and gonad development at the end of the acclimation period, and a decrease in respiration rate suggesting metabolic depression. Histology of gonad samples after the acclimation period also showed no gametic material in animals acclimated at 24°C. All animals acclimated at 24°C had negative growth, differing from the calculated SfG which indicated that the animals had sufficient energy for production. The results suggest that calculated SfG in echinoderms should be used together with actual measurements of growth in individuals as, by itself, SfG may underestimate the actual effect of ocean warming when animals are exposed to stressful conditions. Overall, considering the total loss of reproductive output observed in E. chloroticus at higher temperatures, an increase in seawater temperature could dramatically influence the persistence of northern populations of this species, leading to flow-on effects in the subtidal ecosystem. PMID:27043875

  8. Ovothiol isolated from sea urchin oocytes induces autophagy in the Hep-G2 cell line.

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Russo, Maria; Castellano, Immacolata; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Ovothiols are histidine-derived thiols isolated from sea urchin eggs, where they play a key role in the protection of cells toward the oxidative burst associated with fertilization by controlling the cellular redox balance and recycling oxidized glutathione. In this study, we show that treatment of a human liver carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2, with ovothiol A, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus oocytes, results in a decrease of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of an autophagic process is revealed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, together with the expression of the specific autophagic molecular markers, LC3 II and Beclin-1. The effect of ovothiol is not due to its antioxidant capacity or to hydrogen peroxide generation. The concentration of ovothiol A in the culture media, as monitored by HPLC analysis, decreased by about 24% within 30 min from treatment. The proliferation of normal human embryonic lung cells is not affected by ovothiol A. These results hint at ovothiol as a promising bioactive molecule from marine organisms able to inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells. PMID:25003791

  9. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line

    Gian Luigi Russo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovothiols are histidine-derived thiols isolated from sea urchin eggs, where they play a key role in the protection of cells toward the oxidative burst associated with fertilization by controlling the cellular redox balance and recycling oxidized glutathione. In this study, we show that treatment of a human liver carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2, with ovothiol A, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus oocytes, results in a decrease of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of an autophagic process is revealed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, together with the expression of the specific autophagic molecular markers, LC3 II and Beclin-1. The effect of ovothiol is not due to its antioxidant capacity or to hydrogen peroxide generation. The concentration of ovothiol A in the culture media, as monitored by HPLC analysis, decreased by about 24% within 30 min from treatment. The proliferation of normal human embryonic lung cells is not affected by ovothiol A. These results hint at ovothiol as a promising bioactive molecule from marine organisms able to inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells.

  10. UVB radiation prevents skeleton growth and stimulates the expression of stress markers in sea urchin embryos

    Ozone depletion results in an increased flux of biologically damaging radiations reaching the earth. Although ultraviolet (UV) penetration is attenuated by the seawater, harmful effects can be still observed at low depths where sea urchin embryos are living. We have used Paracentrotus lividus embryos to study the impacts of UV radiation on their development. Blastula cultures were exposed to different doses of UVB (312 nm) radiations and the resulting endpoint effects were evaluated in terms of embryonic morphological abnormalities, variations in specific gene expression, and changes in the levels of stress proteins. We found that embryos were moderately sensitive to 50 J/m2 UVB radiation; an increase in the number of developmentally delayed and malformed embryos was detected when increasing doses, up to 1000 J/m2, were used. Major developmental defects, observed 24 and 48 h after exposure, consisted in the failure of skeleton elongation and patterning. Accordingly, we found a reduction in the number of primary mesenchyme cells that expressed Pl-SM30, a gene coding for one of the specific matrix proteins of the skeleton. The morphological effects observed 1, 24, and 48 h after exposure were correlated with a dose-dependent increase in the level and in the activation of two recognized stress markers, namely hsp70 and p38 MAPk, respectively, consistent with their role in mediating cellular response to stress and suggesting a function in embryo survival

  11. Sea urchin arylsulfatase insulator exerts its anti-silencing effect without interacting with the nuclear matrix.

    Hino, Shinjiro; Akasaka, Koji; Matsuoka, Masao

    2006-03-17

    Chromatin insulators have been shown to stabilize transgene expression. Although insulators have been suggested to regulate the subcellular localization of chromosomes, it is still unclear whether this property is important for their anti-silencing activity. To investigate the underlying mechanisms governing the anti-silencing function of insulators, we studied the association of sea urchin arylsulfatase insulator (ArsI) with the nuclear matrix, which is a key component of the subnuclear localization of the genome. ArsI did not potentiate the nuclear matrix association with the transgene, even though it showed strong anti-silencing activity. This observation was in clear contrast to the results of the experiment using a human interferon-beta scaffold attachment region, in which the anti-silencing effect coincided with the enhanced matrix association. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses suggested that the absence of the matrix binding by ArsI was due to a lack of its binding to CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a protein known to be associated with matrix binding by chicken beta-globin insulator. Furthermore, ArsI maintained the nucleosome occupancy within the transgene at a constant level during long-term culture, although ArsI itself was not a nucleosome-excluding sequence. Taken together, these results suggest that this insulator exerts its anti-silencing activity by counteracting silencing-associated factors to maintain local chromatin environment, rather than by remodeling the subnuclear localization of the transgene locus. PMID:16426632

  12. Toxicity of binary mixtures of oil fractions to sea urchin embryos.

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Menduiña, Araceli; García, Ana M; González, M Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Murado, Miguel A

    2013-12-15

    The assumption of additive toxicity for oil compounds is related to a narcotic mode of action. However, the joint toxicity of oil fractions has not been fully investigated. A fractionation of Maya crude oil into aliphatics, aromatics and polars was performed, fractions were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently toxicity of single fractions and binary mixtures was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. The descriptive ability of Concentration Addition (CA), Independent Action (IA) and modifications of both models for describing the joint toxicity of mixtures has also been evaluated. The hydrocarbon content extractable with dichloromethane of the fractions dissolved in DMSO was: 12.0 ± 1.8 mg mL(-1), 39.0 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 20.5 ± 2.5 mg mL(-1) for aliphatics, aromatics and polars, respectively. The toxicity of the extracts in DMSO of the fractions as EC50 (μLL(-1)) was: aliphatics (165.8-242.3)binary mixtures (aliphatics-aromatics, aromatics-polars) greater than the IA (aliphatics-polars) according to the Akaike Information Criterion, so CA was considered a better option than IA to explain the joint toxicity of oil fractions. In addition, synergistic or antagonistic effects were not observed. PMID:24231335

  13. Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.

    Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus. PMID:25433433

  14. pH-induced changes in mitotic and developmental patterns in sea urchin embryogenesis. I. Exposure of embryos.

    Pagano, G; Cipollaro, M; Corsale, G; Esposito, A; Ragucci, E; Giordano, G G

    1985-01-01

    The effects of different pH conditions have been investigated on sea urchin larval development following exposure of embryos to controlled, though changing, decreases or increases of seawater pH. The pH of filtered natural seawater was initially adjusted with 1 N HCl of 1 N KOH and then was altered back to its normal values (8.0-8.2) by the exchange with atmospheric CO2 and subsequent carbonic acid equilibrium. During cultures, pH was regularly monitored. When developing embryos were reared in different pH conditions, larval differentiation was sharply affected by an apparently moderate pH decrease, such as 0.5 pH units. However, even pH decreases as small as 0.2 pH units from the normal value showed reproducible damage to embryogenesis. This damage appeared to be early and irreversible, since the exposure of cleaving embryos resulted in more severe developmental defects than exposure of posthatching blastulae. Moreover, mitotic abnormalities were observed following early exposure of embryos to decreased pH. Increased pH, up to 8.6 (approximately 0.5 pH units above normal value), failed to exert any adverse effect on subsequent development. Moreover, an initial pH increase (8.5-8.7) resulted in the final adjustment of culture pH to 8.1-8.2, thus providing optimal conditions for rearing embryos. Two attempts to stabilize culture pH were performed by decreasing gaseous exchanges or by using Tris as a buffering agent. Both approaches appeared to be impractical, thus ruling out any further attempts. The results point out the hazards of acid contamination in restricted bodies of seawater, leading to apparently "moderate" decreases in pH, which can result in severe damage to some marine organisms, both adult and larval forms. PMID:2859664

  15. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-04-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  16. Habitat traits and patterns of abundance of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816), at multiple scales along the north Portuguese coast

    Domínguez, Rula; Domínguez Godino, Jorge; Freitas, Cristiano; Machado, Inês; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and distribution of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) from intertidal rockpools of the north Portuguese coast were examined in relation to physical (surface, altitude, depth, topographic complexity and exposure) and biological (substrate cover by dominant organisms) habitat traits. The methodology was based on a multi-factorial design where the total number and the abundance of urchins in each of six size classes were sampled over a range of spatial scales, from 10s of cm to kms, and a temporal scale of five months. The results highlighted three main features of the studied system: (1) the largest proportion of variability of sea urchins occurred at the smallest scale examined; (2) urchins from different size classes showed different patterns of abundance in relation to habitat traits; (3) variables normally invoked as potential drivers of distribution of urchins at a range of scales, such as hydrodynamics and shore height, were relatively less important than other abiotic (i.e. pool area, pool mean depth calculated over five replicate measures and sand cover) and biological (i.e. space occupancy by the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata and mussels vs. availability of bare rock) variables to provide a considerable contribution to the variability of sea urchins. Intertidal populations of sea urchins are abundant on many rocky shores, where they are socially and economically important as food resource and ecologically key as habitat modelers. This study provides new clues on relatively unstudied populations, with relevant implications for possible management decisions, including the implementation of protection schemes able to preserve the main recruitment, settlement and development areas of P. lividus.

  17. Correlation analyses of covering and righting behaviors to fitness related traits of the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis in diff erent environmental conditions

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Lisheng; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-03-01

    Complex marine benthic environments shape a number of ecologically important behaviors in sea urchins, including covering and righting behaviors. The present study correlated covering and righting behaviors to a series of fitness-related traits in sea urchins. Righting response time of Glyptocidaris crenularis was significantly positively correlated with body size, but significantly negatively correlated with food consumption. Covering behavior was not significantly correlated with test diameter, test height or body weight, but covering response time was negatively correlated with body weight. A significantly negative correlation was found between righting response time and covering response time. Glyptocidaris crenularis showed a significantly positive correlation in covering response time with and without exposure to poured sand, but no significance in covering ability (number of shells used to cover). The present study provides new insight into internal mechanisms and evolutionary drives of covering and righting behaviors of sea urchins.

  18. Size-dependent distribution, abundance and diurnal rhythmicity patterns in the short-spined sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina

    Freeman, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the ecology and behaviour of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina, particularly in relation to changes in its surrounding environment. In Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong Island, urchins ranged from a high abundance of ˜16 ind m -2 on steeply inclined rocky outcrops, which were exposed to strong onshore waves surges, to a complete absence on gravel and sandy substrata. Using a generalized additive model (GAM) the abundance and spatial extent of A. crassispina was predicted within the Bay. Predictions were strongly associated with the surface complexity of the habitat. On steep rocky slopes A. crassispina exhibited a size-dependent gradient where the mean test diameter increased in a down-shore direction as water depth increased. Since the mechanisms for maintaining this size-dependent distribution are unknown, a translocation experiment was conducted on two different size-classes of urchins. Following translocation, both large and small size-classes of A. crassispina were able to re-establish their original size-gradient within 3-5 days. Size-dependent distribution in A. crassispina may indicate resource partitioning, although the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on test size may also mediate this segregation. Anthocidaris crassispina was predominately nocturnal with almost 100% of the population moving between dusk and dawn. Locomotory activity patterns of urchins were strongly correlated with changes in seawater depth and changes in the direction of water-flow during tidal cycles. Anthocidaris crassispina exhibited an endogenously controlled locomotory activity pattern that was synchronized with changes in the tidal cycle, and which remained free-running for ˜13 h under constant laboratory conditions.

  19. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

    Joseph Antoine Hakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition in the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%. However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similar relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the ten samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities were evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment.

  20. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus.

    Hakim, Joseph A; Koo, Hyunmin; Dennis, Lacey N; Kumar, Ranjit; Ptacek, Travis; Morrow, Casey D; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Powell, Mickie L; Bej, Asim K; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition of the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%). However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similarity relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the 10 samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities are evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment. PMID:26528245

  1. Extracellular Ca2+ influx is crucial for the early embryonic development of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter.

    de Araújo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The involvement of Ca(2+) in the activation of eggs and in the first steps of the embryonic development of several species is a well-known phenomenon. An association between Ca(2+) sources with the fate of the blastopore during embryonic development has been investigated by several authors. Ca(2+) influx mediated by voltage-gated channels and Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores are the major sources of Ca(2+) to egg activation and succeeding cell divisions. Studies on sea urchins embryonic development show that intracellular Ca(2+) stores are responsible for egg activation and early embryogenesis. In the present work we investigated the involvement of extracellular Ca(2+) in the first stages of the embryonic development of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. Divalent cation chelators EDTA and EGTA strongly blocked the early embryonic development. Adding to this, we demonstrated the involvement of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in E. lucunter embryogenesis since Ca(2+) channel blockers powerfully inhibited the early embryonic development. Our data also revealed that Ca(2+) influx is crucial for embryonic development during only the first 40 min postfertilization. However, intracellular Ca(2+) remains mandatory to embryonic development 40 min postfertilization, seen that both the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine inhibited the first stages of development when added to embryos culture 50 min postfertilization. Our work highlights the crucial role of extracellular Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels for the early embryonic development of the sea urchin E. lucunter and characterizes an exception in the phylum Echinodermata. PMID:22532474

  2. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis,Müller) in aquaculture: the effects of environmental factors on gonad growth.

    Siikavuopio, Sten Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Papers number 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the thesis are not available in Munin due to publishers' restrictions: 1. Siikavuopio, S. I., Mortensen. A., Christiansen, J. S.: "Effects of body weight and temperature on feeding, gonad growth and oxygen consumption in green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis." Aquaculture 2008; 281, 77-82 (Elsevier). Available at http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016j.aquaculture.2008.05.033>2. Siikavuopio, S. I., Christiansen, J.S., Dale, T....

  3. POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF ENROFLOXACIN AND ITS METABOLITE CIPROFLOXACIN IN THE GREEN SEA URCHIN (STRONGYLOCENTROTUS DROEBACHIENSIS) FOLLOWING INTRACOELOMIC AND IMMERSION ADMINISTRATION.

    Phillips, Brianne E; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A; Lahner, Lesanna L; Haulena, Martin; Rosenberg, Justin F; Papich, Mark G

    2016-03-01

    Sea urchin mass mortality events have been attributed to both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Bacteria, including Vibrio spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp., have been isolated during specific mortality events. Aquarium collection sea urchins are also subject to bacterial infections and could benefit from antimicrobial treatment, but pharmacokinetic studies have been lacking for this invertebrate group until recently. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) after intracoelomic injection and medicated bath immersion administration. The utility of a population pharmacokinetic method using nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NLME) was also evaluated. Thirty sea urchins were assigned to either the injection or immersion group. Twelve study animals and three untreated controls were utilized for each administration method: enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg intracoelomic injection or a 6-hr enrofloxacin 10 mg/L immersion. Each animal was sampled four times from 0 to 120 hr. Water samples were collected during immersion treatment and posttreatment time points in both groups. Hemolymph and water sample drug concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using an NLME population pharmacokinetic method. Enrofloxacin concentrations were fit to a two-compartment model with first-order input for the intracoelomic injection group. The enrofloxacin elimination half-life (t½), peak hemolymph concentration (CMAX), and area under the curve (AUC) were 38.82 hr, 90.92 μg/ml, and 1,199 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin was modeled to a one-compartment model with first-order input for the immersion treatment. The enrofloxacin t½, CMAX, and AUC were 33.46 hr, 0.48 μg/ml, and 32.88 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was detected in trace concentrations in all hemolymph samples, indicating

  4. Molecular cloning of the first metazoan beta-1,3 glucanase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Bachman, E S; McClay, D R

    1996-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning of the first beta-1,3 glucanase from animal tissue. Three peptide sequences were obtained from beta-1,3 glucanase that had been purified from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the gene was cloned by PCR using oligonucleotides deduced from the peptide sequences. The full-length cDNA shows a predicted enzyme structure of 499 aa with a hydrophobic signal sequence. A 3.2-kb message is present in eggs, during early embryogenesis, and in adult ...

  5. Toxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on cell cycle regulation and early development of the sea urchin embryo

    Marc, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The use of early development of the sea urchin has allowed us to identify specific dysfunctions of cell cycle and early development. We show that Roundup causes a delay in the appearance of the first mitotic division; it delays the activation of complex regulator of entry into M phase, the complex CDK / cyclin B. The initial molecular target of the roundup is the activity of DNA synthesis. The transition of the monitoring mechanism G2M detects the anomaly and causes cell cycle delay. At the s...

  6. Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration

    Lane, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the development of the sea urchin embryo, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) migrate along the basal lamina of the blastocoel. Migration is inhibited in L. pictus embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in S. purpuratus embryos exposed to exogenous {beta}-D-xylosides. An in vitro assay was developed to test the migratory capacity of normal PMC on normal and treated blastocoelic matrix. Sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous xyloside render PMC nonmotile on either matrix. Materials removed from the surface of normal PMC by treatment with 1 M urea restored migratory ability to defective cells, whereas a similar preparation isolated from the surface of epithelial cells at the same stage did not. Migration also resumed when cells were removed from the xyloside or returned to normal seawater. The urea extract was partially purified and characterized by radiolabeling, gel electrophoresis, fluorography, ion exchange chromatography, and western blotting. The PMC synthesize a large chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is present in an active fraction isolated by chromatography. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of live cells blocked migration reversibly, further supporting the identification of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as the active component in the urea extract. Much of the incorporated sulfate was distributed along the filopodia in {sup 35}SO{sub 4}-labelled PMC by autoradiography. The morphology of normal and treated S. purpuratus PMC was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and differences in spreading, particularly of the extensive filopodia present on the cells, was observed. A model for the role of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in cell detachment during migration is proposed.

  7. Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S M N

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition. PMID:23055824

  8. Symbiosis initiation in the bacterially luminous sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor.

    Dunlap, P V; Gould, A L; Wittenrich, M L; Nakamura, M

    2012-09-01

    To determine how each new generation of the sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor acquires the symbiotic luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis, and when in its development the S. versicolor initiates the symbiosis, procedures were established for rearing S. versicolor larvae in an aposymbiotic state. Under the conditions provided, larvae survived and developed for 28 days after their release from the mouths of males. Notochord flexion began at 8 days post release (dpr). By 28 dpr, squamation was evident and the caudal complex was complete. The light organ remained free of bacteria but increased in size and complexity during development of the larvae. Thus, aposymbiotic larvae of the fish can survive and develop for extended periods, major components of the luminescence system develop in the absence of the bacteria and the bacteria are not acquired directly from a parent, via the egg or during mouth brooding. Presentation of the symbiotic bacteria to aposymbiotic larvae at 8-10 dpr, but not earlier, led to initiation of the symbiosis. Upon colonization of the light organ, the bacterial population increased rapidly and cells forming the light-organ chambers exhibited a differentiated appearance. Therefore, the light organ apparently first becomes receptive to colonization after 1 week post-release development, the symbiosis is initiated by bacteria acquired from the environment and bacterial colonization induces morphological changes in the nascent light organ. The abilities to culture larvae of S. versicolor for extended periods and to initiate the symbiosis in aposymbiotic larvae are key steps in establishing the experimental tractability of this highly specific vertebrate and microbe mutualism. PMID:22957874

  9. Photoreactivation of developmental abnormality in sea urchin embryos induced by UV-irradiated sperm

    The effects of UV-irradiation of sperm on the embryonic development of sea urchins (H. pulcherrimus, Anthocidaris crassispina, Pseudocentrotus depressus, and C. japonicus) were studied. Eggs inseminated with UV-irradiated sperm developed almost normally into blastulae without arrest of cleavage or hatching, even though they showed some division delay. Morphogenesis was disturbed in and after the gastrula stage, and the formation of normal pluteus larvae was inhibited depending on the UV dose (5 - 30 J/m2) given to the sperm. Morphological abnormalities observed were as follows: inhibition of gastrulation; abnormal delamination and random arrangement of primary mesenchymal cells onto the ectodermal wall; abnormal localization or an excess number of spicules; malformed skeletons. These developmental abnormalities were photoreactivated with high efficiency. Inhibition of pluteus formation to less than 5% by the UV-irradiation with 20 J/m2 completely recovered under fluorescent light illumination with 10 klux. By treating the eggs with brief illumination at various times after insemination, a stage-dependent change of the photoreactivation (PR) efficiency was found. PR treatment after the insemination up to the onset of the first DNA synthesizing phase was highly effective for the recovery, while the PR efficiency began to decrease during the S phase, becoming zero on and after the end of the phase. In eggs fertilized with UV-irradiated sperm, mitoses were abnormal and shromosomal bridges were formed at the anaphase of the first mitosis. Their frequency increased depending on the UV dose. The mitotic abnormality was also photoreactivated with visible light treatment after fertilization. The change in PR efficiency of the illumination was very similar to that of morphological abnormality. (Author)

  10. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    M. Aminur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution was 96.6±1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72±4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  11. Hyperlensing at NIR frequencies using a hemispherical metallic nanowire lens in a sea-urchin geometry.

    Bisht, Ankit; He, Wei; Wang, Xiaotian; Wu, Linda Y L; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2016-05-19

    Label-free and real time far-field super-resolution imaging (hyperlensing) at the nanoscale is of significant interest where sub-λ imaging remains a constraint because of Abbe's diffraction limit. Though by utilizing anisotropic permittivities, metal-dielectric multilayers have been successful in reconstructing high-frequency components of sub-λ objects, yet they remain cumbersome and expensive to make. Most of the multilayer structures require multiple vacuum deposition cycles and are plagued by stringent requirements on the surface roughness of metallic layers. In contrast to the multilayer structure here we propose a 3D hyperbolic metamaterial model composed of metallic nanorods arranged in a sea-urchin geometry as a hyper-lensing device, which is capable of projecting and magnifying diffraction limited information into the far-field at Near-infrared (NIR) frequencies. The hyperlens generates a band of flat hyperbolic dispersions in spherical coordinates, which in turn supports the propagation of high wave-vector spatial harmonics leading to far-field super-resolution imaging. Using full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations with diffraction limited trimer, quadrumer and ringed objects etched on thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) films, we show that the hyperlens model can achieve magnification factors of up to 10× in the far-field (∼4.5λ from the object's surface) under a light source with a wavelength of 1 μm, with successful resolution down to 220 nm (∼λ/5). The magnified image field distribution projected into the far-field is shown to follow the object under a reduction in the symmetry. These results are important for making progress in the realization of real-time biomolecular imaging systems, eliminating the need for near-field scanning, destructive electron microscopy and various image post-processing techniques. PMID:27149522

  12. Mesomere-derived glutamate decarboxylase-expressing blastocoelar mesenchyme cells of sea urchin larvae

    Hideki Katow

    2013-12-01

    The ontogenetic origin of blastocoelar glutamate decarboxylase (GAD-expressing cells (GADCs in larvae of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was elucidated. Whole-mount in situ hybridisation (WISH detected transcription of the gene that encodes GAD in H. pulcherrimus (Hp-gad in unfertilised eggs and all blastomeres in morulae. However, at and after the swimming blastula stage, the transcript accumulation was particularly prominent in clumps of ectodermal cells throughout the embryonic surface. During the gastrula stage, the transcripts also accumulated in the endomesoderm and certain blastocoelar cells. Consistent with the increasing number of Hp-gad transcribing cells, immunoblot analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Hp-Gad increased considerably from the early gastrula stage until the prism stage. The expression pattern of GADCs determined by immunohistochemistry was identical to the pattern of Hp-gad transcript accumulation determined using WISH. In early gastrulae, GADCs formed blastocoelar cell aggregates around the blastopore with primary mesenchyme cells. The increase in the number of blastocoelar GADCs was inversely proportional to the number of ectodermal GADCs ranging from a few percent of total GADCs in early gastrulae to 80% in late prism larvae; this depended on ingression of ectodermal GADCs into the blastocoel. Some of the blastocoelar GADCs were fluorescein-positive in the larvae that developed from the 16-cell stage chimeric embryos; these comprised fluorescein-labeled mesomeres and unlabelled macromeres and micromeres. Our finding indicates that some of the blastocoelar GADCs are derived from the mesomeres and thus they are the new group of mesenchyme cells, the tertiary mesenchyme cells.

  13. Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration

    Early in the development of the sea urchin embryo, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) migrate along the basal lamina of the blastocoel. Migration is inhibited in L. pictus embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in S. purpuratus embryos exposed to exogenous β-D-xylosides. An in vitro assay was developed to test the migratory capacity of normal PMC on normal and treated blastocoelic matrix. Sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous xyloside render PMC nonmotile on either matrix. Materials removed from the surface of normal PMC by treatment with 1 M urea restored migratory ability to defective cells, whereas a similar preparation isolated from the surface of epithelial cells at the same stage did not. Migration also resumed when cells were removed from the xyloside or returned to normal seawater. The urea extract was partially purified and characterized by radiolabeling, gel electrophoresis, fluorography, ion exchange chromatography, and western blotting. The PMC synthesize a large chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is present in an active fraction isolated by chromatography. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of live cells blocked migration reversibly, further supporting the identification of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as the active component in the urea extract. Much of the incorporated sulfate was distributed along the filopodia in 35SO4-labelled PMC by autoradiography. The morphology of normal and treated S. purpuratus PMC was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and differences in spreading, particularly of the extensive filopodia present on the cells, was observed. A model for the role of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in cell detachment during migration is proposed

  14. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite elemental composition

    J. D. Hosfelt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (such as Mg and Sr into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore the effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low to high magnesium calcites. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions along the US west coast (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg/Ca or Sr/Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 ppm; pH = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated CO2 (900 ppm; pH = 7.72 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr/Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr incorporation under elevated CO2

  15. Sea urchin development in a global change hotspot, potential for southerly migration of thermotolerant propagules

    Byrne, M.; Selvakumaraswamy, P.; Ho, M. A.; Woolsey, E.; Nguyen, H. D.

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma coincides with the southeast Australia global change hot spot where marine ecosystems are warming significantly due to changes in ocean circulation. To address questions on future vulnerabilities, the thermotolerance of the planktonic life phase of H. erythrogramma was investigated in the climate and regionally relevant setting of projected near-future (2100) ocean warming. Experimental treatments ranged from 18 to 26 °C, with 26 °C representing +3-4 °C above recent ambient sea-surface temperatures. Developmental success across all stages (gastrula, 24 h; larva, 72 h; juvenile, 120 h) decreased with increasing temperature. Development was tolerant to a +1-2 °C increase above ambient, but significant deleterious effects were evident at +3-4 °C. However, larvae that developed through the early bottleneck of normal development at 26 °C metamorphosed successfully. The inverse relationship between temperature and planktonic larval duration (PLD) was seen in a 25% decrease in the PLD of H. erythrogramma at 24 and 26 oC. Ocean warming may be advantageous to a subset of larvae through early settlement and reduction of the vulnerable planktonic period. This positive effect of temperature may help buffer the negative effects of ocean warming. In parallel studies with progeny derived from northern (Coffs Harbour) and southern (Sydney) H. erythrogramma, northern embryos had significantly higher thermotolerance. This provides the possibility that H. erythrogramma populations might keep up with a warming world through poleward migration of thermotolerant propagules, facilitated by the strong southward flow of the East Australian Current. It is uncertain whether H. erythrogramma populations at the northern range of this species, with no source of immigrants, will have the capacity to persist in a warm ocean. Due to its extensive latitudinal distribution, its potential developmental thermotolerance and

  16. Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities.

    Patricia Prado

    Full Text Available Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1 understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2 explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults. Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc. determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the

  17. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  18. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  19. Developmental abnormalities and neurotoxicological effects of CuO NPs on the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula by embryotoxicity assay.

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Catanese, Eva; Vitale, Valeria; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Barreca, Davide; Brunelli, Elvira; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was evaluated in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula embryos, by using 24-well plates. Fertilized eggs were exposed to five doses of CuO NPs ranging from 0.07 to 20 ppb, until pluteus stage. CuO NPs suspensions in artificial seawater formed agglomerates of 80-200 nm size, and copper uptake was 2.5-fold up in larvae exposed to high NP concentrations in respect to control. Developmental delay and morphological alteration, including skeletal abnormalities, were observed, as well as impairment in cholinergic and serotonergic nervous systems. These findings suggest the potential of CuO NPs to interfere with the normal neurotransmission pathways, thus affecting larval morphogenesis. Overall, the embryotoxicity tests are effective for evaluation of nanoparticle effects on the health of aquatic biota. Furthermore, as the black sea urchin A. lixula demonstrated to be vulnerable to NP exposure, it may be a valid bioindicator in marine biomonitoring and ecotoxicological programmes. PMID:26026240

  20. Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging

    Mueller Susanne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are technically demanding, time-consuming, and often prone to produce artefacts. These problems can partly be overcome by employing non-invasive, destruction-free imaging techniques, in particular micro-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results Here, we employed high-field magnetic resonance imaging techniques to gather numerous data from members of a major marine invertebrate taxon, the sea urchins (Echinoidea. For this model study, 13 of the 14 currently recognized high-ranking subtaxa (orders of this group of animals were analyzed. Based on the acquired datasets, interactive three-dimensional models were assembled. Our analyses reveal that selected soft tissue characters can even be used for phylogenetic inferences in sea urchins, as exemplified by differences in the size and shape of the gastric caecum found in the Irregularia. Conclusion The main focus of our investigation was to explore the possibility to systematically visualize the internal anatomy of echinoids obtained from various museum collections. We show that, in contrast to classical preparative procedures, magnetic resonance imaging can give rapid, destruction-free access to morphological data from numerous specimens, thus extending the range of techniques available for comparative studies of invertebrate morphology.

  1. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible Sea Urchin Echinus esculentus Have 6-Br-Trp Post-Translational Modifications.

    Solstad, Runar Gjerp; Li, Chun; Isaksson, Johan; Johansen, Jostein; Svenson, Johan; Stensvåg, Klara; Haug, Tor

    2016-01-01

    The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635) was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring. PMID:27007817

  2. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible Sea Urchin Echinus esculentus Have 6-Br-Trp Post-Translational Modifications

    Solstad, Runar Gjerp; Li, Chun; Isaksson, Johan; Johansen, Jostein; Svenson, Johan; Stensvåg, Klara; Haug, Tor

    2016-01-01

    The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635) was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring. PMID:27007817

  3. Promoter binding factors regulating cyclin B transcription in the sea urchin embryo.

    Thatcher, J D; McBride, B; Katula, K S

    1995-10-01

    Cyclin B is a key regulatory protein of the cell cycle, central to the control of the G2/M transition. In the developing sea urchin embryo, the cyclin B gene is transcriptionally regulated in concert with changing patterns of cell division. In an effort to understand the mechanism controlling cyclin B expression during development, we have conducted an analysis of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus cyclin B gene promoter. DNase I foot-printing of the cyclin B upstream region revealed eight binding regions within 435 bp of the start of transcription; seven of these sites were within 215 bp. Found within these regions were consensus sequences for two CCAAT boxes, TATA, and E-boxes and sequences with some similarity to E2F and octamer binding motifs. Upstream sequences were functionally defined by generating cyclin B-CAT fusion genes, containing deletions and base specific mutations, and testing for relative levels of expression by gene transfer. Both CCAAT boxes were found to be essential for maximal levels of expression. A third binding site (PR7) with no recognizable consensus sequence was also found to act as a positive element. Our results suggest that protein binding to the E2F-like sequences may act to reduce expression. Protein binding was further characterized by gel mobility-shift and methylation interference. The CCAAT boxes were found to bind similar, if not identical, proteins. Sequence comparisons and methylation interference data indicate that the likely protein binding these CCAAT sequences is the characterized CCAAT-binding protein CP1. A probe containing site PR7 formed multiple gel shift complexes that, by methylation interference, appeared to be interrelated. One major complex was formed with an oligonucleotide containing the two E2F-like sequences. Protein binding to this probe was specific and required bases within the E2F-like sequences. Our results indicate that cyclin B is subject to positive and negative regulation, involving multiple factors

  4. Sequential expression of germ-layer specific molecules in the sea urchin embryo.

    Wessel, G M; McClay, D R

    1985-10-01

    Described are two germ-layer specific molecules that appear coincident with the formation of two germ layer cell lineages in the sea urchin embryo. Meso1 is a molecule of 380 kDa that is first detected at the time of primary mesenchyme cell delamination from the wall of the blastula. Endo1 is a molecule of 320 kDa that appears on endoderm cells at the time of archenteron formation a few hours after Meso1 appears. Both antigens are identified by monoclonal antibodies. The appearance of these antigens is described by immunofluorescence microscopy, and quantitative data on their localization has been obtained by ultrastructural immunoelectron microscopy. The synthesis of the molecules has been followed by pulse-chase immunoprecipitation. Meso1 is first expressed in trans Golgi-like saccules, is concentrated in peripheral low electron-dense vesicles, and is found throughout the plasma membrane of the mesenchymal cells and their filopodial extensions. Newly translated Meso1 can first be immunoprecipitated upon differentiation of the mesoderm cell lineage, and pulse-chase studies suggest that the determinant is the result of a post-translational modification. [35S]Methionine pulses early in development followed by a chase to the mesenchyme blastula or prism stage show that at least a portion of the molecule is translated well in advance of the mesenchyme blastula stage. Endo1, in contrast, does not appear to be translated until the onset of gastrulation, just preceding the post-translational expression of the Endo1 determinant. Endo1 is localized to the apical and basolateral cell surfaces of the midgut and hindgut. No label is detected in foregut cells, demonstrating a heterogeneity of cell populations within the endoderm cell lineage corresponding to a difference in morphology. In addition, Endo1 is shown to be the result of new transcription by the embryonic genome. Even though the function of neither molecule is known, together they show the spatial and temporal

  5. A provisional regulatory gene network for specification of endomesoderm in the sea urchin embryo

    Davidson, Eric H.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Oliveri, Paola; Ransick, Andrew; Calestani, Cristina; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Minokawa, Takuya; Amore, Gabriele; Hinman, Veronica; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Otim, Ochan; Brown, C. Titus; Livi, Carolina B.; Lee, Pei Yun; Revilla, Roger; Schilstra, Maria J.; Clarke, Peter J C.; Rust, Alistair G.; Pan, Zhengjun; Arnone, Maria I.; Rowen, Lee; Cameron, R. Andrew; McClay, David R.; Hood, Leroy; Bolouri, Hamid

    2002-01-01

    We present the current form of a provisional DNA sequence-based regulatory gene network that explains in outline how endomesodermal specification in the sea urchin embryo is controlled. The model of the network is in a continuous process of revision and growth as new genes are added and new experimental results become available; see http://www.its.caltech.edu/mirsky/endomeso.htm (End-mes Gene Network Update) for the latest version. The network contains over 40 genes at present, many newly uncovered in the course of this work, and most encoding DNA-binding transcriptional regulatory factors. The architecture of the network was approached initially by construction of a logic model that integrated the extensive experimental evidence now available on endomesoderm specification. The internal linkages between genes in the network have been determined functionally, by measurement of the effects of regulatory perturbations on the expression of all relevant genes in the network. Five kinds of perturbation have been applied: (1) use of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeted to many of the key regulatory genes in the network; (2) transformation of other regulatory factors into dominant repressors by construction of Engrailed repressor domain fusions; (3) ectopic expression of given regulatory factors, from genetic expression constructs and from injected mRNAs; (4) blockade of the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway by introduction of mRNA encoding the intracellular domain of cadherin; and (5) blockade of the Notch signaling pathway by introduction of mRNA encoding the extracellular domain of the Notch receptor. The network model predicts the cis-regulatory inputs that link each gene into the network. Therefore, its architecture is testable by cis-regulatory analysis. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus genomic BAC recombinants that include a large number of the genes in the network have been sequenced and annotated. Tests of the cis-regulatory predictions of

  6. Monte Carlo analysis of an ODE Model of the Sea Urchin Endomesoderm Network

    Klipp Edda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs control the differentiation, specification and function of cells at the genomic level. The levels of interactions within large GRNs are of enormous depth and complexity. Details about many GRNs are emerging, but in most cases it is unknown to what extent they control a given process, i.e. the grade of completeness is uncertain. This uncertainty stems from limited experimental data, which is the main bottleneck for creating detailed dynamical models of cellular processes. Parameter estimation for each node is often infeasible for very large GRNs. We propose a method, based on random parameter estimations through Monte-Carlo simulations to measure completeness grades of GRNs. Results We developed a heuristic to assess the completeness of large GRNs, using ODE simulations under different conditions and randomly sampled parameter sets to detect parameter-invariant effects of perturbations. To test this heuristic, we constructed the first ODE model of the whole sea urchin endomesoderm GRN, one of the best studied large GRNs. We find that nearly 48% of the parameter-invariant effects correspond with experimental data, which is 65% of the expected optimal agreement obtained from a submodel for which kinetic parameters were estimated and used for simulations. Randomized versions of the model reproduce only 23.5% of the experimental data. Conclusion The method described in this paper enables an evaluation of network topologies of GRNs without requiring any parameter values. The benefit of this method is exemplified in the first mathematical analysis of the complete Endomesoderm Network Model. The predictions we provide deliver candidate nodes in the network that are likely to be erroneous or miss unknown connections, which may need additional experiments to improve the network topology. This mathematical model can serve as a scaffold for detailed and more realistic models. We propose that our method can

  7. Hyperlensing at NIR frequencies using a hemispherical metallic nanowire lens in a sea-urchin geometry

    Bisht, Ankit; He, Wei; Wang, Xiaotian; Wu, Linda Y. L.; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2016-05-01

    Label-free and real time far-field super-resolution imaging (hyperlensing) at the nanoscale is of significant interest where sub-λ imaging remains a constraint because of Abbe's diffraction limit. Though by utilizing anisotropic permittivities, metal-dielectric multilayers have been successful in reconstructing high-frequency components of sub-λ objects, yet they remain cumbersome and expensive to make. Most of the multilayer structures require multiple vacuum deposition cycles and are plagued by stringent requirements on the surface roughness of metallic layers. In contrast to the multilayer structure here we propose a 3D hyperbolic metamaterial model composed of metallic nanorods arranged in a sea-urchin geometry as a hyper-lensing device, which is capable of projecting and magnifying diffraction limited information into the far-field at Near-infrared (NIR) frequencies. The hyperlens generates a band of flat hyperbolic dispersions in spherical coordinates, which in turn supports the propagation of high wave-vector spatial harmonics leading to far-field super-resolution imaging. Using full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations with diffraction limited trimer, quadrumer and ringed objects etched on thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) films, we show that the hyperlens model can achieve magnification factors of up to 10× in the far-field (~4.5λ from the object's surface) under a light source with a wavelength of 1 μm, with successful resolution down to 220 nm (~λ/5). The magnified image field distribution projected into the far-field is shown to follow the object under a reduction in the symmetry. These results are important for making progress in the realization of real-time biomolecular imaging systems, eliminating the need for near-field scanning, destructive electron microscopy and various image post-processing techniques.Label-free and real time far-field super-resolution imaging (hyperlensing) at the nanoscale is of significant interest

  8. Characterization of the bacterial communities associated with the bald sea urchin disease of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus

    Becker, P.; Egea, E.; Eeckhaut, I.

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities involved in the bald sea urchin disease of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus are investigated using culture-independent techniques. Lesions of diseased specimens from two locations in France, La Ciotat (Mediterranean Sea) and Morgat (Atlantic Ocean), are examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the diversity of their microbiota is analysed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clones libraries construction. Microscopic observa...

  9. High quality draft genome sequence of the slightly halophilic bacterium Halomonas zhanjiangensis type strain JSM 078169T (DSM 21076T) from a sea urchin in southern China

    Zhou, Yu; Li, Rui; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Haynes, Matthew; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Natalia N. Ivanova; Rohde, Manfred; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tindall, Brian J.; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Halomonas zhanjiangensis Chen et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Halomonas , family Halomonadaceae , class Gammaproteobacteria . Representatives of the genus Halomonas are a group of halophilic bacteria often isolated from salty environments. The type strain H. zhanjiangensis JSM 078169T was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. The genome of strain JSM 078169T is the fourteenth sequenced genome in the genus Halomonas and the fifteenth i...

  10. The gut microbiome of the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus, from its natural habitat demonstrates selective attributes of microbial taxa and predictive metabolic profiles.

    Hakim, Joseph A; Koo, Hyunmin; Kumar, Ranjit; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey D; Powell, Mickie L; Watts, Stephen A; Bej, Asim K

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the microbial composition and their predictive metabolic profile in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut ecosystem along with samples from its habitat by using NextGen amplicon sequencing and downstream bioinformatics analyses. The microbial communities of the gut tissue revealed a near-exclusive abundance of Campylobacteraceae, whereas the pharynx tissue consisted of Tenericutes, followed by Gamma-, Alpha- and Epsilonproteobacteria at approximately equal capacities. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets exhibited a microbial profile comprised of Gammaproteobacteria, mainly Vibrio, and Bacteroidetes. Both the seagrass and surrounding sea water revealed Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Bray-Curtis distances of microbial communities indicated a clustering profile with low intrasample variation. Predictive metagenomics performed on the microbial communities revealed that the gut tissue had high relative abundances of metabolisms assigned to the KEGG-Level-2 designation of energy metabolisms compared to the gut digesta, which had higher carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid metabolisms. Overall, the results of this study elaborate the spatial distribution of microbial communities in the gut ecosystem of L. variegatus, and specifically a selective attribute for Campylobacteraceae in the gut tissue. Also, the predictive functional significance of bacterial communities in uniquely compartmentalized gut ecosystems of L. variegatus has been described. PMID:27368709

  11. SEM and x-ray microanalysis of cellular differentiation in Sea Urchin Embryos: a frozen hydrated study

    Quantitative studies of major chemical element distribution among individual differentiating cells were attempted using scanning electron microscopy. Frozen hydrated embryos of the sea urchin Strongelocentrotus purpuratus were examined at three stages: blastula, mesenchyme blastula, and early gastrula. The blastocoel matrix contained large beads of approximately 1 μm diameter. The cells of the archenteron lacked well defined cell boundaries. Characteristic levels of beam damage and charging provided structural information. The primary mesenchyme cells within the blastocoel were particularly susceptible to both effects. Damaging effects were noted in material stored in liquid nitrogen longer than three months. Ice crystal growth, shrinkage, elemental shift, density changes and charge accumulation may take place in these stored specimens. 151 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs

  12. SEM and x-ray microanalysis of cellular differentiation in Sea Urchin Embryos: a frozen hydrated study

    Klein, S.B.

    1985-12-01

    Quantitative studies of major chemical element distribution among individual differentiating cells were attempted using scanning electron microscopy. Frozen hydrated embryos of the sea urchin Strongelocentrotus purpuratus were examined at three stages: blastula, mesenchyme blastula, and early gastrula. The blastocoel matrix contained large beads of approximately 1 ..mu..m diameter. The cells of the archenteron lacked well defined cell boundaries. Characteristic levels of beam damage and charging provided structural information. The primary mesenchyme cells within the blastocoel were particularly susceptible to both effects. Damaging effects were noted in material stored in liquid nitrogen longer than three months. Ice crystal growth, shrinkage, elemental shift, density changes and charge accumulation may take place in these stored specimens. 151 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Presence of a low molecular weight lectin in the coelomic fluid of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    F Drago

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A low molecular weight (MW lectin (Paracentrotus lividus small lectin, PlSL has been found in the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. After gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, PlSL exhibits a MW of 13 kDa, while its hemagglutinating activity is Ca2+-independent and inhibited by D-Glucose, L-Rhamnose, D-Arabinose, L-Fucose and N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. Electrophoretic analysis of the coleomic fluid of P. lividus reveals that the presence of PlSL increases following immune challenge with bacteria, whereas it is annulled as a consequence of osmotic stress. Interestingly, two other putative inducible hemagglutinins of an approximate MW of 11 and 32 kDa were retrieved in concomitance with the stress-promoted disappearance of PlSL.

  14. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  15. Tissue regeneration and biomineralization in sea urchins: role of Notch signaling and presence of stem cell markers.

    Helena C Reinardy

    Full Text Available Echinoderms represent a phylum with exceptional regenerative capabilities that can reconstruct both external appendages and internal organs. Mechanistic understanding of the cellular pathways involved in regeneration in these animals has been hampered by the limited genomic tools and limited ability to manipulate regenerative processes. We present a functional assay to investigate mechanisms of tissue regeneration and biomineralization by measuring the regrowth of amputated tube feet (sensory and motor appendages and spines in the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus. The ability to manipulate regeneration was demonstrated by concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth of spines and tube feet by treatment with the mitotic inhibitor, vincristine. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth, indicating that both tube feet and spine regeneration require functional Notch signaling. Stem cell markers (Piwi and Vasa were expressed in tube feet and spine tissue, and Vasa-positive cells were localized throughout the epidermis of tube feet by immunohistochemistry, suggesting the existence of multipotent progenitor cells in these highly regenerative appendages. The presence of Vasa protein in other somatic tissues (e.g. esophagus, radial nerve, and a sub-population of coelomocytes suggests that multipotent cells are present throughout adult sea urchins and may contribute to normal homeostasis in addition to regeneration. Mechanistic insight into the cellular pathways governing the tremendous regenerative capacity of echinoderms may reveal processes that can be modulated for regenerative therapies, shed light on the evolution of regeneration, and enable the ability to predict how these processes will respond to changing environmental conditions.

  16. Cathepsin B/X is secreted by Echinometra lucunter sea urchin spines, a structure rich in granular cells and toxins

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinometra lucunter is a common American sea urchin responsible for the majority of the marine accidents in Brazil. Although not lethal, these accidents are reported to be extremely painful. Recently, our group described the presence of toxins in its spines that contribute to the pathological reactions. Additionally, we have observed that the E. lucunter spines can regenerate when broken. In the present work we evaluated the enzymatic activities of sea urchin spine extracts in order to identify an enzyme that could contribute not only to the toxicity, but also participate in the spine growth and regeneration. Results The spine aqueous extract was tested for peptidase activity, with synthetic substrates, in the presence and absence of inhibitors and activators. For proper enzyme classification, the FRET-substrate cleavage pattern, pH-dependency activity and Western-blot analyses were performed. The spine extract was able to cleave Z-R-MCA and Abz-GIVRAK(Dnp)-OH following pre-incubation with DTT, and was inhibited by E-64. Furthermore, the double-peaked pH curve (5 and 7) and the cleavage site proportion (4:6, R↓A:A↓K) indicate the presence of both mono and dicarboxypeptidase activities. Moreover, in Western-blot analysis, the spine extract was positive for anti-cathepsin B antibody. Conclusions E. lucunter spines extracts presented a cysteine peptidase activity that was identified as cathepsin B/X that would participate in the remodeling and growth processes of the spine, as well as in the inflammatory response to the accident. PMID:24341625

  17. The Sea Urchin Embryo, an Invertebrate Model for Mammalian Developmental Neurotoxicity, Reveals Multiple Neurotransmitter Mechanisms for Effects of Chlorpyrifos: Therapeutic Interventions and a Comparison with the Monoamine Depleter, Reserpine

    Buznikov, Gennady A; Nikitina, Lyudmila A.; Rakić, Ljubiša M.; Miloševi, Ivan; Bezuglov, Vladimir V.; Lauder, Jean M.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Lower organisms show promise for the screening of neurotoxicants that might target mammalian brain development. Sea urchins use neurotransmitters as embryonic growth regulatory signals, so that adverse effects on neural substrates for mammalian brain development can be studied in this simple organism. We compared the effects of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos in sea urchin embryos with those of the monoamine depleter, reserpine, so as to investigate multiple neurotransmitter mec...

  18. Polyalkoxybenzenes from plants. 5. Parsley seed extract in synthesis of azapodophyllotoxins featuring strong tubulin destabilizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Firgang, Sergei I; Semenov, Roman V; Malyshev, Oleg R; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Fuchs, Fabian; Stielow, Anne; Lantow, Margareta; Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2011-10-27

    A series of 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives with modified rings B and E have been synthesized using allylpolyalkoxybenzenes from parsley seed oil. The targeted molecules were evaluated in vivo in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and tubulin destabilizing activity. The most active compounds identified by the in vivo sea urchin embryo assay featured myristicin-derived ring E. These molecules were determined to be more potent than podophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic effects of selected molecules were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with A549 and Jurkat human leukemic T-cell lines including cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cellular microtubule disruption, and induction of apoptosis. The ring B modification yielded 6-OMe substituted molecule as the most active compound. Finally, in Jurkat cells, compound induced caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by the apical caspases-2 and -9 and not caspase-8, implying the involvement of the intrinsic caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:21916509

  19. Influence of gametal release method and larval initial density in the culture of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Sílvia C. Gonçalves; Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The gonads of sea urchins have increased interest for human consumption, as a culinary delicacy worldwide. In Europe, the species Paracentrotus lividus was identified as an ideal candidate to meet the growing demand for this product, due to its high gonadosomatic index and easy access. However, the current commercial model, based on the exploitation its natural populations, may be unsustainable. Therefore, its production in aquaculture would be beneficial to avoid depletion of natural stocks ...

  20. Anti-mitotic activity towards sea urchin embryos in extracts from the marine haptophycean Phaeocystis pouchetii (Hariot) Lagerheim collected along the coast of northern Norway.

    Hansen, Espen; Eilertsen, Hans Chr; Ernstsen, Arild; Genevière, Anne-Marie

    2003-06-01

    The marine bloom-forming alga Phaeocystis pouchetii is suspected to produce some toxic compound responsible for reduced growth, fecundity and survival of other marine organisms. Sea urchin early development was used as a model to investigate the degree and nature of toxicity. Colonial cells of P. pouchetii were collected during its spring-bloom along the coast of northern Norway and maintained in culture for a short period of time in order to evaluate the concentration of toxic compounds present inside the cells or excreted to the surrounding seawater medium. Cells were harvested by filtration and toxins were extracted separately from the collected cells and the filtrate using organic solvents. We found that extracts from the filtered seawater at a concentration corresponding to 9.0 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) completely blocked cell divisions in embryos of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis, whereas extracts from intact algal cells were only mildly cytotoxic. When the extracts from seawater culture medium were purified by RP-HPLC, cytotoxic activity towards S. granularis embryos was recovered in three consecutive fractions. Moreover, unfertilised eggs incubated in the active HPLC fractions became unproductive, whereas incubation of sperm gave a reduced fertilisation rate. This anti-proliferative effect was further characterized by immunofluorescence staining of sea urchin embryos. DNA labelling revealed that incubating sea urchin embryos in the purified algal extracts inhibited both pronuclei migration and fusion. Incorporation and detection of the DNA-base analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine showed that DNA-replication was blocked. Furthermore, staining of alpha-tubulin subunits demonstrated that embryonic tubulin organisation was altered. We conclude that P. pouchetii produce some anti-mitotic compound, and that senescent colonial cells to a great extent excrete this compound to their surroundings. PMID:12782080

  1. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe3O4/TiO2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min−1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h−1. (paper)

  2. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: the influence of acclimation on the immune response to ocean warming and acidification.

    Brothers, C J; Harianto, J; McClintock, J B; Byrne, M

    2016-08-31

    Climate-induced ocean warming and acidification may render marine organisms more vulnerable to infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of warming and acidification on the immune response of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma Sea urchins were gradually introduced to four combinations of temperature and pHNIST (17°C/pH 8.15, 17°C/pH 7.6, 23°C/pH 8.15 and 23°C/pH 7.6) and then held in temperature-pH treatments for 1, 15 or 30 days to determine if the immune response would adjust to stressors over time. Coelomocyte concentration and type, phagocytic capacity and bactericidal activity were measured on day 1, 15 and 30 with different sea urchins used each time. At each time point, the coelomic fluid of individuals exposed to increased temperature and acidification had the lowest coelomocyte concentrations, exhibited lower phagocytic capacities and was least effective at inhibiting bacterial growth of the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum Over time, increased temperature alleviated the negative effects of acidification on phagocytic activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating acclimation time to multiple stressors when assessing potential responses to future ocean conditions and indicate that the immune response of H. erythrogramma may be compromised under near-future ocean warming and acidification. PMID:27559066

  3. Echinometra sea urchins acclimatized to elevated pCO2 at volcanic vents outperform those under present-day pCO2 conditions.

    Uthicke, Sven; Ebert, Thomas; Liddy, Michelle; Johansson, Charlotte; Fabricius, Katharina E; Lamare, Miles

    2016-07-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will significantly reduce ocean pH during the 21st century (ocean acidification, OA). This may hamper calcification in marine organisms such as corals and echinoderms, as shown in many laboratory-based experiments. Sea urchins are considered highly vulnerable to OA. We studied an Echinometra species on natural volcanic CO2 vents in Papua New Guinea, where they are CO2 -acclimatized and also subjected to secondary ecological changes from elevated CO2 . Near the vent site, the urchins experienced large daily variations in pH (>1 unit) and pCO2 (>2000 ppm) and average pH values (pHT 7.73) much below those expected under the most pessimistic future emission scenarios. Growth was measured over a 17-month period using tetracycline tagging of the calcareous feeding lanterns. Average-sized urchins grew more than twice as fast at the vent compared with those at an adjacent control site and assumed larger sizes at the vent compared to the control site and two other sites at another reef near-by. A small reduction in gonad weight was detected at the vents, but no differences in mortality, respiration, or degree of test calcification were detected between urchins from vent and control populations. Thus, urchins did not only persist but actually 'thrived' under extreme CO2 conditions. We suggest an ecological basis for this response: Increased algal productivity under increased pCO2 provided more food at the vent, resulting in higher growth rates. The wider implication of our observation is that laboratory studies on non-acclimatized specimens, which typically do not consider ecological changes, can lead to erroneous conclusions on responses to global change. PMID:26762613

  4. The 10 sea urchin receptor for egg jelly proteins (SpREJ are members of the polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1 family

    Miyata Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the human polycystic kidney disease-1 (hPKD1 gene result in ~85% of cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the most frequent human monogenic disease. PKD1 proteins are large multidomain proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction mechanisms. Obtaining more information about members of the PKD1 family will help to clarify their functions. Humans have five hPKD1 proteins, whereas sea urchins have 10. The PKD1 proteins of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, are referred to as the Receptor for Egg Jelly, or SpREJ proteins. The SpREJ proteins form a subfamily within the PKD1 family. They frequently contain C-type lectin domains, PKD repeats, a REJ domain, a GPS domain, a PLAT/LH2 domain, 1–11 transmembrane segments and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Results The 10 full-length SpREJ cDNA sequences were determined. The secondary structures of their deduced proteins were predicted and compared to the five human hPKD1 proteins. The genomic structures of the 10 SpREJs show low similarity to each other. All 10 SpREJs are transcribed in either embryos or adult tissues. SpREJs show distinct patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Adult tissues show tissue-specific patterns of SpREJ expression. Conclusion Possession of a REJ domain of about 600 residues defines this family. Except for SpREJ1 and 3, that are thought to be associated with the sperm acrosome reaction, the functions of the other SpREJ proteins remain unknown. The sea urchin genome is one-fourth the size of the human genome, but sea urchins have 10 SpREJ proteins, whereas humans have five. Determination of the tissue specific function of each of these proteins will be of interest to those studying echinoderm development. Sea urchins are basal deuterostomes, the line of evolution leading to the vertebrates. The study of individual PKD1 proteins will increase our knowledge of the importance of this gene family.

  5. Gamete cryobanks for laboratory research: developing a rapid and easy-to-perform protocol for the cryopreservation of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lmk, 1816) spermatozoa.

    Fabbrocini, Adele; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Pelosi, Sergio; Oliveira, Luis F J; Silvestri, Fausto; Sansone, Giovanni

    2014-08-01

    Gamete cryopreservation is a biotechnology that can guarantee a continuous supply of gametes, regardless of the seasonal reproductive cycle. In this study we developed a protocol for the cryopreservation of the sea urchin Paracentrotuslividus spermatozoa, with a view to the creation of cryobanks of semen to be used as a model system in laboratory research and ecotoxicological tests. All the key phases of the procedure were separately considered and the effect on sperm motility was evaluated by means of computer assisted analysis. The best results were obtained using 7% dimethylsulfoxide in 1% NaCl plus 0.04 M trehalose as the extender, at a freezing rate of -20 °C/min. On thawing, in semen samples cryopreserved in accordance with this protocol the velocity parameters of the sub-population of rapid sperm (best performing spermatozoa) did not significantly differ from semen on collection; in addition also the fertilization ability was restored, and about 50% of normal developed plutei larvae were obtained by thawed semen. The developed protocol is rapid and easy-to-perform; moreover, the use of gametes from reared urchins makes it unnecessary to continuously collect specimens from natural populations, making this procedure a promising starting point for the creation of alternative and more sustainable methodologies in laboratory research on sea urchin gametes and embryos. PMID:24997279

  6. Biochemical analysis of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-membrane interaction mediated by the sea urchin yolk granule protein, toposome.

    Hayley, Michael; Perera, Aruni; Robinson, John J

    2006-08-01

    Toposome, a high molecular mass protein, is an abundant component of the yolk granule in the sea urchin egg and embryo. Toposome is composed of a 160 kDa polypeptide that is proteolytically processed into smaller species of 120 and 90 kDa during embryonic development. The exact biological function of toposome during early development is unknown. In this study we have examined calcium binding to toposome and the effect of this binding on the secondary and tertiary structural characteristics of the purified protein. Initially, we used equilibrium dialysis to quantify calcium binding to toposome. Monophasic binding of up to 600 M of calcium per mole of protein was detected with an intrinsic dissociation constant (calcium) of 240 microm. Increasing concentrations of calcium resulted in an increase in alpha helical content from 3.0 to 22.0%, which occurred with an apparent dissociation constant (calcium) of 25 microm. In parallel experiments, toposome binding to liposomes required similar concentrations of calcium; an apparent dissociation constant (calcium) of 25 microm was recorded. Endogenous tryptophan fluorescence measurements, both in the presence and absence of liposomes, demonstrated that the tertiary structure is sensitive to increasing concentrations of calcium with an apparent dissociation constant (calcium) of 240 microm. Toposome-driven, liposome aggregation assays revealed a similar calcium requirement. Collectively, these results define a two-step model for calcium modulation of toposome structure and function. PMID:16872453

  7. Biochemical analysis of the interaction of calcium with toposome: a major protein component of the sea urchin egg and embryo.

    Hayley, Michael; Sun, Ming; Merschrod, Erika F; Davis, Philip J; Robinson, John J

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the biochemical and functional properties of toposome, a major protein component of sea urchin eggs and embryos. Atomic force microscopy was utilized to demonstrate that a Ca(2+)-driven change in secondary structure facilitated toposome binding to a lipid bilayer. Thermal denaturation studies showed that toposome was dependent upon calcium in a manner paralleling the effect of this cation on secondary and tertiary structure. The calcium-induced, secondary, and tertiary structural changes had no effect on the chymotryptic cleavage pattern. However, the digestion pattern of toposome bound to phosphatidyl serine liposomes did vary as a function of calcium concentration. We also investigated the interaction of this protein with various metal ions. Calcium, Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(3+) all bound to toposome. In addition, Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) displaced Ca(2+), prebound to toposome, while Mg(2+), Ba(2+), and Fe(3+) had no effect. Collectively, these results further enhance our understanding of the role of Ca(2+) in modulating the biological activity of toposome. PMID:17786928

  8. Ars insulator identified in sea urchin possesses an activity to ensure the transgene expression in mouse cells.

    Tajima, Shoji; Shinohara, Keiko; Fukumoto, Maiko; Zaitsu, Reiko; Miyagawa, Junichi; Hino, Shinjiro; Fan, Jun; Akasaka, Koji; Matsuoka, Masao

    2006-04-01

    Sea urchin arylsulfatase (Ars) gene locus has features of an insulator, i.e., blocking of enhancer and promoter interaction, and protection of a transgene against positional effects [Akasaka et al. (1999) Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 555-565]. To examine the effect of Ars insulator on long-term expression of a transgene, the insulator was inserted into LTR of retrovirus vector harboring hrGFP gene as a reporter, and then introduced into mouse myoblast cells. The isolated clones transduced with the reporter gene with or without Ars insulator were cultured for more than 20 wk in the absence of a selection reagent, and the expression of hrGFP was periodically determined. Expression of hrGFP in four clones transduced with the reporter gene without Ars insulator was completely silenced after 20 wk of culture. On the other hand, hrGFP was expressed in all clones with Ars insulator inserted in one of the two different orientations. Histone H3 deacetylation and DNA methylation of the 5'LTR promoter region, signs for heterochromatin and silencing, were suppressed in the clones that were expressing hrGFP. Ars insulator is effective in maintaining a transgene in mouse cells in an orientation-dependent manner, and will be a useful tool to ensure stable expression of a transgene. PMID:16672271

  9. Larval settlement of the common Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma in response to bacteria from the surface of coralline algae.

    Huggett, Megan J; Williamson, Jane E; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Steinberg, Peter D

    2006-10-01

    Bacterial biofilms are increasingly seen as important for the successful settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. Here we tested the effects of biofilms on settlement of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Larvae settled on many surfaces including various algal species, rocks, sand and shells. Settlement was reduced by autoclaving rocks and algae, and by treatment of algae with antibiotics. These results, and molecular and culture-based analyses, suggested that the bacterial community on plants was important for settlement. To test this, approximately 250 strains of bacteria were isolated from coralline algae, and larvae were exposed to single-strain biofilms. Many induced rates of settlement comparable to coralline algae. The genus Pseudoalteromonas dominated these highly inductive strains, with representatives from Vibrio, Shewanella, Photobacterium and Pseudomonas also responsible for a high settlement response. The settlement response to different bacteria was species specific, as low inducers were also dominated by species in the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio. We also, for the first time, assessed settlement of larvae in response to characterised, monospecific biofilms in the field. Larvae metamorphosed in higher numbers on an inducing biofilm, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, than on either a low-inducing biofilm, Pseudoalteromonas rubra, or an unfilmed control. We conclude that the bacterial community on the surface of coralline algae is important as a settlement cue for H. erythrogramma larvae. This study is also an example of the emerging integration of molecular microbiology and more traditional marine eukaryote ecology. PMID:16794830

  10. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation

  11. Sea urchin akt activity is Runx-dependent and required for post-cleavage stage cell division

    Robertson, Anthony J.

    2013-03-25

    In animal development following the initial cleavage stage of embryogenesis, the cell cycle becomes dependent on intercellular signaling and controlled by the genomically encoded ontogenetic program. Runx transcription factors are critical regulators of metazoan developmental signaling, and we have shown that the sea urchin Runx gene runt-1, which is globally expressed during early embryogenesis, functions in support of blastula stage cell proliferation and expression of the mitogenic genes pkc1, cyclinD, and several wnts. To obtain a more comprehensive list of early runt-1 regulatory targets, we screened a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus microarray to identify genes mis-expressed in mid-blastula stage runt-1 morphants. This analysis showed that loss of Runx function perturbs the expression of multiple genes involved in cell division, including the pro-growth and survival kinase Akt (PKB), which is significantly underexpressed in runt-1 morphants. Further genomic analysis revealed that Akt is encoded by two genes in the S. purpuratus genome, akt-1 and akt-2, both of which contain numerous canonical Runx target sequences. The transcripts of both genes accumulate several fold during blastula stage, contingent on runt-1 expression. Inhibiting Akt expression or activity causes blastula stage cell cycle arrest, whereas overexpression of akt-1 mRNA rescues cell proliferation in runt-1 morphants. These results indicate that post-cleavage stage cell division requires Runx-dependent expression of akt.

  12. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    Bošnjak, Ivana [Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb (Croatia); Borra, Marco [Molecular Biology Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna [Electron Microscopy Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Ujević, Ivana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Bušelić, Ivana [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Roje-Busatto, Romana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Mladineo, Ivona, E-mail: mladineo@izor.hr [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Assemble Marine Laboratory, Stazione Zoological Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation.

  13. Influence of gametal release method and larval initial density in the culture of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Sílvia C. Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gonads of sea urchins have increased interest for human consumption, as a culinary delicacy worldwide. In Europe, the species Paracentrotus lividus was identified as an ideal candidate to meet the growing demand for this product, due to its high gonadosomatic index and easy access. However, the current commercial model, based on the exploitation its natural populations, may be unsustainable. Therefore, its production in aquaculture would be beneficial to avoid depletion of natural stocks of these organisms. The present study sought to develop a culture system for Paracentrotus lividus in aquaculture, which would allow maintaining the early embryonic and larval stages of this animal. A trial was set using 3 gametal release methods (due to stress induced by capture and by injecting 0.125M and 0.250M of potassium chloride and 3 densities of sea urchin embryos (530 embryos/L, 1000 embryos/L and 2000 embryos/L, using 5 replicate individual culture tanks for each combined factor. The embryos were obtained by adding gametes to sea water, in a proportion 1 egg : 100 spermatozoids, and by discarding unfertilized floating eggs by decantation. Afterwards, the embryos were transferred to a culture system composed by cylindrical-conical plastic tanks of 2L. These were decontaminated and filled with 0.750L of sea water, continuously aerated through a sterile pipette of 3mL. These tanks were placed on metal shelves, artificially illuminated with daylight fluorescent lamps (18w/765, 400Lux and maintained at 22°C. The larvae were fed each 2 days, with a mixture of microalgae Tetraselmis chuii, Phaeodactylum tricornumtum and Thalassiosira weliflogii at a concentration of 800-1000 microalgae/mL, adding 15µL, 50µL and 30µL to each individual tank, respectively for each of the initial larval densities introduced. There was an influence of the factor initial larval density in the mortality rate, wherein the number of larvae that died during the trial was much

  14. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin (StAP) proved to be active in seawater. • Activity of StAP is inhibited by very low concentrations of heavy metal. • A test to assess sea and fresh water quality has been developed basing on StAP. • For the first time a salt resistant alkaline phosphatase has been found in eukaryote. - Abstract: A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0–8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15–150 μg/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples

  15. Waterborne cues from crabs induce thicker skeletons, smaller gonads and size-specific changes in growth rate in sea urchins.

    Selden, Rebecca; Johnson, Amy S; Ellers, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Indirect predator-induced effects on growth, morphology and reproduction have been extensively studied in marine invertebrates but usually without consideration of size-specific effects and not at all in post-metamorphic echinoids. Urchins are an unusually good system, in which, to study size effects because individuals of various ages within one species span four orders of magnitude in weight while retaining a nearly isometric morphology. We tracked growth of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (0.013-161.385 g), in the presence or absence of waterborne cues from predatory Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis. We ran experiments at ambient temperatures, once for 4 weeks during summer and again, with a second set of urchins, for 22 weeks over winter. We used a scaled, cube-root transformation of weight for measuring size more precisely and for equalizing variance across sizes. Growth rate of the smallest urchins (summer: <17 mm diameter; winter: <7 mm diameter) decreased by 40-42% in response to crab cues. In contrast, growth rate of larger urchins was unaffected in the summer and increased in response to crab scent by 7% in the winter. At the end of the 22-week experiment, additional gonadal and skeletal variables were measured. Cue-exposed urchins developed heavier, thicker skeletons and smaller gonads, but no differences in spine length or jaw size. The differences depended on urchin size, suggesting that there are size-specific shifts in gonadal and somatic investment in urchins. PMID:24489404

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of ZnO/MnO2 sea urchin-like sleeve array as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    MnO2 is electrodeposited onto ZnO nanorod array grown on Ni foil, forming a binder-free ZnO/MnO2 composited electrode. XRD, EDS, SEM and TEM are used to analyze the phase and microstructure of this composite. Burr-like MnO2 nanoflakes grows on ZnO nanorod array, the top of the composite is hollow and at the bottom exists ZnO large block core as an internal support, forming ZnO/MnO2 sea urchin-like sleeve array. As anode material for lithium ion batteries, ZnO/MnO2 sleeve array exhibits higher discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency, better rate performance and cycling stability than single ZnO nanorod array or directly electrodepsited MnO2, and the composite effect is very remarkable. After 100 cycles, the discharge capacity of ZnO/MnO2 still reaches 1259 mA h g−1, and coulombic efficiency surpasses 98%, higher than those of ZnO nanorod array (111 mA h g−1) and directly electrodeposited MnO2 (507 mA h g−1). The improvement of the electrochemical performances is due to the unique sea urchin-like sleeve array architecture. MnO2 burr tube shell structure leads to high electrochemical activity while the internal ZnO core support ensures good structure stability. The gradually opening of sea urchin-like sleeve during the cycling further enhances the electrochemical activity of MnO2, stabilizing and increasing electrochemical performances of the ZnO/MnO2 composite

  17. Identification of a repeated sequence in the genome of the sea urchin which is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and contains the features of a retroposon.

    Nisson, P E; Hickey, R. J.; Boshar, M F; Crain, W R

    1988-01-01

    A repeated sequence element which is located about 200 nucleotides upstream from the protein-coding portion of the muscle actin gene (probably within a large 5' intron) in the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has been characterized, and shown to contain the sequence features which indicate that it has been transposed by means of an RNA intermediate. This retroposon-like sequence, SURF1-1, is a member of a family which is dispersed and repeated about 800 times in the gen...

  18. Warming influences Mg2+ content, while warming and acidification influence calcification and test strength of a sea urchin

    Byrne, M; Smith, M.; Wes, S; Collard, M.; Dubois, P.; Graba-landry, A; Dworjanyn, A

    2014-01-01

    We examined the long-term effects of near-future changes in temperature and acidification on skeletal mineralogy, thickness, and strength in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla reared in all combinations of three pH (pH 8.1, 7.8, 7.6) and three temperatures (22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C) from the early juvenile to adult, over 146 days. As the high-magnesium calcite of the echinoderm skeleton is a biomineral form highly sensitive to acidification, and influenced by temperature, we documented the MgCO3 ...

  19. EFFECT OF DIET QUALITY ON NUTRIENT ALLOCATION TO THE TEST AND ARISTOTLE’S LANTERN IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS (LAMARCK, 1816)

    Heflin, Laura Elizabeth; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L.; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, Addison L.; Lawrence, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Small adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (12 to 36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21 to 39 % dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion scores were used to compare six different dietary composition hypotheses for eight growth measurements. For each physical growth response, differ...

  20. Cloning and SNPs analysis of CYP51 gene cDNA in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius%虾夷马粪海胆CYP51基因cDNA的克隆及其SNPs分析

    仇雪梅; 吴领知; 郭晓黎; 张伟杰; 丛玉婷; 常亚青; 宋坚; 刘洋; 王秀利

    2012-01-01

    In this study,CYP51 gene was cloned and its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism(PCR-SSCP) in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The results showed that the 1 536 bp sequence including a 1 491 bp open reading frame ( ORF) and encoding 496 amino acids was obtained from CYP51 gene. A SNP A→G was found in the 161st nucleotide of open reading frame in CYP51 cDNA. The analysis of the SNPs showed that there was a significant association (P<0. 05) between the SNP and growth traits such as gonad weight and body weight. The CYP51 cDNA cloning and its SNPs analysis was the first time conducted in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The findings provide basic theory of molecular marker-assisted breeding of the sea urchin.%采用RT-PCR、PCR-SSCP等分子生物学技术和关联分析等方法对虾夷马粪海胆Strongylocentrotus intermedius CYP51基因的cDNA序列进行了克隆和单核苷酸多态性分析.结果表明:虾夷马粪海胆的CYP51基因包括一个1491 bp的开放阅读框,编码496个氨基酸;其开放阅读框的第161个核苷酸处存在1个单核苷酸多态性,即核苷酸发生了A→G突变.关联分析结果表明,该单核苷酸多态性与虾夷马粪海胆的体质量、性腺质量之间存在显著相关性(P<0.05).本研究中首次克隆了虾夷马粪海胆CYP51基因的cDNA序列并进行了SNPs分析,研究结果可为虾夷马粪海胆的分子标记辅助育种提供参考.

  1. After fertilization of sea urchin eggs, eIF4G is post-translationally modified and associated with the cap-binding protein eIF4E.

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Salaün, Patrick; Cosson, Bertrand; Cormier, Patrick; Morales, Julia

    2007-02-01

    Release of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) from its translational repressor eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) is a crucial event for the first mitotic division following fertilization of sea urchin eggs. Finding partners of eIF4E following fertilization is crucial to understand how eIF4E functions during this physiological process. The isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding Sphaerechinus granularis eIF4G (SgIF4G) are reported. mRNA of SgIF4G is present as a single 8.5-kb transcript in unfertilized eggs, suggesting that only one ortholog exists in echinoderms. The longest open reading frame predicts a sequence of 5235 nucleotides encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1745 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 192 kDa. Among highly conserved domains, SgIF4G protein possesses motifs that correspond to the poly(A) binding protein and eIF4E protein-binding sites. A specific polyclonal antibody was produced and used to characterize the SgIF4G protein in unfertilized and fertilized eggs by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Multiple differentially migrating bands representing isoforms of sea urchin eIF4G are present in unfertilized eggs. Fertilization triggers modifications of the SgIF4G isoforms and rapid formation of the SgIF4G-eIF4E complex. Whereas rapamycin inhibits the formation of the SgIF4G-eIF4E complex, modification of these SgIF4G isoforms occurs independently from the rapamycin-sensitive pathway. Microinjection of a peptide corresponding to the eIF4E-binding site derived from the sequence of SgIF4G into unfertilized eggs affects the first mitotic division of sea urchin embryos. Association of SgIF4G with eIF4E is a crucial event for the onset of the first mitotic division following fertilization, suggesting that cap-dependent translation is highly regulated during this process. This hypothesis is strengthened by the evidence that microinjection of the cap analog m(7)GDP into unfertilized eggs inhibits the first mitotic division. PMID:17213333

  2. Regulatory punctuated equilibrium and convergence in the evolution of developmental pathways in direct-developing sea urchins.

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Popodi, Ellen M; Kauffman, Jeffery S; Sly, Belinda J; Turner, F Rudolf; Morris, Valerie B; Raff, Rudolf A

    2003-01-01

    We made hybrid crosses between closely and distantly related sea urchin species to test two hypotheses about the evolution of gene regulatory systems in the evolution of ontogenetic pathways and larval form. The first hypothesis is that gene regulatory systems governing development evolve in a punctuational manner during periods of rapid morphological evolution but are relatively stable over long periods of slow morphological evolution. We compared hybrids between direct and indirect developers from closely and distantly related families. Hybrids between eggs of the direct developer Heliocidaris erythrogramma and sperm of the 4-million year distant species H. tuberculata, an indirect developer, restored feeding larval structures and paternal gene expression that were lost in the evolution of the direct-developing maternal parent. Hybrids resulting from the cross between eggs of H. erythrogramma and sperm of the 40-million year distant indirect-developer Pseudoboletia maculata are strikingly similar to hybrids between the congeneric hybrids. The marked similarities in ontogenetic trajectory and morphological outcome in crosses of involving either closely or distantly related indirect developing species indicates that their regulatory mechanisms interact with those of H. erythrogramma in the same way, supporting remarkable conservation of molecular control pathways among indirect developers. Second, we tested the hypothesis that convergent developmental pathways in independently evolved direct developers reflect convergence of the underlying regulatory systems. Crosses between two independently evolved direct-developing species from two 70-million year distant families, H. erythrogramma and Holopneustes purpurescens, produced harmoniously developing hybrid larvae that maintained the direct mode of development and did not exhibit any obvious restoration of indirect-developing features. These results are consistent with parallel evolution of direct-developing features

  3. New regulatory circuit controlling spatial and temporal gene expression in the sea urchin embryo oral ectoderm GRN.

    Li, Enhu; Materna, Stefan C; Davidson, Eric H

    2013-10-01

    The sea urchin oral ectoderm gene regulatory network (GRN) model has increased in complexity as additional genes are added to it, revealing its multiple spatial regulatory state domains. The formation of the oral ectoderm begins with an oral-aboral redox gradient, which is interpreted by the cis-regulatory system of the nodal gene to cause its expression on the oral side of the embryo. Nodal signaling drives cohorts of regulatory genes within the oral ectoderm and its derived subdomains. Activation of these genes occurs sequentially, spanning the entire blastula stage. During this process the stomodeal subdomain emerges inside of the oral ectoderm, and bilateral subdomains defining the lateral portions of the future ciliary band emerge adjacent to the central oral ectoderm. Here we examine two regulatory genes encoding repressors, sip1 and ets4, which selectively prevent transcription of oral ectoderm genes until their expression is cleared from the oral ectoderm as an indirect consequence of Nodal signaling. We show that the timing of transcriptional de-repression of sip1 and ets4 targets which occurs upon their clearance explains the dynamics of oral ectoderm gene expression. In addition two other repressors, the direct Nodal target not, and the feed forward Nodal target goosecoid, repress expression of regulatory genes in the central animal oral ectoderm thereby confining their expression to the lateral domains of the animal ectoderm. These results have permitted construction of an enhanced animal ectoderm GRN model highlighting the repressive interactions providing precise temporal and spatial control of regulatory gene expression. PMID:23933172

  4. [Studies on the effects of dental amalgam upon the fertilization and early development of sea urchin eggs (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) (author's transl)].

    Kukizaki, S

    1975-05-01

    Silver-tin amalgam that has been used as a filling material in routine dental clinic contains a large amount of mercury and the cytotoxity of metal mercury may hazard to patients. There have been a number of papers reporting that the dental amalgam has not any toxic action to living cells in animal experiments in vivo. However, the mechanism of cytotoxic action and effects of these metals for tissues and cells were not reported so far. In the present experiments, the analysis of the cytotoxic action of silver-tin alloys and their amalgam in vitro cytological experiments with fertilized eggs and developing embryos of sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, were examined. When the silver-tin alloy powder was incubated in normal sea water medium there are non or weak cytotoxic reaction upon fertilized eggs and early embryos of sea urchin. Metal mercury in the medium effects remarkable cytotoxic action upon the development of early embryos; the cleavage and early development were delayed and all of the embryos show deformity. Immediately after the alloy powder was triturated with mercury, it shows strong cytotoxic action as the metal mercury was incubated, however, the cytotoxic action decreased and almost disappeared in 5 hours after trituration. The mechanism of cytotoxic action and the adequacy of clinical application of the amalgam were discussed. PMID:1058261

  5. Li/Ca, B/Ca, and Mg/Ca content in sea urchin spines cultured at different temperatures and pCO2

    Nguyen, T.; Eagle, R.; Courtney, T.; Ries, J. B.; Brillo, V.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Gabitov, R. I.; Tripati, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Element/calcium ratios within biogenic calcium carbonate minerals have been used as tools to reconstruct seawater temperature and pH. Most recent studies have focused on examining systematics governing elemental incorporation in coral, foraminifera, and otoliths [1-3, etc.]. In this study we focus on examining Li/Ca, B/Ca, and Mg/Ca ratios in sea urchins cultured at different temperatures and pCO2. We conducted in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses on two different species of sea urchins. A temperate species of sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) was cultured at variable pCO2 (400, 600, 900, 2850 ppmv) and at a constant temperature (25°C) [4]. We also investigated a tropical species of sea urchins (Echinometra viridis) that was cultured at variable pCO2 (400 and 1000 ppmv) and variable temperature (20°C and 30°C). The highly porous spines were embedded in epoxy and polished with 3 μm diamond suspension. SIMS analyses were performed with an oxygen primary beam and a lateral spatial resolution of about 40 μm. The standard deviation for SIMS spot analysis of Li in the reference synthetic calcite, CAL-HTP, was 3.5 % (1σ). The standard deviation of SIMS spots analyses of coral reference material M93-TB-FC-1 was 9.5 % (1σ). The bulk B content in this reference coral was determined by LA-ICP-MS as 39.3 ppm [6]. The standard deviation for the SIMS spot analysis of Mg in the reference synthetic calcite, UCI, was 1% (1σ). For the temperate species, B/Ca ratios decrease from ~0.39 to 0.29 mmol/mol as pCO2 increase from 400 to 2850 ppmv. This suggests that B/Ca ratios in this species may be a viable proxy for paleo-seawater pH. Other elements such as Li/Ca showed an increase from .047 to .052 mmol/mol as pCO2 increased. However, Mg/Ca did not show any significant trend as pCO2 increased. The tropical species showed a general increase in Li/Ca, B/Ca, Mg/Ca with increasing temperature. When temperature was held constant, there was no significant effect of

  6. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  7. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  8. Multidrug Efflux Transporters Limit Accumulation of Inorganic, but Not Organic, Mercury in Sea Urchin Embryos

    BOŠNJAK, IVANA; Uhlinger, Kevin R.; Heim, Wesley; Smital, Tvrtko; Franekić-Čolić, Jasna; Coale, Kenneth; Epel, David; Hamdoun, Amro

    2009-01-01

    Mercuric compounds are persistent global pollutants that accumulate in marine organisms and in humans who consume them. While the chemical cycles and speciation of mercury in the oceans are relatively well described, the cellular mechanisms that govern which forms of mercury accumulate in cells and why they persist are less understood. In this study we examined the role of multidrug efflux transport in the differential accumulation of inorganic (HgCl2) and organic (CH3HgCl) mercury in sea urc...

  9. Evaporation of Boric Acid from Sea Water

    Gast, James A.; Thompson, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that the boron-chlorinity ratios of rain waters are many times greater than the boron-chlorinity ratio of sea water. The presence of boron in the atmosphere has been attributed to sea spray, volcanic activity, accumulation in dust, evaporation from plants, and industrial pollution. In this paper data are presented to demonstrate that boric acid in sea water has a vapor pressure at ordinary temperatures of the sea and, when sea water evaporates, boric acid occ...

  10. Mechanical properties of the compass depressors of the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea and the effects of enzymes, neurotransmitters and synthetic tensilin-like protein.

    Iain C Wilkie

    Full Text Available The compass depressors (CDs of the sea-urchin lantern are ligaments consisting mainly of discontinuous collagen fibrils associated with a small population of myocytes. They are mutable collagenous structures, which can change their mechanical properties rapidly and reversibly under nervous control. The aims of this investigation were to characterise the baseline (i.e. unmanipulated static mechanical properties of the CDs of Paracentrotus lividus by means of creep tests and incremental force-extension tests, and to determine the effects on their mechanical behaviour of a range of agents. Under constant load the CDs exhibited a three-phase creep curve, the mean coefficient of viscosity being 561±365 MPa.s. The stress-strain curve showed toe, linear and yield regions; the mean strain at the toe-linear inflection was 0.86±0.61; the mean Young's modulus was 18.62±10.30 MPa; and the mean tensile strength was 8.14±5.73 MPa. Hyaluronidase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus had no effect on creep behaviour, whilst chondroitinase ABC prolonged primary creep but had no effect on secondary creep or on any force-extension parameters; it thus appears that neither hyaluronic acid nor sulphated glycosaminoglycans have an interfibrillar load transfer function in the CD. Acetylcholine, the muscarinic agonists arecoline and methacholine, and the nicotinic agonists nicotine and 1-[1-(3,4-dimethyl-phenyl-ethyl]-piperazine produced an abrupt increase in CD viscosity; the CDs were not differentially sensitive to muscarinic or nicotinic agonists. CDs showed either no, or no consistent, response to adrenaline, L-glutamic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine and γ-aminobutyric acid. Synthetic echinoid tensilin-like protein had a weak and inconsistent stiffening effect, indicating that, in contrast to holothurian tensilins, the echinoid molecule may not be involved in the regulation of collagenous tissue tensility. We compare in detail the mechanical behaviour of the CD with that

  11. The PHD domain of the sea urchin RAG2 homolog, SpRAG2L, recognizes dimethylated lysine 4 in histone H3 tails.

    Wilson, David R; Norton, Darrell D; Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2008-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is a somatic gene rearrangement process that assembles antigen receptor genes from individual segments during lymphocyte development. The access of the RAG1/RAG2 recombinase to these gene segments is regulated at the level of chromatin modifications, in particular histone tail modifications. Trimethylation of lysine 4 in histone H3 (H3K4me3) correlates with actively recombining gene elements, and this mark is recognized and interpreted by the plant homeodomain (PHD) of RAG2. Here we report that the PHD domain of the only known invertebrate homolog of RAG2, the SpRAG2L protein of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) also binds to methylated histones, but with a unique preference for H3K4me2. While the cognate substrate for the sea urchin RAG1L/RAG2L complex remains elusive, the affinity for histone tails and the nuclear localization of ectopically expressed SpRAG2L strongly support the model that this enzyme complex exerts its activity on DNA in the context of chromatin. PMID:18499250

  12. Distinct embryotoxic effects of lithium appeared in a new assessment model of the sea urchin: the whole embryo assay and the blastomere culture assay.

    Kiyomoto, Masato; Morinaga, Seiko; Ooi, Nagisa

    2010-03-01

    Early embryogenesis is one of the most sensitive and critical stages in animal development. Here we propose a new assessment model on the effect of pollutant to multicellular organism development. That is a comparison between the whole embryo assay and the blastomere culture assay. We examined the LiCl effect on the sea urchin early development in both of whole embryos and the culture of isolated blastomeres. The mesoderm and endoderm region were capable to differentiate into skeletogenic cells when they were isolated at 60-cell stage and cultured in vitro. The embryo developed to exogastrula by the vegetalizing effect of the same LiCl condition where ectodermal region changed their fate to endoderm, while the isolated blastomeres from the presumptive ectoderm region differentiated into skeletogenic cells in the culture with LiCl. The effect of LiCl to the sea urchin embryo and to the dissociated blastomere is a unique example where same cells response distinctly to the same agent depend on the condition around them. Present results show the importance of examining the process in cellular and tissue levels for the exact understanding on the morphological effect of chemicals and metals. PMID:20020201

  13. Expression of univin, a TGF-beta growth factor, requires ectoderm-ECM interaction and promotes skeletal growth in the sea urchin embryo.

    Zito, Francesca; Costa, Caterina; Sciarrino, Serafina; Poma, Veronica; Russo, Roberta; Angerer, Lynne M; Matranga, Valeria

    2003-12-01

    Pl-nectin is an ECM protein located on the apical surface of ectoderm cells of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryo. Inhibition of ECM-ectoderm cell interaction by the addition of McAb to Pl-nectin to the culture causes a dramatic impairment of skeletogenesis, offering a good model for the study of factor(s) involved in skeleton elongation and patterning. We showed that skeleton deficiency was not due to a reduction in the number of PMCs ingressing the blastocoel, but it was correlated with a reduction in the number of Pl-SM30-expressing PMCs. Here, we provide evidence on the involvement of growth factor(s) in skeleton morphogenesis. Skeleton-defective embryos showed a strong reduction in the levels of expression of Pl-univin, a growth factor of the TGF-beta superfamily, which was correlated with an equivalent strong reduction in the levels of Pl-SM30. In contrast, expression levels of Pl-BMP5-7 remained low and constant in both skeleton-defective and normal embryos. Microinjection of horse serum in the blastocoelic cavity of embryos cultured in the presence of the antibody rescued skeleton development. Finally, we found that misexpression of univin is also sufficient to rescue defects in skeleton elongation and SM30 expression caused by McAb to Pl-nectin, suggesting a key role for univin or closely related factor in sea urchin skeleton morphogenesis. PMID:14623243

  14. Mechanisms of Nickel Toxicity in the Highly Sensitive Embryos of the Sea Urchin Evechinus chloroticus, and the Modifying Effects of Natural Organic Matter.

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Smith, D Scott; Wood, Chris M; Glover, Chris N

    2016-02-01

    A 96 h toxicity test showed that the embryos of the New Zealand sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) are the most sensitive of all studied marine species to waterborne nickel (Ni), with the EC50 for the development of fully formed pluteus larvae found to be 14 μg L(-1). Failure to develop a standard larval shape suggested skeletal impairment. Whole body ions (Na, Mg) increased with Ni exposure and calcium influx was depressed. The effects of natural organic matter (NOM) on Ni accumulation and toxicity were also examined in three different seawater sources (nearshore, offshore, and near the outlet of a "brown water" stream). At low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations the brown water NOM was protective against Ni toxicity, however at higher DOC concentrations it exacerbated developmental toxicity in the presence of Ni. These results show that sea urchin development is highly sensitive to Ni via a mechanism that involves ionoregulatory disturbance, and that Ni toxicity is influenced by environmental factors such as NOM. These data will be critical for the development of water quality guidelines for Ni in the marine environment. PMID:26730609

  15. Radioprotective efficacy of serotonin and its analogues in the experiments with sea urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus nudus)

    Serotonin and mexamine, added to cells before or after irradiation, were found to increase the survival rate of S. nudus eggs. Their analogues (6-oxytryptamine, 5-sulphamidotryptamine-2-carboxylic acid), which do not have a protective effect on mammals, increased the survival rate of irradiated eggs when used before and after irradiation. Histamine also had a protective action. The possible mechanism underlying the action of the amines used is discussed. (V.A.P.)

  16. Isolation of immune-relating 185/333-1 gene from Sea Urchin ( Strongylocentrotus intermedius) and Its expression analysis

    Wang, Yinan; Ding, Jun; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xuewei; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-02-01

    The 185/333 gene family involved in the immune response of sea urchin. One 185/333 cDNA was isolated from Strongylocentrotus intermedius, and named as Si185/333-1. Its full-length cDNA was 1246 bp in length with a 906 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 301 aa. The molecular weight of the deduced protein was approximately 33.1 kD with an estimated PI of pH 6.26. Si185/333-1 had high identities (70%-86%) to most of Sp185/333. An extraordinary identity of 92% was found between Si185/333-1 and Sp185/333 C5 alpha (ABR22474). Moderate identities (63%-64%) were displayed between Si185/333-1 and He185/333. Si185/333-1 had similar structure to Sp185/333. A signal-peptide, a gly-rich region and a his-rich region were found in its secondary structure. RGD motif was found in gly-rich region at position 116-118aa. There was no transmembrane region in Si185/333-1. The element pattern of Si185/333-1 is different from any available pattern that identified in Sp185/333. Si185/333-1 clustered together with pattern C Sp185/333 in phylogenetic tree. The Si185/333-1 mRNA could be detected in tißsues including peristomial membrane, coelomocytes, muscle of Aristotles lantern, gut and tube feet, with the highest expression level detected in peristomial membrane and a relatively low expression in ovary and testis. The temporal expression of Si185/333-1 in peristomial membrane and coelomocytes were up-regulated after bacterial, ß-D-glucan and dsRNA challenges, reaching the maximum at 12 h post-stimulation. The up-regulation was more obvious in coelomocytes, and bacterial challenge triggered the highest response. These results proved that 185/333-1 gene was involved in the immune defense of S. intermedius, while more studies were necessary for its function in S. intermedius immunity.

  17. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  18. Physiological effects and cellular responses of metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchin exposed to ionic and nanoparticulate silver.

    Magesky, Adriano; Ribeiro, Ciro A Oliveiro; Pelletier, Émilien

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) would likely result in their discharge into wastewater and inevitable release in densely populated coastal areas. It is known that AgNPs can cause harmful effects to marine fauna, but how they affect development stages is still an open question. In order to understand in details how polymer-coated AgNPs (PAAm-AgNPs) (from 0.19 to 4.64mM as Ag) can affect critical stages of marine invertebrate development, metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchins were used as biological models. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix with PERMANOVA showed organisms in a multivariate space undergoing through different physiological conditions as a function of time, chemical forms of silver, nominal concentrations, and presence or absence of food. Sublethal effects such as lethargy, oedema and immobility mainly characterized PAAm-AgNPs effects with juveniles and postlarvae, whereas necrosis and death arose in Ag(+) conditions in short-term tests. Chronically exposed metamorphic larvae had their morphogenic processes interrupted by PAAm-AgNPs and a high mortality rate was observed in recovery period. On the contrary, Ag(+) ions caused progressive mortality during exposure, but a quick recovery in uncontaminated seawater was observed. By means of fluorescent markers we showed that nanosilver could be transferred between consecutive stages (swimming larvae and postlarvae) and highlighted how important is food to enhance PAAm-AgNPs uptake. Using TEM we observed that unfed juveniles had nanosilver aggregates mostly restricted to their coelomic sinuses, while metamorphic larvae already had nano-contamination overspread in different tissues and blastocoel. Our main hypothesis for nanotoxicity of PAAM-AgNPs relies on the slow dissolution of nano-core over time, but in this study the effects of particulate silver form itself are also evoked. Main mechanisms governing tissular and cellular responses

  19. [Demography and fishery of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinidae) in south-austral Chile region].

    Arana, Patricio M

    2005-12-01

    In the Magellan Region of southern Chile (52 degrees 20'S - 55 degrees 30'S), the edible urchin Loxechinus albus is collected by 1200 artisanal fishermen, of whom 450 are divers. About 360 small fishing boats and 54 transport vessels carry the fresh product to 16 processing plants. Landings of about 27 000 tons were recorded between January and December 1995. Test diameters of urchins harvested monthly were measured for a total of 119 239 specimens, and 36 406 specimens were individually weighed; sex determination was carried out on 2 314 specimens. Field data indicate that the harvest was about 6.6 x 106 dozen urchins (this is a measuring method employed by fishermen in the region), with an extractive effort of 14 753 diver/days. The fisheries yield ranged from an annual minimum of 235 DUDD (dozen urchins per diver/day) to a maximum of 660 DUDD. In overall terms, the lowest average yields were between January and April (415-427 DUDD), and the highest yields between May and December (456-510 DUDD). Mean sizes increased from June to November and decreased from December to June. Size frequency of males and females were polymodal, with the most relevant modes at 72-84 mm in males, and at 79-88 mm in the females. The percentage of individuals below the minimum legal size (70 mm) did not exceed 4.9% for males and 3.6% for females. The size-weight records fit a power model which suggested that this species has a negative allometric growth (b = 2.007). Regarding weight, urchins in the size range from 80.0 to 84.9 mm were those with the maximum contribution to the regional landings. The highest values recorded for the utilized condition factor were: Average Condition Factor (ACF) = May to July, and November; Isometric (or Cubic) Condition Factor (ICF) = July; and Allometric Condition Factor (ACF) = June. Spawning occurred mainly between August and September, and ended by the end of October. Exploitation of this species represents one of the main sources of employment for

  20. Gender differences in the immune system activities of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Arizza, Vincenzo; Vazzana, Mirella; Schillaci, Domenico; Russo, Debora; Giaramita, Francesca Tiziana; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2013-03-01

    In the immune system of vertebrates, gender-specific differences in individual immune competence are well known. In general, females possess more powerful immune response than males. In invertebrates, the situation is much less clear. For this purpose we have chosen to study the immune response of the two sexes of the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus in pre- and post-spawning phases. The coelomic fluid from the echinoderms contains several coelomocyte types and molecules involved in innate immune defenses. In this article we report that the degree of immune responses in the P. lividus differs according to sex in both pre- and post-spawning phases. We found in all tests that females were more active than males. The results indicate that females possess a significant higher number of immunocytes consisting of phagocytes and uncolored spherulocytes. Since the immunological activity is mainly based on immunocytes, it was not surprising that females possessed the highest values of cytotoxicity and hemolysis activity and showed a greater ability to uptake neutral red and phagocyte yeasts cells, while the average number of ingested particles per active phagocyte was not significantly different. Furthermore, agglutinating activity was more evident in the coelomocyte lysate and coelomic fluid of females than in those of males. Finally we found that the acidic extract of female gonads possessed greater antimicrobial activity than that of male gonads. These results make it very likely that gender differences in the immune response are not restricted to vertebrates; rather, they are a general evolutionary phenomenon. PMID:23220062

  1. Microgravity alters protein phosphorylation changes during initiation of sea urchin sperm motility

    Tash, J. S.; Bracho, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) studies demonstrated that bull sperm swim with higher velocity in microgravity (microG) than at 1 G. Coupling between protein phosphorylation and sperm motility during activation in microG and at 1 G was examined in the ESA Biorack on two space shuttle missions. Immotile sperm were activated to swim (86-90% motility) at launch +20 h by dilution into artificial seawater (ASW). Parallel ground controls were performed 2 h after the flight experiment. Activation after 0, 30, and 60 s was terminated with electrophoresis sample buffer and samples analyzed for phosphoamino acids by Western blotting. Phosphorylation of a 130-kDa phosphothreonine-containing protein (FP130) occurred three to four times faster in microG than at 1 G. A 32-kDa phosphoserine-containing protein was significantly stimulated at 30 s but returned to 1 G control levels at 60 s. The rate of FP130 phosphorylation in microG was attenuated by D2O, suggesting that changes in water properties participate in altering signal transduction. Changes in FP130 phosphorylation triggered by the egg peptide speract were delayed in microG. These results demonstrate that previously observed effects of microG on sperm motility are coupled to changes in phosphorylation of specific flagellar proteins and that early events of sperm activation and fertilization are altered in microG.

  2. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

    SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ; CRISTIAN W CÁCERES; F. PATRICIO OJEDA

    2008-01-01

    The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine...

  3. Effect of synthesis duration on the morphological and structural modification of the sea urchin-nanostructured γ-MnO2 and study of its electrochemical reactivity in alkaline medium

    Benhaddad, Lynda; Bazin, Cyrille; Makhloufi, L.; Messaoudi, Bouzid; Pillier, Francoise; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi

    2014-01-01

    "The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com International audience Single-crystalline nanorods and sea urchin-like morphology of the γ-MnO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method at different synthesis durations. The as-synthesized products were characterized by the techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission gun-scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray elemental analysis (EDX), transmission...

  4. High quality draft genome sequence of the slightly halophilic bacterium Halomonas zhanjiangensis type strain JSM 078169(T) (DSM 21076(T)) from a sea urchin in southern China.

    Zhou, Yu; Li, Rui; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Haynes, Matthew; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Rohde, Manfred; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tindall, Brian J; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-06-15

    Halomonas zhanjiangensis Chen et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Halomonas, family Halomonadaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. Representatives of the genus Halomonas are a group of halophilic bacteria often isolated from salty environments. The type strain H. zhanjiangensis JSM 078169(T) was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. The genome of strain JSM 078169(T) is the fourteenth sequenced genome in the genus Halomonas and the fifteenth in the family Halomonadaceae. The other thirteen genomes from the genus Halomonas are H. halocynthiae, H. venusta, H. alkaliphila, H. lutea, H. anticariensis, H. jeotgali, H. titanicae, H. desiderata, H. smyrnensis, H. salifodinae, H. boliviensis, H. elongata and H stevensii. Here, we describe the features of strain JSM 078169(T), together with the complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 21076(T). The 4,060,520 bp long draft genome consists of 17 scaffolds with the 3,659 protein-coding and 80 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project. PMID:25197480

  5. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  6. The protease degrading sperm histones post-fertilization in sea urchin eggs is a nuclear cathepsin L that is further required for embryo development.

    Violeta Morin

    Full Text Available Proteolysis of sperm histones in the sea urchin male pronucleus is the consequence of the activation at fertilization of a maternal cysteine protease. We previously showed that this protein is required for male chromatin remodelling and for cell-cycle progression in the newly formed embryos. This enzyme is present in the nucleus of unfertilized eggs and is rapidly recruited to the male pronucleus after insemination. Interestingly, this cysteine-protease remains co-localized with chromatin during S phase of the first cell cycle, migrates to the mitotic spindle in M-phase and is re-located to the nuclei of daughter cells after cytokinesis. Here we identified the protease encoding cDNA and found a high sequence identity to cathepsin proteases of various organisms. A phylogenetical analysis clearly demonstrates that this sperm histone protease (SpHp belongs to the cathepsin L sub-type. After an initial phase of ubiquitous expression throughout cleavage stages, SpHp gene transcripts become restricted to endomesodermic territories during the blastula stage. The transcripts are localized in the invaginating endoderm during gastrulation and a gut specific pattern continues through the prism and early pluteus stages. In addition, a concomitant expression of SpHp transcripts is detected in cells of the skeletogenic lineage and in accordance a pharmacological disruption of SpHp activity prevents growth of skeletal rods. These results further document the role of this nuclear cathepsin L during development.

  7. Novel derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are potent mitostatic agents featuring strong microtubule depolymerizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    Kiselyov, Alex S; Semenova, Marina N; Chernyshova, Natalya B; Leitao, Andrei; Samet, Alexandr V; Kislyi, Konstantine A; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Oprea, Tudor; Lemcke, Heiko; Lantow, Margaréta; Weiss, Dieter G; Ikizalp, Nazli N; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2010-05-01

    A series of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives based on structural and electronic overlap with combretastatins have been designed and synthesized. Initially, we tested all new compounds in vivo using the phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to yield a number of agents with anti-proliferative, anti-mitotic, and microtubule destabilizing activities. The experimental data led to identification of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with isothiazole (5-8) and phenyl (9-12) pharmacophores featuring activity profiles comparable to that of combretastatins, podophyllotoxin and nocodazole. Cytotoxic effects of the two lead molecules, namely 6 and 12, were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with the A549 human cancer cell line including cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, cellular microtubule distribution, and finally in vitro microtubule assembly with purified tubulin. The modeling results using 3D similarity (ROCS) and docking (FRED) correlated well with the observed activity of the molecules. Docking data suggested that the most potent molecules are likely to target the colchicine binding site. PMID:20110137

  8. Effects of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum on bacterial production and carbon flow in experimental benthic systems under increasing organic loading

    Osinga, Ronald; Kop, Arjen J.; Malschaert, Johannes F. P.; Van Duyl, Fleur C.

    1997-05-01

    Effects of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum on benthic bacterial production were studied in marine sediment boxcosms, to which different amounts of organic matter (30, 60 and 90 g C m -2) were added. Bacterial production was estimated from incorporation rates of 3H-labelled leucine. The distribution of organic carbon in the boxcosm sediments was monitored. Measurements were done over a period of 27 days after the introduction of organic matter. Non-enriched boxcosms were used as controls. In macrobenthos-free boxcosms, the bacterial response to organic-matter additions mainly took place in the organic-matter layer on the sediment surface and in the upper 3 mm of the sediment. In the presence of E. cordatum, more organic matter was transported into the sediment, and the bacterial production rates in deeper sediment layers were higher. Increasing the organic loading did not further enhance these rates. It is concluded that E. cordatum stimulates bacterial production in deeper sediment layers by increasing the transport of organic matter into the sediment and perhaps also by promoting its degradation. At an increasing load with organic matter, the relative importance of the effects of E. cordatum decreases.

  9. [Larvae and postlarvae production of the green-white sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in culture conditions].

    Buitrago, Esperanza; Lodeiros Seijo, César

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the biological feasibility of massive larvae and postlarvae production of the Caribbean green-white urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Experiments were designed to choose the initial larval density and microalgae diets under culture, to study metamorphosis, postlarval and juvenile growth. Massive production of competent larvae 650 microm long at 12-13 days is possible using larval densities of 0.25 to 1 larva/ml. The microalgae Rhodomonas sp. was suitable for the optimization of larval growth and survival. Metamorphosis of 100% of the larvae can be induced with films of bentic diatoms (Navicula sp. and Amphora sp.), after 96 h; however, diatoms are not adequate for postlarval development and a food supply of Ulva lactuta is necessary for proper growth. For juveniles, a diet of macroalgae (U. lactuta) and/or commercial marine shrimp culture pellet food is enough for growth, but the best results were obtained with shrimp or U. lactuta used alone (85-86%, against 46% with the mixed diet). We recommend future experiments on nutritional requirements to optimize growth of these and subsequent stages. PMID:17469262

  10. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  11. Survivorship and feeding preferences among size classes of outplanted sea urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, and possible use as biocontrol for invasive alien algae

    Westbrook, Charley E.; Ringang, Rory R.; Cantero, Sean Michael A.; ,; Toonen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survivorship, growth and diet preferences of hatchery-raised juvenile urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, to evaluate the efficacy of their use as biocontrol agents in the efforts to reduce alien invasive algae. In flow-through tanks, we measured urchin growth rates, feeding rates and feeding preferences among diets of the most common invasive algae found in Kāneʻohe Bay, Hawaiʻi: Acanthophora spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus clade B. Post-...

  12. Best Dressed Test: A Study of the Covering Behavior of the Collector Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    Ziegenhorn, Morgan A.

    2016-01-01

    Many sea urchin genera exhibit cryptic covering behaviors. One such behavior has been documented in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla, and previous studies have theorized that this behavior serves as protection from UV radiation. However, other hypotheses have been presented such as protection from predators or added weight to help T. gratilla resist strong currents. A field study was conducted in October-November 2015 in Moorea, French Polynesia to assess urchin covering behavior in natura...

  13. Characterization of a gene family encoding SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain proteins with lectin-like and heme-binding properties from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10(-6 M and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation, and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted.

  14. 中间球海胆精子超低温冷冻损伤的研究%Cryodamage of sperm in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    李霞; 刘志丹; 秦艳杰

    2012-01-01

    应用透射电镜技术研究了超低温冷冻保存对中间球海胆Strongylocentrotus intermedius精子超微结构的影响.结果表明:不加抗冻剂的情况下,精子线粒体和顶体结构不完整,质膜、鞭毛破损.加入保护剂后,多数精子结构完好,部分精子细胞器受损,表现为质膜褶皱或膨胀举起,与核膜的间隙明显增大;顶体肿胀、破裂或脱落;线粒体嵴间隙增大,内部出现空泡,甚至线粒体内膜破损,内嵴减少,呈弥散状;鞭毛被膜肿胀,呈波浪状,“9+2”型结构模糊;细胞核结构没有明显变化.应用单细胞凝胶电泳技术研究了精子冷冻保存前后DNA的损伤.结果表明,不加抗冻剂的冷冻组及添加抗冻剂的试验组精子DNA损伤情况与鲜精相比均无显著差异(P>0.05),冷冻对精子结构的损伤是造成精子活力及受精率下降的主要原因.%Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effects of cryopreservation on ultrastructure of sperm in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The results showed that the sperm was found to be disruption of mitochondria, acrosome and damage of plasma membrane, and flagellum of all the post-thawed sperm without addition of cryoprotectant. The perfect structure was observed in most of the post-thawed sperm exposed to the cryopro-tectant, only a few sperm being damaged, showing the following syndromes: the plasma membrane was swelled and broke off from the nuclear membrane; the acrosome swelled or lost; mitochondria cristae space enlarged, or the external membrane of mitochondrion broke, mitochondrial cristae declined; the membrane of flagellum swelled, the structure of "9+2" dimed in the unthawn damaged sperm; and the unchange nuclei. The single cell gel electropho-resis(SCGE) of DNA damage in the sea urchin sperm before and after cryopreservation revealed that there were no significant differences in the DNA damage of the fresh sperm between the control group in which

  15. Characterization and endocytic internalization of Epith-2 cell surface glycoprotein during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos

    HidekiKatow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial cells of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus embryo express an Epith-2, uncharacterized glycoprotein, on the lateral surface. Here, we describe internalization of Epith-2 during mesenchyme formation through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Epith-2 was first expressed on the entire egg surface soon after fertilization and on the blastomeres until the 4-cell stage, but was localized to the lateral surface of epithelial cells at and after the 16-cell stage throughout the later developmental period. However, primary (PMC and secondary mesenchyme cells (SMC that ingress by EMT lost Epith-2 from their cell surface by endocytosis during dissociation from the epithelium, which was associated with the appearance of cytoplasmic Epith-2 dots. The cytoplasmic Epith-2 retained a similar relative molecular mass to that of the cell surface immediately after ingression through the early period of the spreading to single cells. Then, Epith-2 was completely lost from the cytoplasm. Tyrosine residues of Epith-2 were phosphorylated. The endocytic retraction of Epith-2 was inhibited by herbimycin A (HA, a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK inhibitor, and suramin, a growth factor receptor (GFR inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of the GFR/PTK (GP signaling pathway. These two GP inhibitors also inhibited PMC and SMC spreading to individual cells after ingression, but the dissociation of PMC and SMC from the epithelium was not inhibited. In suramin-treated embryos, dissociated mesenchyme cells migrated partially by retaining their epithelial morphology. In HA-treated embryos, no mesenchyme cells migrated. Thus, the EMT occurs in relation to internalization of Epith-2 from presumptive PMC and SMC.

  16. Fertilization success of an arctic sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O. F. Müller, 1776 under CO2-induced ocean acidification

    D. Bögner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins as broadcasting spawners, release their gametes into open water for fertilization, thus being particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. In this study, we assessed the effects of different pH scenarios on fertilization success of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, collected at Spitsbergen, Arctic. We achieved acidification by bubbling CO2 into filtered seawater using partial pressures (pCO2 of 180, 380, 980, 1400 and 3000 μatm}. Untreated filtered seawater was used as control. We recorded fertilization rates and diagnosed morphological aberrations after post-fertilization periods of 1 h and 3 h under different exposure conditions in experiments with and without pre-incubation of the eggs prior to fertilization. In parallel, we conducted measurements of intracellular pH changes using BCECF/AM in unfertilized eggs exposed to a range of acidified seawater. We observed increasing rates of polyspermy in relation to higher seawater pCO2, which might be due to failures in the formation of the fertilization envelope. In addition, our experiments showed anomalies in fertilized eggs: incomplete lifting-off of the fertilization envelope and blebs of the hyaline layer. Other drastic malformations consisted of constriction, extrusion, vacuolization or degeneration (observed as a gradient from the cortex to the central region of the cell of the egg cytoplasm, and irregular cell divisions until 2- to 4-cell stages. The intracellular pH (pHi decreased significantly from 1400 μatm on. All results indicate a decreasing fertilization success at CO2 concentrations from 1400 μatm upwards. Exposure time to low pH might be a threatening factor for the cellular buffer capacity, viability, and development after fertilization.

  17. Fertilization success of an arctic sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O. F. Müller, 1776) under CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Bögner, D.; Bickmeyer, U.; Köhler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins as broadcasting spawners, release their gametes into open water for fertilization, thus being particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. In this study, we assessed the effects of different pH scenarios on fertilization success of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, collected at Spitsbergen, Arctic. We achieved acidification by bubbling CO2 into filtered seawater using partial pressures (pCO2) of 180, 380, 980, 1400 and 3000 μatm}. Untreated filtered seawater was used as control. We recorded fertilization rates and diagnosed morphological aberrations after post-fertilization periods of 1 h and 3 h under different exposure conditions in experiments with and without pre-incubation of the eggs prior to fertilization. In parallel, we conducted measurements of intracellular pH changes using BCECF/AM in unfertilized eggs exposed to a range of acidified seawater. We observed increasing rates of polyspermy in relation to higher seawater pCO2, which might be due to failures in the formation of the fertilization envelope. In addition, our experiments showed anomalies in fertilized eggs: incomplete lifting-off of the fertilization envelope and blebs of the hyaline layer. Other drastic malformations consisted of constriction, extrusion, vacuolization or degeneration (observed as a gradient from the cortex to the central region of the cell) of the egg cytoplasm, and irregular cell divisions until 2- to 4-cell stages. The intracellular pH (pHi) decreased significantly from 1400 μatm on. All results indicate a decreasing fertilization success at CO2 concentrations from 1400 μatm upwards. Exposure time to low pH might be a threatening factor for the cellular buffer capacity, viability, and development after fertilization.

  18. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24

  19. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius%中间球海胆精子超低温冷冻保存方法的研究

    刘志丹; 李霞; 秦艳杰

    2012-01-01

    The spermatozoon cryopreservation were conducted in sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The higher pose-thawed sperm survival rate (58. 2% )and fertilization rate (24.7% )were observed in the cryoprptectant comprised of natural sea water diluted with 10% DMSO, 6% glycerin and 25 mmol/L trehalose as the cryoprotector and mixed with sperm at a ratio of 1 :1, equilibration at 4 t for 15 min, swung at 15 cm above LN2 for 3 min and then 3 cm above LN2 f°r 8 min, finally transferred into LN2 for storage. When the post-thawed sperm was fertil ized, the seawater were added to the sperm at a rate of 0, 28, 56, 112 mmol/L, and 280 mmol/L glucose. There was higher fertilization (26% ) in the sperm supplemented with 56 mmol/L glucose than that in the other groups, indicating that freezing method, cryoprptectant and equilibration time all had influence on cryopreservation of the spermatozoa in the freezing process. The survival rate and fertilization rate of the pose-thawed sperm were greatly improved through various factor optimization such as addition of appropriate glucose.%对中间球海胆Strongylocentrotus intermedius精子的超低温保存技术进行了研究.以煮沸消毒海水为基础液,添加体积分数为10%的DMSO、体积分数为6%的甘油以及25 mmol/L海藻糖配制成冷冻保护液,与鲜精液按体积比以1∶1混合,在4℃下平衡15 min,于液氮面上方15、3 cm处分别停留3 min和5 min,然后浸入液氮保存.结果表明:用此方法保存的精子解冻后其存活率可达58.2%,受精率达24.7%;解冻后精子受精时,在受精海水中分别添加0、28、56、112、280 mmol/L的葡萄糖,56 mmol/L组的受精率高于其他组,受精率达26%;精子解冻后受精时,在受精海水中添加适量葡萄糖有助于提高受精率.本试验表明,冷冻过程中降温方式、冷冻保护液、平衡时间对精子的冷冻保存效果均有较大影响,各个因素通过优化组合可以大大提高解冻

  20. Microstructure and micromechanics of the heart urchin test from X-ray tomography

    Müter, D.; Sørensen, H. O.; Oddershede, Jette;

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of many echinoid species has long fascinated scientists because of its high porosity and outstanding mechanical properties. We have used X-ray microtomography to examine the test of Echinocardium cordatum (heart urchin), a burrowing cousin of the more commonly known sea urchins...

  1. Characteristics of humic and fulvic acids in Arabian Sea sediments

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from some of the shelf, slope and offshore sediments of the Arabian Sea were studied. The molecular weight, functional groups, elemental composition and infrared spectra were examined. Humic substances, dominated...

  2. Characterization of three different clusters of 18S-26S ribosomal DNA genes in the sea urchin P. lividus: Genetic and epigenetic regulation synchronous to 5S rDNA.

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Caradonna, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    We previously reported the characterization 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters in the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and demonstrated the presence of DNA methylation-dependent silencing of embryo specific 5S rDNA cluster in adult tissue. In this work, we show genetic and epigenetic characterization of 18S-26S rDNA clusters in this specie. The results indicate the presence of three different 18S-26S rDNA clusters with different Non-Transcribed Spacer (NTS) regions that have different chromosomal localizations. Moreover, we show that the two largest clusters are hyper-methylated in the promoter-containing NTS regions in adult tissues, as in the 5S rDNA. These findings demonstrate an analogous epigenetic regulation in small and large rDNA clusters and support the logical synchronism in building ribosomes. In fact, all the ribosomal RNA genes must be synchronously and equally transcribed to perform their unique final product. PMID:26789074

  3. Early Neurodevelopment of Sea Urchin and Neurotoxic Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides on It%海胆早期神经发育及有机磷农药对其神经毒性作用的研究进展

    汝少国; 许磊

    2012-01-01

    早期发育阶段是有机磷农药神经毒性作用最敏感的时期,海胆的胚胎和幼虫为研究有机磷农药对早期发育阶段的神经毒性作用提供了一种理想的模型.本文介绍了海胆的早期神经发育过程,综述了神经系统对海胆早期发育的调控作用,结合近年来国内外的研究,阐述了有机磷农药对海胆早期发育的影响及其神经毒性作用机制,并展望了该领域的研究方向.%Despite their widespread use, organophosphate pesticides cause developmental neurotoxicity through a mechanism based on their function as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Animals in early developmental stages are especially vulnerable to developmental neurotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticides. The embryos and larvae of sea urchin provide a promising invertebrate model system for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticides, as they develop quickly with well -characterized morphological and biochemical features, possess similar processes of neurogenesis and signaling cascades to chordates, and are vulnerable to pollutants. Both the neurodevelpment of sea urchin during early development stage and the regulation on the early development were included. Particularly, the neurotoxic effects of organophosphate pesticides on the early development and its potential neurotoxicity mechanism for sea urchin are discussed, and future prospects of this field are provided.

  4. No-take areas as an effective tool to restore urchin barrens on subtropical rocky reefs

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Martín-García, Laura; Hernández, José Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Rapid declines in the sea urchin Diadema aff. antillarum densities and shifts in community states of sublittoral rocky reefs have been observed over a short period (between 2004 and 2008) for the first time in an area with fishing restrictions (the MPA of La Palma, Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic Ocean). Changes were spatially variable according to the MPA's use area considered. During this period there was a sea urchin density reduction (in some cases from 3.34 to 0.45 indv·m-2), and an increase of erect seaweed (up to 30% of cover) in the sites of the no-take area. In the partially restricted fishing area, the effect was less clear and only some sites, near to the no-take area, showed the sea urchin reduction and seaweed growth, in contrast to the increase of sea urchin densities outside the MPA. In addition to increased coverage, there was also a replacement of the ephemeral species by the perennial seaweed Lobophora variegata. These changes were related to increases in the abundance of fish predators of the sea urchins. In the no-take area, where there is total fishing restriction, predators were so abundant to induce shifts in the benthic community, while in the partially protected area such as outside the MPA, fishing prevented the top-down process and the changes in the communities.

  5. 两种海胆矿质元素的ICP-MS法测定分析%Determination of mineral elements in two kinds of sea urchin by ICP-MS method

    刘小芳; 薛长湖; 王玉明; 薛勇; 王超

    2012-01-01

    利用电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定马粪海胆和紫海胆中K、Ca、Mg、Fe、V、Cr、Mn、Al、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Se、Mo、Cd、Hg、Pb共18种元素,并以内标元素补偿基体效应,选择适当的待测元素同位素克服质谱干扰,优化实验条件。用HNO3+HClO4(4:1)混酸作为消化液处理样品,各元素在实验范围内线性良好,相关系数均大于0.9984,加标回收率93.11%~116.91%,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于5%。结果表明:马粪海胆和紫海胆中K、Mg、Ca含量较高,且均含有Zn、Fe、Cu、V、Mn、Se等对人体非常有益的微量元素,为海胆的科学合理利用提供理论依据。%Eighteen kinds of mineral elements in sea urchin,Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Anthocidaris crassispina,were detected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).6Li,45Sc,72Ge,89Y,115In,159Tb,209Bi were selected as the internal standard elements.The matrix effect was compensated and the MS interference was corrected by selecting the suitable isotope of the elements.The experimental conditions were optimized.The samples were digested with HNO3+HClO4(4:1).All the detected elements showed a good linear relationship within the working curves,the correlation coefficients were all above 0.9984.The precisions and recoveries were good,the range of recoveries(n=3) was 93.11%~116.91% and the RSDs were all lower than 5%.The results indicated that there were abundant nutritional elements for people in the two kinds of sea urichin.They were all rich in the elements K,Mg,Ca and some trace elements which are beneficial to humans such as Zn,Fe,Cu,V,Mn,Se.This study will provide some useful evidence for the effective exploitation of sea urichin.

  6. Stability of stearic acid monolayers on artificial sea water

    Brzozowska, A.M.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mugele, F.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation and stability of stearic acid (SA) based films on aqueous sub-phases via Langmuir trough and imaging ellipsometry experiments. The aqueous phase was based on Artificial Sea Water (ASW), a multicomponent salt solution with a total molarity of 0.53. The composition of this sol

  7. Reproduction of the long-spined sea urchin Diadema setosum in the Gulf of Aqaba - implications for the use of gonad-indexes.

    Bronstein, Omri; Kroh, Andreas; Loya, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    As global warming and climate-change proceeds ever more rapidly, organisms depending on seasonal cues to synchronize reproduction face an unclear future. Reproduction in Diadema setosum in the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) is seasonal, with mature individuals occurring from July to October. Gonad indexes (GI), in contrast, indicate that spawning occurs from August through December and suggests two main spawning events. Histological analysis, however, indicate that the second peak of GI values cannot be related to spawning, but rather correspond to recovering individuals. In Diadema, examination of GI values alone may thus lead to erroneous conclusions. GI was moderately-strong positively correlated with sea-surface temperatures, but not with chlorophyll-a concentrations or photoperiod. Spawning coincides with the onset of the annual chlorophyll-a increase, however, which might be advantageous for nutrition of the developing larvae. First significant GI increase coincides with the shortening of day-length, which may act as a cue for D. setosum gametogenesis. Gametogenesis is highly synchronised between sexes, although the mature phase of females exceeds that of males. The non-complete overlap may represent sampling bias or represent an adaptive strategy for enhancing fertilisation success. Skewed sex ratios (♀:♂ 1:0.59, n = 360) in the Gulf of Aqaba may be related to pollution. PMID:27403725

  8. Método rápido de determinación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 y su aplicación en estudios biológico-pesqueros Simple methodology to identify sex of sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, and its application to fishery-biological studies

    Sergio Palma G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación del sexo en el erizo comestible Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, es difícil de realizar si no se realiza un análisis de laboratorio, lo que motiva que en la mayoría de las investigaciones efectuadas sobre este recurso se consideren ambos sexos en conjunto. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología simple para establecer el sexo en el erizo, lo que permite obtener parámetros biológico-pesqueros en forma separada para machos y hembras. A través de los procedimientos que se describen, es posible separar las distribuciones de frecuencias de tallas obtenidas en los muestreos, sin diferenciar el sexo, en las correspondientes a machos y hembras. Este procedimiento es especialmente útil cuando los sexos presentan diferencias de crecimiento o mortalidad.Sex identification of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782, is difficult if not done in a laboratory, therefore most of the studies on this resource does not consider sexes separately. This paper describes a simple methodology to identify sex of the sea urchin, enabling the estimation of fishery-biological parameters separately for males and females. Through the described procedures, it is possible to separate by sex the length frequency distributions from samples taken without differentiating males from females. This procedure becomes specially useful when sexes show differences in growth or mortality.

  9. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

    SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine the assimilation efficieney of the most important dietary components, and to experimentally examine the species' trophic selectivity. Adult and juvenile specimens were sampled in spring 1993 and summer, fall and winter 1994 from the shallow subtidal zone of Iquique, northern Chile. Neither juveniles ñor adults showed significant seasonal differences in dietary composition. The main Ítems in the diet were the green alga Ulva sp. for juveniles and the kelp Lessonia sp. for adults. In adults, assimilation efficieney (as percentage of the total organic matter ingested was not significantly different among individuals that consumed Lessonia sp. (48.7 %, Ulva sp. (44.6 % and Macrocystis (38.1 %, whereas in juveniles assimilation efficieney was significantly higher for individuals fed on the chlorophyte Ulva sp. (55.4 %, followed by Lessonia sp. (35.0 % and Macrocystis (25.5 %. These results suggest that L. albus undergoes an ontogenetic shift in the diet, consisting of a differential foraging strategy between juveniles and adults.El erizo Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 es un recurso de gran importancia económica en los sistemas bentónicos costeros, y que se encuentra bajo una fuerte presión de explotación. Sin embargo, los antecedentes sobre diversos aspectos básicos de su biología trófica son aún escasos. Estudios de esta naturaleza son importantes en razón a que constituyen la base para el desarrollo de técnicas de cultivo exitosas, alternativa a la

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: sea urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available rotus_lividus_NL.png Paracentrotus_lividus_S.png Paracentrotus_lividus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+...lividus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+livid...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=NS ...

  11. Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Buckmaster, Paul S.; Wen, Xiling; TOYODA, Izumi; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Van Bonn, William

    2014-01-01

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Ni...

  12. Contrasting the species abundance, species density and diversity of seaweed assemblages in alternative states: Urchin density as a driver of biotic homogenization

    Sangil, Carlos; Sansón, Marta; Clemente, Sabrina; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Hernández, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Differences in seaweed assemblages' structure (species abundance, species density and diversity) were examined in two habitats, urchin barrens and upright seaweed beds on the Canarian Archipelago (eastern Atlantic Ocean) to demonstrate the key role of extreme density of the sea urchin Diadema africana in the homogenization of assemblages in shallow rocky reefs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to test for differences in seaweed the assemblages at multiple spatial scales, from sites (< 10 km apart) to islands (25-450 km apart), based on samples collected from six islands. Distance-based linear model routine (DistLM) and distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) were also applied to analyze and model relationships between seaweed assemblages and environmental variables in each habitat. The patterns of spatial variation in assemblage structure were different in urchin barrens compared to upright seaweed beds. In urchin barrens, spatial variation of seaweed assemblages differed between sites only, whereas in upright seaweed beds were observed differences between sites and islands. Sea urchin density and substrate roughness were the two factors determining assemblage structure in urchin barrens. In contrast, in upright seaweed beds, the major factors influencing assemblages were wave exposure, temperature and productivity. We conclude that potential biogeographic patterns of assemblage structure induced by oceanographic conditions were observed only in pristine areas with low urchin density.

  13. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  14. Determination of the absolute configuration of sialic acids in gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata.

    Kisa, Fumiaki; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi

    2007-07-01

    Enantiomeric pairs of sialic acid, D- and L-NeuAc (N-acetylneuraminic acid), were converted to D- and L-arabinose, respectively, by chemical degradation. Using this method, the absolute configuration of the sialic acid residues, NeuAc and NeuGc (N-glycolylneuraminic acid), in the gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata was determined to be the D-form. Although naturally occurring sialic acids have been believed to be the D-form on the basis of biosynthetic evidence, this is the first report of the determination of the absolute configuration of the sialic acid residues in gangliosides using chemical methods. PMID:17603199

  15. High population density survival of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum (Philippi 1845 to a category 5 hurricane in southern Mexican Caribbean Supervivencia de una alta densidad poblacional del erizo de mar Diadema antillarum (Philippi 1845 a un huracán categoría 5 en el sur del Caribe mexicano

    Pablo Jorgensen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum to the impact of the category 5 hurricane "Dean" was assessed at a back-reef area of Mahahual (Southern Mexican Caribbean. Seventy days after Dean, there was a high mean Diadema population density of 12.6 ± 4.3 (SD; from here forward ind m-2, with a large mean individual test diameter of 59.2 ±9.8 mm. This population was comparable to a previous report for the same area, just before the landfall of Dean on 21 August 2007. Immigration of adults from deeper fore-reef sites after Dean across the reef-crest was unlikely, considering the homing behavior displayed by tagged urchins. The degree of physical alteration of the habitat indicated that Diadema may survive higher hurricane-generated disturbances than those reported in previous works. These results have strong implications on the conservation of the Mexican Caribbean coral reefs since the Diadema populations surveyed have a high grazing activity and are persistent against hurricanes impact.La vulnerabilidad del erizo de mar Diadema antillarum al impacto del huracán categoría 5 "Dean" fue evaluada en el arrecife posterior de Mahahual, México. Setenta días después de la recalada de Dean fue estimada una alta densidad media poblacional de Diadema de 12.6 ind m-2 (DE = 4.3, con un elevado tamaño individual promedio de 59.2 mm de diámetro (DE = 9.8. Esta densidad fue comparable a la de un reporte previo para la misma zona, días antes del paso de Dean el 21 de agosto de 2007. Considerando la fidelidad al refugio mostrado por erizos marcados, la inmigración de adultos desde el arrecife anterior después del paso de Dean fue poco factible. El nivel de destrucción del hábitat indica que Diadema sería más persistente al impacto directo de huracanes que lo sugerido por estudios anteriores. Debido al elevado potencial de pastoreo de las poblaciones locales de Diadema, y a su persistencia al impacto de huracanes, los resultados de este

  16. Phylogenetic systematics of the Indo-Pacific heart urchin Metalia Gray, 1885

    Guevara-Plunkett, S.; Mooi, R.

    2014-12-01

    Irregular sea urchins of the clade Spatangoida, informally known as heart urchins, form a major and important component of tropical marine ecosystems. The spatangoid sea urchin genus, Metalia Gray 1885, a member of the spatangoid family Brissidae, is known primarily from the Indo-pacific region, although one species is known from the west coast of North America. Examination of new material is adding significantly to our knowledge of the morphology and taxonomy of Metalia. There are nine known species: Metalia spatagus (Linnaeus, 1758); Metalia sternalis (Lamarck, 1816); Metalia townsendi (Bell, 1904); Metalia nobilis Verrill, 1867-71; Metalia robillardi (de Loriol, 1876); Metalia dicrana H.L. Clark, 1917; Metalia latissima H.L. Clark, 1925; Metalia persica (Mortensen, 1940); Metalia angustus de Ridder, 1984; and Metalia kermadecensis Baker & Rowe, 1990. In addition, we have discovered two Philippines species new to science. Our work is presently removing ambiguities among characters used to typify all known Metalia, allowing for the establishment of more reliable species identification. A morphology-based phylogenetic analysis of Metalia using outgroup comparisons among brissid taxa such as Anametalia, Granobrissoides, Rhynobrissus, Brissopsis, Eupatatus, Meoma, and Brissus suggests that Metalia is monophyletic. An intriguing possibility is that the very distinctive and beautiful form from North America, Plagiobrissus, is very closely related to and possibly evolved from within Metalia. We are also studing various aspects of the biogeography and growth of Metalia.

  17. Microstructure and micromechanics of the heart urchin test from X-ray tomography.

    Müter, D; Sørensen, H O; Oddershede, J; Dalby, K N; Stipp, S L S

    2015-09-01

    The microstructure of many echinoid species has long fascinated scientists because of its high porosity and outstanding mechanical properties. We have used X-ray microtomography to examine the test of Echinocardium cordatum (heart urchin), a burrowing cousin of the more commonly known sea urchins. Three dimensional imaging demonstrates that the bulk of the test is composed of only two distinct, highly porous, fenestrated regions (stereom), in which the thickness of the struts is constant. Different degrees of porosity are achieved by varying the spacing of the struts. Drawing an analogy to vertebrate trabecular bone, where for example, human bone has a connectivity density of ≈1/mm(3), we measure up to 150,000 strut connections per mm(3). Simulations of mechanical loading using finite element calculations indicate that the test performs at very close to the optimum expected for foams, highlighting the functional link between structure and mechanical properties. PMID:25983316

  18. Sialic acids as link to Japanese scientists.

    Schauer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript is dedicated to Prof. Tamio Yamakawa and describes my cooperations on sialic acid-related topics with Japanese scientists during the last 40 years. We studied sialic acids and their O-acetylated derivatives in the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus, in Halocynthia species, and in human and bovine milk. In seafood we mainly searched for N-glycolylneuraminic acid. With synthetic substrates it was shown that sialic acid O-acetylation at C-4 hinders the activity of sialidases, with the exception of viral enzymes. The biosynthesis of Neu5Gc was discussed and the distribution of this sialic acid in dogs followed in modern literature and reviewed regarding their migration. An excellent source of sialic acids is edible bird nest substance (Collocalia mucin) which was used for the synthesis of sialylation inhibitors. PMID:27063181

  19. Variación espacio-temporal de la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae en Baja California Spatial and temporal variation of the population density of the red sea urchin Stronngylocenntrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae in Baja California

    Julio S. Palleiro-Nayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, en 10 localidades de la costa occidental de Baja California, México, donde se realiza la extracción comercial de este recurso pesquero. Se compararon las estimaciones realizadas en cuatro años muestreados: 2003, 2005, 2006 y 2008. Las variaciones observadas en las localidades analizadas indicaron diferencias espacio-temporales para la densidad de erizo rojo y diferencias en la estructura de tallas, las cuales estuvieron influenciadas principalmente por la intensidad de la pesca y al esporádico reclutamiento en cada sitio. Se encontraron dos localidades (Isla San Jerónimo y Arrecife Sacramento que destacaron por presentar una alta densidad de erizo rojo y una amplia estructura de tallas, predominando individuos de tallas entre 50 a 80 mm diámetro de caparazón, lo que podría indicar que la intensidad de pesca aparentemente tiene un menor efecto que en los otros sitios.Density estimations of red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus were recorded in ten sites with commercial fisheries on the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. The estimations for the years 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2008 were compared. The variations observed in the study sites indicate important spatial and temporal differences in density and size structure, influenced by fishing intensity and sporadic recruitment in each site. We found two sites (San Jeronimo Island and Sacramento Reef with a high density and wide size structure; with a predominance of individuals of sizes from 50 to 80 mm with lest impact possible in fishing mortality for all sites.

  20. Isolation and cellular fatty acid composition of psychrotrophic Halomonas strains from Antarctic sea water

    Vipra Vijay Jadhav; Amit Yadav; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Rama Kaustubh Bhadekar

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms from extreme environments such as Arctic, Antarctic and Polar regions modulate their membrane fatty acids to survive in such habitats. Characterization of such microorganisms helps in understanding their physiological behavior. In view of this, the present article describes isolation, characterization and cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial isolates from Antarctic sea water samples. All the three isolates (BRI 6, 29 and 31) were psychrotrophic Gram negative rods....

  1. Fatty acid and phospholipid profile of freshwater sardine Mirogrex terraesanctae from the Sea of Galilee

    Hanuš, L. O.; Řezanka, Tomáš; Dembitsky, V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2008), s. 150-163. ISSN 1065-7258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : fatty acid * mirogrex terraesanctae * sea of galilee Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.662, year: 2008

  2. Ocean acidification increases copper toxicity differentially in two key marine invertebrates with distinct acid-base responses.

    Lewis, Ceri; Ellis, Robert P; Vernon, Emily; Elliot, Katie; Newbatt, Sam; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to indirectly impact biota living in contaminated coastal environments by altering the bioavailability and potentially toxicity of many pH-sensitive metals. Here, we show that OA (pH 7.71; pCO2 1480 μatm) significantly increases the toxicity responses to a global coastal contaminant (copper ~0.1 μM) in two keystone benthic species; mussels (Mytilus edulis) and purple sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus). Mussels showed an extracellular acidosis in response to OA and copper individually which was enhanced during combined exposure. In contrast, urchins maintained extracellular fluid pH under OA by accumulating bicarbonate but exhibited a slight alkalosis in response to copper either alone or with OA. Importantly, copper-induced damage to DNA and lipids was significantly greater under OA compared to control conditions (pH 8.14; pCO2 470 μatm) for both species. However, this increase in DNA-damage was four times lower in urchins than mussels, suggesting that internal acid-base regulation in urchins may substantially moderate the magnitude of this OA-induced copper toxicity effect. Thus, changes in metal toxicity under OA may not purely be driven by metal speciation in seawater and may be far more diverse than either single-stressor or single-species studies indicate. This has important implications for future environmental management strategies. PMID:26899803

  3. Diacidene, a polyene dicarboxylic acid from a Micromonospora isolate from the German Wadden Sea.

    Ohlendorf, Birgit; Schulz, Dirk; Beese, Pascal; Erhard, Arlette; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2012-01-01

    Micromonospora sp. strain DB620 was isolated from a Wadden Sea sediment sample collected near Büsum (Germany) and is closely related (99% 16S-rRNA gene sequence similarity) to Micromonospora coxensis strain MTCC8093. It produced a new polyene dicarboxylic acid named diacidene (1) and in addition a derivative of chorismic acid, the known 3-[(1-carboxyvinyl)oxy]benzoic acid. The structure elucidation of 1 was achieved by applying different 1D and 2D NMR techniques as well as mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. PMID:23198401

  4. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  5. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    van Keulen Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum and two from tropical seas (Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum natans was determined using GCMS. Four independent replicates were taken from each seaweed species. Results Omega-3 (n-3 and omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, were in the concentration range of 2-14 mg/g dry matter (DM, while total lipid content ranged from 7-45 mg/g DM. The n-9 FAs of the selected seaweeds accounted for 3%-56% of total FAs, n-6 FAs for 3%-32% and n-3 FAs for 8%-63%. Red and brown seaweeds contain arachidonic (C20:4, n-6 and/or eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA, C20:5, n-3, the latter being an important "fish" FA, as major PUFAs while in green seaweeds these values are low and mainly C16 FAs were found. A unique observation is the presence of another typical "fish" fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3 at ≈ 1 mg/g DM in S. natans. The n-6: n-3 ratio is in the range of 0.05-2.75 and in most cases below 1.0. Environmental effects on lipid-bound FA composition in seaweed species are discussed. Conclusion Marine macroalgae form a good, durable and virtually inexhaustible source for polyunsaturated fatty acids with an (n-6 FA: (n-3 FA ratio of about 1.0. This ratio is recommended by the World Health Organization to be less than 10 in order to prevent inflammatory, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. Some marine macroalgal species, like P. palmata, contain high proportions of the "fish fatty acid" eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3, while in S. natans also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C

  7. Shipboard measurements of nitrogen dioxide, nitrous acid, nitric acid and ozone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Smolík, Jiří; Eleftheriadis, K.; Bryant, C.; Colbeck, I.; Lazaridis, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 117-125. ISSN 1567-7230 Grant ostatní: 5th FP Commission of the EC(XE) EVK2-CT-1999-0052 SUB-AERO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : reactive nitrogen species * ozone * Eastern Mediterranean Sea Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: purple urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Echinodermata Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_L.png Strongylocentr...otus_purpuratus_NL.png Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_S.png Strongylocentrotus_purpu...ratus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=L http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NS ...

  9. Isolation and cellular fatty acid composition of psychrotrophic Halomonas strains from Antarctic sea water

    Vipra Vijay Jadhav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms from extreme environments such as Arctic, Antarctic and Polar regions modulate their membrane fatty acids to survive in such habitats. Characterization of such microorganisms helps in understanding their physiological behavior. In view of this, the present article describes isolation, characterization and cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial isolates from Antarctic sea water samples. All the three isolates (BRI 6, 29 and 31 were psychrotrophic Gram negative rods. Their 16S rRNA sequencing (around 1200 bp revealed that all three of them belong to genus Halomonas. Each of them showed 99% sequence similarity to Halomonas neptunia Eplume1 (NR 027218, H. boliviensis LC1 (NR 029080 and H. variabilis DSM 3051 (NR 042068. The fatty acid analysis of our isolates indicated i predominance of C 18:1, C 16:0 and C16:1 fatty acids and absence of trans fatty acids in all of them and ii higher percentage of anteiso fatty acids than of iso fatty acids in BRI 6. These characteristic features may contribute to their adaptation to the Antarctic habitat.

  10. EDTA-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of urchin-like YbMn2O5 microspheres

    Urchin-like YbMn2O5 microspheres have been fabricated by EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)-assisted hydrothermal method. The results demonstrated that EDTA played key roles in growth of urchin-like YbMn2O5 microspheres. Magnetic measurement indicated that YbMn2O5 showed a weak ferromagnetic at low temperature due to incomplete spin compensation on the surface. The divagation between field cooling and zero field cooling curves could be reasonably ascribed to the collaboration result of spin-glass behavior and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Yb3+ magnetic moments. Exchange bias (a shift in the hysteresis loop toward negative axis) could be observed in both YbMn2O5 microspheres and nanorods (without EDTA). With the increasing particle size, the exchange bias field and the coercivity increased. - Highlights: • Urchin-like YbMn2O5 microspheres were synthesized with EDTA-assisted hydrothermal method. • Orientated growth of nanorods on the surface of aggregates forms the urchin-like YbMn2O5 microspheres. • YbMn2O5 shows complicated series of magnetic transitions involving the Mn and Yb ions on cooling below Néel temperature

  11. Heterogeneous reactions of gaseous methanesulfonic acid with NaCl and sea salt particles

    2009-01-01

    Methanesulfonic acid(MSA) has been identified as one of the most important intermediate products of DMS reactions in the atmosphere.Although considerable amounts of MSA have been found in the ma-rine boundary layer,little is known about the interaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt particles.To understand the fate of MSA in the atmosphere and its potential importance in atmospheric chemistry,the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous MSA with micron-scale NaCl and sea salt particles were studied using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscopy.The CH3SO3Na and CH3SO3-were the major products of the condensed phase of the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCl and with sea salt particles.The steady-state uptake coefficient was determined to be(5.94±2.32)×10-7(1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCl particles and(2.23±1.25)×10-7(1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt parti-cles.The heterogeneous reaction of MSA with NaCl particles was found to be first-order for MSA.The reaction mechanisms were discussed.

  12. Improvement in the docosahexaenoic acid production of Schizochytrium sp. S056 by replacement of sea salt.

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Xie, Chen; Ma, Lin; Wang, Xiaopeng; Bao, Zhendong; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-02-01

    Schizochytrium is a marine microalga that requires high concentrations of sea salt for growth, although problems arise with significant amounts of chloride ions in the culture medium, which corrodes the fermenters. In this work, we evaluated that cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production can be improved when using 1 % (w/v) sodium sulfate instead of 2 % (w/v) sea salt in the culture medium for Schizochytrium sp. S056. In practice, the use of sodium sulfate as the sodium salt led to chloride ion levels in the medium that can be completely removed, thus avoiding fermenter corrosion during Schizochytrium sp. S056 growth, reducing cost and increasing DHA production, and simplifying the disposal of fermentation wastewater. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmolality of growth media did not play a crucial role in the production of DHA. These findings may be significantly important to companies involved in production of PUFAs by marine microbes. PMID:26658812

  13. Changes in biochemical indices of some coastal hydrobionts of the Barents Sea during experimental petroleum intoxication

    Divavin, I.A.; Yerokhin, V.Y.

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the effects of petroleum on content of protein, free nucleotides and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) in three species of brown algae and four invertebrate species of the coastal zone. The invertebrates were Mytilus edulis Linne, Asterias rubens Linne, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis O. F. Muller, Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus; algae, Fucus vesiculosis L., Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lam. and L. digitata Lam. Petroleum concentration was 1 ml/l. In comparison with control groups, the protein content in the algae did not vary significantly. Nor did it change in sea urchin shells, although in urchin internal organs it decreased by 49.3%. Protein decreased in sea cucumbers; in starfish and mussels it increased by 22.8 and 92.4% respectively. Change was thought to occur due to the experimental conditions as well as to organism specificity. Free nucleotides did change significantly with the presence of petroleum, except for F. vesiculosis and S. droebachiensis (shell). They decreased in two types of Laminaria and starfish, and increased in the other organisms tested. RNA and DNA also changed; with petroleum, RNA increased in invertebrates. Increase in free nucleotides appeared to be associated with increase in RNA and DNA. Results indicate that petroleum does not exhibit specific toxic effects on the system, but gives rise to uncoordinated changes in content of protein, free nucleotides and nucleic acids.

  14. Free amino acids in the clam Macoma balthica (L.) (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from brackish waters of southern Baltic Sea

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen acidic and neutral free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in soft tissue of Macoma balthica from different depth zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) over a full seasonal cycle. The dry weight of the bivalves and physico-chemical parameters of overlying bottom water and surface sedime

  15. Fluxes of amino acids and hexosamines to the deep Arabian sea

    Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.; Honjo, S.

    , at intervals of 12.5-13 days, from May 1986 to November 1987. Amino acids and hexosamines are typically labile components that are preferentially degraded during descent of particulate organic matter in the water column (Lee and Cronin, 1984; Ittekkot et al... be used to trace decompositional pathways and intensities (e.g. Lee, 1988). STUDY AREA Monsoons determine the climatic and hydrographic conditions of the Arabian Sea. Winds blowing from the SW in summer (rainy season) and from the NE in winter (dry...

  16. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. PMID:27079426

  17. Spectroscopic studies of humic acids from subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean Sea

    F. SAKELLARIADOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural humic acids are biogenic, structurally complex and heterogeneous, refractory, acidic, yellow-to black-coloured organic polyelectrolytes of relatively high molecular weight. They occur in all soils, sediments, fresh waters, and seawaters. Humic acids represent the largest portion of nonliving soil organic matter. In the present paper, humic substances were isolated from marine subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean sea (in Greece and especially from a marine area extending northwards of the Samothraki plateau towards the north-eastern part of the island of Crete. In a following step, humic preparations were studied using infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy (emission, excitation and synchronous-scan excitation spectra were obtained. The infrared spectra suggested functional chemical groups such as as OH-, C-H aliphatic, C=C, C=O/COO-, salts of carboxylic acids, and also, in some cases, silicate anions or C-O from alcohols, esters and ethers. Fluorescence emission, excitation and synchronous scan excitation provided some valuable information concerning a probable origin (marine and/or terrestrial for the isolated humics.

  18. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  19. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of urchin-like Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O nanostructures

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Chang-Jie, E-mail: maochangjie@sina.com; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Zhang, Sheng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    Urchin-like Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a facile and fast sonochemical route. The composition, morphology and size of the as-obtained product were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These results showed that the as-synthesized Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O urchins have average diameters of 1 μm and an individual urchin sphere is composed of numerous small nanowires. Typical Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O nanowires have diameters of 5 nm. Studies found that ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) plays an important role to determine the morphology of the products. The self-assembly and oriented attachment procedure has been proposed for the possible formation mechanism. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the urchin-like nanostructures calculated from the nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm is about 78 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Additionally, room-temperature photoluminescence of the Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O with different morphologies has also been investigated. - Highlights: • Urchin-like Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O nanostructures have been successfully synthesized. • Urchin-like Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O nanostructures are composed of hundreds of nanowires. • A possible growth mechanism was discussed. • Room-temperature photoluminescence of the Cu{sub 3}CrO{sub 6}·2H{sub 2}O with different morphologies has also been investigated.

  20. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Vet, Robert; Pienaar, Jacobus J.; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina; Shaw, Mike; Ro, Chul-Un; Aas, Wenche

    2014-01-01

    A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition has been carried out under the direction of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Scientific Advisory Group for Precipitation Chemistry (SAG-PC). The assessment addressed three questions: (1) what do measurements and model estimates of precipitation chemistry and wet, dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity, and phosphorus show glob...

  1. Bile acid binding capacity of fish protein hydrolysates from discard species of the West Mediterranean Sea.

    Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Morales-Medina, Rocío; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2015-04-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), produced from the six main discard species from the West Mediterranean Sea (sardine, horse mackerel, axillary seabream, bogue, small-spotted catshark and blue whiting) were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. This capacity is directly linked to the ability to inhibit bile reabsorption in the ileum and therefore to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. From each species, FPH were obtained by three different enzymatic treatments employing two serine endoproteases (subtilisin and trypsin) sequentially or in combination. The results show statistically significant differences among the fish species, attaining interesting average values of bile acid binding capacity for blue whiting (27.32% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis) and horse mackerel (27.42% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis). The enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the ability of a given species to bind bile acids. These results are similar to other protein sources, such as soy protein or casein, of proven hypocholesterolemic effect. It can be concluded that fish protein hydrolysates from these discard species are suitable as ingredients in the formulation of cholesterol-lowering supplements. PMID:25756593

  2. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on lipogenesis and lipolysis in black sea bream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    JI Hong; OM Ahamd Daud; YOSHIMATSU Takao; UMINO Testuya; NAKAGAWA Heisuke; FURUHASHI Makoto; SAKAMOTO Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile black sea breams are characterized by a low level of highly unsaturated fatty acids in their bodies, as compared with wild fish. To assess the effect of docosahaxaenoic acid (DHA) on lipogenic and lipolysis enzymes, one-year fish were reared on a casein-based purified diet and a DHA fortified diet (1.5% DHA ethyl ester/kg diet) for 60 d, followed with a period of 55 d for starvation. Dietary DHA was effectively incorporated into the fish body. Fortification of DHA depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase as lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas was active in the DHA fortified fish. Starvation after feeding experiment induced increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in both control and DHA fortified fish and the activity remained higher in the DHA fortified fish, while the monoenes were selectively consumed prior to highly unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicated that dietary DHA depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis.

  3. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. PMID:27503728

  4. Trophodynamics of euphausiids in the Amundsen Sea during the austral summer by fatty acid and stable isotopic signatures

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Yang, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Seob; Ju, Se-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea is characterized by a continental shelf, long-term sea ice, and many coastal polynyas with high biological productivity. Euphausia superba and Euphausia crystallorophias, which are dominant Antarctic krill, are major prey for most predators, such as fishes, birds, and marine mammals. An understanding of the feeding ecology of krill may provide the information for the structure and function of the Amundsen Sea ecosystem. Thus, we applied two biochemical approaches (fatty acids and stable isotopes) to determine the trophodynamics of adult krill in the Amundsen Sea. There were no significant differences in lipid contents between the two species, but the dominant storage lipids were different. Triacylglycerol (TAG) was dominant in E. superba, but wax esters (WE) were dominant in E. crystallorophias due to their different living strategies. Furthermore, the lipid content of E. crystallorophias displayed a spatial variation, being highest on the glacial edge. It was difficult to understand the feeding strategy and food source using only the fatty acid compositions of krill and in situ particulate organic matter. However, we found that specific FA ratios (18:1ω9/18:1ω7 and PUFA/SFA) and the nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) provide more insight into the feeding ecology of krill, such as feeding strategy and trophic position. These ratios suggest that E. crystallorophias consistently showed a higher degree of carnivorous feeding than E. superba in the Amundsen Sea during the austral summer. In conclusion, adult E. superba might more directly obtain their energy from in situ primary producers in the open sea, but, in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, adult E. crystallorophias seems to obtain their energy mainly through the microbial loop (microzooplankton). If so, E. crystallolophias would be a key player not only to transfer the energy from microbes to higher trophic levels but also to control the carbon and nitrogen cycle in the Amundsen Sea Polynya.

  5. Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach

    Kürten, B.; Frutos, I.; Struck, U.; Painting, S.J.; Polunin, N.V.C.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs). Zooplankto

  6. Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós Canyon, NW Mediterranean Sea

    E. Sañé

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analyzed in sediments from the flanks of the La Fonera (Palamós submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea, where a commercial bottom trawling fishery has been active for more than 70 yr. More specifically, we investigated how trawling-induced sediment reworking affects the quality of sedimentary organic matter which reaches the seafloor and accumulates in the sediment column, which is fundamental for the development of benthic communities. Sediment samples were collected during two oceanographic cruises in spring and autumn 2011. The sampled sites included trawl fishing grounds as well as pristine (control areas. We report that bottom trawling in the flanks of the La Fonera Canyon has caused an alteration of the quality of the organic matter accumulated in the upper 5 cm of the seafloor. The use of a wide pool of biochemical tracers characterized by different reactivity to degradation allowed us to discriminate the long-term effects of trawled-induced sediment reworking from the natural variability caused by the seasonal cycle of production and sinking of biogenic particles. Differences between untrawled and trawled areas were evidenced by labile amino acids, while differences between spring and autumn samples were detected only by the more labile indicators chlorophyll a and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that changes in the biochemical composition of the sedimentary organic matter caused by bottom trawling can be more relevant than those associated with natural

  7. Growth of a Novel Nanostructured ZnO Urchin: Control of Cytotoxicity and Dissolution of the ZnO Urchin

    Imani, Roghayeh; Drašler, Barbara; Kononenko, Veno; Romih, Tea; Eleršič, Kristina; Jelenc, Janez; Junkar, Ita; Remškar, Maja; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-11-01

    The applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) in implantable wireless devices, such as diagnostic nanobiosensors and nanobiogenerators, have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unique properties. However, for these implantable nanodevices, the biocompatibility and the ability to control the behaviour of cells in contact with ZnO NWs are demanded for the success of these implantable devices, but to date, only a few contrasting results from their biocompatibility can be found. There is a need for more research about the biocompatibility of ZnO nanostructures and the adhesion and viability of cells on the surface of ZnO nanostructures. Here, we introduce synthesis of a new nature-inspired nanostructured ZnO urchin, with the dimensions of the ZnO urchin's acicula being controllable. To examine the biocompatibility and behaviour of cells in contact with the ZnO urchin, the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line was chosen as an in vitro experimental model. The results of the viability assay indicated that, compared to control, the number of viable cells attached to the surface of the ZnO urchin and its surrounding area were reduced. The measurements of the Zn contents of cell media confirmed ZnO dissolution, which suggests that the ZnO dissolution in cell culture medium could lead to cytotoxicity. A purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by surface coating of the ZnO urchin with poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), which changed the material matrix to slow the Zn ion release and consequently reduce the cytotoxicity of the ZnO urchin without reducing its functionality.

  8. EDTA-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of urchin-like YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} microspheres

    Liu, Yunhao; Wu, Songping, E-mail: chwsp@scut.edu.cn; Ge, Rongyun

    2015-11-15

    Urchin-like YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} microspheres have been fabricated by EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)-assisted hydrothermal method. The results demonstrated that EDTA played key roles in growth of urchin-like YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} microspheres. Magnetic measurement indicated that YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} showed a weak ferromagnetic at low temperature due to incomplete spin compensation on the surface. The divagation between field cooling and zero field cooling curves could be reasonably ascribed to the collaboration result of spin-glass behavior and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Yb{sup 3+} magnetic moments. Exchange bias (a shift in the hysteresis loop toward negative axis) could be observed in both YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} microspheres and nanorods (without EDTA). With the increasing particle size, the exchange bias field and the coercivity increased. - Highlights: • Urchin-like YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} microspheres were synthesized with EDTA-assisted hydrothermal method. • Orientated growth of nanorods on the surface of aggregates forms the urchin-like YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} microspheres. • YbMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} shows complicated series of magnetic transitions involving the Mn and Yb ions on cooling below Néel temperature.

  9. Determination of fatty acids percentages and profile extracted from cuttlefish of Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Yosief Ali Asadpour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fatty acid profile extracted from cuttlefish of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, including Ancistrocheirus, Enoploteuthidae, Cranchiidae, Ommastrephidae and Loliginidae. Methods:Oil was extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by gas chromatography. Results:The results showed that (13±5)% of wet weight of cuttlefish is oil. The results also showed that cuttlefish oil has 29.40% saturated fatty acids and 23.70% single-band unsaturated fatty acids, and the total value of the unsaturated multiple-band is 40.20%, the contents of arachidonic acid 2.78%, linolenic acid 3.10%, linoleic acid 5.20%, docosahexaenoic acid 15.40%, and eicosapentaenoic acid 9.60% out of the total fatty acids of the same may be mentioned. Conclusions:The results of the current study described that cuttlefish is considered for the first time as the new and rich source of omega-3 and omega-6.

  10. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  11. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  12. Amino Acid Composition and Functional Properties of Giant Red Sea Cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) Collagen Hydrolysates

    LIU Zunying; SU Yicheng; ZENG Mingyong

    2011-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 500C with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions (<3kDa, 3-10kDa, and > 10 kDa),and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa (P<0.05). The fraction of > 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions (P<0.05). The pH had an important effect on the EAI, ESI, FE and FS. All the fractions showed undesirable emulsion and forming properties at pH 4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  13. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  14. Humic acids contribution to sedimentary organic matter on a shallow continental shelf (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Giani, M.; Rampazzo, F.; Berto, D.

    2010-12-01

    The shallow northern Adriatic Sea receives large river runoff, predominantly from the Po River, which is the main allochthonous source of nutrients and organic matter. The origin and quality of organic matter deposited in the sediments can influence the degradation processes and oxygen consumption in the bottom waters as well as the fate of many pollutants. Therefore the humic acids (HA) were quantified in surface and sub-surface sediments collected in an area of the north-western Adriatic platform south of Po River. HA showed to have a relevant contribution to sedimentary organic matter. HA content in sediments were positively correlated with the organic carbon concentration and negatively with redox potential and pH, particularly in sub-surface reduced sediments, suggesting their important role in the diagenetic processes taking place in anoxic conditions. Elemental composition of HA extracted from surface and sub-surface sediments showed a wide range of variation of the C org/N ratios which could be due to a mixed (terrestrial and marine) origin and/or an elevated bacteria degradation of nitrogen during diagenesis processes in sediments. The spectroscopic ratios A 2/A 4 and A 4/A 6 of HA confirmed a mixed origin with a high degree of condensation of the HA extracted from sediments.

  15. Antifouling and Fungicidal Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Sea Anemone-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus.

    Liu, Qing-Ai; Shao, Chang-Lun; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Blum, Mathias; Gan, Li-She; Wang, Kai-Ling; Chen, Min; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-03-25

    Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, cochliomycins D-F, 1-3, and eight known analogues, 4-11, were isolated from the sea anemone-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. Compounds 1-4 are diastereomers differing from each other by the absolute configurations of the 4',5'-diol chiral centers. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established by the CD exciton chirality method and TDDFT ECD calculations. In antifouling assays, 1, 3-6, and 6a exhibited potent antifouling activities against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite at nontoxic concentrations, with EC50 values ranging from 1.82 to 22.5 μg/mL. Noticeably, fungicide whole-plant assays indicated that 6 showed excellent activity on the Plasmopara viticola preventative test at 6 ppm and concentration-dependent activity on the Phytophthora infestans preventative application at 200, 60, and 20 ppm. Preliminary structure-activity relationships are also discussed. PMID:24635109

  16. Fatty acids in six small pelagic fish species and their crustacean prey from the mindanao sea, southern Philippines.

    Metillo, Ephrime Bicoy; Aspiras-Eya, Anna Arlene

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in human health and useful in the analysis of the marine food web, however information on tropical pelagic organisms is scarce. Six zooplanktivorous small pelagic fish species (Decapterus kurroides, Decapterus macarellus, Selar crumenophthalmus, Sardinella lemuru, Spratilloides gracilis and Stolephorus insularis) and four of their zooplanktonic crustacean prey [three sergestoid species (Acetes erythraeus, Acetes intermedius and Lucifer penicillifer) and one calanoid copepod (Acartia erythraea)] were collected from the Mindanao Sea, and their fatty acids were profiled. The resulting profiles revealed 17 fatty acids that were specific to certain species and 9 {myristic acid [C14:0], palmitic acid [C16:0], stearic acid [C18:0]; palmitoleic acid [C16:1], oleic acid [C18:1n9c], linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], linolenic acid [C18:3n3], eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [C20:5n3] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [C22:6n3]} that were common to all species. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of fatty acids indicate a high similarity in profiles in all species, but separate fish and zooplankton clusters were obtained. Mackerel species (D. macarellus, D. kurroides and S. crumenophthalmus) had concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids that match those of their Acetes prey. The copepod A. erythraea and the sergestoid L. penicillifer exhibited the lowest values of the EPA:DHA ratio, which was most likely due to their phytoplanktivorous feeding habits, but the occurrence of the highest values of the ratio in Acetes suggests the inclusion of plant detritus in their diet. DHA values appear to affirm the trophic link among copepod, Lucifer, Acetes and mackerel species. PMID:25210591

  17. Population studies of echinoderms and growth and mortality of sea cucumbers

    Progress is reported on the following studies: methods of collecting sea cucumbers; determination of growth rates of plates of the calcareous ring; use of growth parameters and a length-frequency distribution to estimate mortality and population turnover; movement of materials through the atoll ecosystem; and autoradiographic studies on spines of sea urchins

  18. Impacts of a population outbreak of the urchin Tripneustes gratilla amongst Lord Howe Island coral communities

    Valentine, J. P.; Edgar, G. J.

    2010-06-01

    Subtidal reef surveys within the Lord Howe Island Marine Park revealed that populations of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla underwent an explosive outbreak in some regions of the park over a 2-year period. This urchin was rare or absent during 2006 surveys at 33 sites studied, but at sites off northern Lord Howe Island in 2008, densities averaged >1.3 m-2. Dramatic increases in T. gratilla density (exceeding 4 m-2) were observed at some sites. We quantify community-level impacts of T. gratilla using ‘before-after’ and ‘control-impact’ data. Zones closed to fishing exhibited similar increases in T. gratilla density to zones open to fishing. Although not previously reported as a keystone species affecting coral habitat, T. gratilla was found to possess an ‘ecosystem engineer’ function. Outbreak sites were characterised by significant declines in cover of foliose algae, including red algae, which decreased from 11.2% in 2006 compared to 2.5% in 2008. Brown foliose algae also declined at sites where T. gratilla outbreaks occurred, averaging 20.4% in 2006 compared to 1.8% in 2008. By contrast, crustose coralline algal cover increased at sites where high T. gratilla densities were observed, from 2.7% in 2006 to an average of 42.6% in 2008. We found no clear indication of impacts on sessile invertebrates or flow-on effects to other levels of the food web, with no significant change in coral cover or densities of mobile invertebrates or fish populations associated with the T. gratilla outbreak.

  19. Origin of dimethylsulfide, non-sea-salt sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid in eastern Antarctica

    Cosme, E.; Hourdin, F.; Genthon, C.; Martinerie, P.

    2005-02-01

    Ignoring the origin of atmospheric chemicals is often a strong limitation to the full interpretation of their measurement. In this article, this question is addressed in the case of the sulfur species in Antarctica, with an original method of retrotransport of tracers. The retrotransport model is derived from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom-Tracers (LMD-ZT) atmospheric general circulation model, optimized for polar climate and expanded to simulate atmospheric sulfur chemistry. For two East Antarctic scientific stations (Dumont d'Urville and Vostok) the effects of transport and chemistry and the influence of oceanic, volcanic, and anthropogenic sources on dimethylsulfide (DMS), non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentrations are evaluated in summer and winter. The oceanic source largely dominates, but other sources can episodically be significant. The meridional origin and the age of DMS, MSA, and biogenic nss sulfate are also estimated. The latitudes of origin of MSA and nss sulfate are similar in summer, but they differ markedly in winter. This is a signature of their different chemical production scheme. Also, the interannual variability of the origin of the sulfur species at Vostok is weak compared to that at Dumont d'Urville. Acknowledging that the DMS concentrations in the ocean have no interannual variability in the model, this result suggests unsurprisingly that inland Antarctic stations may be better observation sites to monitor large-scale DMS bioproductivity variability than coastal sites are. The combination of slower chemistry and more intense atmospheric circulation in winter leads to unexpected results, such as a younger DMS in winter than in summer at Vostok.

  20. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  1. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  2. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt. PMID:19109260

  3. Compound-specific isotopes of fatty acids as indicators of trophic interactions in the East China Sea ecosystem

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Na; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Ruijing; Dai, Fangqun; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-01-01

    The composition and compound-specific isotopes of fatty acids were studied within food webs in the East China Sea. Lipid-normalized stable carbon isotopes of total organic carbon had a good correlation with trophic level. Variations in fatty acid compositions among diff erent species were observed but were unclear. Diff erent dietary structures could be traced from molecular isotopes of selected fatty acids in the Shiba shrimp (Matapenaeus joyneri), the coastal mud shrimp (Solenocera crassicornis) and the northern Maoxia shrimp (Acetes chinensis). Both M. joyneri and S. crassicornis are mainly benthos feeders, while A. chinensis is a pelagic species, although they have a similar fatty acid composition. There was a good correlation for isotopes of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) among pelagic species from higher trophic levels. The isotopic compositions of DHA in benthic species were more negative than those of pelagic species at the same trophic level. The fact that the diet of benthic species contains more degraded items, the carbon isotopes of which are derived from a large biochemical fraction, may be the reason for this variation. A comparative study of benthic and pelagic species demonstrated the diff erent carbon sources in potential food items and the presence of a more complex system at the water-sediment interface.

  4. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency and...... base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...

  5. Stability and interactions in mixed monolayers of fatty acid derivatives on artificial sea water

    Brzozowska, A.M.; Mugele, F.; Duits, M.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the formation and stability of fatty acid and derivatives films on aqueous sub-phases by means of Langmuir trough experiments. Films were prepared from pure stearic acid (SA), stearyl amine (SAm) and 12-phenyldodecanoic acid (PDA), and from binary systems of SA with either SAm or PDA. For

  6. Impact of organic fertilizer, humic acid and sea weed extract on wheat production in pothowar region of pakistan

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crop production was evaluated under organic conditions during the year 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research council (PARC) Islamabad. The study includes four treatments with four replications. The treatments includes; (1) Organic fertilizer 625 Kg ha/sup -1/, (2) Organic fertilizer 625 and Humic Acid 10 Kg ha/sup -1/ (3) Humic Acid and Sea weed extract 625 ml ha/sup -1/ and (4) Control. Organic amendments were incorporated during land preparation and seaweed extract as foliar spray. The basal dose of organic fertilizer and humic acid (granule) were added at the time of sowing of wheat during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.Humic acid solution 1% and sea weed extract were applied as foliar spray at 6 inches of wheat crop. The second foliar spray was done at tillering while third and forth sprays at heading and milking stage respectively. The crop conditions, color, shoot length and spike and yield parameters were recorded at different stages of the organic fertilizer application. The soils and crops managed organically are sustainable. Similarly, biological and chemical properties of soil also improved significantly. The compost enriched with different organic waste increased all physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil as well as yield of the crop. The wheat crop morphological and agronomical parameters also increase significantly. Moreover, nutrients supply and other soil properties like pH, CEC, ECe and plant nutrients including microbial community structure influence positively. (author)

  7. Biochemical and fatty acid composition of Arca noae (Bivalvia: Arcidae from the Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea

    I. DUPCIC RADIC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and fatty acid composition of the bivalve Arca noae were investigated in the Mali Ston Bay in relation to environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out monthly, from December 2001 to November 2002. Wet shellfish meat consists on average of 77.61% water and 22.39% dry matter, while dry shellfish meat consists on average of 89.04% organic and 10.96% inorganic matter. PCA analysis identified temperature, nitrate, silicate, MICRO, Chl a and salinity as the most important environmental factors influencing biochemical composition of A. noae. An increase of dry weight content of A. noae was observed during the spring when both the sea temperature and food supply increased rapidly. Contents of protein (54.39-62.06% of dry weight, carbohydrate (4.13-8.07% of dry weight and lipid (3.46-8.58% of dry weight varied significantly during the year. Protein and lipid level reached the maximum value in June. The fatty acid profiles of total lipids extracted from A. noae showed high level of unsaturation (UNS/SAT 1.9-3.4. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented the majority of total fatty acids (40.3-59.9% of total fatty acids and the most abundant were eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acid. n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio value varied between 2.1 and 5.0 and was the highest during the spring (April to June. Due to their low lipid and high percentages of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids A. noae can be evaluated as a quality seafood product. The most suitable period of the year for its consumption is in the spring when it reaches its highest nutritional values.

  8. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries.

    Wallin, Jaana; Karjalainen, Anna K; Schultz, Eija; Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. PMID:25506908

  9. Evolution of retinoic acid receptors and retinoic acid signaling.

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived morphogen controlling important developmental processes in vertebrates, and more generally in chordates, including axial patterning and tissue formation and differentiation. In the embryo, endogenous RA levels are controlled by RA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and the RA signal is transduced by two retinoid receptors: the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Both RAR and RXR are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and mainly act as heterodimers to activate the transcription of target genes in the presence of their ligand, all-trans RA. This signaling pathway was long thought to be a chordate innovation, however, recent findings of gene homologs involved in RA signaling in the genomes of a wide variety of non-chordate animals, including ambulacrarians (sea urchins and acorn worms) and lophotrochozoans (annelids and mollusks), challenged this traditional view and suggested that the RA signaling pathway might have a more ancient evolutionary origin than previously thought. In this chapter, we discuss the evolutionary history of the RA signaling pathway, and more particularly of the RARs, which might have experienced independent gene losses and duplications in different animal lineages. In sum, the available data reveal novel insights into the origin of the RA signaling pathway as well as into the evolutionary history of the RARs. PMID:24962881

  10. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency...... and base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...... and intensity of sea-salt episodes as well....

  11. Dietary keto-acid feed-back on pituitary activity in gilthead sea bream

    Ibarz, Antoni; Costa, Rita; Harrison, Adrian Paul;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a daily oral dose of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, 0.1 g/kg body weight), an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle and a dietary additive, on the pituitary proteome of gilthead sea bream was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). A high-resolution map of the sea...... bream pituitary proteome was generated. Proteins with a modified expression between Controls and AKG treated fish were further analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and liquid chromatography combined with a nanoelectrospray (LC-MS/MS). The main changes in the proteome induced by AKG treatment were grouped....... Metabolic proteins up-regulated with AKG supplementation included fructose-bis-phosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, all related to glucose metabolism (p...

  12. Fatty acids in female’s gonads of the Red Sea fish Rhabdosargus sarba during the spawning season

    Suhaila Qari; Samia Moharram; Safaa Alowaidi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the fatty acids profiles in female fish, Rhabdosargus sarba (R. sarba) from the Red Sea during the spawning season. Methods:Monthly individual R. sarba were obtained from Bangalah market in Jeddah, Red Sea and transported to the laboratory in ice aquarium. The total length, standard length and weight were measured, fishes were dissected. Ovaries were removed, weighed and 10 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to 10 g of the ovary in a conical flask and immersed in boiling water until the sample was dissolved and the fat was seen to collect on the surface. The conical was cooled and the fat was extracted by shaking with 30 mL of diethyl ether. The extract was bowled after allowing the layers to separate into a weighed flask. The extraction was repeated three times more and distilled off the solvent then the fat dried at 100 °C, cooled and weighed. Then 50 mg of lipid was put in a tube, 5 mL of methanolic sulphuric acid was added and 2 mL of benzene, the tube well closed and placed in water bath at 90 °C for an hour and a half. After cooling, 8 mL water and 5 mL petroleum were added and shaked strongly and the ethereal layer was separated in a dry tube, evaporated to dryness. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by using a Hewlett Packard (HP 6890) chromatography, a split/splitless injector and flame ionization detector. Results: In female R. sarba, a total of 29 fatty acids were detected in ovaries throughout the spawning season. The main fatty acid group in total lipid was saturated fatty acid (SFA, 28.9%), followed by 23.5%of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 12.9%of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The dominant SFA were palmitic and stearic, the major MUFA were palmitoleic and oleic, and the major PUFA were C18:2 and C22:2. During spawning stages, there were no significant differences in total SFA, MUFA and PUFA. The highest value of SFA was in late spawning (36.78%). However, the highest value of MUFA and PUFA

  13. Youth justice and the 'new street urchins' in Canada

    Powelson, Kathy Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the number of street youth in Canadian cities has increased significantly. Concerns have been raised about how best to manage this group, many of whom are homeless, drug-addicted, HIV-infected, and/or involved in the sex trade. It has fallen to provincial governments to respond with new legislation and policy to regulate these "new street urchins," and the provincial statutes are similar, in many respects, to legislation linked with child-saving reforms at the beginni...

  14. Carbon nanotubes-functionalized urchin-like In2S3 nanostructure for sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing of dopamine

    Urchin-like In2S3 nanostructures were functionalized with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a new kind of sensor for dopamine (DA). The new electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. It is found that the current response toward DA is significantly enhanced compared to that of a bare GCE or a GCE modified with MWCNTs. The peak separation between DA and ascorbic acid (AA) is up to 225 mV. The new electrode also has improved selectivity for DA over AA compared to the bare electrode. The new DA sensor has a wide linear range (0.5-300 μM), high sensitivity (594.9 μA mM-1 cm-2) and low detection limit (0.1 μM). CNTs wrapped on urchin-like nanostructures remarkable improve its electrocatalytic activity and thus provide a promising strategy to develop excellent composite materials for electrochemical sensing. (author)

  15. Acidity decline in Antarctic ice cores during the Little Ice Age linked to changes in atmospheric nitrate and sea salt concentrations

    Pasteris, Daniel; McConnell, Joseph R.; Edwards, Ross; Isaksson, Elizabeth; Albert, Mary R.

    2014-05-01

    Acidity is an important chemical variable that impacts atmospheric and snowpack chemistry. Here we describe composite time series and the spatial pattern of acidity concentration (Acy = H+ - HCO3-) during the last 2000 years across the Dronning Maud Land region of the East Antarctic Plateau using measurements in seven ice cores. Coregistered measurements of the major ion species show that sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), and hydrochloric acid (HCl) determine greater than 98% of the acidity value. The latter, also described as excess chloride (ExCl-), is shown mostly to be derived from postdepositional diffusion of chloride with little net gain or loss from the snowpack. A strong inverse linear relationship between nitrate concentration and inverse accumulation rate provides evidence of spatially homogenous fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack across the study area. A decline in acidity during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 Common Era) is observed and is linked to declines in HNO3 and ExCl- during that time. The nitrate decline is found to correlate well with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), indicating that it is caused by a decline in biomass burning. The decrease in ExCl- concentration during the LIA is well correlated to published sea surface temperature reconstructions in the Atlantic Ocean, which suggests increased sea salt aerosol production associated with greater sea ice extent.

  16. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756

  17. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Cloutier, Ryan N.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  18. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia.

    Schultz, Jessica A; Cloutier, Ryan N; Côté, Isabelle M

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides-a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates-began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances. PMID:27168988

  19. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction

  20. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3

    Rahman, Taufiq, E-mail: mtur2@cam.ac.uk; Smith, Ewan St. John

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We have made a reasonable model of rat ASIC3 using published structure of chicken ASIC1. • We have docked sea anemone toxin APETx2 on the model. • We have identified two putative sites for toxin binding. • We have argued for plausibility one site over the other. • We have identified the residues that are likely to be critical for APETx2–ASIC3 interaction. - Abstract: Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein–protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the ‘hot-spots’ that are likely to be critical for ASIC3–APETx2 interaction.

  1. Formation of gas-phase carbonyls from heterogeneous oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids at the air–water interface and of the sea surface microlayer

    Zhou, S; Gonzalez, L.; Leithead, A.; Finewax, Z.; Thalman, R.; Vlasenko, A.; S. Vagle; Miller, L.; S.-M. Li; Bureekul, S.; Furutani, H.; Uematsu, M.; R. Volkamer; Abbatt, J.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the potential for reactive heterogeneous chemistry occurring at the ocean surface, gas-phase products were observed when a reactive sea surface microlayer (SML) component, i.e. the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), was exposed to gas-phase ozone at the air–seawater interface. Similar oxidation experiments were conducted with SML samples collected from two different oceanic locations, in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and from the west coast of Can...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the d-Amino Acid Catabolism Bacterium Phaeobacter sp. Strain JL2886, Isolated from Deep Seawater of the South China Sea.

    Fu, Yingnan; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zilian; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phaeobacter sp. strain JL2886, isolated from deep seawater of the South China Sea, can catabolize d-amino acids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Phaeobacter sp. JL2886. It comprises ~4.06 Mbp, with a G+C content of 61.52%. A total of 3,913 protein-coding genes and 10 genes related to d-amino acid catabolism were obtained. PMID:27587825

  3. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the Arctic troposphere

    Chi, J. W.; Li, W. J.; Zhang, D. Z.; Zhang, J. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Chen, J. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes in physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased, the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C- mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C- line scan further shows that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces likely determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA as reactive surfaces adsorbing inorganic and organic acidic gases can shorten acidic gas lifetime and influence the possible gaseous reactions in the Arctic atmosphere, which need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models in the Arctic troposphere.

  4. Downward flux of particulate fatty acids in the Central Arabian Sea

    Reemtsma, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Brockmann, U.H.

    species often overlap, however, and also are dependent on environmental factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, pressure and light intensity (Lee et al., 1971; Smith and Morris, 1980; Morris, 1984; de Long and Yayanos, 1986). Hence, the use... to 194 T. REEMTSMA ET AL. 4.5-8.7% and 255-897 ppm respectively at 2914 m (Tables 2 and 3). Fatty acids are, like sugars (Ittekkot, 1982) and amino acids (Gagosian and Lee, 1981 ), easily degradable organic compounds; their contribution to organic...

  5. CuO urchin-nanostructures synthesized from a domestic hydrothermal microwave method

    This letter reports the synthesis of CuO urchin-nanostructures by a simple and novel hydrothermal microwave method. The formation and growth of urchin-nanostructures is mainly affected by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The hierarchical malachite particles are uniform spheres with a diameter of 0.7-1.9 μm. CuO urchin-nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The specific surface area of the CuO nanostructured microspheres was about 170.5 m2/g. A possible mechanism for the formation of such CuO urchin-nanostructures is proposed

  6. Fatty acid patterns of Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea peracarid crustaceans and a possible food source, foraminiferans

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of diet composition in macrobenthic peracarid crustaceans from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea, the fatty acid (FA) composition of different species belonging to the orders Isopoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Tanaidacea was analysed. Multivariate analyses of the FA composition confirmed general differences between the orders, but also distinct differences within these orders. To gain information on the origin of the FAs found, the potential food sources sediment, POM and foraminiferans were included in the study. Most of the analysed amphipod species displayed high 18:1( n-9)-18:1( n-7) ratios, widely used as an indicator for a carnivorous component in the diet. Cumaceans were characterised by increased phytoplankton FA markers such as 20:5( n-3) (up to 29% of total FAs), suggesting a diet based on phytodetritus. High values of the FA 20:4( n-6) were found in some munnopsid isopods (up to 21% of total FAs) and some tanaidacean species (up to 19% of total FAs). 20:4( n-6) also occurred in high proportions in some foraminiferan samples (up to 21% of total fatty acids), but not in sediment and POM, possibly indicating the ingestion of foraminiferans by some peracarid crustaceans.

  7. Altered niche of an ecologically significant urchin species, Centrostephanus rodgersii, in its extended range revealed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Perkins, Nicholas R.; Hill, Nicole A.; Foster, Scott D.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2015-03-01

    Poleward range shifts of species as a result of global climate change are being increasingly documented. As species extend into new ranges their ecological impacts and the niches that they occupy may be unpredictable. We use benthic imagery obtained from the broad-scale deployment of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to quantify the depth distribution of barrens habitat formed by a recent range extension of the sea urchin species, Centrostephanus rodgersii, a known ecosystem engineer. AUV transects covering similar depths from both the historical range of New South Wales, Australia, and from the range extension area of the east coast of Tasmania were examined for the presence of barrens. We find that C. rodgersii occupies a different realised niche in its extended range, with barrens habitat occurring significantly deeper in Tasmanian waters (16-58 m) compared to NSW waters (7-27 m). The expansion of barrens habitat has devastating impacts on biodiversity, with flow-on effects to ecosystem services and local fisheries, and in Tasmania this threat extends to deeper, invertebrate-dominated habitats. This finding has important management implications, in particular the need to incorporate deeper reef systems into planning, with increased barrens expected under future climate change predictions. One conservation management approach is the use of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to prevent barren establishment in representative habitats by rebuilding viable populations of urchin predators. We also examine the correlation between MPA status and the occurrence of barrens within a small, no-take Tasmanian reserve and adjacent control sites. We find that there is suggestive, but inconclusive, evidence for fewer barrens in the MPA (p = 0.07). Our study highlights the utility of a novel technology for conducting large-scale benthic surveys and monitoring the impacts of range extending species.

  8. Simplified determination of uranium in contaminated sea sand samples by alpha-spectroscopy after acidic desorption and liquid-liquid extraction

    For the determination of uranium in contaminated sea sand samples by alpha-spectroscopy, we have investigated the applicability of different pre-analytical procedures. The direct electrodeposition after acidic dissolution of uranium from sea sand particles can be successfully applied only to relatively pure silica sands. Analysis of uranium in sand samples containing increased amounts of limestone and iron minerals requires the additional liquid-liquid extraction step to separate uranium from iron and calcium. The overall efficiency of the proposed method is above 70 % and the detection limit of alpha-spectroscopy is 70 Bq kg-1. (author)

  9. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  10. Stable isotope tracking of endangered sea turtles: validation with satellite telemetry and δ15N analysis of amino acids.

    Jeffrey A Seminoff

    Full Text Available Effective conservation strategies for highly migratory species must incorporate information about long-distance movements and locations of high-use foraging areas. However, the inherent challenges of directly monitoring these factors call for creative research approaches and innovative application of existing tools. Highly migratory marine species, such as marine turtles, regularly travel hundreds or thousands of kilometers between breeding and feeding areas, but identification of migratory routes and habitat use patterns remains elusive. Here we use satellite telemetry in combination with compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids to confirm that insights from bulk tissue stable isotope analysis can reveal divergent migratory strategies and within-population segregation of foraging groups of critically endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea across the Pacific Ocean. Among the 78 turtles studied, we found a distinct dichotomy in δ(15N values of bulk skin, with distinct "low δ(15N" and "high δ(15N" groups. δ(15N analysis of amino acids confirmed that this disparity resulted from isotopic differences at the base of the food chain and not from differences in trophic position between the two groups. Satellite tracking of 13 individuals indicated that their bulk skin δ(15N value was linked to the particular foraging region of each turtle. These findings confirm that prevailing marine isoscapes of foraging areas can be reflected in the isotopic compositions of marine turtle body tissues sampled at nesting beaches. We use a Bayesian mixture model to show that between 82 and 100% of the 78 skin-sampled turtles could be assigned with confidence to either the eastern Pacific or western Pacific, with 33 to 66% of all turtles foraging in the eastern Pacific. Our forensic approach validates the use of stable isotopes to depict leatherback turtle movements over broad spatial ranges and is timely for establishing wise conservation

  11. From urchins to sailors: an educative and civic experiment in Naples (1913-1928 - The story of “Caracciolo”, between poverty, social solidarity and education challenges.

    Maria Antonietta Selvaggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to examine Giulia Civita Franceschi’s work in the city of Naples, in favour of abandoned childhood. Between 1913 and 1928, she obtained by the Ministry of Navy and steered the training ship Caracciolo, which became for many urchins their home and family. So, they had the occasion to be saved from misery and delinquency. While before it they crowded streets, squares and arcades of the city, searching charity and ready to steel for surviving, on board ship they became little sailors, living a laborious and restrained life. Civita, inspiring to the concept of the sea as an educator, showed that thanks to her method, edged children and boys could become citizens, conscious of their rights and duties. The ship was site of visits by Italian and foreign delegations, which went to observe closer an educative experiment, considered as a pattern to imitate. The ship was a «second birth» for the Neapolitan urchins, offering them a new starting point, not an arrival point or a temporary protective recovery. The orientation impressed by Giulia Civita, in fact, marked the “Caracciolo” among other similar experiences as a unique educative pattern.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus Reveals Apolipoprotein E as a Candidate Biomarker of Chronic Domoic Acid Toxicosis.

    Benjamin A Neely

    Full Text Available Domoic acid toxicosis (DAT in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus is caused by exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid and has been linked to massive stranding events and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs in addition to the presence of domoic acid in body fluids. Chronic DAT further is characterized by reoccurring seizures progressing to status epilepticus. Diagnosis of chronic DAT is often slow and problematic, and minimally invasive tests for DAT have been the focus of numerous recent biomarker studies. The goal of this study was to retrospectively profile plasma proteins in a population of sea lions with chronic DAT and those without DAT using two dimensional gel electrophoresis to discover whether individual, multiple, or combinations of protein and clinical data could be utilized to identify sea lions with DAT. Using a training set of 32 sea lion sera, 20 proteins and their isoforms were identified that were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05. Interestingly, 11 apolipoprotein E (ApoE charge forms were decreased in DAT samples, indicating that ApoE charge form distributions may be important in the progression of DAT. In order to develop a classifier of chronic DAT, an independent blinded test set of 20 sea lions, seven with chronic DAT, was used to validate models utilizing ApoE charge forms and eosinophil counts. The resulting support vector machine had high sensitivity (85.7% with 92.3% negative predictive value and high specificity (92.3% with 85.7% positive predictive value. These results suggest that ApoE and eosinophil counts along with machine learning can perform as a robust and accurate tool to diagnose chronic DAT. Although this analysis is specifically focused on blood biomarkers and routine clinical data, the results demonstrate promise for future studies combining additional variables in multidimensional space to create robust classifiers.

  13. Amino acid substitutions in malate dehydrogenases of piezophilic bacteria isolated from intestinal contents of deep-sea fishes retrieved from the abyssal zone.

    Saito, Rie; Kato, Chiaki; Nakayama, Akihiko

    2006-02-01

    To examine the occurrence in other deep-sea bacteria of two amino acid substitutions (Ala-180 and His-229) in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) found previously in the deep-sea piezophilic Moritella sp. strain 2D2, we cloned and sequenced MDH genes of deep-sea piezophilic Moritella and Shewanella strains isolated from intestinal contents of deep-sea fishes, as well as other Moritella species from deep-sea water and sediments: M. marina, M. japonica, and M. yayanosii. The piezophilic Moritella strains had a Val residue or an Ala residue at position 180 and all the Moritella strains except for one had a His residue at position 229. However, four piezophilic-strain-specific substitutions at positions 103, 111, 229, and 283 were found to be completely conserved in the MDH of the intestinal Moritella strains of deep-sea fishes, indicating the substitutions may be habitat-specific. The piezophilic Shewanella strains had a Val residue and a Gln residue at positions 180 and 229, respectively. However, the MDHs of the Shewanella strains had five piezophilic-strain-specific substitutions at positions 61, 65, 107, 161, and 202. Therefore, the enzymatic strategies for responding to deep-sea high pressure environments of the MDHs between the genera Moritella and Shewanella are potentially different. Moreover, homology modeling shows these substitutions found in the MDHs of both genera except for position 229 in the subunit interface are located on the exposed region of the MDH molecules, indicating the substitutions may be related to the hydration state of the molecules. PMID:16598154

  14. Development of an embryonic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in a sea cucumber reveals the trajectory of change for the evolution of novel structures in echinoderms

    McCauley Brenna S; Wright Erin P; Exner Cameron; Kitazawa Chisato; Hinman Veronica F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The mechanisms by which the conserved genetic “toolkit” for development generates phenotypic disparity across metazoans is poorly understood. Echinoderm larvae provide a great resource for understanding how developmental novelty arises. The sea urchin pluteus larva is dramatically different from basal echinoderm larval types, which include the auricularia-type larva of its sister taxon, the sea cucumbers, and the sea star bipinnaria larva. In particular, the pluteus has a ...

  15. Holistic approach to the evaluation of the anthropocentric influence on domoic acid production and the corresponding impact on the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) population

    Rieseberg, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by the harmful algae Pseudo-nitzschia that has been directly linked to mass stranding events of the California Sea Lion (CSL). The purpose of this paper is to review the anthropogenic influence on the production of this neurotoxin and examine how human activities are impacting this marine mammal species. A comprehensive and interdisciplinary literature review was conducted to evaluate the future sustainability of the CSL population. It was found that ...

  16. Trophic interactions of meso- and macrozooplankton and fish in the Iceland Sea as evaluated by fatty acid and stable isotope analysis

    Petursdottir, Hildur; Falk Petersen, Stig; Gislason, Astthor

    2012-01-01

    A trophic study was carried out in August of 2007 and 2008 on the pelagic ecosystem in the Subarctic Iceland Sea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acid biomarkers were used to study trophic linkages and the trophic ecology of the most important pelagic species in this ecosystem, with emphasis on capelin (Mallotus villosus). According to N-15 enrichment results, there are 3-4 trophic levels in this ecosystem excluding organisms of the microbial loop and birds and mammals. The prim...

  17. Cultivation of the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum and validation of its use in marine toxicity testing for environmental risk assessment

    Schipper, C.A.; Dubbeldam, M.; Feist, S.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    To study environmental risk assessment, echinoderms provide a useful model for ecotoxicological testing. However, limited knowledge of the life history of field collected heart urchins is a problem and the use of cultured urchins has been investigated here. The present study describes a culture meth

  18. The Role of Seep Ecosystems in Distribution Patterns of Deep-Sea Megafauna

    Wagner, J.; McKelvey, Z.; Jacobson, A.; Hoerauf, E.; Van Dover, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key questions about methane seeps is the sphere of influence on the surrounding area they provide in terms of habitat structure, food sources, and geochemical environment. Understanding the distribution of megafauna relative to the seep environment is an initial step toward understanding these ecosystem properties. Systematic photo surveys using AUV Sentry were conducted at 4 methane seeps at the Blake Ridge Diapir and a seep at Cape Fear Diapir. Distributions of dominant seep features (bivalves, carbonates, bacterial mats) were used to define the active seep site. Geospatial mapping indicates that non-seep-endemic taxa (those not hosting chemoautotrophic endosymbionts) either avoid (e.g., sea urchins, certain sea cucumbers), are attracted to (e.g., squat lobsters, cake urchins) or show no distributional bias to (e.g., sea stars, certain fish) the presence of a seep. Further investigation into these faunal relationships may improve understanding of services that seeps provide to the larger ocean ecosystem.

  19. Urchin-like Co3O4 Nanostructure and Their Electrochemical Behavior in Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery

    Hui Li; Guang Tao Fei; Ring Cui; Yi Jin; Xu-yong Feng; Chun-hua Chen

    2011-01-01

    3D urchin-like Co3O4 have been successfully prepared by calcination of the urchin-like precursors, which were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route. The morphology and structure of the 3D urchin-like Co3O4 have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The as-synthesized Co3O4 products are of urchin-like structures with approximated 5-7 μm in diameter, and are composed of numerous nanoparticles chains with the parzicles diameter of about 15 nm. This kind of urchin-like Co3O4 exhibits superior energy storage properties with the high capacity of 1.369 Ah/g and its good cyclic stability shows great potential in the rechargeable Li-ion battery.

  20. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  1. High intraspecific variability in the diet of a deep-sea nematode: Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses of Deontostoma tridentum on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific

    Leduc, Daniel; Brown, Julie C. S.; Bury, Sarah J.; Lörz, Anne-Nina

    2015-03-01

    Small deep-sea organisms may exhibit a high degree of intraspecific variability in diet due to their ability to exploit a wide range of food sources and patchiness in food availability. Trophic interactions of small deep-sea benthic organisms, however, remain poorly understood. Here we describe spatial variation in diet/trophic level of the common deep-sea nematode Deontostoma tridentum on Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific, using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. We also analysed sediment organic matter (SOM) and compared the isotopic composition of D. tridentum to other benthic and suprabenthic macrofaunal taxa with a variety of feeding modes. Variability in D. tridentum δ13C and δ15N signatures was high both among sites and within a single site on the southern flank of Chatham Rise. Among-site variation in SOM δ13C signatures was not sufficient to explain variation in nematode isotopic signatures. The presence of a positive correlation between δ13C and δ15N signatures of D. tridentum (both among and within sites) could suggest that differences in trophic level is the cause behind this variation. Nitrogen isotope data suggest the presence of 1-3 trophic levels in this species, which may reflect differences in prey availability, nematode body size, or habitat (benthic versus epizoic). Nematode δ15N values exceeded those of all other taxa we investigated, including other predators, but reasons for this enrichment remain unclear. The fatty acid composition of D. tridentum did not vary substantially between sites and was characterised by relatively high levels of 18:1n9 (15-20%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; ~22%). Although limited inferences can be made based on fatty acid composition due to the potential impacts of non-dietary factors, high levels of PUFAs indicate that D. tridentum represents a good source of these essential nutrients to higher trophic levels. In conclusion, our results show that (1) some deep-sea organisms

  2. Growth and nitrogen metabolism of sea bass fed graded levels of nucleic acid nitrogen from yeast or RNA extract as partial substitute for protein nitrogen from fish meal

    S. Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies carried out in mammalian models have shown de novo synthesis and salvage of nucleotides to be a costly metabolic process and a dietary supplementation with nucleic acids (NA or nucleotides has been suggested to result in a protein sparing action (Sanderson and He, 1994. On the other hand, high levels of dietary NA could have toxic effects and lead to disturbance in protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in monogastric animals lacking uricase activity, an enzyme involved in NA degradation (Clifford and Story, 1976. So far, there is no clear indication of such effects in fish fed nucleic acid-enriched diets (Tacon and Cooke, 1980; Rumsey et al., 1992; Fournier et al., 2002. The aim of this experiment was to investigate growth response and N metabolism in juvenile sea bass (D. labrax fed diets supplying graded levels of nucleic acid N from dry brewer's yeast or RNA extract as partial substitutes for protein nitrogen provided by fish meal.

  3. Development of an embryonic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in a sea cucumber reveals the trajectory of change for the evolution of novel structures in echinoderms

    McCauley Brenna S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which the conserved genetic “toolkit” for development generates phenotypic disparity across metazoans is poorly understood. Echinoderm larvae provide a great resource for understanding how developmental novelty arises. The sea urchin pluteus larva is dramatically different from basal echinoderm larval types, which include the auricularia-type larva of its sister taxon, the sea cucumbers, and the sea star bipinnaria larva. In particular, the pluteus has a mesodermally-derived larval skeleton that is not present in sea star larvae or any outgroup taxa. To understand the evolutionary origin of this structure, we examined the molecular development of mesoderm in the sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis. Results By comparing gene expression in sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sea stars, we partially reconstructed the mesodermal regulatory state of the echinoderm ancestor. Surprisingly, we also identified expression of the transcription factor alx1 in a cryptic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in P. parvimensis. Orthologs of alx1 are expressed exclusively within the sea urchin skeletogenic mesenchyme, but are not expressed in the mesenchyme of the sea star, which suggests that alx1+ mesenchyme is a synapomorphy of at least sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Perturbation of Alx1 demonstrates that this protein is necessary for the formation of the sea cucumber spicule. Overexpression of the sea star alx1 ortholog in sea urchins is sufficient to induce additional skeleton, indicating that the Alx1 protein has not evolved a new function during the evolution of the larval skeleton. Conclusions The proposed echinoderm ancestral mesoderm state is highly conserved between the morphologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, auricularia and bipinnaria larvae. However, the auricularia, but not bipinnaria, also develops a simple skelotogenic cell lineage. Our data indicate that the first step in acquiring these novel

  4. Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2016-06-21

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish. PMID:27192404

  5. 味覚センサを用いた海産物の味の測定と再現

    高木, 想; 都甲, 潔

    2000-01-01

    Human sensory evaluations show that the taste of seafoods can be expressed by amino acids, umami substances and NaCl. In this paper, we studied the tastes of sea-urchin and synthetic sea-urchin using a multichannel taste sensor, whose transducer is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes with different characteristics. The sea-urchin showed a response pattern of electric potential similar to that of synthetic sea-urchin, which is composed of amino acids, nucleotides and NaCl. The...

  6. Spiculisporic acid analogues of the marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus candidus strain HDf2, and their antibacterial activity.

    Wang, Rong; Guo, Zhi Kai; Li, Xiang Min; Chen, Fu Xiao; Zhan, Xia Fei; Shen, Ming Hui

    2015-07-01

    Two novel antibiotic spiculisporic acid analogues, named as spiculisporic acid F (1) and G (2), and two known compounds, (-)-spiculisporic acid (3) and secospiculisporic acid B (4), were isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation from the fermentation broth of the sea urchin-derived Aspergillus candidus strain HDf2. Their structures were unambiguously established by comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, and high-resolution MS spectra, and by comparison with known compounds. Biological experiments demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 displayed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Pseudomonas solanacearum and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but showed no cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 human gastric adenocarcinoma and SPC-A-1 human lung adenocarcinoma tumor cell lines. This is the first critical evidence identifying spiculisporic acid derivatives as a potential bio-control agent for the soil borne pathogen P. solanacearum (E. F. Smith) Smith. These findings provide further insight into the chemical and biological activity diversity of this class of compounds. PMID:25912731

  7. Purple sea urchin habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  8. Red sea urchin habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  9. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, B.; Pecková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), 225-231. ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neoparamoeba * Diadema aff. antillarum * SSU rDNA phylogeny * Tenerife Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2011

  10. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    M. Aminur Rahman; Fatimah Md. Yusoff; Arshad, A.; Mariana Nor Shamsudin; Amin, S.M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution) was...

  11. Aggregation of Sea Urchin Phagocytes Is Augmented In Vitro by Lipopolysaccharide

    Majeske, Audrey J.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Smith, L Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Development of protocols and media for culturing immune cells from marine invertebrates has not kept pace with advancements in mammalian immune cell culture, the latter having been driven by the need to understand the causes of and develop therapies for human and animal diseases. However, expansion of the aquaculture industry and the diseases that threaten these systems creates the need to develop cell and tissue culture methods for marine invertebrates. Such methods will enable us to better ...

  12. Acidification reduced growth rate but not swimming speed of larval sea urchins

    Kit Yu Karen Chan; Eliseba García; Sam Dupont

    2015-01-01

    Swimming behaviors of planktonic larvae impact dispersal and population dynamics of many benthic marine invertebrates. This key ecological function is modulated by larval development dynamics, biomechanics of the resulting morphology, and behavioral choices. Studies on ocean acidification effects on larval stages have yet to address this important interaction between development and swimming under environmentally-relevant flow conditions. Our video motion analysis revealed that pH covering pr...

  13. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Morris, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five pri...

  14. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  15. Prickly business: abundance of sea urchins on breakwaters and coral reefs in Dubai.

    Bauman, Andrew G; Dunshea, Glenn; Feary, David A; Hoey, Andrew S

    2016-04-30

    Echinometra mathaei is a common echinoid on tropical reefs and where abundant plays an important role in the control of algal communities. Despite high prevalence of E. mathaei on southern Persian/Arabian Gulf reefs, their abundance and distribution is poorly known. Spatial and temporal patterns in population abundance were examined at 12 sites between breakwater and natural reef habitats in Dubai (UAE) every 3months from 2008 to 2010. Within the breakwater habitat, densities were greatest at shallow wave-exposed sites, and reduced with both decreasing wave-exposure and increasing depth. Interestingly, E. mathaei were significantly more abundant on exposed breakwaters than natural reef sites, presumably due to differences in habitat structure and benthic cover. Population abundances differed seasonally, with peak abundances during summer (July-September) and lower abundances in winter (December-February). Seasonal fluctuations are likely the result of peak annual recruitment pulses coupled with increased fish predation from summer to winter. PMID:26563547

  16. Examining the Effects of Altered Water Quality on Sea Urchin Fertilization Success and Embryo Development

    Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne Dominique; Tamaru, Clyde S.; Gorospe, Kelvin Dalauta; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of shifting marine environmental conditions caused by global climate change and localized water pollution, marine organisms are becoming increasingly exposed to changing water quality conditions. For example, they are exposed to more extreme salinity fluctuations as a result of heavier rainfall, melting polar caps, or extreme droughts.…

  17. Mismatch between biological, exploitation, and governance scales of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus fisheries in Galicia

    Rosana Ouréns

    2014-07-01

    On the other hand, rotations are based in the delimitation of fishing subareas where harvest alternates [6]. One relevant design aspect for rotations is the definition of the sizes of the subareas. If the spatial scale is too large fishers could overexploit several micro-stocks and continue to harvest others without any short-term signal of the decrease of the profitability of the subarea. This is the reason because micro-stocks should be the units for rotations to allow controlling effectively density after a harvest pulse.

  18. Temperate and cold water sea urchin species in an acidifying world: coping with change?

    dos Ramos Catarino, Ana Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are increasing the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the oceans are absorbing around 1/3 them. The CO2 hydrolysis increases the H+ concentration, decreasing the pH, while the proportions of the HCO3- and CO32- ions are also affected. This process already led to a decrease of 0.1 pH units in surface seawater. According to "business-as-usual" models, provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the pH is expected to decrease 0.3-...

  19. Fish, Benthic and Urchin Survey Data from Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui since 2008 (NCEI Accession 0146683)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data are summary fish, benthic and urchin data from belt transect surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program within the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries...

  20. Fatty acids and stable isotopes of a marine ecosystem: Study on the Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) food web in the Yellow Sea

    Wan, Ruijing; Wu, Ying; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Lei; Wang, Na

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the decline of the fish resource in the Yellow Sea has been dramatic. The fish community structure is changing. We determined the stable isotope and fatty acids composition in the Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) (dominant species) food web in the Yellow Sea, China, to study the ecological variation especially in the shifting trophic level. The major fatty acids found in the species were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:0, 18:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3, which made up 60-80% of the total fatty acids (FA). Scomberomorus niphonius and Conger myriaster were richer in 18:1 n-9. A higher percentage of saturated FA and lower percentage of polyunsaturated FA were found in Pseudosciaena polyactis, Chelidonichthys kumu, and Priacanthus macracanthus. A special feature of the grassfish was the high level of 20:4 n-6. An enrichment of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes was observed from phytoplankton and zooplankton to fishes; the stable nitrogen isotope varied in the range 2.9-13.9‰ and the mean values of stable carbon isotopes of fishes tended to vary within a limited range (-19.4 to -17.9‰). Both δ 15N and specific fatty acids (such as 18:1 n-9, DHA, EPA) showed a good relationship with trophic level. A distinct change in the fatty acids signature and stable isotopes was observed for the Japanese anchovy with the increase in body length, which was independent of the variety of geographic locations. Egg and postlarva samples were richer in 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and C22:6 n-3. The major fatty acids were 16:0 and 18:1 n-9, followed by 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, and 20:4 n-6, in young and adult Japanese anchovy. The shift in diet between the different life stages could be the explanation for this observation. Variations in trophic levels can be proven using stable isotope and fatty acids compositions, but this should be done with caution, such as with the application of principal components analysis in this study.

  1. Thermal diffusivity measurement for urchin-like gold nanofluids with different solvents, sizes and concentrations/shapes

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A; Balderas-López, José Abraham; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Pescador-Rojas, José A; Salazar, Jaime Santoyo

    2012-01-01

    The thermal properties of nanofluids are an especially interesting research topic because of the variety of potential applications, which range from bio-utilities to next-generation heat-transfer fluids. In this study, photopyroelectric calorimetry for measuring the thermal diffusivity of urchin-like colloidal gold nanofluids as a function of particle size, concentration and shape in water, ethanol and ethylene glycol is reported. Urchin-like gold nanoparticles were synthesised in the presenc...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like MnO{sub 2} nanostructures and its electrochemical character for supercapacitor

    Zhao, Shuoqing, E-mail: 18780107501@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liu, Tianmo, E-mail: tmliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Shi, Dongfeng; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Wen; Li, Tianming; Miao, Bin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Urchin-like α-MnO{sub 2} nanostructures were synthesized via a hydrothermal process. • The possible formation mechanism of the urchin-like α-MnO{sub 2} was discussed. • The evolution of the urchin-like nanostructures due to the increase of reaction temperature. • The urchin-like α-MnO{sub 2} exhibits high specific capacitance of 151.5 F g{sup −1}. • The urchin-like α-MnO{sub 2} shows 93.4% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: Urchin-like α-MnO{sub 2} nanostructures were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at different synthesis temperatures without using any template or surfactant. The microstructure and morphology of as-synthesized products were systematically investigated by focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical test of the prepared MnO{sub 2} exhibits ideal cyclic voltammetry behavior, high specific capacitance (151.5 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}) and excellent cycling stability (93.4% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles) which suggests its promising application as supercapacitor.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like MnO2 nanostructures and its electrochemical character for supercapacitor

    Highlights: • Urchin-like α-MnO2 nanostructures were synthesized via a hydrothermal process. • The possible formation mechanism of the urchin-like α-MnO2 was discussed. • The evolution of the urchin-like nanostructures due to the increase of reaction temperature. • The urchin-like α-MnO2 exhibits high specific capacitance of 151.5 F g−1. • The urchin-like α-MnO2 shows 93.4% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: Urchin-like α-MnO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process at different synthesis temperatures without using any template or surfactant. The microstructure and morphology of as-synthesized products were systematically investigated by focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical test of the prepared MnO2 exhibits ideal cyclic voltammetry behavior, high specific capacitance (151.5 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1) and excellent cycling stability (93.4% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles) which suggests its promising application as supercapacitor

  4. Metal and metallothionein concentrations in Paracentrotus lividus from Amvrakikos gulf (Ionian Sea-Greece).

    Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Pancucci-Papadopoulou, Maria-Antonietta; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and metallothioneins (MTs) were measured in the gonads of Paracentrotus lividus from Amvrakikos gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece). Three natural populations were selected; two of them, growing inside the gulf (Agios Thomas and Koronisia), presented higher density and smaller body size than the population living in a coastal area just outside the gulf (Mytikas). Metal and MT levels were not elevated, with the exception of Zn, showing high values related to the reproduction stage of the sea urchins. Significant geographical variations were recorded in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and MTs. The highest mean and maximum values of Cu, Zn and MTs were recorded in Agios Thomas while Cd and Cr were higher in Mytikas population. Copper, Zn, Fe and MT concentrations were negatively correlated to the sea urchin body size, while a positive concentration-size relationship was observed for Cd. Although all studied populations grow in a low metal level marine environment, urchins with smaller body size living in a food limited marine environment showed higher gonadosomatic index, metal concentrations and MT levels in their gonads (Agios Thomas and Koronisia) than larger specimens growing in a food unlimited area (Mytikas). PMID:24833020

  5. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling

    Nagao Koji

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group, fatty liver model group, SSC-treated group with SSC at levels of 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05%. Model rats were established by administration with 1% orotic acid (OA. After the experiment period, serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and hepatic lipid concentrations were determined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzymes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic lipids biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation. Results Both 0.03% and 0.05% SSC treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis and reduced serum TG and TC concentration significantly in OA fed rats. Hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activities were inhibited by SSC treatment. SSC also decreased the gene expression of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c. Otherwise, the rats feeding with SSC showed increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT activity in the liver. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO mRNA expression were also upregulated by SSC. Conclusions According to our study, the lipids-lowering effect of dietary SSC may be partly associated with the enhancement of β-oxidation via PPARα activation. In addition, the inhibited SREBP-1c- mediated lipogenesis caused by SSC may also contribute to alleviating fatty liver.

  6. Impact of ocean acidification on thermal tolerance and acid-base regulation of Mytilus edulis (L.) from the North Sea

    Zittier, Zora; Bock, Christian; Lannig, Gisela; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change confronts marine organisms with rapid trends of concomitant warming and CO2 induced ocean acidification. The survival and distribution of species partly depend on their ability to exploit their physiological plasticity during acclimatization. Therefore, in laboratory studies the effects of simulated future ocean acidification on thermal tolerance, energy metabolism and acid–base regulation capacity of the North Sea population of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were...

  7. How to eliminate the formation of chlorogenic acids artefacts during plants analysis? Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) in the HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acids and their native derivatives in plants.

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-09-01

    The analytical procedures for determining plant constituents involve the application of sample preparation methods to fully isolate and/or pre-concentrate the analyzed substances. High-temperature liquid extraction is still applied most frequently for this purpose. The present paper shows that high-temperature extraction cannot be applied for the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CQAs) and their derivatives in plants as it causes the CQAs transformation leading to erroneous quantitative estimations of these compounds. Experiments performed on different plants (black elder, hawthorn, nettle, yerba maté, St John's wort and green coffee) demonstrate that the most appropriate method for the estimation of CQAs/CQAs derivatives is sea sand disruption method (SSDM) because it does not induce any transformation and/or degradation processes in the analyzed substances. Owing to the SSDM method application we found that the investigated plants, besides four main CQAs, contain sixteen CQAs derivatives, among them three quinic acids. The application of SSDM in plant analysis not only allows to establish a true concentration of individual CQAs in the examined plants but also to determine which chlorogenic acids derivatives are native plant components and what is their concentration level. What is even more important, the application of SSDM in plant analysis allows to eliminate errors that may arise or might have arisen in the study of chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in plant metabolism. PMID:26231294

  8. Urchin-inspired zinc oxide as building blocks for nanostructured solar cells

    Elias, Jamil; Bechelany, Mikhael; Utke, Ivo; Erni, Rolf; Hosseini, Davood; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2012-01-01

    High surface area nanowire based architectures have been identified as important components for future optoelectronic nanodevices, solar cells, wettability coatings, gas sensors, and biofuel cells. Here we report on a novel urchin-inspired nanowire architecture: its interwoven three-dimensional, high-surface-area nanowire arrangement can be precisely controlled by using a low-cost and scalable synthesis based on a combination of nanosphere lithography, low-temperature atomic layer deposition,...

  9. Low temperature preparation of CuO nanospheres and urchin-shaped structures via hydrothermal route

    Highlights: • We demonstrated a facile hydrothermal synthesis of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles. • Two types of nanostructures were synthesized by switching between NaOH or NaBH4. • NaOH resulted in nanospheres, whereas NaBH4 gave rise to urchin-like structures. • CuO nanosphere exhibited the bandgap of 1.54 eV due to quantum size effect. - Abstract: We demonstrated a simple one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in the form of either nanospheres or urchin-shaped structures. The choice between these two types of structures was easily achieved by switching between NaOH or NaBH4 during the nanoparticles synthesis. The first resulted in the production of nanospheres, the second gave rise to the urchin-like structures. Possible growth mechanisms for the formation of CuO nanospheres were discussed. Structural and optical properties of these nanospheres were investigated and their band-gap was found to be 1.54 eV. The higher band-gap value compared to the bulk CuO was attributed to the strong quantum confinement of charge carriers in the small nanoparticles comprising the nanospheres

  10. Low temperature preparation of CuO nanospheres and urchin-shaped structures via hydrothermal route

    Khan, Rizwan [School of Advanced Materials Engineering and Research Center of Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Vaseem, Mohammad [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Lee-Woon; Yun, Jin-Hyeon [School of Advanced Materials Engineering and Research Center of Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Yoon-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Hwan, E-mail: ihlee@jbnu.ac.kr [School of Advanced Materials Engineering and Research Center of Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrated a facile hydrothermal synthesis of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles. • Two types of nanostructures were synthesized by switching between NaOH or NaBH{sub 4}. • NaOH resulted in nanospheres, whereas NaBH{sub 4} gave rise to urchin-like structures. • CuO nanosphere exhibited the bandgap of 1.54 eV due to quantum size effect. - Abstract: We demonstrated a simple one-step hydrothermal route for the preparation of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in the form of either nanospheres or urchin-shaped structures. The choice between these two types of structures was easily achieved by switching between NaOH or NaBH{sub 4} during the nanoparticles synthesis. The first resulted in the production of nanospheres, the second gave rise to the urchin-like structures. Possible growth mechanisms for the formation of CuO nanospheres were discussed. Structural and optical properties of these nanospheres were investigated and their band-gap was found to be 1.54 eV. The higher band-gap value compared to the bulk CuO was attributed to the strong quantum confinement of charge carriers in the small nanoparticles comprising the nanospheres.

  11. Preparation and electrochemical properties of urchin-like α-Fe2O3 nanomaterials

    2010-01-01

    Based on a facile glucose-guided hydrolyzing-heat-treating approach, urchin-like α-Fe2O3 nanomaterials with controllable morphology and crystallinity were prepared via adjusting the heat-treating temperature, and their electrochemical performances were investigated. The results showed that changing the heat-treating temperature can effectively control the structure and electrochemical property of the as-made products. The urchin-like α-Fe2O3 nanomaterials obtained by heat-treating at 300°C, composed of a mass of the shuttle fibrous brunches, had higher initial discharge capacity(1475 mAhg-1) than those consisting of nanorods formed at 700°C. The above difference is ascribed to the urchin-like samples obtained at the relatively low heat-treating temperature, which, with low crystallinity, large SBET, and well-regulated porous, is helpful to the adsorption of electrolyte and the transport of lithium ion, resulting in the high activity and discharge-charge capacity.

  12. Tracing carbon assimilation in endosymbiotic deep-sea hydrothermal vent Mytilid fatty acids by 13C-fingerprinting

    F. Dehairs

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bathymodiolus azoricus mussels thrive at Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents, where part of their energy requirements are met via an endosymbiotic association with chemolithotrophic and methanotrophic bacteria. In an effort to describe phenotypic characteristics of the two bacterial endosymbionts and to assess their ability to assimilate CO2, CH4 and multi-carbon compounds, we performed experiments in aquaria using 13C-labeled NaHCO3 (in the presence of H2S, CH4 or amino-acids and traced the incorporation of 13C into total and phospholipid fatty acids (tFA and PLFA, respectively. 14:0, 15:0, 16:1(n-7c+t and 18:1(n-7c+t PLFA were labeled in the presence of H13CO3- (+H2S and 13CH4, while the 12:0 compound became labeled only in the presence of H13CO3− (+H2S. In contrast, the 16:1(n-9, 16:1(n-8 and (n-6, 18:1(n-8c and (n-7, 20:1(n-7 and 18:2(n-7 PLFA were only labeled in the presence of 13CH4. Some of these symbiont-specific fatty acids also appeared to be labeled in mussel gill tFA when incubated with 13C-enriched amino acids, and so were mussel-specific fatty acids such as 22:2(n-7,15. Our results provide experimental evidence for the potential of specific fatty acid markers to distinguish between the two endosymbiotic bacteria, shedding new light on C1 and multi-carbon compound metabolic pathways in B. azoricus and its symbionts.

  13. Full scale evaluation of combined sewer overflows disinfection using performic acid in a sea-outfall pipe

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Flagstad, Rasmus; Sonne Munch, Ebbe;

    2015-01-01

    -outfall pipe with a minimum hydraulic retention time of 24 min. The disinfection efficiency in the field was measured by analyzing samples taken before and after the treatment. Samples were also treated with performic acid in the laboratory to measure the disinfection effectiveness and kinetic of degradation...

  14. Urchin-like AlOOH nanostructures on Al microspheres grown via in-situ oxide template

    Xu, Jiaquan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Estruga, Marc [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chen, Lianyi [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yahata, Brennan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Choi, Hongseok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Li, Xiaochun, E-mail: xcli@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We present a simple, scalable method to grow urchin-like AlOOH on Al microspheres. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles from the native oxide films and self-assemble to form templates. • Urchin-like nanostructures spontaneously form and growth on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates. - Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) metal oxide hydroxide nanostructures are highly desirable for numerous applications. Here, we present a simple, scalable method to grow urchin-like AlOOH nanostructures on the surface of Al microspheres. Al nanoparticles with native oxide film were melted in molten salts, forming an immiscible materials system. During ultrasonic processing of the mixture, emulsion of micro Al droplets occurs and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles form from the native oxide films and self-assemble to form in-situ nanostructured templates on the surfaces of Al microspheres. When the solidified mixture of Al spheres and salt is exposed to water, urchin-like nanostructures spontaneously form on the Al microspheres due to a heterogeneous nucleation and growth of γ-AlOOH on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates. This work could be readily extended to other metals, providing a novel and scalable method for the fabrication of urchin-like metal oxide hydroxide nanostructures on metal microspheres.

  15. Formation of gas-phase carbonyls from heterogeneous oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids at the air-water interface and of the sea surface microlayer

    Zhou, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Leithead, A.; Finewax, Z.; Thalman, R.; Vlasenko, A.; Vagle, S.; Miller, L.; Li, S.-M.; Bureekul, S.; Furutani, H.; Uematsu, M.; Volkamer, R.; Abbatt, J.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by the potential for reactive heterogeneous chemistry occurring at the ocean surface, gas-phase products were observed when a reactive sea surface microlayer (SML) component, i.e. the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), was exposed to gas-phase ozone at the air-seawater interface. Similar oxidation experiments were conducted with SML samples collected from two different oceanic locations, in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and from the west coast of Canada. Online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and light-emitting diode cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LED-CE-DOAS) were used to detect oxygenated gas-phase products from the ozonolysis reactions. The LA studies indicate that oxidation of a PUFA monolayer on seawater gives rise to prompt and efficient formation of gas phase aldehydes. The products are formed via the decomposition of primary ozonides which form upon the initial reaction of ozone with the carbon-carbon double bonds in the PUFA molecules. In addition, two highly reactive di-carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glyoxal, were also generated, likely as secondary products. Specific yields relative to reactant loss were 78%, 29%, 4% and atmosphere of the marine boundary layer is discussed.

  16. Tracing carbon assimilation in endosymbiotic deep-sea hydrothermal vent Mytilid fatty acids by 13C-fingerprinting

    F. Dehairs

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bathymodiolus azoricus mussels thrive at Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents, where part of their energy requirements are met via an endosymbiotic association with chemolithotrophic and methanotrophic bacteria. In an effort to describe phenotypic characteristics of the two bacterial endosymbionts and to assess their ability to assimilate CO2, CH4 and multi-carbon compounds, we performed experiments in aquaria using 13C-labeled NaHCO3 (in the presence of H2S, CH4 or amino-acids and traced the incorporation of 13C into total and phospholipid fatty acids (tFA and PLFA, respectively. 14:0; 15:0; 16:0; 16:1(n − 7c+t; 18:1(n − 13c+t and (n − 7c+t; 20:1(n − 7; 20:2(n − 9,15; 18:3(n − 7 and (n − 5,10,13 PLFA were labeled in the presence of H13CO3− (+H2S and 13CH4, while the 12:0 compound became labeled only in the presence of H13CO3− (+H2S. In contrast, the 17:0; 18:0; 16:1(n − 9; 16:1(n − 8 and (n − 6; 18:1(n − 8; and 18:2(n − 7 PLFA were only labeled in the presence of 13CH4. Some of these symbiont-specific fatty acids also appeared to be labeled in mussel gill tFA when incubated with 13C-enriched amino acids, and so were mussel-specific fatty acids such as 22:2(n − 7,15. Our results provide experimental evidence for the potential of specific fatty acid markers to distinguish between the two endosymbiotic bacteria, shedding new light on C1 and multi-carbon compound metabolic pathways in B. azoricus and its symbionts.

  17. Utilization of shallow-water seagrass detritus by Caribbean deep-sea macrofauna: delta13C evidence

    Three dives were made using the DSRV Alvin in the deep-sea basin north of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Detrital seagrasses and macrofaunal distributions at 2455 to 3950 m depth were assessed quantitatively. Counts of the manatee grass Syringodium filiforme contrasted sharply with those of the turtle grass Thalassia testudinum, reflecting an abundance proportional to previously reported export rates of the same species from Tague Bay, a nearby shallow source lagoon. Of the macrofaunal consumers that could potentially utilize this detrital nutrient source, three species of holothurians and two species of sea urchins were collected and/or observed. Gut content analyses revealed that all three holothurians deposit-feed on sediment and at least one species of sea urchin feeds almost exclusively on Syringodium. Carbon:nitrogen analyses of naturally occurring abyssal Thalassia detritus showed very low nitrogen content and a high C:N ratio, thus yielding a low nutritional value. Fresh Thalassia blades held in a litter bag experiment at 3950 m changed little in nitrogen content and C:N ratio after four years. A comparison was made of the stable carbon isotope ratios of 13C:12C for abyssal seagrass detritus and other potential carbon sources with those for tissues from the holothurian and urchin consumers. The results are discussed. (author)

  18. Full scale evaluation of combined sewer overflows disinfection using performic acid in a sea-outfall pipe

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Flagstad, Rasmus; Sonne Munch, Ebbe; Hørning, Claus; Berner, Jesper; Kolte-Olsen, Annette; Thornberg, Dines; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters with pathogens from combined sewer overflows limits recreational use of surface waters. Large retention basins are a satisfactory solution but they are rarely sufficient for economic or space reasons. Fast disinfection during the overflow is an alternative, but few methods are known and each has problems. This work evaluated for the first time the full-scale disinfection using performic acid by the removal of the two currently regulated indicator bacteria for bathi...

  19. Synthesis and formation mechanism of urchin-like nano/micro-hybrid α-MnO2

    Urchin-like nano/micro-hybrid α-MnO2 balls were prepared through the hydrothermal reaction of H2SO4 and KMnO4 without the use of templates, surfactants or other additives. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It indicates that the urchin-like α-MnO2 is composed of single crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods. The formation mechanism of urchin-shaped α-MnO2 was proposed and explained in detail on the basis of the time-dependent designed experiments combined with XRD analysis and TEM observations of the intermediates during the formation process.

  20. Toxicological studies of Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae) isolated from East China Sea.

    Zhou, Chengxu; Fernández, Nuria; Chen, Haiming; You, Yurong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Karlodinium micrum (Strain NMBjah047) was isolated from the water samples of East China Sea (ECS). The hemolytic, ichthyotoxic, and cytotoxic activities of the algae was characterized. Embryotoxicity of both intra and extracellular extracts were also tested on a local sea urchin species. The algal intracellular hemolytic toxicity averaged about 87.5% at different algal growth phases. However, extracellular hemolytic activity depended on the population growth phase. The toxicity increased with the increase in the population size, reaching the highest hemolytic activity during the stationary phase, and maintained a relatively high activity even when the population declined. Time and density dependent ichthyotoxicity to Lateolabrax maculates juveniles was also detected. The LD(50) in 24 h was 1.1 × 10(5) cells/mL. Inhibition of the fertilized egg hatching was also observed and estimated the IC(50) in 40 h with 3.5 × 10(4) cells/mL. Extracellular extracts of K. micrum dense culture also showed significant cytotoxic activity on HUVEC (IC(50) = 70.8 μg/mL). A dose dependent acute toxicity to embryos of sea urchin was also determined. The algal intracellular and extracellular extracts delayed or even restricted the embryological development of the sea urchin, illustrating the potential toxicity of K. micrum not only to vertebrates, but also to marine invertebrates. The hemolytic compounds in the ECS strain were extracted and analyzed. At least two fractions had significant hemolytic activities. A lipid-like compound, named Digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), was suggested to be responsible for the hemolytic activity in one of these fractions. From the results of the present studies, this strain of K. micrum isolated from the East China Sea might be considered a toxic strain with hemolytic activity, ichthyotoxicity, cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity. PMID:20858509

  1. Molecular cloning of heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10) and 60 (Hsp60) cDNAs and their expression analysis under thermal stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Ru, Xiaoshang; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Hsp10 and Hsp60 are important heat shock proteins (HSPs), which might be indispensable in the heat shock response and many other physiological processes. We obtained full-length cDNAs of genes hsp10 and hsp60 and classified their mRNA expression levels under thermal stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Full-length hsp10 cDNA was 1528 bp containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 83 bp, a 3' UTR of 1133 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 312 bp encoding 103 amino acid residues. Full-length hsp60 cDNA was 2560 bp containing a 118-bp 5' UTR, a 678-bp 3' UTR and a 1764-bp ORF encoding 586 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of Hsp10 and Hsp60 shared the highest identity with sequences of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and phylogenetic trees showed that the evolution of Hsp10 and Hsp60 was almost in accord with the evolution of species. Further analysis by real-time PCR showed that the expression of hsp10 and hsp60 mRNA was highly up-regulated at 26 °C compared with other three groups (20, 22, 24 °C), and their expression in the intestine was in a time-dependent manner at 26 °C. The results suggested that hsp10 and hsp60 were involved in the heat-shock response in the sea cucumber A. japonicus. PMID:24721556

  2. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3- aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Allen, Hannah M.; Draper, Danielle C.; Ayres, Benjamin R.; Ault, Andrew P.; Bondy, Amy L.; Takahama, S.; Modini, Robert; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Knote, Christoph; Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing; Fry, Juliane L.

    2015-09-25

    The inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 1 June to 15 July 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA), an ion chromatograph coupled with a wet rotating denuder and a steam-jet aerosol collector for monitoring of ambient inorganic gas and aerosol species, revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3 ) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of coarse mode mineral or sea spray aerosol species, particularly Na+ and Ca2+, and with a shift towards aerosol with larger (1 to 2.5 um) diameters. We suggest this nitrate aerosol forms by multiphase reactions of HNO3 and particles, reactions that are facilitated by transport of mineral dust and sea spray aerosol from a source within the United States. The observed high aerosol acidity prevents the formation of NH4NO3, the inorganic nitrogen species often dominant in fine-mode aerosol at higher pH. Calculation of the rate of the heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 on mineral aerosol supports the conclusion that aerosol NO3 is produced primarily by this process, and is likely limited by the availability of mineral dust surface area. Modeling of NO3 and HNO3 by thermodynamic equilibrium models (ISORROPIA II and E-AIM) reveals the importance of including mineral cations in the southeastern United States to accurately balance ion species and predict gas/aerosol phase partitioning.

  3. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  4. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    Truzzi, C; Annibaldi, A; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2008-09-01

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution (approximately 0.55 mol L(-1) HF, pH approximately 1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L(-1), deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, DeltaE(step) 8 mV, t(step) 100 ms, t(wait) 60 ms, t(delay) 2 ms, t(meas) 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654 +/- 1 mV, Pb -458 +/- 1 mV, Cu -198 +/- 1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to approximately 4 microg L(-1) for Cd and Pb and approximately 20 microg L(-1) for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L(-1), 3.6 ng L(-1), and 4.3 ng L(-1) for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t(d) = 5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g(-1) to approximately 1 microg g(-1), depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. PMID:18642105

  5. Bioavailability of lead in North Sea sediments

    Kersten, M.; Kröncke, I.

    1991-12-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research programme, lead contents were measured in the polychaete Nephtys spp. and in the sea-urchin Echinocardium cordatum as well as in the respective sediment fractions <20 μm taken from the Dogger Bank proper and the eastern coastal North Sea. A lower lead content was generally observed in the organisms taken from the German Bight than in those from the Dogger Bank, especially from its northeastern part. It is possible to divide both areas according to the slope found in the linear regression of lead versus total organic carbon contents in sediments, which is twice as steep for the Dogger Bank as for the eastern North Sea. This criterium points to a difference in sediment quality with regard to toxic metal contamination. The sediment quality of the Dogger Bank seems to be twice as bad compared with that of the eastern North Sea. This is in good agreement with the differences found in lead contamination of the sediment-dwelling polychaetes from both areas. The results indicate that lead is primarily accumulated by food ingestion.

  6. Formation of gas-phase carbonyls from heterogeneous oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids at the air–water interface and of the sea surface microlayer

    S. Zhou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the potential for reactive heterogeneous chemistry occurring at the ocean surface, gas-phase products were observed when a reactive sea surface microlayer (SML component, i.e. the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA linoleic acid (LA, was exposed to gas-phase ozone at the air–seawater interface. Similar oxidation experiments were conducted with SML samples collected from two different oceanic locations, in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and from the west coast of Canada. Online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS and light-emitting diode cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LED-CE-DOAS were used to detect oxygenated gas-phase products from the ozonolysis reactions. The LA studies indicate that oxidation of a PUFA monolayer on seawater gives rise to prompt and efficient formation of gas phase aldehydes. The products are formed via the decomposition of primary ozonides which form upon the initial reaction of ozone with the carbon-carbon double bonds in the PUFA molecules. In addition, two highly reactive di-carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA and glyoxal, were also generated, likely as secondary products. Specific yields relative to reactant loss were 78%, 29%, 4% and <1% for n-hexanal, 3-nonenal, MDA and glyoxal, respectively, where the yields for MDA and glyoxal are likely lower limits. Heterogeneous oxidation of SML samples confirm for the first time that similar carbonyl products are formed via ozonolysis of environmental samples. The potential impact of such chemistry on the atmosphere of the marine boundary layer is discussed.

  7. Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel F; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2013-04-14

    The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA. PMID:22856503

  8. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Lachlan D. Rash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3.

  9. The preparation and electrochemical characterization of urchin-like NiCo2O4 nanostructures

    Highlights: • The urchin-like NiCo2O4 nanostructures are fabricated. • Growth mechanism is proposed based on the morphology evolution process. • The specific capacitance is 1484.1 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1. • The capacitance retains 90.1% even after more than 2000 cycles. - Abstract: The urchin-like NiCo2O4 nanostructures were synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method. A possible growth mechanism is proposed based on the morphology evolution process upon reaction time. The effect of the concentration of metal salt on the electrochemical performance was investigated. The high electrochemical performance was achieved by optimizing the concentration. The corresponding specific capacitance is as high as 1484.1 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1. Furthermore, the capacitance retains 90.1% even after more than 2000 cycles. The resulting high performance is due to the unique three-dimensional structure constructed by nanorings and nanowires, which increases the amount of electroactive sites and facilitates the electrolyte penetration and electron transfer

  10. The protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa on oxidative stress in PC12 cells and SAMP8 mice.

    Wu, Feng-Juan; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Jing-Feng; Du, Lei; Takahashi, Koretaro; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorders, in which oxidative stress plays an important role. The present study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-enriched PL) from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa on oxidative injury in PC12 cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). We also studied the effect of EPA-enriched PL on learning and memory functions in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) in vivo. Pretreatment with EPA-enriched PL resulted in an enhancement of survival in a dose-dependent manner in H2O2 or t-BHP damaged PC12 cells. EPA-enriched PL pretreatment could also reduce the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increase the intracellular total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity compared with the H2O2 or t-BHP group. The down-regulated Bcl-2 mRNA level and up-regulated Bax, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 mRNA expression induced by H2O2 or t-BHP could be restored by EPA-enriched PL pretreatment. These results demonstrated that EPA-enriched PL exhibited its neuroprotective effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity, which might be achieved by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. The neuroprotective effect of EPA-enriched PL was also verified in vivo test: the EPA-enriched PL administration prevented the development of learning and memory impairments in SAMP8 mice. Our results indicated that EPA-enriched PL could offer an efficient and novel strategy to explore novel drugs or functional food for neuronprotection and cognitive improvement. PMID:24231470

  11. Impact of elevated levels of CO2 on animal mediated ecosystem function: the modification of sediment nutrient fluxes by burrowing urchins.

    Widdicombe, S; Beesley, A; Berge, J A; Dashfield, S L; McNeill, C L; Needham, H R; Øxnevad, S

    2013-08-30

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, seawater was acidified to pHNBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH≈8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO2 on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:23218873

  12. Random Seas

    Liu, Z.; Frigaard, Peter

    Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considering in the design of coastal and offshore structures.......Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considering in the design of coastal and offshore structures....

  13. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling

    Nagao Koji; Li Zhao-Jie; Xue Yong; Wang Jing-Feng; Wang Yu-Ming; Hu Xiao-Qian; Yanagita Teruyoshi; Xue Chang-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal ...

  14. A three-dimensional model study of methanesulphonic acid to non sea salt sulphate ratio at mid and high-southern latitudes

    H. Castebrunet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic and sub-Antarctic methanesulphonic acid (MSA to non sea salt sulphate (nssSO4 ratio is simulated with the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Atmospheric General Circulation Model including an atmospheric sulphur chemistry module. Spatial variations of the MSA/nssSO4 ratio in different regions have been suggested to be mostly dependent on temperature or sulphur source contributions. Its past variations in ice cores have been interpreted as related to the DMS precursor source location. Our model results are compared with available field measurements in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions. This suggests that the MSA/nssSO4 ratio in the extra-tropical south hemisphere is mostly dependent on the relative importance of various DMS oxidation pathways. In order to evaluate the effect of a rapid conversion of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO into MSA, not implemented in the model, the MSA+DMSO to nssSO4 ratio is also discussed. Using this modified ratio, the model mostly captures the seasonal variations of MSA/nssSO4 at mid and high-southern latitudes. In addition, the model qualitatively reproduces the bell shaped meridional variations of the ratio, which is highly dependent on the adopted relative reaction rates for the DMS+OH addition and abstraction pathways, and on the assumed reaction products of the MSIA+OH reaction. MSA/nssSO4 ratio in Antarctic snow is fairly well reproduced except at the most inland sites characterized with very low snow accumulation rates. Our results also suggest that atmospheric chemistry plays an important role in the observed decrease of the ratio in snow between coastal regions and central Antarctica. The still insufficient understanding of the DMS oxidation scheme limits our ability to model the MSA/nssSO4 ratio. Specifically, reaction products of the MSIA+OH reaction should be better quantified, and the impact of a fast DMSO

  15. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  16. Urchin-like m-LaVO4 and m-LaVO4/Ag microspheres: Synthesis and characterization

    The semiconductor nanostructures decorated with noble metals have attracted increasing attention due to their interesting physical and chemical properties. In this work, urchin-like monoclinic (m-) LaVO4 microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method and used as a template to fabricate Ag nanoparticle-decorated m-LaVO4 composites. The morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray. It was found that Ag nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were uniformly loaded on urchin-like m-LaVO4 microspheres, and the resulted composite microspheres showed distinct surface plasmon absorption band compared to pure m-LaVO4 microspheres. Photocatalytic activities of as-prepared samples were examined by studying the degradation of methyl orange solutions under visible-light irradiation (> 400 nm). Results clearly showed that urchin-like m-LaVO4/Ag microspheres possess much higher photocatalytic activity than pure m-LaVO4 microspheres and P25. - Highlights: • m-LaVO4/Ag composites microspheres were fabricated by a hydrothermal method. • m-LaVO4 microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than m-LaVO4 microspheres. • m-LaVO4/Ag microspheres exhibit a good stability

  17. Thermal diffusivity measurement for urchin-like gold nanofluids with different solvents, sizes and concentrations/shapes

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A.; Balderas-López, José Abraham; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Pescador-Rojas, José A.; Salazar, Jaime Santoyo

    2012-12-01

    The thermal properties of nanofluids are an especially interesting research topic because of the variety of potential applications, which range from bio-utilities to next-generation heat-transfer fluids. In this study, photopyroelectric calorimetry for measuring the thermal diffusivity of urchin-like colloidal gold nanofluids as a function of particle size, concentration and shape in water, ethanol and ethylene glycol is reported. Urchin-like gold nanoparticles were synthesised in the presence of hydroquinone through seed-mediated growth with homogeneous shape and size ranging from 55 to 115 nm. The optical response, size and morphology of these nanoparticles were characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal diffusivity of these nanofluids decreased as the size of the nanoparticles increased, and the enhancement depended on the thermal diffusivity of the solvent. The opposite effect (increase in thermal diffusivity) was observed when the nanoparticle concentration was increased. These effects were more evident for urchin-like gold nanofluids than for the corresponding spherical gold nanofluids.

  18. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  19. The dorsoventral axis is specified prior to first cleavage in the direct developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Henry, J J; Wray, G A; Raff, R A

    1990-11-01

    Previous fate mapping studies as well as the culture of isolated blastomeres have revealed that the dorsoventral axis is specified as early as the 2-cell stage in the embryos of the direct developing echinoid, Heliocidaris erythrogramma. Normally, the first cleavage plane includes the animal-vegetal axis and bisects the embryo between future dorsal and ventral halves. Experiments were performed to establish whether the dorsoventral axis is set up prior to the first cleavage division in H. erythrogramma. Eggs were elongated and fertilized in silicone tubes of a small diameter in order to orient the cleavage spindle and thus the first plane of cell division. Following first cleavage, one of the two resulting blastomeres was then microinjected with a fluorescent cell lineage tracer dye. Fate maps were made after culturing these embryos to larval stages. The results indicate that the first cleavage division can be made to occur at virtually any angle relative to the animal-vegetal and dorsoventral axes. Therefore, the dorsoventral axis is specified prior to first cleavage. We argue that this axis resides in the unfertilized oocyte rather than being set up as a consequence of fertilization. PMID:2088726

  20. Larval spicules, cilia, and symmetry as remnants of indirect development in the direct developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Emlet, R B

    1995-02-01

    Nonfeeding larvae of the echinoid Heliocidaris erythrogramma were raised in culture and examined for expression of a larval skeleton and for the arrangement of the ciliated band. Opaque larvae were fixed, cleared, and examined under polarized light for evidence of calcification. By 35 hr after fertilization (at 22 degrees C), a pair of triradiate spicules was present at the posterior end of the larvae. Each member of this pair formed a fenestrated spicule as it grew laterally. This pair and another pair which formed subsequently, were arranged across a plane of bilateral symmetry orthagonal to the juvenile oral aboral axis. These paired larval spicules can be identified as reduced expressions of postoral and posterodorsal rods found in plutei, and their expression indicates that the juvenile rudiment of H. erythrogramma forms on the left side and that larval body axes are conserved in this modified larva. By 44 hr the ciliated band formed as an incomplete transverse loop of three segments at the posterior end and on the dorsal surface of the ovoid larva. Cilia in these segments grew to lengths of 45-50 microns, longer than other swimming and feeding cilia reported for echinoderm larvae. Band segments are interpreted as expressions of epaulettes (specialized swimming bands) rather than the feeding ciliated band of the pluteus. The ciliated band segments and the larval spicules are both bilaterally symmetrical with respect to the same plane and indicate conserved larval bilateral symmetry despite the major asymmetry of the fates of cells on either side of this plane in their contribution to juvenile development. PMID:7875367

  1. EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET-B LIGHT AND POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON EXPOSURE ON SEA URCHIN DEVELOPMENT AND BACTERIAL BIOLUMINESCENCE

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are relatively common contaminants of the Gulf of Mexico and may be activated to more toxic metabolites by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. A marine bacterial bioassay system (Vibrio fischeri) which focused on the reduction of luciferase-mediate...

  2. cis-Regulatory control of the initial neurogenic pattern of onecut gene expression in the sea urchin embryo.

    Barsi, Julius C; Davidson, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Specification of the ciliated band (CB) of echinoid embryos executes three spatial functions essential for postgastrular organization. These are establishment of a band about 5 cells wide which delimits and bounds other embryonic territories; definition of a neurogenic domain within this band; and generation within it of arrays of ciliary cells that bear the special long cilia from which the structure derives its name. In Strongylocentrotus purpuratus the spatial coordinates of the future ciliated band are initially and exactly determined by the disposition of a ring of cells that transcriptionally activate the onecut homeodomain regulatory gene, beginning in blastula stage, long before the appearance of the CB per se. Thus the cis-regulatory apparatus that governs onecut expression in the blastula directly reveals the genomic sequence code by which these aspects of the spatial organization of the embryo are initially determined. We screened the entire onecut locus and its flanking region for transcriptionally active cis-regulatory elements, and by means of BAC recombineered deletions identified three separated and required cis-regulatory modules that execute different functions. The operating logic of the crucial spatial control module accounting for the spectacularly precise and beautiful early onecut expression domain depends on spatial repression. Previously predicted oral ectoderm and aboral ectoderm repressors were identified by cis-regulatory mutation as the products of goosecoid and irxa genes respectively, while the pan-ectodermal activator SoxB1 supplies a transcriptional driver function. PMID:26522848

  3. The Effect of Dietary Oils of Vegetable Origin on the Performance, Body Composition and Fatty Acid Profiles of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758) Juveniles

    Yildiz, Mustafa; ŞENER, Erdal

    2004-01-01

    Body fat composition and growth performance of sea bass juveniles fed with different kinds of vegetable oils instead of fish oil were studied. Feeding trials were carried out with 600 sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles with on initial live weight of 7.58 ± 0.13 g. Experimental feeds contained fish oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, corn oil and olive oil. In the chemical analyses of the experimental feeds, total crude fat was 12.33 ± 0.24% and total crude protein was 57.42 ± 0.31%. Ac...

  4. I've Been Stung: What Should I Do?

    ... be from the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) , immediately flood the wound with vinegar (5 percent acetic acid). ... Alert Diver. Updated March 2004. Other Marine Life Articles Sea Urchins: Beware the Bearers and Wearers of ...

  5. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  6. Studies on sea snake venom

    TAMIYA, Nobuo; YAGI, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography an...

  7. Life under Climate Change Scenarios: Sea Urchins’ Cellular Mechanisms for Reproductive Success

    Desislava Bögner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with other climate change related stressors. Achieving successful gametogenesis, fertilization, and the development of larvae into healthy juveniles and adults is crucial for the perpetuation of species and, thus, ecosystems’ functionality. The considerable vulnerability of the abovementioned developmental stages to the adverse conditions that future OA may impose has been shown in many species, including sea urchins which are commonly used due to the feasibility of their maintenance in captivity and the great amount of gametes that a mature adult is able to produce. In the present review, the latest knowledge about the impact of OA on various stages of the life cycle of sea urchins is summarized with remarks on the possible impact of other stressors. The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pHi and Ca2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia.

  8. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    Highlights: → Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H2O2 reaction achieve titania microspheres. → Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. → Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. → The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m2/g. → The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 μm in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 oC possessed a surface area of 45.4 m2/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  9. Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3− aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    H. M. Allen; D. C. Draper; B. R. Ayres; A. Ault; A. Bondy; Takahama, S; Modini, R. L.; K. Baumann; Edgerton, E.; Knote, C.; Laskin, A.; Wang, B; Fry, J. L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic aerosol composition was measured in the southeastern United States, a region that exhibits high aerosol mass loading during the summer, as part of the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign. Measurements using a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA) revealed two periods of high aerosol nitrate (NO3−) concentrations during the campaign. These periods of high nitrate were correlated with increased concentrations of supermicron crustal and sea ...

  10. Direct growth of urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres assembled from nanowires on nickel foam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

    Graphical abstract: Conductive nickel foam supported urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres composed of ultrafine nanowires with superior supercapacitive performance have been achieved. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • Conductive Ni foam supported urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres have been prepared. • ZnCo2O4 microspheres possess large specific surface area and mesoporous structure. • The ZnCo2O4 microspheres show excellent supercapacitive performance. -- Abstract: Urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres grown on nickel foam have been successfully prepared by a two-step facile strategy involving hydrothermal method and subsequent thermal annealing treatment. The as-obtained nickel foam supported urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres can be directly used as the electrodes for the supercapacitors. The physical characterizations indicate that the hierarchical urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres are composed of numerous nanowires and have a large specific surface area of 84.8 m2 g−1, which are beneficial for the electron and ion transport and the increase of electroactive surface areas. In addition, the electrochemical properties of the urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres as binder-free electrode for supercapacitor are studied by cyclic voltammetry, current charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cycle life measurements in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres electrode exhibits a high capacitance of 1841.8 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1 and keeps the capacitance retention about 78.4% at 10 A g−1. After 3000 cycles, the specific capacitance is about 1390.1 F g−1 at a current density of 10 A g−1, and it also shows the excellent cycling stability (95.8%). All the results demonstrate that the urchin-like ZnCo2O4 microspheres supported on nickel foam have great potential as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors

  11. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    Wu, Jin-Ming, E-mail: msewjm@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Xiao-Mei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction achieve titania microspheres. {yields} Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. {yields} Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. {yields} The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 {mu}m in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 {sup o}C possessed a surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  12. Sea Ice

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  13. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  14. Sea level change

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  15. Ag decorated 3D urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microstructures synthesized via a one-step solvothermal method and their photocatalytic activity

    Wang, Peng; Peng, Chaohao; Yang, Mu, E-mail: yangmu@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-11-05

    Novel 3D urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microstructures decorated with Ag nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by one-step solvothermal method with the mixed solution of ethylene glycol, AgNO{sub 3} and tetrabutyl titanate. The morphology, microstructure, crystalline and composition of the composite materials could be adjusted through changing the content of AgNO{sub 3}, solvothermal temperature and time. The obtained samples were characterized by TEM, XRD and XPS. The formation mechanism of these microstructures was proposed. The Ag nanoparticle-decorated 3D urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microstructures showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B under UV–Vis irradiation, which was attributed to their special 3D superstructure, crystalline composition and Ag nanoparticle decorated as well. - Graphical abstract: One-step solvothermal method synthesis of Ag decorated 3D urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microstructures with excellent photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • A simple approach for Ag decorated 3D urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microstructures. • Simultaneously form, array, and decorate of TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. • Special morphology and composition for excellent photocatalytic activity.

  16. The preparation and electrochemical characterization of urchin-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures

    Dong, J.Y.; Zhang, X.T., E-mail: xtzhangzhang@hotmail.com

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • The urchin-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures are fabricated. • Growth mechanism is proposed based on the morphology evolution process. • The specific capacitance is 1484.1 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. • The capacitance retains 90.1% even after more than 2000 cycles. - Abstract: The urchin-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures were synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method. A possible growth mechanism is proposed based on the morphology evolution process upon reaction time. The effect of the concentration of metal salt on the electrochemical performance was investigated. The high electrochemical performance was achieved by optimizing the concentration. The corresponding specific capacitance is as high as 1484.1 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the capacitance retains 90.1% even after more than 2000 cycles. The resulting high performance is due to the unique three-dimensional structure constructed by nanorings and nanowires, which increases the amount of electroactive sites and facilitates the electrolyte penetration and electron transfer.

  17. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  18. Alien seas oceans in space

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  19. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    M. W. Strassburg; B. D. Hamlington; R. R. Leben; P. Manurung; J. Lumban Gaol; B. Nababan; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated...

  20. Fatty acid, lipid class, and phospholipid molecular species composition of the soft coral Xenia sp. (Nha Trang Bay, the South China Sea, Vietnam).

    Imbs, Andrey B; Dang, Ly P T; Rybin, Viacheslav G; Svetashev, Vasily I

    2015-06-01

    The soft corals of the genus Xenia are common for Indo-Pacific reef ecosystems. Lipid class, fatty acid (FA), phospho- and phosphonolipid molecular species compositions were identified for the first time in the soft coral Xenia sp. from Vietnam. Total lipids consisted predominantly of waxes, monoalkyl diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, sterols, and polar lipids (21.4, 7.7, 14.2, 10.5, and 36.7 %, respectively). Sesquiterpene alcohol, valerenenol, was found. Acids 16:0, 18:3n-6, 20:4n-6, and 20:5n-3 dominated in total FA. The markers of zooxanthellae (18:4n-3 and 18:5n-3) and octocorals (24:5n-6 and 24:6n-3) were detected. Acids 18:5n-3, 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6, and 24:5n-6 concentrated in FA of polar lipids, whereas 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-6 were the major FA of neutral lipids. ChoGpl, EtnGpl, SerGpl, CAEP, PtdIns, and lyso ChoGpl constituted 39.5, 20.8, 20.5, 9.7, 4.3, and 5.3 %, respectively, of the sum of phospho- and phosphonolipids. Thirty-two molecular species of phospholipids and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) were determined by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Lyso 18:0e PakCho (4.1 %), 18:0e/20:4 PakCho (20.5 %), 18:1e/20:4 PlsEtn (18.0 %), 18:0e/24:5 PakSer (14.0 %), and 16:0 CAEP (9.6 %) were the major molecular species. EtnGpl and PtdIns mainly consisted of alkenyl acyl and diacyl forms, respectively. Alkyl acyl forms predominated in ChoGpl and SerGpl. Acid 24:5n-6 was a principal FA in SerGpl, whereas 20:4n-6 was more abundant in ChoGpl and EtnGpl. PtdIns contained various C20-24 PUFA. In the context of chemotaxonomy of corals, Xenia sp. has the lipid composition typical for soft corals and the FA profile similar to that of alcyonarians with the high level of 18:3n-6. PMID:25916238