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Sample records for acidic potassium permanganate

  1. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO2, highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO4/2.5M H3PO4 solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO2 (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation

  2. Oxidation kinetics of crystal violet by potassium permanganate in acidic medium

    Khan, Sameera Razi; Ashfaq, Maria; Mubashir; Masood, Summyia

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation kinetics of crystal violet (a triphenylmethane dye) by potassium permanganate was focused in an acidic medium by the spectrophotometric method at 584 nm. The oxidation reaction of crystal violet by potassium permanganate is carried out in an acidic medium at different temperatures ranging within 298-318 K. The kinetic study was carried out to investigate the effect of the concentration, ionic strength and temperature. The reaction followed first order kinetics with respect to potassium permanganate and crystal violet and the overall rate of the reaction was found to be second order. Thermodynamic activation parameters like the activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H*), free energy change (Δ G*), and entropy change (Δ S*) have also been evaluated.

  3. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  4. Advances in the use of acidic potassium permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent: A review

    Adcock, Jacqui L.; Barnett, Neil W.; Barrow, Colin J.; Francis, Paul S., E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au

    2014-01-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence. •Discussion of emitting species and light-producing reaction pathways. •Influence of enhancers such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde and sulfite. •Clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications. -- Abstract: We review the analytical applications of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence published since our previous comprehensive review in mid-2007 to early 2013. This includes a critical evaluation of evidence for the emitting species, the influence of additives such as polyphosphates, formaldehyde, sulfite, thiosulfate, lanthanide complexes and nanoparticles, the development of a generalized reaction mechanism, and the use of this chemistry in pharmaceutical, clinical, forensic, food science, agricultural and environmental applications.

  5. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

    2014-10-01

    In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process.

  6. Investigation of the Influence of Potassium Permanganate on Denim Jeans Processing During Acid Wash

    Elias Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Denim Jeans finishing is one of the most important value added activities in the washing plant to meet buyer requirements. It is done by creating numerous effects on it. Potassium Permanganate (PP) is a strong oxidizing agent used to make vintage look with acid stone wash. This present investigation deals with the simultaneous effect of processing time and concentration of PP on the physical and mechanical properties of denim garments. Three 100% cotton denim jeans were separately treated wit...

  7. Oxidative Precipitation of Manganese from Acid Mine Drainage by Potassium Permanganate

    Regeane M. Freitas; Perilli, Thomaz A. G.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.

    2013-01-01

    Although oxidative precipitation by potassium permanganate is a widely recognised process for manganese removal, research dealing with highly contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD) has yet to be performed. The present study investigated the efficiency of KMnO4 in removing manganese from AMD effluents. Samples of AMD that originated from inactive uranium mine in Brazil were chemically characterised and treated by KMnO4 at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. Analyses by Raman spectroscopy and geochemical mode...

  8. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  9. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely...

  10. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    Highlights: • A new transformation (conversion) mechanism of PTFE surface from a hydrophobicity to a hydrophilicity was proposed through the treatment of KMnO4/HNO3. • Chemical reactions or defluorination of PTFE described in the reported paper was testified to be a misconceived conclusion by the combination of several testing measurements (IR, XPS, XRD and so on) in our present work. • Deposition of manganese oxide and/or manganese hydroxide on PTFE surface contributed to the hydrophilic property of the modified PTFE with KMnO4/HNO3 treated. • The deposition thickness on the modified PTFE surface was about 5 μm, which was significantly helpful in enhancing the adhesive strength of PTFE with other materials. - Abstract: In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process

  11. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili, E-mail: ziliyu@scu.edu.cn

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A new transformation (conversion) mechanism of PTFE surface from a hydrophobicity to a hydrophilicity was proposed through the treatment of KMnO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}. • Chemical reactions or defluorination of PTFE described in the reported paper was testified to be a misconceived conclusion by the combination of several testing measurements (IR, XPS, XRD and so on) in our present work. • Deposition of manganese oxide and/or manganese hydroxide on PTFE surface contributed to the hydrophilic property of the modified PTFE with KMnO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3} treated. • The deposition thickness on the modified PTFE surface was about 5 μm, which was significantly helpful in enhancing the adhesive strength of PTFE with other materials. - Abstract: In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process.

  12. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  13. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    2010-05-03

    ... potassium permanganate from China (70 FR 35630). The Commission is now conducting a third review to... permanganate from China (64 FR 66166). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  14. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  15. Determination of catecholamines by ion chromatography coupled to acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

    Hong Wei Wu; Mei Lan Chen; Dan Shou; Yan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A simple,fast,sensitive,highly selective and eco-friendly analytical method for the determination of catecholamines in human urine by ion chromatography (IC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was described in this paper.Using 12 mmoi/L H2SO4 without any organic additive as eluent,three catecholamines including epinephrine (EP),norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA)were well separated on a cation-exchange column.The CL detection was based on the reaction of analytes with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of formaldehyde as an enhancer.The absence of methanol and acetonitrile in eluent made the proposed method more sensitive and eco-friendly.Under the optimal conditions,the linear range of the proposed method was in the range of 0.02-0.5 μg/mL.The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.6 and 5.1 μg/L.The relative standard deviations (RSD) for 0.1 μg/mL mixed standard solution were in the range of 0.8-1.9% (n =11).The method has been applied to the determination of catecholamines in human urine successfully.Excellent spiked recoveries were achieved for catecholamines ranged from 91.2% to 112.7%.

  16. Oxidative Precipitation of Manganese from Acid Mine Drainage by Potassium Permanganate

    Regeane M. Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative precipitation by potassium permanganate is a widely recognised process for manganese removal, research dealing with highly contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD has yet to be performed. The present study investigated the efficiency of KMnO4 in removing manganese from AMD effluents. Samples of AMD that originated from inactive uranium mine in Brazil were chemically characterised and treated by KMnO4 at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0. Analyses by Raman spectroscopy and geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code were employed to assess solid phases. Results indicated that the manganese was rapidly oxidised by KMnO4 in a process enhanced at higher pH. The greatest removal, that is, 99%, occurred at pH 7.0, when treated waters presented manganese levels as low as 1.0 mg/L, the limit established by the Brazilian legislation. Birnessite (MnO2, hausmannite (Mn3O4, and manganite (MnOOH were detected by Raman spectroscopy. These phases were consistently identified by the geochemical model, which also predicted phases containing iron, uranium, manganese, and aluminium during the correction of the pH as well as bixbyite (Mn2O3, nsutite (MnO2, pyrolusite (MnO2, and fluorite (CaF2 following the KMnO4 addition.

  17. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  18. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  19. Characterization of tropical starches modified with potassium permanganate and lactic acid

    Fabiano Franco Takizawa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work some tropical starches were modified by an oxidative chemical treatment with potassium permanganate and lactic acid. The native and modified samples were evaluated by mid-infrared spectroscopy, differential dyeing, pH, expansion power, solubility and swelling power, clarity of the pastes, susceptibility to syneresis, carboxyl content and reducing power. All modified samples presented dark blue color, higher expansion power (except corn starch, carboxyl content and reducing power. The solubility of the modified starch granules was very high at 90ºC. At this temperature, it was not possible to measure their swelling power. The viscographic analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity and higher degree of cooking instability. The principal component analysis of the mid-infrared spectra allowed separation between native and modified samples due to the presence of carboxyl groups. The expansion was inversely related with amylose content of the starches.No presente trabalho alguns amidos tropicais foram modificados por tratamento oxidativo com permanganato de potássio e ácido lático. Amidos nativos e modificados foram avaliadas por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio, coloração diferencial, pH, propriedade de expansão, poder de inchamento e solubilidade, claridade das pastas, susceptibilidade a sinérese, teor carboxilas e poder redutor. Todas as amostras modificadas adquiriram intensa coloração azul quando suspensas em azul de metileno, maiores valores de expansão (exceto o amido de milho, teor de carboxilas e poder redutor. A solubilidade dos grânulos dos amidos modificados foi muito alta a temperatura de 90°C, não tendo sido possível medir o poder de inchamento. A análise viscográfica mostrou um decréscimo no pico de viscosidade e alta instabilidade ao cozimento. A análise dos componentes principais dos espectros de infravermelho médio permitiu a separação entre as amostras nativas e modificadas

  20. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk; Ozlem Guneysel; Onur Yesil; Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-01-01

    Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II) lesions on the esophagus and cardi...

  1. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  2. Wet carbon-based solid acid/potassium permanganate as an efficient heterogeneous reagents for oxidation of alcohols under mild conditions

    Arash Shokrolahi; Abbas Zali; Mohammad Hossein Kes

    2008-01-01

    Wet carbon-based solid acid and potassium permanganate were used as new reagents for oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in heterogeneous mixtures.The experiments were done moderately at mild condition and high yields in suitable times were obtained.

  3. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  4. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  5. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  6. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of tryptophan using galangin-potassium permanganate-polyphosphoric acid system

    Hui Chen; Li Li; Min Zhou; Yong Jun Ma

    2008-01-01

    A high sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL)method for the determination of tryptephan has been developed.The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of galangin-potassium perrnanganate-tryptophan in polyphosphoric acid (PPA)media.Under the optimized conditions,tryptophan was determined in the range 0.05-10 μg/mL with the detection limit (30)of 5.0× 10-3 μg/mL.The relative standard deviation (RSD)was 1.0% for 11 replicate determinations of 1.0 μg/mL tryptophan.Three synthetic samples were determined selectively with recoveries in the range from 99.6% to 102.0% in the presence of other amino acids.

  7. A novel system of galangin-potassium permanganate-polyphosphoric acid for the determination of tryptophan and its chemiluminescence mechanism.

    Li, Li; Guo, Ruibin; Zhang, Dongxia; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-08-01

    A novel galangin-potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-polyphosphoric acid (PPA) system was found to have an outstanding response to tryptophan (Trp). Trp determination using this KMnO4 -PPA system was enhanced significantly in the presence of galangin. A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine Trp was developed based on the CL reaction of galangin-KMnO4 -Trp in PPA media. The presence of galangin, a member of the flavonol class of flavonoid complexes, greatly increased the luminous intensity of Trp in KMnO4 -PPA systems. Under optimized conditions, Trp was determined in the 0.05-10 µg/mL range, with a detection limit (3σ) of 5.0 × 10(-3)  µg/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.0% for 11 replicate determinations of 1.0 µg/mL Trp. Two synthetic samples were determined selectively with recoveries of 98.4-100.1% in the presence of other amino acids. The possible mechanism is summarized as follows: excited states of Mn(II)(*) and Mn(III(*) types are the main means of generating chemical luminescent species, and Trp concentration and luminescence intensity have a linear relationship, which enables quantitative analysis. PMID:25271024

  8. Visible Spectrophotometric determination of Chlorpheniramine maleate and Diphenhydramine hydrochloride in raw and dosage form using Potassium permanganate

    Mohammed Al Bratty

    2016-01-01

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods developed for Chlorpheniramine Maleate (CPM) and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (DPH) determination in pure and pharmaceutical preparation using Potassium Permanganate. The solvent system used was potassium permanganate. The method developed by adding a known amount of permanganate to CPM and DPH in acid and alkaline medium, the unreacted permanganate was determined at 550 nm; method A and bluish green colour of Manganate at 610 nm; me...

  9. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  10. 75 FR 65448 - Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    2010-10-25

    ... reasonably foreseeable future. See Potassium Permanganate From China Determination, 75 FR 63856 (October 18... International Trade Administration Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the People's Republic of China...

  11. Oxidation of As(Ⅲ) by potassium permanganate

    Li Na; Fan Maohong; Van Leeuwen Johannes; Saha Basudeb; YANG Hongqun; HUANG C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of As(Ⅲ) with potassium permanganate was studied under conditions including pH, initial As(Ⅲ) concentration and dosage of Mn(Ⅶ). The results have shown that potassium permanganate was an effective agent for oxidizing of As(Ⅲ) in a wide pH range. The pH value of tested water was not a significant factor affecting the oxidation of As(Ⅲ) by Mn(Ⅶ). Although theoretical redox analyses suggest that Mn(Ⅶ) should have better performance in oxidization of As(Ⅲ) within lower pH ranges, the experimental results show that the oxidation efficiencies of As(Ⅲ) under basic and acidic conditions were similar, which may be due to the adsorption of As(Ⅲ) on the Mn(OH)2 and MnO2 resulting from the oxidation of As(Ⅲ).

  12. Hg (II) Catalysed Oxidation of D-Arabinose and D-Mannose by Acidic Solution of Potassium Permanganate: Kinetics and Mechanism

    R. Naz; *R. Azmat; Qamar, N; 3N. I. Siddiqi

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of Hg (II) catalyzed oxidation of D-Arabinose (Ara) and D-Mannose (Man) by potassium permanganate in acidic medium have been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range 30-50oC. The reactions exhibit first order kinetics with respect to [Man] and [MnO4-] while second order with [Ara]. The reaction rates were found to be unaffected by the change in [H+]. It has been observed that Hg (II) catalyzed the reaction but as the [Hg(II)] increases, reaction rate becomes indepe...

  13. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on May 3, 2010 (75 FR 23298) and...

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of manganese oxides from potassium permanganate and citric acid mixtures

    Burhanuddin, Syazwani; Yarmo, Ambar; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2013-11-01

    Reaction of KMnO4 and citric acid at different stoichiometric ratio found to give black precipitate after calcined at 500 %C. The black precipitate are classified as two type of manganese oxides mineral namely as bixbyite and hollandite. IR and XRD data were in agreement with the literature report.

  15. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  16. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids using flow analysis with both acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence

    For the first time, analytically useful chemiluminescence was elicited from the reactions of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Heliotrine, retronecine, supinine, monocrotaline and echinatine N-oxide yielded chemiluminescence upon reaction with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) whilst lasiocarpine, its N-oxide and supinine elicited light upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Detection limits for heliotrine were 1.25 x 10-7 M and 9 x 10-9 M for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) perchlorate with flow injection analysis (FIA) and the silica-immobilised reagent (4-[4-(dichloromethylsilanyl)-butyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine)bis (2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) with sequential injection analysis (SIA), respectively. Lasiocarpine was detectable at 1.4 x 10-7 M using acidic potassium permanganate with FIA. Additionally, the silica-immobilised reagent was optimised with respect to the oxidant (ammonium ceric nitrate) concentration and the aspiration times which afforded a detection limit for codeine of 5 x 10-10 M using SIA

  17. Shrink-resistance of cashmere yarn with acidic potassium permanganate%山羊绒纱线酸性高锰酸钾防缩工艺

    杨丹; 李龙; 王卫

    2011-01-01

    The shrink-proofing treatment of cashmere yarn was treated with acidic potassium permangament solution. The breaking strength, felt shrinkage percentage and the whiteness of the treated cashmere yams were tested , and the effects of treatment temperature, time, pH value, the content of potassium permanganate and sodium pyrophosphate on all the above properties of the cashmere yarn were analysed. By an orthogonal test and comprehensive analysis, the optimal shrink-resisstance treatment condition was obtained as folio wings: the temperature 40t .potassium permanganate concentration 2% (o. W. F) , sodium pyrophosphate content 3% (o. W. F) , pH value 4, the time 30min.%利用高锰酸钾在酸性条件下的强氧化性对山羊绒纱线进行氧化处理,研究山羊绒纱线防缩工艺.以纱线断裂强力、毡缩率和白度为测试指标,分析温度、时间、高锰酸钾用量、pH值和焦磷酸钠用量等对处理后山羊绒纱线各项性能的影响.通过正交实验确定了山羊绒纱线酸性高锰酸钾防缩处理最佳工艺为:温度40℃,处理时间30min,KMnO4浓度2%(o.w.f),pH值4,焦磷酸钠浓度3%(o.w.f).

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Pipazethate HCl and Dextromethorphan HBr using Potassium Permanganate

    Gouda, Ayman Abou El-Fetouh; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; El Shafey, Zeineb.; Hossny, Nagda.; El-Azzazy, Rham

    2008-01-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of pipazethate HCl (PiCl) and dextromethorphan HBr (DEX) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C) and methylene blue (method D), ...

  19. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra. PMID:24802238

  20. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. PMID:25585256

  1. Hg (II Catalysed Oxidation of D-Arabinose and D-Mannose by Acidic Solution of Potassium Permanganate: Kinetics and Mechanism

    *1R. Naz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of Hg (II catalyzed oxidation of D-Arabinose (Ara and D-Mannose (Man by potassium permanganate in acidic medium have been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range 30-50oC. The reactions exhibit first order kinetics with respect to [Man] and [MnO4-] while second order with [Ara]. The reaction rates were found to be unaffected by the change in [H+]. It has been observed that Hg (II catalyzed the reaction but as the [Hg(II] increases, reaction rate becomes independent. Negligible effect of ionic strength (μ on the rate of oxidation has also been noted which supports the presence of at least one neutral specie in the rate determining step. The rate of oxidation was influenced by the change in temperature. Various activation parameters have been calculated. Formic acid and erythronic acid were identified as main oxidation product in case of arabinose while for mannose formic acid and arabinonic acid were identified. A mechanism consistent with the above findings has also been proposed.

  2. 高锰酸钾氧化法制备3,5-吡啶二甲酸%The Preparation of 3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid with Potassium permanganate by Oxidation

    黄昌龙; 王宏胜; 李公春; 田孝旭

    2012-01-01

    3,5-Pyridinedicrboxylic acid was prepared by oxidation with 3,5-dimethylpyridine as raw material,potassium permanganate as oxidizing agent.The recation yield was more than 60%.%采用KMnO4作氧化剂,3,5-二甲基吡啶为原料,通过氧化反应制备了3,5-吡啶二甲酸,产率达到60%以上。

  3. Potassium Permanganate as an Alternative for Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment

    Ordiales, M.; Fernández, D.; Verdeja, L. F.; Sancho, J.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using potassium permanganate as a reagent for cyanide oxidation in wastewater was experimentally studied. Both artificial and production wastewater from two different gold mines were tested. The experiments had three goals: determine the optimum reagent concentration and reaction time required to achieve total cyanide removal, obtain knowledge of the reaction kinetics, and improve the management of the amount of reagent. The results indicate that potassium permanganate is an effective and reliable oxidizing agent for the removal of cyanide from gold mining wastewater.

  4. Screening of cannabinoids in industrial-grade hemp using two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    Pandohee, Jessica; Holland, Brendan J; Li, Bingshan; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Stevenson, Paul G; Barnett, Neil W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H; Conlan, Xavier A

    2015-06-01

    Widely known for its recreational use, the cannabis plant also has the potential to act as an antibacterial agent in the medicinal field. The analysis of cannabis plants/products in both pharmacological and forensic studies often requires the separation of compounds of interest and/or accurate identification of the whole cannabinoid profile. In order to provide a complete separation and detection of cannabinoids, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography method has been developed using acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection, which has been shown to be selective for cannabinoids. This was carried out using a Luna 100 Å CN column and a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column in the first and second dimensions, respectively. The method has utilized a large amount of the available separation space with a spreading angle of 48.4° and a correlation of 0.66 allowing the determination of more than 120 constituents and mass spectral identification of ten cannabinoids in a single analytical run. The method has the potential to improve research involved in the characterization of sensitive, complex matrices. PMID:25845561

  5. Research into Uncertainty in Measurement of Seawater Chemical Oxygen Demand by Potassium Iodide-Alkaline Potassium Permanganate Determination Method.

    Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Changsong

    2007-01-01

    Using the glucose and L-glutamic-acid to prepare the standard substance according to the ratio of 1:1, and the artificial seawater and the standard substance to prepare a series of standard solutions, the distribution pattern of uncertainty in measurement of seawater COD is obtained based on the measured results of the series of standard solutions by the potassium iodide-alkaline potassium permanganate determination method. The distribution pattern is as follows: Uncertainty in measurement is...

  6. Experimental improvement of preparation for adipic acid through oxidation of potassium permanganate%高锰酸钾氧化制备己二酸的实验改进

    徐翔宇

    2011-01-01

    通过改变高锰酸钾氧化环己醇制备己二酸的方法,使制备己二酸的实验变得简便、过程简单、反应时间缩短、产率提高、实验效果理想.%Through changing the method of the preparation for adipic acid of the potassium permanganate oxidizing cyclohexanol, the experiment of preparation for adipic acid becomes more simple and convenient. The whole process is simple, the reaction time is shortened, the yield is increased and the experimental results are very ideal.

  7. Inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films

    In this study, the inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films were investigated, and the optimal mole ratio of MnO4−/Cl− was also obtained. The inhibiting process and healing mechanism were studied by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the introduction of potassium permanganate to electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process and the optimal inhibiting mole ratio of MnO4−/Cl− is 2 × 10−1 with a protective efficiency about 99.24%. According to its high protective efficiency and the nice results of long-term immersion test, potassium permanganate as an inhibitor could prolong the lifetime of silane films and expand its scope of application. - Highlights: • Healing sol–gel film was obtained by adding KMnO4 into electrolyte. • An optimal inhibitor mole ratio of MnO4−/Cl− for Si sol–gel was 2 × 10−1. • The best protective efficiency was approximately 99.24%. • The inhibiting effect may be due to production of insoluble manganese hydroxide/oxide

  8. Inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@yeah.net; Wang, Shaoyin; Luo, Fei; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin

    2013-07-31

    In this study, the inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films were investigated, and the optimal mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} was also obtained. The inhibiting process and healing mechanism were studied by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the introduction of potassium permanganate to electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process and the optimal inhibiting mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} is 2 × 10{sup −1} with a protective efficiency about 99.24%. According to its high protective efficiency and the nice results of long-term immersion test, potassium permanganate as an inhibitor could prolong the lifetime of silane films and expand its scope of application. - Highlights: • Healing sol–gel film was obtained by adding KMnO{sub 4} into electrolyte. • An optimal inhibitor mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} for Si sol–gel was 2 × 10{sup −1}. • The best protective efficiency was approximately 99.24%. • The inhibiting effect may be due to production of insoluble manganese hydroxide/oxide.

  9. New phenomenon of potassium permanganate treatment effect in polymer irradiated with heavy ions

    Background: Nuclear track membranes offer distinct advantages over conventional membranes due to their precisely determined structure. Their pore size, shape and density can be controlled intentionally so that a membrane with the required characteristics can be produced. The track etching technology plays an important role in the production of nuclear track membranes. Purpose: The effect of potassium permanganate solution pretreatment on the etching rate for polyethylene terephthalate film (PET) is studied in this work. Methods: The conductivity method is used in this research. Under different conditions, the PET films were pretreated for 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h and 6 h by potassium permanganate solution. 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% of 2-mol·L-1 sulfuric acid solutions were added in 0.1 mol·L-1 potassium permanganate solution. Results: Track etching rate reached a peak at 2 h, Afterwards, with the pretreatment time increasing, the track etching rate declined, and the longer of the pretreatment time, the smaller of the bulk etching rate. Half cone angle either. Adding to sulfuric solution, the experimental results show that the effect on track etching rate is small, with the amount of sulfuric acid increasing, bulk etching rate becomes larger, the same change with half cone angle. In addition, the DC voltage used in the conductivity method also has impact on the track etching rate. Conclusion: The experiment has provided a method to improve the etching rate. (authors)

  10. Kinetics studies of oxidation of niacinamide by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Sandipsingh Gour; Sayyed Hussain; Mazahar Farooqui

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation of niacinamide in alkaline media is carried out using potassium permanganate as a oxiding agent. The reaction was monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 525 nm. It was found to be zero order with respect to oxidant,, fractional order with respect to hydrogen ion concentration and first order with respect to substrate. The thermodynamic parameters(were determinied . The average (?G#) was found to be 87.60 KJ/mol. The values ?S# was found to be -0.2132 K...

  11. 75 FR 52509 - Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    2010-08-26

    ... International Trade Administration Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... initiation of the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the PRC pursuant... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 23240 (May 3, 2010). On May 6, 2010, the Department received a notice of...

  12. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    2010-04-01

    ... tablets of potassium permanganate constitute safe dosage forms for use in self-medication. It is the... for use in self-medication are aqueous solutions containing not more than 0.04 percent potassium permanganate. Such solutions are safe for use in self-medication only by external application to the skin....

  13. Separation and characterization of ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin oxidation products under potassium permanganate treatment in acidic medium by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Hubicka, Urszula; Zmudzki, Paweł; Zuromska-Witek, Barbara; Zajdel, Paweł; Pawłowski, Maciej; Krzek, Jan

    2013-05-15

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin oxidation stability under permanganate treatment in acidic conditions at pH from 3.0 to 6.0, was developed. Chromatographic separations were carried out using the Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column; (2.1×100 mm, 1.7 μm particle size). The column was maintained at 40°C, and eluted under isocratic conditions using 83% of eluent A and 17% of eluent B over 6.5 min, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). Eluent A: water/formic acid (0.1 v/v%); eluent B: acetonitrile/formic acid (0.1 v/v%). An oxidation process followed kinetic of the second order reaction and depended upon solution acidity. Oxidation of fluoroquinolones proceeded at piperazine moiety yielding respective hydroxy and oxo analogs, and remaining the quinolone fragment intact. Structures of products formed were assigned on a basis of UPLC/MS/MS fragmentation pathways. PMID:23618144

  14. Kinetics studies of oxidation of niacinamide by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Sandipsingh Gour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of niacinamide in alkaline media is carried out using potassium permanganate as a oxiding agent. The reaction was monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 525 nm. It was found to be zero order with respect to oxidant,, fractional order with respect to hydrogen ion concentration and first order with respect to substrate. The thermodynamic parameters(were determinied . The average (?G# was found to be 87.60 KJ/mol. The values ?S# was found to be -0.2132 KJ/mole and energy of activation was found to be 23.95 KJ/mole. A suitable mechanism is proposed based on the experimental conditions.

  15. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    B. Syama Sundar; P.S.Radhakrishna murti

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation wi...

  16. Luminol-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence system for the determination of three anthracycline antibiotics

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of doxorubicin,epirubicin and mitoxantrone and study its reaction mechanism.Methods In alkaline medium,chemiluminescence of luminol-potassium permanganate system could be inhibited obviously by anthracycline antibiotics.Combined with flow-injection technique,a new chemiluminescence method for determining the anthracycline antibiotics was set up.The chemiluminescence mechanism of the luminol-potassium permanganate system w...

  17. Reactivity of potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride with mismatched bases and a simple mutation detection protocol.

    Lambrinakos, A; Humphrey, K E; Babon, J J; Ellis, T P; Cotton, R G

    1999-01-01

    Many mutation detection techniques rely upon recognition of mismatched base pairs in DNA hetero-duplexes. Potassium permanganate in combination with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) is capable of chemically modifying mismatched thymidine residues. The DNA strand can then be cleaved at that point by treatment with piperidine. The reactivity of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in TEAC toward mismatches was investigated in 29 different mutations, representing 58 mismatched base pairs and 116 mis...

  18. Degradation of progestagens by oxidation with potassium permanganate in wastewater effluents

    Fayad, Paul B; Zamyadi, Arash; Broseus, Romain; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the oxidation of selected progestagenic steroid hormones by potassium permanganate at pH 6.0 and 8.0 in ultrapure water and wastewater effluents, using bench-scale assays. Second order rate constants for the reaction of potassium permanganate with progestagens (levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone and progesterone) was determined as a function of pH, presence of natural organic matter and temperature. This work also illustrates the advantages o...

  19. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    K L Ong; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  20. Haemorrhagic pancreatitis--a cause of death in severe potassium permanganate poisoning.

    Middleton, S J; Jacyna, M.; McClaren, D.; Robinson, R; Thomas, H C

    1990-01-01

    Severe potassium permanganate poisoning (more than 10 g of potassium permanganate) is invariably associated with massive systemic upset and death. Multiple organ damage has been recognized as an inevitable consequence of such an overdose, although pancreatitis has not been previously reported. Death due to cardiovascular collapse and profound hypotension is a common end point in those who reach hospital, but the pathogenesis is uncertain. We report a case of haemorrhagic pancreatitis followin...

  1. Effect of Processing Time and Concentration of Potassium Permanganate on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Denim Jeans During Stone Washing

    Elias Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Three 100% cotton denim jeans were treated with stone acid wash with the variation of processing time (1.5, 2 & 2.5 minutes) and concentration (1.5, 2 & 2.5g/l) of potassium permanganate after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment (concentration and respective time) according to standard test methods. It...

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Pipazethate HCl and Dextromethorphan HBr using Potassium Permanganate.

    Gouda, Ayman Abou El-Fetouh; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; El Shafey, Zeineb; Hossny, Nagda; El-Azzazy, Rham

    2008-12-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of pipazethate HCl (PiCl) and dextromethorphan HBr (DEX) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C) and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λmax=521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2.0-16 and 2.0-15 μg mL(-1) for PiCl and DEX, respectively with correlation coefficient (n=6) ≥ 0.9993. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 1.062-1.484 × 10(4), 3.35-4.51 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 29.36-41.03, 8.21-11.06 ng cm(-2) for PiCl and DEX, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods. PMID:23675101

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Based on their Oxidation by Potassium Permanganate

    A rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of neomycin and streptomycin either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C), and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λmax=521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-10 and 2-7 mg mL-1 for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 5.47-6.20x104, 2.35-2.91x105 L mol-1 cm-1 and 7.57-8.59, 5.01-6.2 ng cm-2 for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods

  4. Potassium permanganate toxicity: A rare case with difficult airway management and hepatic damage

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal; Abhishek Bansal; Ranjeet Kumar; Bhanwar Lal Kumawat; Parul Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) is rarely used for suicidal attempt. Its ingestion can lead to local as well as systemic toxicities due to coagulation necrosis and damage, caused by free radicals of permanganate. We recently managed a case of suicidal ingestion of KMnO 4 in a lethal dose. She had significant narrowing of upper airway leading to difficult intubation as well as hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy as systemic manifestation. We suggest to keep ourselves ready to handle difficul...

  5. Visible Spectrophotometric determination of Chlorpheniramine maleate and Diphenhydramine hydrochloride in raw and dosage form using Potassium permanganate

    Mohammed Al Bratty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods developed for Chlorpheniramine Maleate (CPM and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (DPH determination in pure and pharmaceutical preparation using Potassium Permanganate. The solvent system used was potassium permanganate. The method developed by adding a known amount of permanganate to CPM and DPH in acid and alkaline medium, the unreacted permanganate was determined at 550 nm; method A and bluish green colour of Manganate at 610 nm; method B. In method A decrease in absorbance or method B increase in absorbance as concentrations of CPM and DPH was measured. Beer’s law was obeyed at a range of 2.5 to 20 μg / ml in both the methods A and B. The method was validated as per International Council for Harmonisation guideline. The proposed methods were effectively used for the determination of CPM and DPH in commercially available syrup. The average percentages of recoveries of CPM were 99.20 ± 1.29% (method A, 100.6% ± 1.43% (method B; DPH 98.50 ± 1.29% (method A and 100.20 ± 1.43% (method B. The methods were efficiently validated and used for quantitative determination of Chlorpheniramine maleate and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride in pure and syrup preparations.

  6. Effect of Potassium Permanganate Nano-Zeolite and Storage Time on Physicochemical Properties of Kiwifruit (Hayward

    H Mirzaee Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, kiwifruits (Hayward were selected in two mass ranges (large and small. They were placed in one-liter glass bottles in the vicinity of the polyethylene sachets containing potassium permanganate nano-zeolite (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g and were stored in a germinator (5°C temperature and 30% relative humidity. Then, the physicochemical properties of the fruits (soluble solid content, pH, moisture content and fruit firmness and potassium permanganate nano-zeolite color (L, Hue angle, Chroma and E were measured after t 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The factorial treatment structure based on completely randomized block design was used for analyzing the obtained data. The results of analysis showed that potassium permanganate nano-zeolite had a significant effect on the measured physicochemical properties, except for the moisture content (P

  7. Effect of Potassium Permanganate Nano-Zeolite and Storage Time on Physicochemical Properties of Kiwifruit (Hayward)

    H Mirzaee Moghaddam; M.H Khoshtaghaza; M Barzegar Bafroee; Salimi, A

    2016-01-01

    In this research, kiwifruits (Hayward) were selected in two mass ranges (large and small). They were placed in one-liter glass bottles in the vicinity of the polyethylene sachets containing potassium permanganate nano-zeolite (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g) and were stored in a germinator (5°C temperature and 30% relative humidity). Then, the physicochemical properties of the fruits (soluble solid content, pH, moisture content and fruit firmness) and potassium permanganate nano-zeolite color (L, Hue...

  8. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of phenol using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    Cao, Wei; Mu, Xuemin; Yang, Jinghe; Shi, Wenbo; Zheng, Yongcun

    2007-01-01

    It is found that phenol can react with potassium permanganate in the acidic medium and produce chemiluminescence, which is greatly enhanced by formaldehyde. The optimum conditions for this chemiluminescent reaction are in detail studied using a flow injection system. The experiments indicate that under optimum conditions, the chemiluminescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of phenol in the range 5.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -6 g mL -1 with a detection limit (3 σ) of 3 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The relative standard deviation is 1.2% for 4.0 × 10 -7 g mL -1 phenol solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method has the advantages of simple operation, fast response and high sensitivity. The method is successfully applied to the determination of phenol in the waste water.

  9. L-酪氨酸-高锰酸钾-硫酸化学发光体系研究%Chemiluminescent System of L-Tyrosine-Potassium Permanganate-Sulfuric Acid

    朱昌青; 李永新; 王伦

    2001-01-01

    The reaction between L-tyrosine and potassium permanganate in thesufuric acid medium gave intensive chemiluminescence. A new analytical method for determination of L-tyrosine was proposed.The linear relationship between the intensity of chemiluminescence and the concentration of L-tyrosine is in the range of 4.0×10-6~2.8×10-5 mol/L with detection limit of 8.8×10-7 mol/L. The RSD for measurement of 1.0×10-5 mol/L L-tyrosine (n=10) is 2.7 %. The method was applied to the determination of L-tyrosine in injection of amino-acid with satisfactory results.%在硫酸介质中,L-酪氨酸与高锰酸钾反应能产生较强的化学发光,据此建立了测定L-酪氨酸的分析方法。该法线性范围为4.0×10-6~2.8×10-5mol/L;检出限为8.8×10-7mol/L;对1.0×10-5mol/L的L-酪氨酸进行连续10次平行测定,相对标准偏差为2.7%。该法已应用于测定医用氨基酸注射液中的L-酪氨酸。

  10. Kinetics of oxidation of dimethyl trisulfide by potassium permanganate in drinking water

    XiaoyanMA; Shifei HU; Hongyu WANG; Jun LI; Jing HUANG; Yun ZHANG; Weigang LU; Qingsong LI

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites of algae such as geosmin, 2- methylisoborneol etc. are reported to induce pungent odors into drinking water and attract additional scientifc attention. Recently, in China, taste and odor outbreaks in drinking water supply have become increasingly common. In source water affected by eutrophication, dimethyl trisulfide, speculated to be produced by decayed algae, was found to be the source of taste and odor issues and can be removed effectively by usual oxidation agents. In this experimental study, batch scale tests were carried out focusing on the removal of dimethyl trisulfide. Reaction kinetics of dimethyl trisulfide oxidized by potassium permanganate in water had been studied; influence factors such as pH, organic substrate, other existed taste, and odor contaminant in equivalent concentration were also dis- cussed. Results showed that dimethyl trisulfide can be removed by potassium permanganate efficiently; the ratio can reach more than 70% with oxidant dosage of 4 mg. L~ and contact time prolonged to 120 min. The dimethyl trisulfide decomposition followed a second-order kinetics pattern with a rate constant k -- 0.00213 L.(min.mg)-1. Typically, the degradation rate of dimethyl trisulfide was increased with the increasing KMnO4 dosage, but dramatically dropped with the increasing levels of humic acid (1.8-4.5 mg. L-1) and other odor-causing compounds (e.g. fl-cyclocitral, 0-1886.0 pg.L-1). Solution pH (5.2- 9.0) and initial dimethyl trisulfide concentration did not significantly affected the degradation. This study demon- strates that KMnO4 oxidation is an effective option to remove dimethyl trisulfide from water.

  11. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  12. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  13. Preparation and Analysis of Solid Solutions in the Potassium Perchlorate-Permanganate System.

    Johnson, Garrett K.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment, designed for and tested in an advanced inorganic laboratory methods course for college seniors and graduate students, that prepares and analyzes several samples in the nearly ideal potassium perchlorate-permanganate solid solution series. The results are accounted for by a theoretical treatment based upon aqueous…

  14. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  15. Potassium permanganate is not an effective pond disinfectant to control Dero digitata

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) is a major problem in cultured channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. This parasite requires Dero digitata to complete its life cycle. It is believed potassium permanganate disinfects ponds and reduces D. digitata populations, but this practice has not been verified...

  16. XPERT DESIGN AND DIAGNOSTICS' (XDD) IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE (KMNO4)

    Xpert Design and Diagnostic's (XDD)potassium permanganate in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the former MEC Building site located in Hudson, New Hampshire. At this site, both soil and ...

  17. Comparison of tank treatments with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for sunshine bass with ichthyobodosis

    The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator can cause significant losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. Potassium permanganate and CuSO4 treatments were evaluated against a naturally-occurring I. nectator infestation on sunshine bass raised in tanks. F...

  18. Phase-transfer catalysis applied to the oxidation of nonaqueous phase trichloroethylene by potassium permanganate

    Seol, Yongkoo; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    2000-07-01

    The use of potassium permanganate to oxidize chlorinated solvents has been demonstrated as an effective process for treating nonaqueous phase liquids in ground-water systems. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) in enhancing the degradation rate. PTCs work by transferring permanganate ion into the nonaqueous phase where it initiates oxidative decomposition. We studied the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by potassium permanganate, conducting kinetic batch experiments in conjunction with three PTCs that varied in terms of their extraction constants and molecular structures. Using the same batch technique, we examined whether PTCs could enhance the aqueous solubility of TCE. Solubilization could also increase oxidation rates in the aqueous phase. Rates of TCE oxidation in solutions containing the PTCs and a blank were estimated separately by measuring chloride concentration and UV-Vis absorbance in the aqueous phase. The enhanced rate of TCE destruction by the PTCs was reflected by an increase in the rate of consumption of permanganate ion and production of chloride ion. There was no tendency for the PTCs, however, to solubilize TCE in the aqueous phase. Therefore, the PTCs increased the rate of TCE decomposition by catalyzing permanganate oxidation in the organic phase. This study suggests that there is significant potential for testing this scheme under field conditions.

  19. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    Ying Zhou; Meijuan Zhang; Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R 2 in...

  20. Potassium permanganate as an in situ probe for B-Z and Z-Z junctions.

    Jiang, H; Zacharias, W; Amirhaeri, S

    1991-01-01

    The availability of DNA structural probes that can be applied to living cells is essential for the analysis of biological functions of unusual DNA structures adopted in vivo. We have developed a chemical probe assay to detect and quantitate left-handed Z-DNA structures in recombinant plasmids in growing E. coli cells. Potassium permanganate selectively reacts with B-Z or Z-Z junction regions in supercoiled plasmids harbored in the cells. Restriction enzyme recognition sites located at these j...

  1. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  2. Kinetic Determination of Acarbose and Miglitol in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Alkaline Potassium Permanganate

    Ibrahim, F. A.; Ali, F. A.; Ahmed, S. M.; Tolba, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was established for the determination of acarbose and miglitol in bulk and in their pharmaceutical preparations using alkaline potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. The method involves determination of acarbose and miglitol by kinetic studies of their oxidation at room temperature for a fixed time of 15 minutes for acarbose and 25 minutes for miglitol. The absorbance of the colored manganate ion was measured at 610 nm. Alternati...

  3. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  4. Present Situation and Prospect of Potassium Permanganate Production Development%高锰酸钾生产发展现状及展望

    李天杰

    2013-01-01

    The development process of potassium permanganate production is introduced in this paper, the present situation of potassium permanganate industry is analyzed too, and the development trend of potassium permanganate industry is prospected.%对高锰酸钾生产的发展过程进行了介绍,分析了高锰酸钾工业目前的形式,对今后高锰酸钾工业走向进行了展望.

  5. Chemiluminescence behavior of sodium hydrogen carbonate in the potassium permanganate-hydrogen peroxide reaction

    2010-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) phenomenon of hydrogen peroxide with potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate was reported.Effects of the surfactant on the CL system were investigated.Nonionic surfactants could effectively increase the CL signal.Radical scavengers and organic reagents such as nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT),cytochrome c,sodium azide,ascorbic acid,thiourea,tert-butanol and dimethyl sulphoxide were used to study the emitting species.CL emission spectrum was recorded and the results showed that the maximal emission wavelengths of NaHCO3-H2O2-KMnO4 system were 440 and 634 nm.The mechanism was discussed based on electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra,fluorescence spectra and UV-vis absorption spectra.The addition of rhodamine B or uranine into this CL system enhanced the CL signal.It was due to part of the energy transfer from singlet oxygen and excited triplet dimers of two CO2 molecules to rhodamine B or uranine.The CL could be induced by excited rhodamine B or uranine.

  6. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of dopamine using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak

    2012-10-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence method for the determination of dopamine has been proposed. The method is based on the enhancing effect of dopamine on the chemiluminescence emission generated by the reaction of potassium permanganate with formaldehyde in an acidic medium. The proposed procedure allows the determination of dopamine over the concentration range of 3.1 × 10-8-1.7 × 10-5 mol/L and with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L. The linear regression equation was F = 44.4912 + 1.07 × 109 ∗ C (correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.9998). The relative standard deviation is 2.1% for the determination of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L dopamine (n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The recoveries were found in the range of 96.5-101.3%.

  7. Potassium permanganate toxicity: A rare case with difficult airway management and hepatic damage

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 is rarely used for suicidal attempt. Its ingestion can lead to local as well as systemic toxicities due to coagulation necrosis and damage, caused by free radicals of permanganate. We recently managed a case of suicidal ingestion of KMnO 4 in a lethal dose. She had significant narrowing of upper airway leading to difficult intubation as well as hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy as systemic manifestation. We suggest to keep ourselves ready to handle difficult airway with the aid of fiber optic bronchoscope or surgical airway management in such patients. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy should be done at the earliest to determine the extent of upper GI injury and further nutrition planning.

  8. Enantioselective Oxidation of Alkenes with Potassium Permanganate Catalyzed by Chiral Dicationic Bisguanidinium.

    Wang, Chao; Zong, Lili; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2015-08-26

    Chiral anion-controlled ion-pairing catalysis was demonstrated to be a wide-ranging strategy that can utilize a variety of cationic metal species. In a similar manner, we envision a complementary strategy using chiral cation in partnership with inorganic anionic metal salts. Herein, we report a chiral dicationic bisguanidinium-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation reaction of alkenes with potassium permanganate. Chiral induction is attributed to ion-pairing interaction between chiral cation and enolate anion. The success of the current permanganate oxidation reaction together with mechanistic insights should provide inspiration for expansion to other anionic metal salts and would open up new paradigms for asymmetric transition metal catalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, and ion-pairing catalysis. PMID:26237178

  9. 高锰酸钾氧化马鞭草烯酮的研究%Oxidation of Verbenone with Potassium Permanganate

    孙小玲; 王蕊

    2011-01-01

    考察了反应温度、反应时间、高锰酸钾用量、乙酸与水溶液体积比对高锰酸钾氧化马鞭草烯酮制备低蒎酮酸的影响,研究结果表明:控制原料与高锰酸钾的物质的量比1∶4,反应温度10℃,反应时间2h,乙酸与水溶液体积比10∶1,得到低蒎酮酸的收率77%.讨论了硅胶作为载体对此实验的影响,结果显示使用硅胶-高锰酸钾作为氧化剂,目标产物的产率可提高到81%.%Effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, potassium permanganate amount and ratio of acetic acid to water on preparation of pinononic aicd by oxidation of verbenone with potassium permanganate were investigated. The results showed that by keeping the molar ratio of (+)-verbenone to potassium permanganate as 1:4, reaction temperature 10℃ , reaction time 2 h and the ratio of acetic acid to water 10: 1, the yield of (+) -pinononic acid reached 77 %. Furthermore, the effect of silica gel as a support on this reaction was also discussed. The results showed that taking silica gel-supported potassium permanganate as oxidant, the yield of the target product could be increased to 81 %.

  10. 高锰酸钾活化麦草浆过氧化氢漂白的研究%A study on hydrogen peroxide bleaching of wheat straw pulp activated by potassium permanganate

    郭星; 张安龙; 罗清; 赵登

    2014-01-01

    探讨了高锰酸钾对Soda-AQ法麦草浆过氧化氢漂白的活化作用。结果表明,高锰酸钾是一种强氧化剂,在酸性条件下可与纸浆中的木素反应,经高锰酸钾预处理后的纸浆具有很好的可漂性。通过分析比较MQDP和MDQP两种漂白流程,得出在高锰酸钾用量为1.0%时,采用MDQP漂白流程,纸浆得率损失较小,白度最高。%The activation of potassium permanganate was investigated in Soda-AQ hydrogenperoxide bleaching of wheat straw pulp. The results show that potassium permanganate serves very well as a strong oxidant. Under acidic conditions, potassium permanganate reacts with lignin in pulp and having a good bleachability after potassium permanganate pretreatment. By comparing bleaching sequence of MQDP and MDQP, when the dosage of potassium permanganate is 1.0%, using bleaching sequence of MDQP, pulp yield loss is smaller and getting the highest whiteness.

  11. Reduction and Immobilization of Potassium Permanganate on Iron Oxide Catalyst by Fluidized-Bed Crystallization Technology

    Guang-Xia Li; Yao-Hui Huaug; Teng-Chien Chen; Yu-Jen Shih; Hui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A manganese immobilization technology in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) was developed by using a waste iron oxide (i.e., BT-3) as catalyst which is a by-product from the fluidized-bed Fenton reaction (FBR-Fenton). It was found that BT-3 could easily reduce potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to MnO2. Furthermore, MnO2 could accumulate on the surface of BT-3 catalyst to form a new Fe-Mn oxide. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the KMnO4-reduction mechanism, including the effect ...

  12. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of silymarin in pharmaceutical formulations using potassium permanganate as oxidant.

    Rahman, N; Khan, N A; Azmi, S N H

    2004-02-01

    A new simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of silymarin in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations is described. The method is based on the oxidation of the drug with potassium permanganate at pH 7.0 +/- 0.2. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 530 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 18-50 microg x m(-1). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of silymarin in pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:15025178

  13. Mercury oxidation and adsorption characteristics of potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke

    Huawei Zhang; Jitao Chen; Peng Liang; Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of virgin and potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke (SC) for gaseous Hg0 were investigated in an attempt to produce more effective and lower price adsorbents for the control of elemental mercury emission.Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements,X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the surface physical and chemical properties of SC,Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC before and after mercury adsorption.The results indicated that potassium permanganate modification had significant influence on the properties of semi-coke,such as the specific surface area,pore structure and surface chemical functional groups.The mercury adsorption efficiency of modified semi-coke was lower than that of SC at low temperature,but much higher at high temperature.Amorphous Mn7+,Mn6+ and Mn4+ on the surface of Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0,which oxidized the elemental mercury into Hg2+ and captured it.Thermal treatment reduced the average oxidation degree of Mnx+ on the surface of Mn-SC from 3.80 to 3.46.However,due to the formation of amorphous MnOx,the surface oxidation active sites for gaseous Hg0 increased,which gave Mn-H-SC higher mercury adsorption efficiency than that of Mn-SC at high temperature.

  14. The effect of high concentration potassium permanganate on protein contamination from metallic and synthetic rubber airway equipment.

    Laupu, W; Brimacombe, J

    2007-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that supplementary cleaning using potassium permanganate 8 mg.l(-1) eliminates protein deposits from the reusable metallic and synthetic rubber airway equipment. Twenty Macintosh laryngoscope blades (surgical steel), 20 pairs of Magill's forceps (surgical steel) and 20 Guedel airways (synthetic rubber) were allocated to two groups for supplementary cleaning. In group A, the device was immersed in potassium permanganate 8 mg.l(-1). In group B (controls), the device was immersed in sterile water. The devices were then immersed in a protein staining solution, rinsed and the severity of staining was scored. In addition, the devices were inspected for tissue and then tested for occult blood. Protein contamination was lower in the potassium permanganate group for all devices (each device: p cleaning. Additionally, occult blood was detected on two pairs of forceps and a laryngoscope blade, which was not detected following supplementary cleaning. In the control group, no tissue was detected but one pair of forceps and two laryngoscope blades tested positive for occult blood before and after supplementary cleaning. We conclude that supplementary cleaning using potassium permanganate 8 mg.l(-1) eliminates protein deposits from re-usable metallic and synthetic rubber airway equipment. PMID:17635432

  15. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar.

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R (2) in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R (2) in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  16. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  17. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  18. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    Ying Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3 and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R2 in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R2 in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987 and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10% were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p=0.002, two tailed. Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum.

  19. Kinetic determination of acarbose and miglitol in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations using alkaline potassium permanganate.

    Ibrahim, F A; Ali, F A; Ahmed, S M; Tolba, M M

    2007-03-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was established for the determination of acarbose and miglitol in bulk and in their pharmaceutical preparations using alkaline potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. The method involves determination of acarbose and miglitol by kinetic studies of their oxidation at room temperature for a fixed time of 15 minutes for acarbose and 25 minutes for miglitol. The absorbance of the colored manganate ion was measured at 610 nm. Alternatively, the kinetic decrease in the absorbance of permanganate upon addition of the studied drugs at 525 nm was also used. The absorbance concentration plot was rectilinear over the concentration range of 4-20 and 1-10 μg/ml for acarbose and miglitol, respectively. The detection limits were 0.189 and 0.089 μg/ml at 610 nm and 0.081 and 0.179 μg/ml at 525 nm for acarbose and miglitol respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained with the reference methods. PMID:23675017

  20. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  1. Effects of chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols on their oxidation kinetics by potassium permanganate

    2003-01-01

    Chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols have many significant effects on the reactivity of oxido-reduction. The effects of chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols on their oxidation kinetics by potassium permanganate were evaluated through different kinetics studies. Since chlorine was an electron withdrawing atom, the substitution of chlorine on the aromatic ring decreased the oxidation rate constant by σ-electron withdrawing conductive effect; at the same time, the substitution of chlorine at ortho or para position on the aromatic ring increased the oxidation rate constant by π-electron donating conjugative effect, and the conjugative effect could counteract the negative impact of the conductive effect to some extent. On the other hand, the substitution of chlorine at ortho position on the aromatic ring decreased the oxidation rate constant by steric hindrance effect. The oxidation rate constants of phenol and chlorinated phenols studied decreased as follow order: 4-chlorophenol>2,4-dichlorophenol>phenol>2,6-dichlorophenol.

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of potassium permanganate treatment efficacy for the control of acute experimental infection of flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish

    An experimental trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium permanganate against an acute and systemic experimental infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The infection was produced by waterborne exposure to the bacteria after mechanical cutaneo...

  3. 高锰酸钾氧化安息香的实验研究%Study on the oxidation reaction of benzoin by potassium permanganate

    黄玲; 陶清; 王冬明; 施少敏

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同条件下,高锰酸钾对安息香的氧化规律.当反应条件控制为2.1 g(0.01 mol)安息香,1.5g(0.01 mol)高锰酸钾,15 mL冰醋酸,反应温度85~95℃回流1.5h,高锰酸钾能将安息香氧化裂解为苯甲酸.当反应条件为4.32 g(0.02 mol)安息香,1.5 g(0.01 mol)高锰酸钾,6 g(0.11 mol)碱A,12 mL水,反应温度在80~90℃,高锰酸钾将安息香氧化生成二苯乙二酮;碱量增加至12 g时,二苯乙二酮重排为二苯乙醇酸,产率高达98%.%Studied under different conditions,potassium permanganate oxidation of benzoin law.The oxidation reaction of benzoin by potassium permanganate is described.When the reaction conditions is controlled to be 2.1 g (0.01 mol) benzoin,1.5 g (0.01 mol) of potassium permanganate,15 mL of glacial acetic acid at reflux for 1.5 h at 85 ~ 95 ℃,benzoin can be directly oxidized and cleavaged to benzoic acid.When the reaction condition is controlled to 4.32 g (0.02 mol) of benzoin,1.5 g (0.01 mol) of potassium permanganate,6 g (0.11 mol) base A,12 mL water at 80 ~ 90 ℃,benzoin can be oxidized to benzil.When the amount of base increases to 12 g,benzilic acid is obtained in 98% yield from the rearrangement reaction of benzil.

  4. Potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride are a safe and effective substitute for osmium tetroxide in solid-phase fluorescent chemical cleavage of mismatch.

    Roberts, E; DEEBLE, V. J.; Woods, C. G.; Taylor, G R

    1997-01-01

    Whilst chemical cleavage of mismatch (CCM) detects all point mutations in DNA, its widespread use has been hampered by the complex multistage methodology and the need for toxic chemicals, in particular osmium tetroxide. Here we show that osmium tetroxide can be replaced by potassium permanganate, giving the same spectrum of mutation detection, but with greater sensitivity. The use of potassium permanganate is compatible with solid phase capture and fluorescent detection, giving a safer method...

  5. Oxidation of volatile organic compound vapours by potassium permanganate in a horizontal permeable reactive barrier under unsaturated conditions: experiments and modeling

    Ghareh Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    In this research we evaluated the potential of using solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (HPRB) for oxidizing VOC vapours in the unsaturated zone. We have performed batch experiments, short column, and long column experiments, and have fully analyzed the data. In the batch experiments, we investigated the ability of potassium permanganate to fully oxidize three selected target compounds, namely, trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol. We also ...

  6. 高锰酸钾除臭技术的试验研究%Experimental Study on Potassium Permanganate Deodorization Technology

    袁志宇; 李学强; 张辉

    2009-01-01

    通过对高锰酸钾除臭机理的分析,以及对单独投加高锰酸钾、高锰酸钾与活性炭联用这两种处理工艺的试验研究,考察了高锰酸钾的投加量、接触时间、pH对出水嗅阈值的影响.结果表明,当高锰酸钾的投加量为1.0 mr/L、接触时间为30 min、pH值为7.5~8.0时可取得很好的除臭效果;高锰酸钾与粉末活性炭联用对嗅味的去除效果要优于单独使用高锰酸钾的,而且还可以有效解决大量投加高锰酸钾导致的色度超标问题.%Through the analysis of potassium permanganate deodorization mechanism, and the ex-perimental study on the single use of potassium permanganate and combination of potassium permanganate and powered activated carbon, the influence of potassium permanganate dosage, contact time and pH val-ue on effluent TON was investigated. The results show that the deodorization effect is excellent when po-tassium permanganate dosage is 1.0 mg/L, contact time is 30 min and pH is 7.5 to 8.0. The deodoriza-tion effect of the combination of potassium permanganate and powered activated carbon is better than that of the single use of potassium permanganate, and the excessive color problem brought from potassium per-manganate can be solved.

  7. Thermal Analysis of Whole Bacterial Cells Exposed to Potassium Permanganate Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry: a Biphasic Dose-Dependent Response to Stress

    Marina K. Abuladze; Victor M. Sokhadze; Emma N. Namchevadze; Kiziria, E.; Leila V. Tabatadze; Lejava, Lia V.; Sh. Gogichaishvili; Bakradze, Nugzar B.

    2009-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM) on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at whole cell level using soil bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model culture. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied in order to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM) on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at the whole cell level using the soil b...

  8. An investigation of the oxidative potential of potassium permanganate and chlorine dioxide during the oxidation of reduced manganese

    Hair, David Hayne

    1987-01-01

    This project determined the thermodynamic potentials for various reactions between reduced manganese (Mn+2), manganese oxide (MnO2(s)), chlorine dioxide (C102), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4). Based on these findings, laboratory analyses were performed to determine if these reactions would occur under simulated water treatment plant conditions. In addition, a speciation procedure was developed to quantify the various species of manganese and chlorine dioxide present in a...

  9. Potassium permanganate elicits a shift of the external fish microbiome and increases host susceptibility to columnaris disease

    Mohammed, Haitham H.; Arias, Covadonga R

    2015-01-01

    International audience The external microbiome of fish is thought to benefit the host by hindering the invasion of opportunistic pathogens and/or stimulating the immune system. Disruption of those microbial communities could increase susceptibility to diseases. Traditional aquaculture practices include the use of potent surface-acting disinfectants such as potassium permanganate (PP, KMnO4) to treat external infections. This study evaluated the effect of PP on the external microbiome of ch...

  10. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection. PMID:26223928

  11. Effects of Potassium Permanganate on Cough Movement of Carassius auratus%高锰酸钾对鲫鱼咳嗽运动的影响

    陈立伟; 谢松; 刘龙; 张锋

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To observe the effects of potassium permanganate on respiratory rate and cough frequency of Carassius auratus ( C. auratus ) in different conditions. [ Method ] According to the simple factor design of experiment, the respiratory rate and cough frequency of C. auratus were observed and recorded. The factors included concentration of potassium permanganate, temperature,time and pH. [ Result] The respiratory rate and cough frequency of C. auratus were increased and then decreased with the increasing concentrations of potassium permanganate,rising of temperature,prolongation of treatment time. The respiratory function of C. auratus was the best in the pH = 7.0 condition. The strong acid and alkali caused the fish lesions and inhibited the respiratory function of C. auratus. [ Conclusion ] The potassium permanganate at different concentrations may impact the cough frequency and respiratory rate of C. auratus.%[目的]观察不同浓度的高锰酸钾对鲫鱼呼吸运动和咳嗽运动的影响.[方法]采用单因子试验设计和直接观察记录法,研究不同浓度的高锰酸钾在不同温度、不同作用时间和不同pH条件下对鲫鱼呼吸运动和咳嗽运动的影响.[结果]鲫鱼的呼吸频率和咳嗽反应频率随着高锰酸钾溶液浓度的升高、温度的升高和处理时间的延长而增大,但刺激务件升高到一定数值后,鲫鱼的呼吸机能受到影响,咳嗽反应频率和呼吸频率又开始变小;中性环境下鲫鱼的呼吸机能处于最佳状态,强酸强碱会使鱼体发生病变,严重抑制呼吸机能.[结论]不同浓度的高锰酸钾在不同条件施用时,均对鲫鱼的呼吸运动和咳嗽运动产生一定的影响.

  12. Determination of Biotin in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Potassium Permanganate-luminol-CdTe Nanoparticles Chemiluminescence System

    TRAORE Zoumana Sékou; SU Xing-guang

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method was developed for the determination of biotin in the pharmaceutical formulations.The affinity between avidin and biotin was used to adsorb biotin on the polystyrene,with subsequent quantification of biotin based on its ability to enhance the chemiluminescence(CL) signal generated by the redox reaction of potassium permanganate-luminol-CdTe nanoparticles CL system.The investigations prove that apart from 3-aminophthalate,the CdTe quantum dots(QDs) play both catalytic and emitter roles.Under optimum conditions,the linear range for the determination of biotin was 0.01-25 ng/mL with a detection limit of 7.3×10-3ng/mL(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation of 5 ng/L biotin was 2.06%(n=7).The proposed method was used to determine the biotin concentration in the pharmaceutical formulations and the recovery was between 96.4% and 104%.The proposed method is simple,convenient,rapid and sensitive.

  13. Reduction and Immobilization of Potassium Permanganate on Iron Oxide Catalyst by Fluidized-Bed Crystallization Technology

    Guang-Xia Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A manganese immobilization technology in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR was developed by using a waste iron oxide (i.e., BT-3 as catalyst which is a by-product from the fluidized-bed Fenton reaction (FBR-Fenton. It was found that BT-3 could easily reduce potassium permanganate (KMnO4 to MnO2. Furthermore, MnO2 could accumulate on the surface of BT-3 catalyst to form a new Fe-Mn oxide. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the KMnO4-reduction mechanism, including the effect of KMnO4 concentration, BT-3 dosage, and operational solution pH. The results showed that the pH solution was a significant factor in the reduction of KMnO4. At the optimum level, pHf 6, KMnO4 was virtually reduced in 10 min. A pseudo-first order reaction was employed to describe the reduction rate of KMnO4.

  14. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)32+]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy)32+ with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) are 0.03 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.08 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h-1. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations

  15. 高锰酸盐指数测定中影响因素的探讨%Factors impacting he determination process of potassium permanganate index

    王萍

    2012-01-01

    通过对酸性法测定高锰酸盐指数全过程的分析,结果表明水样静置时间、水样浓度、水浴时间、反应温度等因素影响测定结果。文章总结了测定过程中需要注意的几个关键环节,确保获得准确数据。%Through the analysis of the whole process of determination of potassium permanganate index using acid method,this paper will show the impact of aside time of water sample,density of water sample,water bath time and reaction tempurature and so on,against the determination results.And this paper will summarize some key steps during the process of determination of potassium permanganate index,which need extra attention in order to get accurate results.

  16. The influence of precipitate formation on the chemical oxidation of TCE DNAPL with potassium permanganate

    West, Michael R.; Grant, Gavin P.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2008-02-01

    A three-dimensional two-phase flow model is coupled to a non-linear reactive transport model to study the efficacy of potassium permanganate treatment on dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source removal in porous media. A linear relationship between the soil permeability ( k) and concentration of manganese dioxide precipitate ([MnO 2(s)]), k = ko + Srind [MnO 2(s)], is utilized to simulate nodal permeability reductions due to precipitate formation. Using published experimental column studies, an Srind = -5.5 × 10 -16 m 2 L/mg was determined for trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPL. This Srind was then applied to treatment simulations on three-dimensional TCE DNAPL source zones comprising either DNAPL at residual saturations, or DNAPL at pooled saturations. DNAPL dissolution without oxidation treatment, simulated using equilibrium and the Nambi and Powers [Nambi I, Powers S. Mass transfer correlations for non-aqueous phase liquid dissolution from regions with high initial saturations. Water Resour Res 2003;39(2):1-11, SBH 4] mass transfer expression, required 31 and 36 years, respectively, to eliminate the residual source zone. For equilibrium dissolution with continuous treatment and no precipitate influence ( Srind = 0 m 2 L/mg), the residual source zone was removed after 11 years. However, when considering the precipitate influence (i.e., Srind = -5.5 × 10 -16 m 2 L/mg), 21 years of treatment were necessary to remove the DNAPL. When considering pulse treatments of 1 and 2 years duration followed by only dissolution, approximately 36 and 38 years, respectively, were required before the source zone was depleted, suggesting that there is no benefit to pulse treatment. Similar trends were observed when allowing 10 years of dissolution prior to treatment initiation. The treatment behaviour of the pooled TCE source, while slightly more efficient than the residual saturation source, was similar. Based on simulation findings, the precipitate (rind) formation

  17. Effect of calcium ion on reaction of potassium permanganate and natural organic matter%钙离子对高锰酸钾与天然有机物反应的影响

    王晓荣; 陈忠林; 王斌远; 沈吉敏

    2011-01-01

    利用单宁酸做为天然有机物的代表研究了高锰酸钾与天然有机物的反应,考察了钙离子及钙离子和高锰酸钾不同投加顺序的影响及机理,并利用FTIR对反应进行了光谱学研究.结果表明,高锰酸钾与单宁酸反应生成可溶性分子,钙离子和高锰酸钾不同投加顺序对二者反应有一定的影响,先投加钙离子再投加高锰酸钾,溶液UV276.5的降低较多一些,DOC去除率较高一些,反应较充分.钙离子存在时单宁酸与高锰酸钾反应后生成大量固体成分,FTIR光谱的结果证实了此作用现象和机理.因此钙离子和有机物形成络合物,影响高锰酸钾与水中天然有机物的反应.%The reaction of potassium permanganate and natural organic matter was investigated. Effect of calcium ion and different dosing order of calcium and potassium permanganate were studied. FTIR spectra was employed for further spectroscopy study. Results showed that the reaction product of potassium permanganate and tannic acid were some soluble organic material, different dosing order of calcium and potassium permanganate has effect on the reaction. The addition of potassium permanganate after calcium presented the result of lower UV276.5 and DOC. FTIR spectra results showed that calcium ion increases the quantity of solid product. Consequently, it indicated that calcium ion chelates with organic matter and has important effect on the reaction of potassium permanganate and natural organic material.

  18. 影响高锰酸钾标准溶液制备准确性的因素探析%Factors Influencing the Preparation Accuracy of the Potassium Permanganate Standard Solution

    张同英; 王彩霞; 尚杰峰

    2014-01-01

    依据GB601-2002及HG/T2843-1997的技术要求,探析了溶液的酸度、水质、空气及光照等因素对高锰酸钾标准溶液稳定性的影响,解决了影响标定准确度的条件及人为因素,使得制备的高锰酸钾标准溶液室温下可以保存2个月,浓度基本不变。%Factors such as the solution acid degree ,water quality , air and light make great influences on the stability and titration reaction of the standard Potassium permanganate solution. The results indicate that after solving these influence factors the Potassium permanganate standard solution can be preserved for 2 months under room temp.

  19. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ampicillin by potassium permanganate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pharmaceutical preparations

    Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan; Ayaz Mohd; Shaista Bano; K. S. SIDDIQI; Abdullah Mohammed Asiri

    2015-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods for the determination of ampicillin (AMP) are described. The first method is based on kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 25 min. The absorbance of the colored manganate ions is measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of AMP with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) in the presence of 0.1 mol L−1 sodium bicarbonate. Spectrophotometr...

  20. Application of potassium permanganate to spectrophotometric assay of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals

    Devi, O. Zenita; Basavaiah, K.; Vinay, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, sensitive, and cost-effective spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The methods are based on a redox reaction between MCP and KMnO4 in alkaline and acid media. Direct spectrophotometry (method A) involves treating MCP with permanganate in an NaOH medium and measuring a bluish green product at 610 nm. In indirect spectrophotometry (method B), MCP is treated with a fixed concentration of KMnO4 in an H2SO4 medium, and after a specified time, the unreacted KMnO4 is measured at 545 nm. Under optimum assay conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the ranges of 0.75-12.0 and 2.5-30.0 g/ml for methods A and B, respectively. Molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 2.33•104 and 2.66•104 l/mol cm for methods A and B, respectively, and corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values are 0.015 and 0.013 g/cm2. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported. The applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by the determination of MCP in tablet and injection forms. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition technique.

  1. 山羊绒纱线中性KMnO4防缩工艺研究%The study on shrink-resistance of cashmere yarn with potassium permanganate

    杨丹; 李龙; 王卫

    2011-01-01

    利用KMnO4在饱和NaCl溶液中的强氧化性对山羊绒纱线进行正交氧化处理,研究山羊绒纱线的防缩工艺。以纱线断裂强力、毡缩率和白度为测试指标,分析温度、时间、KMnO4用量和助剂等因素对处理后山羊绒纱线各项性能的影响。通过正交试验确定了山羊绒纱线防缩处理最佳工艺为:温度40℃,处理时间30min,KMnO4质量分数为2%(按织物质量计算的质量分数),助剂浓度为6mL/L。%Potassium permanganate in saturated NaCl solution is used to shrink-proofing treatment cashmere yams. The breaking strength and felt shrinkage rate of the treated cashmere yarns were tested, and the effects of treatment temperature, time, the content of potassium permanganate and additives concentration on all the above properties of the cashmere yarn were analyzed. By an orthogonal test and comprehensive analyze obtained the optimal craft of cashmere yarns acidic potassium permanganate shrink processing is : the temperature was 40 ℃, the processing time was 30 min, potassium permanganate concentration was 2% ( o. w. f) , additives content was 6 mL/L.

  2. Present Situation of Production Technology and Prospect of Potassium Permanganate%中国高锰酸钾生产工艺现状及展望

    王运正

    2012-01-01

    It mainly introduces the potassium permanganate in the method of industrial production at home and abroad,including a comparation of production process, through the technology market of analysis to point out the contrast and potassium permanganate in industrial development direction.%主要介绍了高锰酸钾工业生产方法,并对国内外现有的生产工艺进行了介绍和对比,通过技术对比和市场分析指出了高锰酸钾工业的发展方向.

  3. 对自制高锰酸钾纯度测定方法的探讨%The Exploration of the Measuring Method of the Purity of Potassium Permanganate

    石少明; 梁宇宁

    2012-01-01

    Obtained an optimum measuring method of the purity of potassium permanganate by determin- ing the purity of several potassium permanganate. And the measuring method is appropriate for experiment in freshman. The optimum measuring method is as follows: sodium oxalate was used as primary standard to standardize potassium permanganate solution in strong acidic condition (1 mol·L-1H2SO4), the temperature of titration control in 55- 85℃%通过测定几种自制样品KMnO。的纯度,总结出适合于“大一”新生实验的测定KMnO4纯度的方法。在酸性(1m01.L^-1H2SO4)条件下,以草酸钠为基准物标定所配制样品KMnO4溶液的浓度,温度控制在55。85℃。从而计算出KMnO4的含量。

  4. Acute Toxicities of Potassium Permanganate, Formalin, and Lugol's Iodine Solution to a Marine Ciliate,Pleuronema coronatum ( Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida)

    QIU Yantao; SONG Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a commonly occurred ma-rine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the resultshighlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capabili-ty to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper,and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00 × 10-6 and 43.57 × 10 6, while those of Lugol's solutions were 90.13 and67.84 × 10 6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol' s iodine solutionand potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  5. 高锰酸盐复合药剂在水厂水处理中的应用%Application of Potassium Permanganate Composite Chemicals in Water Treatment

    杨勇其

    2014-01-01

    在水厂水处理生产期间,单独投加高锰酸盐复合药剂或者高锰酸钾药剂,然后收集生产试验过程中原水水质、出厂水和生产成本等生产数据,分析对比两种药剂在自来水工艺流程中的优点和不足之处。试验中,高锰酸盐复合药剂和高锰酸钾对出厂水各项指标效果差别不大,但高锰酸盐复合药剂在原材料成本上占有优势。%During the production of water treatment , separate adding permanganate composite chemicals or potassium permanganate , then collecting the production data in raw water , finished water and cost of production , the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of chemicals were comparative analyzed.Potassium permanganate composite and potassium permanganate factory on the water indicators basic effect difference was not big , and permanganate composite chemicals had the advantage in the cost saving of raw materials.

  6. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate

    He Di, E-mail: hedy1997@hotmail.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Guan Xiaohong, E-mail: hitgxh@126.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun@hit.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Yang Xue, E-mail: yangxue1_ok@163.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Cui Chongwei, E-mail: cuichongwei1991@126.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2010-10-15

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai) > soil HAs > commercial HA (Fluka) > aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of C=C moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} > 0.75) implied that {pi}-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The {pi}-{pi} interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH = 7.0.

  7. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai) > soil HAs > commercial HA (Fluka) > aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of C=C moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.75) implied that π-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The π-π interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH = 7.0.

  8. Oxidation of volatile organic compound vapours by potassium permanganate in a horizontal permeable reactive barrier under unsaturated conditions: experiments and modeling

    Ghareh Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    In this research we evaluated the potential of using solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (HPRB) for oxidizing VOC vapours in the unsaturated zone. We have performed batch experiments, short column, and long column experiments, and have fully analyzed the da

  9. OXIDATION OF DNAPL MIXTURES USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE WITH A PHASE-TRANSFER-CATALYST:KINETIC RESULTS FROM A DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHIC MONITORING METHOD

    There has been considerable interest in the use of potassium permanganate for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvernt.At the present stage of development, significant opportunities remain in increasing the overall efficiency of flooding schemes and in speeding up the oxi...

  10. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  11. Kinetics of ofloxacin oxidation by potassium permanganate%高锰酸钾氧化氧氟沙星的动力学研究

    徐勇鹏; 万晓辉; 王在刚

    2012-01-01

    To discover the kinetic law of ofloxacin oxidation by potassium permanganate in aquatic environment,this article studied the rate constant of reaction and the reaction influencing factors such as potassium permanganate dosage,pH value and temperature.The results showed that the oxidation reaction of ofloxacin by potassium permanganate in aqueous solution followed second-order kinetics.When potassium permanganate was excessive,pseudo-first-order rate and concentration of potassium permanganate followed the equation: Kobs=0.000 092-0.002 72.The second-order reaction rate constant was influenced by pH values.The rate of ofloxacin oxidation by potassium permanganate increased with the increasing of temperature,and the reaction activation energy Ea=30.463 3 kJ·mol-1,which revealed that the oxidation reaction between ofloxacin and potassium permanganate was feasible under usual water treatment condition.%为探讨氧氟沙星在水环境中氧化降解的趋势,采用水处理常用的氧化剂高锰酸钾,研究氧氟沙星被高锰酸降解的效能和动力学规律,并讨论高锰酸钾浓度、pH、温度等因素对反应速率常数的影响.结果表明,高锰酸钾对氧氟沙星的氧化过程符合二级反应动力学模型,在高锰酸钾过量的情况下,氧化反应的假一级反应动力学常数Kobs=0.000 092[KMnO4]-0.002 72.pH对反应速率常数有显著影响.温度对反应速率也有影响,随着温度的升高,高锰酸钾氧化氧氟沙星的反应速率增加,高锰酸钾氧化氧氟沙星的反应表观活化能Ea=30.463 3 kJ·mol-1,该反应在一般水处理条件下较容易发生。

  12. Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and multicomponent reactive transport modeling of chlorinated solvent oxidation by potassium permanganate

    Henderson, Thomas H.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Parker, Beth L.; Al, Tom A.

    2009-05-01

    A popular method for the treatment of aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents is chemical oxidation based on the injection of potassium permanganate (KMnO 4). Both the high density (1025 gL - 1 ) and reactivity of the treatment solution influence the fate of permanganate (MnO 4) in the subsurface and affect the degree of contaminant treatment. The MIN3P multicomponent reactive transport code was enhanced to simulate permanganate-based remediation, to evaluate the pathways of MnO 4 utilization, and to assess the role of density contrasts for the delivery of the treatment solution. The modified code (MIN3P-D) provides a direct coupling between density-dependent fluid flow, solute transport, contaminant treatment, and geochemical reactions. The model is used to simulate a field trial of TCE oxidation in a sandy aquifer that is underlain by an aquitard. Three-dimensional simulations are conducted for a coupled reactive system comprised of ten aqueous components, two mineral phases, TCE (dissolved, adsorbed, and NAPL), reactive organic matter, and including ion exchange reactions. Model parameters are constrained by literature data and a detailed data set from the field site under investigation. The general spatial and transient evolution in observed concentrations of the oxidant, dissolved TCE, and reaction products are adequately reproduced by the simulations. The model elucidates the important role of density-induced flow and transport on the distribution of the treatment solution into NAPL containing regions located at the aquifer-aquitard interface. Model results further suggest that reactions that do not directly affect the stability of MnO 4 have a negligible effect on solution density and MnO 4 delivery.

  13. Electroless copper recycling principle analysis of potassium permanganate%化学沉铜高锰酸钾再生原理浅析

    陈光宏; 周定忠; 李飞宏; 龙亚波; 刘希元

    2012-01-01

    In the chemical copper precipitation process, to achieve good desmear ettect, the maustry generally uses constantly supplement potassium permanganate to maintain water content, but this operation not only leads to consumption of materials, and with the production of the ongoing, it also brings potassium permanganate ( six valence manganese )deputy product increase, which will lead to a gradual loss of desmear effect thereby cause desmear net. The potassium permanganate desmear and regenerator principle, parameter design and maintenance, regenerator are introduced, and this article finds out a maintenance of potassium permanganate heptavalent manganese content methods, so as to solve the production process due to potassium permanganate content bad stability problem, and to ensure the quality of the copper deposition.%在化学沉铜工序中,为达到良好的除钻污效果,业界一般采用不断补充高锰酸钾来维持药水含量,但此作业方式不但消耗物料而且随着生产的不断进行也带来锰酸钾(六价锰)副产物的增多,这将导致逐步失去除钻污效果从而造成除钻污不净,本文从高锰酸钾法除钻污和再生器原理,相关参数、再生器设计及维护等方面进行介绍,并从中找出一种维持高锰酸钾七价锰含量的方法,从而解决生产过程中因高锰酸钾含量不足、稳定性差的问题,保证沉铜品质。

  14. The use of permanganate as a sequencing reagent for identification of 5-methylcytosine residues in DNA.

    Fritzsche, E; Hayatsu, H; Igloi, G L; Iida, S.; Kössel, H

    1987-01-01

    The use of permanganate as a reagent for DNA sequencing by chemical degradation has been studied with respect to its specificity for 5-methylcytosine residues. At weakly acidic pH and room temperature, 0.2 mM potassium permanganate reacts preferentially with thymine, 5-methylcytosine, and to a lesser extent with purine residues, while cytosine remains essentially intact. Permanganate oxidation is, therefore, a suitable DNA sequencing reaction for positive discrimination between 5-methylcytosi...

  15. Permanganate method for manufacture of furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid%高锰酸钾法制备2,5-呋喃二甲酸

    陈天明; 林鹿

    2011-01-01

    Furan-2, 5-dicarboxylic acid was synthesized through oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural by potassium permanganate. The influence of the reaction conditions,such as the sodium hydroxide concentration in the reaction system.the reactant/permanganate ratio,and the reaction time,on the yield of furan-2 ,5-dicarboxylic acid , was investigated. The test results showed that the optimal reaction conditions were realized in an acidic condition,when the sodium hydroxide concentration in the reaction system was 2.2 mol/L.the reactant/permanganate ratio was 2.4:1, and the reaction time was 10 min,with the product yield reaching 76.3% . This method for producing furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid using potassium permanganate can be carried out under mild conditions, without employing an expensive catalyst.%探索了以5-羟甲基糠醛为原料,用高锰酸钾法氧化制备标题化合物.以126 mg(1 mmol)5-羟甲基糠醛为定量,考察了高锰酸钾用量、碱溶液的浓度和反应时间对反应的影响.当高锰酸钾用量为379.2 mg(2.4 mmol),碱溶液的浓度为2.2 mol/L,反应时间为10 min时,得到标题化合物收率为76.3%.研究结果表明,高锰酸钾法制备标题化合物,是一种不用贵金属催化剂,在室温下就可反应的简便方法.

  16. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes treated by potassium permanganate for determination of trace cadmium prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated the enrichment ability of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and established a new method for the determination of trace cadmium in environment with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The MWCNTs were oxidized by potassium permanganate under appropriate conditions before use as preconcentration packing. Parameters influencing the recoveries of target analytes were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the target analyte exhibited a good linearity (R2=0.9992)over the concentration range 0.5-50 ng/ml. The detection limit and precision of the proposed method were 0.15 ng/ml and 2.06%,respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of cadmium in real-world environmental samples and the recoveries were in the range of 91.3%-108.0%. All these experimental results indicated that this new procedure could be applied to the determination of trace cadmium in environmental waters.

  17. Improvement of the Experiment Conditions of National Standard Method for Potassium Permanganate Titration%国标法标定高锰酸钾标准溶液的实验条件改进

    郁惠珍

    2015-01-01

    探讨了用草酸钠作为基准物质标定高锰酸钾标准溶液过程中的实验条件,在国标法的基础上分析了加热时机、温度、酸度对标定结果的影响,建议国标法的标定方法改进为:采用100 mL(4+96)硫酸介质、先加热到70~80℃再用高锰酸钾标准溶液滴定的操作方法,可以节省硫酸用量、节省标定时间,同时保证滴定的准确度。%The experiment conditions of potassium permanganate titrant were discussed which sodium oxalate was regarded as the basis material. The influences of the heating time, temperature and acidity on the calibration results on the basis of the national standard method were analyzed. The results recommended that the calibration conditions of national standard method should be improved by using 100 mL (4+96) sulfuric acid medium, and titrating after the potassium permanganate standard solution be heated to 70 ~ 80 ℃. The improvements could save the sulfuric acid consumption and the time of calibration, with guaranteeing the accuracy of titration.

  18. GC/MS Method for the Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water by Potassium Permanganate%GC/MS方法分析高锰酸钾去除水中有机污染物

    李铁云

    2012-01-01

    采用固相萃取-GC/MS检测分析技术,分析黄河水中的有机污染物检测结果表明黄河水受到了一定程度的污染,相对含量较高的有机污染物是烷烃类、酸类和酯类化合物。研究了高锰酸钾与颗粒活性炭联用对水源水微量有机污染物的去除效果,结果表明,高锰酸钾对苯酚有较好的去除效果,实际水源水在高锰酸钾与颗粒活性炭联用处理后,水中有机物大部分被去除,水源水的致突变活性有明显降低。%Using solid phase extraction - GC/MS detection analysis technology, the organic pollutants in the the Yellow River water was polluted to some extent, and relatively higher content of organic pollutants were alkanes, acids and esters. The effeciency of combined potassium permanganate and granular activated carbon for water trace organic pollutants removal was studied, and the results showed that potassium permanganate phenol had better removal effect, the actual source water in potassium permanganate and granular activated carbon for treatment, organic matter in water was removed mostly, and the mutagenic activity had significantly lower.

  19. A novel technique using potassium permanganate and reflectance confocal microscopy to image biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix reveals non-eDNA networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Swearingen, Matthew C; Mehta, Ajeet; Mehta, Amar; Nistico, Laura; Hill, Preston J; Falzarano, Anthony R; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are etiologically important in the development of chronic medical and dental infections. The biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) determines biofilm structure and allows bacteria in biofilms to adapt to changes in mechanical loads such as fluid shear. However, EPS components are difficult to visualize microscopically because of their low density and molecular complexity. Here, we tested potassium permanganate, KMnO4, for use as a non-specific EPS contrast-enhancing stain using confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflectance mode. We demonstrate that KMnO4 reacted with EPS components of various strains of Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, yielding brown MnO2 precipitate deposition on the EPS, which was quantifiable using data from the laser reflection detector. Furthermore, the MnO2 signal could be quantified in combination with fluorescent nucleic acid staining. COMSTAT image analysis indicated that KMnO4 staining increased the estimated biovolume over that determined by nucleic acid staining alone for all strains tested, and revealed non-eDNA EPS networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. In vitro and in vivo testing indicated that KMnO4 reacted with poly-N-acetylglucosamine and Pseudomonas Pel polysaccharide, but did not react strongly with DNA or alginate. KMnO4 staining may have application as a research tool and for diagnostic potential for biofilms in clinical samples. PMID:26536894

  20. Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium

    Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)

    1994-10-01

    Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Toxic Effects of Potassium Permanganate on Perch Lateolabrax maculates%高锰酸钾对中国花鲈的毒性效应

    朱友芳; 严志洪; 洪万树

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide reference data for the disease control of the cultured Chinese perch (Lateolabrax maculatus), the acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to the perch fry and juvenile was investigated in this study. The levels of GSH and MDA, and activities of SOD, CAT, GPT and GOT in the juvenile liver were determined in response to exposure to different potassium permanganate concentrations. The results show that the LC50 for fry exposed to potassium permanganate were 4.1 mg-L-1(24 h) and 33 mg.L-1(48h), respectively, and the safe concentration was 0.6 mg · L-1; the LC50 for juveniles exposed to potassium permanganate were 4.5 mg.L. 1(24 h) and 4.0 mg.L-1(48 h), and the safe concentration was 0.9 mg. L- 1. Lytic necrosis of the liver tissue of agonal individuals exposed to potassium permanganate was found. After exposure to potassium permanganate at different concentrations for 48 h, the levels of GSH and M DA, and activities of SOD, CAT, GPT and GOT in the juvenile liver changed sensitively, while activity of GPT did not show sensitive change, to potassium permanganate stress. Potassium permanganate stress damaged the antioxidative system and the liver tissue of juvenile Lateolabrax maculctes.%为给中国花鲈(Lateolabrax rnaculatus)养殖的病害防治提供理论数据,研究了高锰酸钾对中国花鲈鱼苗和幼鱼急性毒性,检测了暴露于不同质量浓度高锰酸钾中,幼鱼肝脏的谷胱甘肽(GSH)和丙二醛(MDA)含量以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活力.结果表明:高锰酸钾对中国花鲈鱼苗24和48 h的半致死浓度(LC50)分别为4.1和33mg·L-1,安全浓度为0.6 mg·L-1,对幼鱼24和48 h的半致死浓度分别为4.5和4.0 mg·L-1,安全浓度为0.9mg·L-1.暴露在高锰酸钾中濒死幼鱼的肝脏呈空泡状坏死.幼鱼在不同质量浓度的高锰酸钾中暴露48 h,肝脏的GSH和MDA含量以及SOD、CAT和GOT活力对高锰酸钾胁迫敏

  2. Preconcentration of copper with multi-walled carbon nanotubes pretreated by potassium permanganate cartridge for solid phase extraction prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Jun Ping Xiao; Qing Xiang Zhou; Hua Hua Bai

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the preconcentration of copper was described in this paper using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by potassium permanganate as the adsorbent for the enrichment of trace copper in water samples.Important parameters, such as the sample pH, the concentration and volume of eluent, sample flow rate and volume, and interference of coexisting ions, were investigated.The obtained results indicated that proposed method possessed an excellent analytical performance.The linear range, the detection limit, and precison (RSD) were 1-100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9993), 0.32 ng/mL and 2.88%, respectively.The results showed that copper could be adsorbed quantitatively on the pretreated MWCNTs with potassium permanganate, and proposed method was very useful in the monitoring of copper in the environment.

  3. Oxidation of cefazolin by potassium permanganate: Transformation products and plausible pathways.

    Li, Liping; Wei, Dongbin; Wei, Guohua; Du, Yuguo

    2016-04-01

    Cefazolin was demonstrated to exert high reactivity toward permanganate (Mn(VII)), a common oxidant in water pre-oxidation treatment. In this study, five transformation products were found to be classified into three categories according to the contained characteristic functional groups: three (di-)sulfoxide products, one sulfone product and one di-ketone product. Products analyses showed that two kinds of reactions including oxidation of thioether and the cleavage of unsaturated CC double bond occurred during transformation of cefazolin by Mn(VII). Subsequently, the plausible transformation pathways under different pH conditions were proposed based on the identified products and chemical reaction principles. More importantly, the simulation with real surface water matrix indicated that the proposed transformation pathways of cefazolin could be replayed in real water treatment practices. PMID:26872071

  4. Potassium permanganate-glutaraldehyde chemiluminescence system catalyzed by gold nanoprisms toward selective determination of fluoride.

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-02-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) are shown to exert a positive effect on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of permanganate aldehydes. Interestingly, between various shapes examined, Au nanoprisms have the highest beneficial effect. This effect is even more notable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the NP shapes and sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that iron(III) ions can slightly increase CL emission of this system. This intensification is very effective in the presence of fluoride ions (F(-)). These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of F(-) in the 6-1200 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.1 nmol L(-1). The proposed method has good precision and was satisfactorily used in the selective determination of low concentrations of fluoride ion in real samples. PMID:26110514

  5. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    Shao, Jihai [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Farmland Pollution Control and Agricultural Resources Use, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Peng, Liang; Luo, Si; Luo, Huili [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Yan, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhyyan111@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Wu, Genyi, E-mail: wugenyi99@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO{sub 4} was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO{sub 4}. Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO{sub 4} concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO{sub 4} modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water.

  6. Modification of cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass using potassium permanganate enhanced the removal of microcystins and adsorption capacity toward cadmium (II)

    Highlights: • Potassium permanganate removed microcystins in the cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB). • Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB. • Manganese dioxide was formed on the surface of CBDB. • Potassium permanganate oxidation process increased the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II). - Abstract: Cyanobacterial biomass shows high adsorption capacity toward heavy metal ions. However, the cyanotoxins in the cyanobacterial biomass inhibit its application in heavy metals removal. In order to safely and effectively remove Cd(II) from water using cyanobacterial bloom-derived biomass (CBDB), KMnO4 was used to modify CBDB. The results indicated that the microcystins in the CBDB were successfully removed by KMnO4. Potassium permanganate oxidation caused the transformation of hydroxyl to carboxyl on the CBDB, and formed manganese dioxide on the surface of CBDB. The oxidized CBDB showed higher adsorption capacity toward Cd(II) than that of unoxidized treatment. The optimal KMnO4 concentration for increasing the adsorption capacity of CBDB toward Cd(II) was 0.2 g/L. The adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) by oxidized- or unoxidized-CBDB was well fitted by Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption of Cd(II) by CBDB was monolayer adsorption. The desorption ratio of Cd(II) from oxidized CBDB was higher than that from unoxidized CBDB in the desorption process using NH4NO3 and EDTA as desorbent. The results presented in this study suggest that KMnO4 modified CBDB may be used as a safe and high efficient adsorbent in Cd(II) removal from water

  7. Application of in situ chemical oxidation technique with potassium permanganate for the remediation of a shallow aquifer contaminated with chlorinated solvents

    Alaine Santos da Cunha; Reginaldo Antonio Bertolo

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation is a method that is frequently being used for the remediation of contaminated areas, since it presents an adequate efficiency in the reduction of the contaminant mass, particularly chlorinated ethenes, in a relatively short period of time. This manuscript presents the results of the application of this method, using the injection of potassium permanganate as the remediation agent, in an impacted area with chlorinated organic compounds, especially 1,1-dichloroethene....

  8. Detection of single base mismatches of thymine and cytosine residues by potassium permanganate and hydroxylamine in the presence of tetralkylammonium salts.

    Gogos, J.A.; Karayiorgou, M; Aburatani, H; Kafatos, F C

    1990-01-01

    In the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride, potassium permanganate specifically modifies mismatched thymines. Similarly, the modification of mismatched cytosines by hydroxylamine was enhanced by tetraethylammonium chloride. Modification followed by piperidine cleavage permits specific identification of the T and C mismatches and by extension, when the opposite DNA strand is analyzed, of A and G mismatches as well. These reactions can be performed conveniently with DNA immobilized on Hybo...

  9. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  10. Laboratory-scale column study for remediation of TCE-contaminated aquifers using three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate barriers

    Baoling Yuan; Fei Li; Yanmei Chen; Ming-Lai Fu

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study with a sand column was designed to simulate trichloroethylene (TCE) pollution in the aquifer environment with three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP) barriers.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of CRP barriers in remediation of TCE in aquifers in a long-term and controlled manner.CRP particles with a 1:3 molar ratio of KMnO4 to stearic acid showed the best controlled-release properties in pure water,and the theoretical release time was 138.5 days.The results of TCE removal in the test column indicated that complete removal efficiency of TCE in a sand column by three-section CRP barriers could be reached within 15 days.The molar ratio of KMnO4 to TCE in the three-section CRP barriers was 16:1,which was much lower than 82∶1 as required when KMnO4 solution is used directly to achieve complete destruction of TCE.This result revealed that the efficiency of CRP for remediation of TCE was highly improved after encapsulation.

  11. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ampicillin by potassium permanganate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pharmaceutical preparations

    Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive kinetic methods for the determination of ampicillin (AMP are described. The first method is based on kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 25 min. The absorbance of the colored manganate ions is measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of AMP with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB in the presence of 0.1 mol L−1 sodium bicarbonate. Spectrophotometric measurement was achieved by recording the absorbance at 490 nm for a fixed time of 60 min. All variables affecting the development of the color were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Plots of absorbance against concentration in both procedures were rectilinear over the ranges 5–30 and 50–260 μg mL−1, with mean recoveries 99.80 and 99.91, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of AMP in bulk powder and in capsule dosage form. The determination of AMP by the fixed concentration method is feasible with the calibration equations obtained, but the fixed time method proves to be more applicable.

  12. 高锰酸钾氧化预处理某难浸金矿的研究%Study on Oxidation Pretreatment of Refractory Gold Ore with Potassium Permanganate

    唐道文; 储春利; 王锐

    2013-01-01

    在酸性条件下以高锰酸钾为氧化剂,打开难浸金矿中金的硫化物、砷化物包裹,提高金浸出率.结果表明,最佳的氧化预处理条件为:高锰酸钾用量40 g/L、液固比12∶1、H2SO4初始浓度1.0 mol/L、氧化温度80℃、氧化时间5h.预处理后金浸出率可达87.75%.%The package of gold sulfide and arsenic compound in refractory gold ore were broken with potassium permanganate in acidic condition to improve gold leaching rate.The results show that the optimum oxidation pretreatment conditions include dosage of potassium permanganate of 40 g/L,ratio of liquid to solid of 12 ∶ 1,initial concentration of H2SO4 of 1.0 mol/L,oxidation temperature of 80 ℃,and oxidation time of 5 h.The gold leaching rate is over 85% after oxidation pretreatment.

  13. Quantification of potassium permanganate consumption and PCE oxidation in subsurface materials

    Hønning, J.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2007-03-01

    A series of laboratory scale batch slurry experiments were conducted in order to establish a data set for oxidant demand by sandy and clayey subsurface materials as well as to identify the reaction kinetic rates of permanganate (MnO 4-) consumption and PCE oxidation as a function of the MnO 4- concentration. The laboratory experiments were carried out with 31 sandy and clayey subsurface sediments from 12 Danish sites. The results show that the consumption of MnO 4- by reaction with the sediment, termed the natural oxidant demand (NOD), is the primary reaction with regards to quantification of MnO 4- consumption. Dissolved PCE in concentrations up to 100 mg/l in the sediments investigated is not a significant factor in the total MnO 4- consumption. Consumption of MnO 4- increases with an increasing initial MnO 4- concentration. The sediment type is also important as NOD is (generally) higher in clayey than in sandy sediments for a given MnO 4- concentration. For the different sediment types the typical NOD values are 0.5-2 g MnO 4-/kg dry weight (dw) for glacial meltwater sand, 1-8 g MnO 4-/kg dw for sandy till and 5-20 g MnO 4-/kg dw for clayey till. The long term consumption of MnO 4- and oxidation of PCE can not be described with a single rate constant, as the total MnO 4- reduction is comprised of several different reactions with individual rates. During the initial hours of reaction, first order kinetics can be applied, where the short term first order rate constants for consumption of MnO 4- and oxidation of PCE are 0.05-0.5 h - 1 and 0.5-4.5 h - 1 , respectively. The sediment does not act as an instantaneous sink for MnO 4-. The consumption of MnO 4- by reaction with the reactive species in the sediment is the result of several parallel reactions, during which the reaction between the contaminant and MnO 4- also takes place. Hence, application of low MnO 4- concentrations can cause partly oxidation of PCE, as the oxidant demand of the sediment does not need

  14. Novel sequential process for enhanced dye synergistic degradation based on nano zero-valent iron and potassium permanganate.

    Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Peng; Fu, Minglai; Ma, Jun; Ning, Ping

    2016-07-01

    A novel synergistic technology based on nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was developed for treatment of dye wastewater. The synergistic technology was significantly superior, where above 99% of methylene blue (MB) was removed, comparatively, removal efficiencies of MB with the sole technology of NZVI and KMnO4 at pH 6.39 being 52.9% and 63.1%, respectively. The advantages of this technology include (1) the in situ formed materials (manganese (hydr)oxides, iron hydroxides and MnFe oxide), resulting in the stable and high removal efficiency of MB and (2) high removal capacity in a wide range of pH value. Compared with simultaneous addition system of NZVI and KMnO4, MB removal was remarkably improved by sequential addition system, especially when KMnO4 addition time was optimized at 20 min. Analyses of crystal structure (XRD), morphological difference (FE-SEM), element valence and chemical groups (XPS) of NZVI before and after reaction had confirmed the formation of in situ materials, which obviously enhanced removal of MB by oxidation and adsorption. More importantly, the roles of in situ formed materials and degradation mechanism were innovatively investigated, and the results suggested that NCH3 bond of MB molecule was attacked by oxidants (KMnO4 and in situ manganese (hydr)oxides) at position C1 and C9, resulting in cleavage of chromophore. This study provides new insights about an applicable technology for treatment of dye wastewater. PMID:27105151

  15. Potassium permanganate elicits a shift of the external fish microbiome and increases host susceptibility to columnaris disease.

    Mohammed, Haitham H; Arias, Covadonga R

    2015-01-01

    The external microbiome of fish is thought to benefit the host by hindering the invasion of opportunistic pathogens and/or stimulating the immune system. Disruption of those microbial communities could increase susceptibility to diseases. Traditional aquaculture practices include the use of potent surface-acting disinfectants such as potassium permanganate (PP, KMnO4) to treat external infections. This study evaluated the effect of PP on the external microbiome of channel catfish and investigated if dysbiosis leads to an increase in disease susceptibility. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, was used as disease model. Four treatments were compared in the study: (I) negative control (not treated with PP nor challenged with F. columnare), (II) treated but not challenged, (III) not treated but challenged, and (IV) treated and challenged. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze changes in the external microbiome during the experiment. Exposure to PP significantly disturbed the external microbiomes and increased catfish mortality following the experimental challenge. Analysis of similarities of RISA profiles showed statistically significant changes in the skin and gill microbiomes based on treatment and sampling time. Characterization of the microbiomes using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing confirmed the disruption of the skin microbiome by PP at different phylogenetic levels. Loss of diversity occurred during the study, even in the control group, but was more noticeable in fish subjected to PP than in those challenged with F. columnare. Fish treated with PP and challenged with the pathogen exhibited the least diverse microbiome at the end of the study. PMID:26170019

  16. Clinical observation on potassium permanganate in the treatment of patients with bedsore%高锰酸钾治疗压疮的临床观察

    罗辑; 邓晓艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of potassium permanganate in the treatment of patients with over phase Ⅱ bedsore. Methods:57 patients with phase Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ bedsore were selected,they were randomly divided into the two groups,28 patients in the observation group were treated with potassium permanganate solution immersion and TDP irradiation.29 patients in the control group were treated with debridement,oxygen,dressing with povidone iodine and TDP irradiation.Results:The total effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group,and the healing time was significantly shortened(P<0.05 or <0.01).Conclusion:The effect of potassium permanganate in the treatment of patients with over stage Ⅱ bedsore is significant.%目的:观察高锰酸钾治疗Ⅱ期以上压疮的效果.方法:将57例Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ期压疮患者随机分为两组,观察组28例采用高锰酸钾溶液浸泡、TDP照射治疗,对照组29例采用清创、吹氧、聚维酮碘涂抹敷料包扎、TDP照射疗法.结果:观察组总有效率明显高于对照组,治愈时间明显缩短(P<0.05或<0.01).结论:高锰酸钾治疗Ⅱ期以上的压疮效果显著.

  17. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (II): Pilot plant experiences

    The search for a detoxification treatment of the wastewater generated during industrial processes, has been a constant for all companies in general and for gold mining in particular, whose wastewater generally contains high concentrations of cyanide compounds with high toxicity. In the previous research work, developed in the laboratory, the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent for cyanidic wastewater, from a gold hydrometallurgical plant, has been demonstrated, achieving the destruction of copper cyanide complexes present in solution and the subsequent metal removal by precipitation as hydroxide. This paper presents the conclusions obtained after the implementation of the process developed in the laboratory, at pilot-plant scale. (Author) 30 refs.

  18. Kinetic Modelling for the Assay of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Potassium Permanganate as Oxidant

    Rahman, Nafisur; Khan, Sumaiya

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic methods for accurate determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride have been described. The methods are based on the oxidation of nortriptyline hydrochloride with KMnO4 in acidic and basic media. In acidic medium, the decrease in absorbance at 525.5 nm and in basic medium, the increase in absorbance at 608.5 nm were measured as a function of time. The variables affecting the reactions were carefully investigated and optimised. Kinetic models such as initial rate, rate constant, variabl...

  19. Kinetic modelling for the assay of nortriptyline hydrochloride using potassium permanganate as oxidant.

    Rahman, Nafisur; Khan, Sumaiya

    2015-06-01

    Kinetic methods for accurate determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride have been described. The methods are based on the oxidation of nortriptyline hydrochloride with KMnO4 in acidic and basic media. In acidic medium, the decrease in absorbance at 525.5 nm and in basic medium, the increase in absorbance at 608.5 nm were measured as a function of time. The variables affecting the reactions were carefully investigated and optimised. Kinetic models such as initial rate, rate constant, variable time and fixed time were employed to construct the calibration curves. The initial rate and fixed time methods were selected for quantification of nortriptyline hydrochloride. In acidic medium, the calibration curves showed a linear response over the concentration range 10-50 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and 10-60 μg mL(-1) for fixed time method (2 min). In basic medium, the calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 10-100 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min). In acidic medium, the limits of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods (2 min) were 1.02 and 3.26 μg mL(-1), respectively. In basic medium, the limits of detection were found to be 1.67 and 1.55 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min), respectively. The initial rate and fixed time methods have been successfully applied to the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in commercial dosage form. Statistical comparison of the results of the proposed methods with those of reference method exhibited excellent agreement and there is no significant difference between the compared methods in terms of accuracy and precision. PMID:25380790

  20. Thermal Analysis of Whole Bacterial Cells Exposed to Potassium Permanganate Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry: a Biphasic Dose-Dependent Response to Stress

    Marina K. Abuladze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was applied to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at whole cell level using soil bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model culture. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was applied in order to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at the whole cell level using the soil bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model culture. We compared the total melting heat and the temperature of DNA-protein complex (DNP melting at the PM application prior to the calorimetry measurement and after 24-h exposure at the concentration range 0.02–1.4 mM. The initial oxidative effect caused changes in the pattern of the whole cell melting spectra (mainly at the temperature range 56–78°C, the decrease of Tmax °C DNP melting, and did not influence significantly the total heat of bacterial melting at different concentrations of PM. The prolonged effect of permanganate up to 24 h was characterized by a biphasic dose-dependent response to stress estimated by the DSC technique and the colony-forming assay. The low doses of PM (0.02 and 0.2 mM stimulated cell proliferation, and increased the total whole cell melting heat and the temperature of DNP melting. The toxic effect of PM up to 0.04 mM reduced cell viability, changed the character of multipeaked thermograms, and lowered the total melting heat and the temperature of DNP melting in a concentration-dependent manner. This study presents the DSC method for evaluating and monitoring the effects of exposure to potential human and environmental toxicants.

  1. Preparation of the Certified Reference Material of Potassium Permanganate Solution%高锰酸钾溶液标准物质的研制

    梁秀丽; 张坤; 王爱萍; 李本涛; 王学琴; 姚旭霞; 刘立君

    2013-01-01

    Preparation process of potassium permanganate solution standard material was introduced. Weighing titrimetric method was used for certification. The homogeneity and stability of potassium permanganate solution standard material were examined. The results indicated that the standard material was homogeneous and the value stated was valid for a period of 6 month. The stated value of it was c( 1 / 5 KMnO4)=0.100 7 mol / kg(k=2). The standard material meets the requirements of the secondary level of standard material and it has been authorized for the state-level standard material.%介绍高猛酸钾溶液标准物质的研制过程.对研制的溶液标准物质进行了均匀性和稳定性考察.结果表明,该标准物质均匀性良好,定值稳定期为6个月.用称量滴定法定值,定值结果为c(1/5KMnO4)=0.1007 mol/kg(k=2).该标准溶液满足二级标准物质的技术要求,已被批准为国家级二级标准物质.

  2. Study on treating slightly-polluted water with potassium permanganate and coagulation%高锰酸钾和混凝剂联用处理微污染水源水试验

    李喜林; 刘玲; 江富; 许克; 丁蕊; 狄军贞

    2013-01-01

      以中国北方典型低温微污染水源—白石水库为研究对象,采用烧杯静态试验,进行了高锰酸钾单独氧化及高锰酸钾与混凝剂联用处理微污染水源水的研究.试验结果表明:高锰酸钾与混凝剂混合投加对高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和氨氮(NH3-N)去除效果明显,并起到良好的除浊作用.最佳运行条件为先投加高锰酸钾2.5 mg/L,氧化15 min 后投加 PAC30 mg/L、PAM3 mg/L.%As a typical low temperature slightly-polluted water source in northern China, the water in Baishi reservoir is investigated in this study. The potassium permanganate oxidation only and the potassium permanganate--coagulation combined process were studied in a beaker static test for treating slightly-polluted water. The results show that potassium permanganate and coagulation combined process has a better effect in removing permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and improving water turbidity. The optimum operation conditions are: the dosage of potassium permanganate is 2.5 mg/L, PAC is 30mg/L and PAM is 3 mg/L. The PAC and PAM should be added after a 15 min oxidation of potassium permanganate.

  3. The Effect of Phenol Wastewater Treatment with Potassium Permanganate Based Catalyst%常温下高锰酸钾系催化剂处理含酚废水效果研究

    张晨; 赵胜勇; 刘菲

    2015-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备的高锰酸钾催化剂对含酚废水在常温下进行化学法处理,结果表明,单纯使用高锰酸钾为活性组分制备的催化剂对含酚废水的处理效果不明显,而加入铜离子后催化剂对含酚废水的降解率增加,同样c(Mn)∶c(Cu)=1∶3情况下,高浓度高锰酸钾催化剂对含酚废水的降解率高于低浓度高锰酸钾催化剂。%Phenolic wastewater was treated by chemical method using potassium permanganate catalysts prepared by impregnation method at normal temperature,and the results revealed that catalyst using potassium permanganate as the active component did not show the good performance in wastewater treating,while the catalyst adding copper ions made the decomposition rate of hydroxybenzene increase. Furthermore,catalyst containing high concentration of potassium permanganate led higher decomposition rate of phenolic wastewater than that containing low concentration of potassium permanganate at the same ratio of manganese to copper=1∶3 in molar fraction.

  4. Dissolution of chromium from stellites in acid and alkaline permanganate-an electrochemical study

    Stellite-3 and stellite-6 were used as material of construction in primary and auxiliary systems of nuclear reactors. These materials have superior high temperature corrosion and wear resistance. Even though the actual surface area exposed to neutron flux and their corrosion and wear rates are negligibly small, they are the major contributors for total 60Co activity mainly because of their high cobalt content (50-60%). Apart from the general radiation build up which is due to the redistribution of activated corrosion products, the particles of cobalt released mainly from stellite could contribute to the radioactive hotspots in both high temperature as well as low temperature circuits of nuclear reactors. A detailed study was done to develop and optimize a decontamination process to dissolve out these hotspots that were formed mainly due to stellite. For this purpose dissolution studies were done for the stellite-3 and stellite-6 alloy powders in various permanganate based decontaminating formulations. It was of importance to understand the difference in efficiencies for different formulations. Dissolution capability of the alloy powder was observed to depend not only on the concentration of MnO4-, pH and temperature but also on the microstructure of the alloy. Stellite-3 and stellite-6 are both Co-Cr-W alloys but are quite different in their microstructures. The present study was carried out in order to understand the mechanistic aspects of corrosion of both these stellites in nitric acid permanganate (NP) and alkaline permanganate (AP) formulations. Electrochemical impedance measurements in NP showed that in both the alloys corrosion takes place via an adsorbed intermediate. However in AP, the process seems to be diffusion controlled. SEM/EDAX analysis done on the specimens exposed to full redox step indicated preferential corrosion attack on both the alloys in both the formulations. In NP, the attack was predominantly on Co-rich matrix phase and Cr

  5. Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of cadmium treated common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Kaviraj, A; Das, B K

    1995-01-01

    Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio were markedly influenced by a treatment of 2.5 mg/l Cd in the laboratory for 96 hours. Hb% and ESR values were increased but the RBC and PCV values were reduced. Treatment of KMnO4 (1 mg/l) or CoCl2 (2 mg/l) induced a further reduction of RBC of the Cd treated fish. But parameters like PCV, MCV and MCH of Cd treated fish were not affected by the treatment of KMnO4 and CoCl2. Intramuscular injection of vitamin B complex did not produce any impact on ESR and MCV values of the Cd treated exposed fish but most of the other parameters of such fish were found comparable to control indicating that vitamin B complex could counteract Cd to reduce its ill effect. PMID:8580524

  6. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I)

    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. Application of in situ chemical oxidation technique with potassium permanganate for the remediation of a shallow aquifer contaminated with chlorinated solvents

    Alaine Santos da Cunha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ chemical oxidation is a method that is frequently being used for the remediation of contaminated areas, since it presents an adequate efficiency in the reduction of the contaminant mass, particularly chlorinated ethenes, in a relatively short period of time. This manuscript presents the results of the application of this method, using the injection of potassium permanganate as the remediation agent, in an impacted area with chlorinated organic compounds, especially 1,1-dichloroethene. The effectiveness of this remediation method is related to the complexity of the conceptual model of the contaminated site and to the conduction of specific studies in laboratory and pilot tests in field scale, prior to the accomplishment of the full-scale remediation. Therefore, this work contributes presenting a description of the procedures that are commonly used for conducting this kind of studies. In the case under study, it was estimated that the mass of 1.1-dichloroethene (1.1-DCE was reduced from 15.53 to 1.81 kg in groundwater 22 months after the injection of potassium permanganate in the aquifer. The average concentrations of 1.1-DCE in groundwater decreased from 200 to 24 g/L, which value is lower than the environmental standard limit and also to the calculated target of remediation based on human-health risk assessment. Significant contamination rebounds were not identified in the aquifer after the injection of the chemical oxidant. The suitable results of the remediation in this case may be related to the relatively low aquifer heterogeneity and low original concentrations of the contaminant.

  8. 利用Excel分析标定高锰酸钾标准溶液的不确定度%Analysis of uncertainty the standard potassium permanganate solution using Excel

    孙伟; 胡静; 邢宇; 郭丽娜

    2013-01-01

    在理化分析过程中,一切测量都具有不确定度.例如,实验室经常使用的KMnO4标准溶液,标定其浓度产生不确定度的来源就有很多方面.标准要求溶液浓度精确到万分位,因此,对于标定KMnO4标准溶液的准确性就尤为重要.本文根据GB/T601-2002标准滴定溶液的制备建立数学模型,找出影响KMnO4标准溶液浓度的主要因素,分析不确定度影响因子,利用Excel软件计算合成不确定度,最终提出标定KMnO4标准溶液浓度准确性最有效的改进建议.%In the analysis of physical and chemical process, all the measurements have uncertainty. For example, the laboratory often use the potassium permanganate standard volumetric solutions, the concentration of calibration uncertainty source has many aspects. Standard solution concentration precisely to extremely, so for the calibration of potassium permanganate standard solution accuracy is particularly important. This is according to the GB/T601-2002 chemical reagent preparations of standard volumetric solutions to build mathematical model, to find out the effect of potassium permanganate standard volumetric solutions were the main factors, analysis of uncertainty factors, using the EXCEL tool for the calculation of combined uncertainty, finally proposed the calibration of potassium permanganate standard volumetric solutions of the accuracy of the most effective suggestions for improvement.

  9. Study on Removal of Manganese from Micro-polluted Water by Potassium Permanganate Preoxidation%高锰酸钾预氧化强化微污染水源水中锰的去除

    王群; 王江川; 王林; 马军; 叶琳嫣

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays,there is a problem of the manganese overrunning for most surface water in China,and it brings great risk to the security of water supply.This study inspects the effects of removal of manganese by potassium permanganate preoxidation.The results show that the removal of manganese in raw water decreased significantly after pretreatment by potassium permanganate,when the dosing quantity of potassium permanganate reaches 0.5mg/1,the concentration of manganese ion in water has already reached the detection limit of atomic absorption,but chroma increased.When the dosage of potassium permanganate and ferrous sulfate is 1 to 4,the removal effect of manganese is good,and also with the increase of the dosing quantity of ferrous ion,the removal rate of manganese decreased.%目前,我国很多地区地表水都存在锰超标问题,这给供水安全带来了极大隐患.本文考察了高锰酸盐预氧化强化水中锰的去除效果.实验结果表明,原水经过高锰酸盐处理后,水中的锰含量明显降低,当高锰酸盐投加量达到0.5mg/L之后,水中的锰离子浓度已经达到了原子吸收检出限以下,但色度有所增加.当高锰酸钾∶硫酸亚铁=1∶4时,水中的锰去除效果较好,色度降低,随着亚铁离子投加比例的增加,水中锰的去除率反而下降.

  10. Características físico-químicas de amidos modificados com permanganato de potássio/ácido lático e hipoclorito de sódio/ácido lático Physicochemical characteristics of starches modified with potassium permanganate/lactic acid and sodium hypochlorite/lactic acid

    Roberto Marques Silva

    2008-03-01

    H 4.0 and phosphate buffer (pH 7.0. The results showed that waxy corn and cassava starches presented high expansions, when modified with KMNO4/lactic acid (25.8 and 24.1 mL.g-1, respectively. The starch pastes of waxy corn showed freeze-thaw stability in all treatments. Differential dyeing and carboxyl content did not vary between the native and modified samples; only potato starch reacted with methylene blue, due to the presence of phosphate groups. With respect to pH and acidity, almost all samples presented values next to neutrality, except corn and waxy corn starch modified with NaOCl/lactic acid. The starches oxidized with KMnO4/lactic acid presented lower viscosity peaks than those oxidized with NaOCl. The viscosity peaks of starches analyzed in phosphate buffer were lower than in water and acetate buffer.

  11. 沉淀池污泥回流工艺强化低浊水处理效能研究%Study on effects of enhanced treatment of low turbidity water with technical of potassium permanganate, PAM and recycled sludge

    孙丽华; 李圭白; 李星; 杨艳玲

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of enhancing treatment of water with low turbidity through combined effects of potassium permanganate oxidation, PAM aiding coagulation and sludge recycling was investigated through continuous bench scale studies. Additionally, the mechanism of pollutant removal was discussed. Comparing with ferric chloride coagulation,only recycling sedimentation sludge was ineffective in enhancing treatment of water with low turbidity. PAM with recycled sludge showed positive effects, and the additional potassium permanganate dosing exhibited the best potential of favoring coagulation. It was observed that the optimal potassium permanganate dosage was 0. 4 mg/L. SEM analysis indicated that the floes were loosely formed and the particle diameter was critically low for ferric chloride coagulation process. Comparatively, the addition of PAM and potassium permanganate with recycled sludge facilitated the aggregation of tinny particles onto compact PAM polymer chains, therefore contributing to the formation of compact floes with high particle diameter. The combined employment of recycled sludge, PAM and potassium permanganate showed the best potential of favoring coagulation, mainly through synergistic effects between seeding, polymer bridging and increasing effective collision in mechanism.%通过动态试验考察了高锰酸钾、PAM、回流污泥组合应用强化低浊水处理的效能,并探讨了组合工艺对水中污染物的的去除机制.与投加三氯化铁相比,单纯将沉淀污泥回流不能有效改善低浊水处理效果;将回流污泥和PAM同时投加可以改善处理效果;在投加回流污泥和PAM时,投加KMnO4 可进一步改善混凝效果,KMnO4最佳投加量为0.4 mg/L.电镜扫描结果显示单纯三氯化铁絮凝所形成的絮体粒径小且结合松散,而PAM、KMnO4、回流污泥组合应用可以使许多细小颗粒彼此聚合,絮体粒径增大并且结合致密.从理论上论证了回流污泥、PAM、KMnO4组

  12. Effect of natural Bayah zeolite particle size reduction to physico-chemical properties and absortion against potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

    Widayanti, Siti Mariana; Syamsu, Khaswar; Warsiki, Endang; Yuliani, Sri

    2016-02-01

    Recently, researches on nanotechnology have been developed very rapid, as well as the utilization of nano-zeolites. Nano-sized material has several advantages which are expanding absorptive surfaces so it will enhance the material absorption and shorten the absorption time. Zeolite as a KMnO4 binder, has been widely recognized for its ability to extend the shelf life of vegetables and fruits. This study was conducted to determine zeolites physico-chemical characters from different particle size and the effect on KMnO4 absorption. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a strong oxidizer for reducing the quantity of ethylene in storage process of fresh horticultural products. The treatment consisted of (1) different length of milling time (10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes) and (2) the duration of chemical activation with 1 N KOH solution. Physical and chemical characters of zeolite were analyzed using BET, PSA, XRD and SEM. The research design was randomized design. The result implied that milling time was significantly affecting the zeolite particle size, material surface area, and the size of pore diameter and volume. Milling treatment for 40 minutes produced higher zeolite surface area and pore volume than other treatments. While the duration of chemical activation using 1 N KOH solution gives different effect on zeolite absorption to KMnO4 solution. Milling time for 60 minutes and activated for 48 hours has higher initial adsorption than other treatments.

  13. Kinetics on triclosan oxidation by potassium permanganate in drinking water%高锰酸钾氧化去除水中三氯生动力学研究

    徐勇鹏; 杨静琨; 王在刚

    2011-01-01

    Jar tests were conducted to expose the kinetic law of triclosan oxidation by potassium permanganate in aquatic environment.The rate constant of the reaction was obtained,meanwhile,the factors influencing the value of K,such as potassium permanganate dosage,pH value and temperature,were investigated.The results showed that triclosan was rapidly oxidized by potassium permanganate in aqueous solution with different initial concentrations of potassium permanganate,and second-order reaction kinetics was observed between triclosan and potassium permanganate with second-order reaction rate constant K=0.331 6 mL·s-1·mol-1.The second-order reaction rate constant was influenced by pH values,and K reached its lowest and highest level at pH 5 and 7 respectively.The rate of oxidation increased with the temperature increasing,and the reaction activation energy E a=32.35 kJ·mol-1,which revealed that the oxidation reaction between triclosan and potassium permanganate was feasible under usual water treatment condition.Therefore,potassium permanganate is a feasible oxidant which can removal the triclosan quickly and efficiently.%为了揭示高锰酸钾氧化去除水中三氯生的动力学规律,通过烧杯试验研究得出高锰酸钾氧化三氯生的反应速率常数,同时探讨高锰酸钾浓度、pH、温度等因素对反应速率常数的影响.试验结果表明:不同高锰酸钾浓度下,三氯生能够被迅速氧化,氧化三氯生的反应符合二级反应动力学,二级反应动力学常数K=0.331 6 mL.s-1.mol-1.pH对反应速率常数有显著影响,在pH为5、7时,K分别达到最小值和最大值.高锰酸钾氧化三氯生的反应速率随着反应温度的增加而增加,该反应表观活化能Ea为32.35 kJ.mol-1,说明该反应在一般水处理条件下较容易发生.高锰酸钾是一种快速、高效去除水中三氯生的氧化剂.

  14. 碘化钾碱性高锰酸钾法测量海水化学需氧量不确定度的研究%Research into Uncertainty in Measurement of Seawater Chemical Oxygen Demand by Potassium Iodide-Alkaline Potassium Permanganate Determination Method

    张世强; 郭长松

    2007-01-01

    葡萄糖与谷氨酸以 1:1 的比例配制成标准物质,用人工海水和标准物质配制成系列标准溶液,根据碘化钾碱性高锰酸钾法对系列标准溶液的测量结果,获得了海水 COD 测量不确定度在全量程范围内的分布规律,即测量不确定度在高端大不恒定,在低端小恒定.%Using the glucose and L-glutamic-acid to prepare the standard substance according to the ratio of 1:1, and the artificial seawater and the standard substance to prepare a series of standard solutions, the distribution pattern of uncertainty in measurement of seawater COD is obtained based on the measured results of the series of standard solutions by the potassium iodide-alkaline potassium permanganate determination method. The distribution pattern is as follows: Uncertainty in measurement is big and not constant at the high end, but small and constant at the low end.

  15. Discussion on the Method of MTO Methanol Product Potassium Permanganate Time Analysis%MTO级甲醇产品高锰酸钾时间分析方法的探讨

    杨少林

    2015-01-01

    根据ASTM E 34-2003[1]、 ASTM D1363-2006[2]、 GB/T6324.3-2011[3]等工业甲醇的高锰酸钾试验标准,文章对甲醇产品锰酸钾时间分析方法进行了探讨。此分析的目的是确定一个观测数值或大概计算数值与相关国家技术规范的符合性,分析结果应修约到与技术规范限值的小数点保留位数相一致。此分析方法适用于在甲醇及MTO级中存在有能还原高锰酸甲杂质的测定。%According to the standards about Potassium Permanganate test and other industrial methanol, such as ASTM E 34-2003 , ASTM D1363-2006 , GB/T6324.3-2011 , etc., the method of methanol product potassium permanganate time analysis was discussed. The purpose of this analysis was to determine an observed or calculated values for the compliance relevant technical standards compliance. The results should be rounded to the right of the decimal point number was consistent with the specification limits. This method was suitable for testing methanol and MTO methanol in detection can restore a permanganate impurities.

  16. Role of potassium in acid secretion

    John P Geibel

    2005-01-01

    Potassium (K+) ions are critical for the activation and catalytic cycle of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase, resulting in the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the parietal cell canaliculus. As both symptom, severity and esophageal mucosal damage in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are related to the degree of acid exposure, K+ is a logical target for approaches to inhibit acid production.The probable K+ binding site on the gastric H+,K+-ATPase has recently been described and studies are elucidating how K+ activates the enzyme. K+ channels in the apical membrane of the parietal cell are implicated in the recycling of K+ and, to date, three potential K+ channels (KCNQ1, Kir2.1 and Kir4.1) have been identified. The channels represent theoretical sites for agents to control acid secretion but it will be difficult to develop selective blockers. An alternative strategy is to prevent K+ from activating gastric H+,K+-ATPase; the potassiumcompetitive acid blocker (P-CAB) class inhibits acidsecretion by binding at or near the K+ binding site.Ongoing research is further defining the role of K+ in the functioning of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase, as well as determining the clinical utility of agents directed toward this important cation.

  17. 一种简易高锰酸钾坐浴溶液配制比色装置的设计%Design of a simple device for compounding sitz bath solution of potassium permanganate

    闫涛; 李海英; 杨永进; 蔡兴伟; 李海珍; 叶丽萍; 李春霞; 王燕飞; 陈洁

    2013-01-01

    目的:提供一种能够快速、准确配制所需浓度高锰酸钾坐浴溶液的简易装置,解决浓度偏差问题。方法:根据不同浓度高锰酸钾溶液所呈现颜色不同的特点,设计出一种基于目测比色法原理的简易装置并验证其效果。将103份拟配制的高锰酸钾坐浴溶液随机分成试验组51份和对照组52份,分别采用该装置及传统目测法配制不同浓度的高锰酸钾溶液,比较其两组方法的准确率。结果:试验组配制高锰酸钾坐浴溶液浓度的准确率为90.2%,显著高于对照组的65.4%(x2=4.60,P<0.05)。结论:使用该装置配制高锰酸钾坐浴溶液准确、便捷、直观,优于传统目测法。%Objective:To provide a new type of simple device which can compound desired sitz bath solution of potassium permanganate for medical staff. Methods:According to the characteristic that different concentration of potassium permanganatevisual solution presents a certain color, a novel apparatus which was based on visual color measurement principles was designed. The using effect was observed. 103 solutions of potassium permanganate were divided into 51 of test group and control group of 52 randomly. The device was used in test group and the traditional visual method was used in control group, and 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%and 2.0%potassium permanganate solutions were compounded respectively. The accuracy of two groups was compared. Results:The accuracy of test group was 90.2%, and the accuracy of control group was 65.4%(x2=4.60, P<0.05). Accuracy of the test group is significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion:It was accurate, convenient and intuitive that the equipment was applied to compound sitz bath solution of potassium permanganate and it was superior to the conventional visual method.

  18. 硫酸铜和高锰酸钾对花幼鱼的急性毒性试验%Acute Toxicity of Copper Sulphate and Potassium Permanganate to the Larva of Hemibarbus maculates

    聂志娟; 徐钢春; 顾若波

    2011-01-01

    In a water temperature of 24~27℃ condition,Acute toxicity of Copper sulphate and Potassium Permanganate to larval of Hemibarbus maculates were studied by Stagnophile toxic Test method.The results showed that the LC50(24h),LC50(48h),LC50(96h),safe concentration of Copper sulphate are respectively 0.242,0.196,0.196,0.0 386mg/L;the LC50(24h),LC50(48h),LC50(96h),safe concentration of Potassium Permanganate are respectively 1.83,1.37,1.19,0.23mg/L.Poisonous effect of two solutions to Hemibarbus maculates are large comparatively and two solutions exist poisoning risk,The sensibility of larval of Hemibarbus maculates to Copper sulphate washigher than that of potassium permanganate,so Copper sulphate were not recommended to introduce and potassium permanganate should were used carefully in aquaculture.%采用静水生物测试法,在水温24~27℃条件下,研究硫酸铜和高锰酸钾对花幼鱼的急性毒性。结果显示,硫酸铜对花幼鱼的LC50(24h)、LC50(48h)、LC50(96h)、安全质量浓度值分别为0.242、0.196、0.196和0.0 386mg/L,高锰酸钾对花幼鱼的LC50(24h)、LC50(48h)、LC50(96h)、安全质量浓度值分别为1.83、1.37、1.19和0.23mg/L。2种药液对花幼鱼的毒害作用都比较大,使用时存在中毒风险。花鱼幼鱼对硫酸铜的敏感度大于高锰酸钾,在水产生产中不建议采用硫酸铜,高锰酸钾应谨慎使用。

  19. 高锰酸钾对水中17α-乙炔基雌二醇去除效果的研究%Removal of 17α-ethynyestradiol in source water by potassium permanganate

    唐凯; 马晓雁; 李青松; 高乃云

    2012-01-01

    Potassium permanganate, a widely applied antioxidant in water treatment, was used to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals-17α-ethynyestradiol (EE2). The effects of potassium permanganate dosage, EE2 concentration, pH, and ionic strength on EE2 removal were investigated. The results showed that potassium permanganate could remove EE2 effectively, and the removal rate of EE2 was more than 90%. The removal rate of EE2 increased with the increasing of dosage of potassium permanganate. In the early reaction, the removal rate of EE2 accelerated with the increasing of initial EE2 concentration. However, this phenomenon was not obvious in the latter stage of the reaction. The removal rate in partial neutral and alkaline was propitious to EE2 removal. In the range of the test concentrations, the removal rate of EE2 showed positive linear relationship with the concentrations of ionic strength and organic matter.%采用水处理中常用的氧化剂高锰酸钾对内分泌干扰物17α-乙炔基雌二醇(EE2)进行去除研究,考查不同高锰酸钾浓度、EE2浓度、pH和离子强度等对EE2去除效果的影响.试验结果表明高锰酸钾可以有效去除EE2,去除率达到90%以上.EE2的去除率随着高锰酸钾浓度的增加而增大.反应前期,去除随着EE2初始浓度的增加而加快,反应后期则影响不大.偏中性和碱性时有利于EE2的去除.试验浓度范围内,EE2的去除和离子强度、有机物的含量呈正线性关系.

  20. 硅胶担载的高锰酸钾对烯烃碳碳双键的氧化%Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Cleavage by Silica-supported Potassium Permanganate under Conditions Free of Organic Solvent

    王文军; 戴乾圜

    2002-01-01

    An improved simple method for carbon-carbon double bond cleavage by silica-supported potassium permanganate was described and a possible mechanism was proposed.%在无有机溶剂做介质的条件下,用硅胶吸附的高锰酸钾氧化6种难溶于水的液态烯烃,得到了双键发生断裂的氧化产物.该反应操作简便,反应快,收率好.此外,对硅胶的活化作用机制进行了浅析.

  1. Intermediate-scale 2D experimental investigation of in situ chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate for remediation of complex DNAPL source zones

    Heiderscheidt, J. L.; Siegrist, R. L.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2008-11-01

    In situ chemical oxidation is a technology that has been applied to speed up remediation of a contaminant source zone by inducing increased mass transfer from DNAPL sources into the aqueous phase for subsequent destruction. The DNAPL source zone can consist of one or more individual sources that may be present as an interconnected pool of high saturation, as a region of disconnected ganglia at residual saturation, or as combinations of these two morphologies. Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4) is a commonly employed oxidant that has been shown to rapidly destroy DNAPL compounds like PCE and TCE following second-order kinetics in an aqueous system. During the oxidation of a target DNAPL compound, or naturally occurring reduced species in the subsurface, manganese oxide (MnO 2) solids are produced. Research has shown that these manganese oxide solids may result in permeability reductions in the porous media thus reducing the ability for oxidant to be transported to individual DNAPL sources. It can also occur at the DNAPL-water interface, decreasing contact of the oxidant with the DNAPL. Additionally, MnO 2 formation at the DNAPL-water interface, and/or flow-bypassing as a result of permeability reductions around the source, may alter the mass transfer from the DNAPL into the aqueous phase, potentially diminishing the magnitude of any DNAPL mass depletion rate increase induced by oxidation. An experiment was performed in a two-dimensional (2D) sand-filled tank that included several discrete DNAPL source zones. Spatial and temporal monitoring of aqueous PCE, chloride, and permanganate concentrations was used to relate changes in mass depletion of, and mass flux, from DNAPL residual and pool source zones to chemical oxidation performance and MnO 2 formation. During the experiment, permeability changes were monitored throughout the 2D tank and these were related to MnO 2 deposition as measured through post-oxidation soil coring. Under the conditions of this experiment, Mn

  2. Discussion on affecting factors of the determination of potassium permanganate consumption of food contact plastics%食品接触塑料制品高锰酸钾消耗量测定影响因素探讨

    杨丽; 王娟; 黎群娣

    2012-01-01

    根据GB/T 5009.60-2003《食品包装用聚乙烯、聚苯乙烯、聚丙烯成型品卫生标准的分析方法》测定食品接触塑料制品高锰酸钾消耗量,在测定工作中不难发现高锰酸钾消耗量的测定结果波动比较大,影响测定结果的准确度,因此对影响测定的可能因素进行了探讨。%According to GB/T 5009.60-2003《method for analysis of hygienic standard of products of polyethylene,polystyrene and polypropylene for food packaging》determination of potassium permanganate consumption of food contact plastics,it's not hard to find larger fluctuation for the potassium permanganate consumption determination result.So we compares and discusses the possible factors affecting the determination.

  3. 高锰酸钾浓度对羊毛与山羊绒纤维性能的影响%Concentration of potassium permanganate on the performance of wool and cashmere fiber

    刘灿灿; 赵亚梅; 李龙

    2013-01-01

    The differences of potassium permanganate concentration on the performance of wool and cashmere was studied. By means of the different concentration of oxidant processing wool and cashmere, the weight loss rate of treated wool and cashmere, breaking strength loss rate, elongation at break loss rates, felt shrink volume and whiteness were compared. The results show that breaking strength and the elongation at break of cashmere treated in the potassium permanganate are seriously damaged, shrink-resistance of treated wool is worse than cashmere, the whiteness of treated wool is better than cashmere.%研究高锰酸钾浓度对羊毛与山羊绒性能影响的差异性.通过不同浓度的氧化剂处理羊毛与山羊绒,比较处理后的羊毛与山羊绒的失重率、强力损失率、断裂伸长率损失率、毡缩体积、白度.得出经高锰酸钾处理后的山羊绒的断裂强力和断裂伸长率损伤较大,而处理过的羊毛防毡缩性远没有山羊绒好,处理后的羊毛的白度比山羊绒的好.

  4. 碘量法测定氧化处理槽液中的高锰酸钾%Determination of Potassium Permanganate Content in Oxidized Solution by Iodometry Method

    金欢; 徐小平

    2013-01-01

    The potassium permanganate content in oxidized solution was determined by iodometry method.The accuracy and precision of this way was confirmed by test of the relative standard deviation (RSD).The RSD of the determination result is 0.24%,which indicates that the method is sample and correct.The recovery ratio was proved by adding standard potassium permanganate solution into the sample solution.The recovery of this analysis method is 99.48% ~ 103.22% which can achieve the analysis request.%用碘量法分析钢铁氧化处理槽中高锰酸钾的含量,计算分析结果的相对标准偏差确定该方法的准确度和精密度,分析结果的相对标准偏差为0.24%,本方法简单且准确.通过在样品中加入高锰酸钾标准溶液来测定回收率,该分析方法的回收率在99.48%~103.22%之间,达到分析要求.

  5. Effect of potassium permanganate preoxidation on the adsorption of trace phenol by powdered activated carbon%高锰酸钾强化粉末活性炭吸附效能研究

    姜成春; 马军; 李圭白

    2000-01-01

    The influence of potassium permanganate preoxidation on the adsorption of phenol by pow-dered activated carbon was evaluated. The results showed that potassium permangnate preoxidation in-creased the adsorption capacity of trace phenol by powdered activated carbon. This increase was be-lieved due to the oxidized polymerization of phenol compounds on the surface of powdered activatedcarbon or the adsorption by the manganese dioxide formed in situ during permanganate oxidation.%以苯酚为代表物质,探讨了不同pH、不同本底等条件下高锰酸钾预氧化对粉末活性炭吸附水中微量有机污染物的影响规律。结果表明,高锰酸钾预氧化使苯酚在粉末活性炭表面的饱和吸附量增加,其增加幅度取决于吸附过程中高锰酸钾的氧化条件及新生态水合二氧化锰的生成量。

  6. Microwave- and Ultrasound-Accelerated Green Permanganate Oxidation of Thioethers

    Luu, Thi Xuan Thi; Le, Huu Tan; Le, Thach Ngoc;

    2015-01-01

    Product formation from the solvent-free oxidation of aliphatic, cyclic or aromatic thioethers by permanganate supported on copper sulfate pentahydrate has been investigated in detail with respect to the importance of the nature of thioethers, the molar ratio of potassium permanganate absorbed on ...

  7. 高锰酸钾配合金霉素眼膏治疗新生儿脓疱疮的疗效观察%Clinical observation of treating nenoatal impetigo patients by potassium permanganate combined with oculentum aureomycini

    马信姬

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高锰酸钾药浴配合金霉素眼膏治疗新生儿脓疱疮的疗效。方法将82例新生儿脓疱疮患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组44例采用0.01%高锰酸钾溶液全身沐浴,然后用金霉素眼膏局部涂擦;对照组38例在常规治疗的基础上,采用0.5%碘伏棉球局部涂擦。比较2种方法对新生儿脓疱疱的疗效。结果治疗组有效率为90.9%,对照组有效率为71.1%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=7.82,P<0.05)。结论高锰酸钾药浴加金霉素眼膏治疗新生儿脓疱疮的效果满意,值得临床推广。%Objective To observe the effect of potassium permanganate combined with oculentum aureomycini in the treatment of nenoatal impetigo patients.Method Eighty-two patients were divided randomly into treatment group and control group.Forty-four patients in the treat-ment group were treated with medicated bath with 0.01% potassium permanganate solution,and then given oculentum aureomycin inunction, Thirty-eight patients of the control group were applicated with 0.5%iodophor contton ball embrocaion on the basis of the conventi onal treat-men.The curative effect of the two groups were compared.Results The effective ratio was 90.9%in treatment group,and 71 .1%in control group.The difference was significant in statistics(χ2 =7.82,P<0.05).Conclusion Potassium permanganate combined with oculentum au-reomycini for nenoatal impetigo patients has satisfactory effect which is worthy of clinical promotion..

  8. Characterization of potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    Potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid with varying amounts of cation, KxH3-xPW12O40 (x = 1, 2, 3) have been prepared and their characteristics investigated by thermal analyses, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. It was found that the number of replaced protons by potassium ions in the 12-tungstophosphoric acid structure has influence on the presence of different protonic species, their dynamic equilibrium and on the conductivity of salts. The results reported in this study have been applied to improve the structural model of insoluble acidic salts. It is shown that an acidic potassium salt presents a mixture of neutral salt and unreacted acid. The nature of this mixture depends on the number of replaced protons-oxonium ions by cations. Preliminary measurements with synthesized compounds as solid electrolytes in fuel cells have been done, too.

  9. Potassium

    ... stimulation and in the contraction of muscles. Cellular enzymes need potassium to work properly. A potassium deficiency ... or prune juice, honeydew melons, prunes, molasses and potatoes. Some foods high in potassium are also high ...

  10. 高锰酸钾褪色光度法测定梨中维生素C含量%Fading Spectrophotometric Determination of Vitamin C in Pears by Potassium Permanganate Method

    左国强; 张晓杰

    2015-01-01

    利用维生素C对高锰酸钾的褪色效应建立了褪色光度法测定维生素C的新方法。在1 moL/L H2 SO4介质中,维生素C使高锰酸钾褪色。在波长525 nm处,测定高锰酸钾溶液褪色前后吸光度,吸光度的变化值△A与维生素C的浓度在0~20μg/mL范围内成线性关系,R2=0.9998。用于样品中维生素C的含量测定,回收率在101%~105%之间,RSD为1.1%。%The fading spectrophotometric determination of Vitamin C has been carried out by use of the fading effect of Vitamin C in potassium permanganate.In the medium 1 moL/L H2 SO4 ,Vitamin C discolors potassium permanganate whose absorbance has been determined before and after its depigmentation at wavelength 525 nm.There is a linear relationship R2 =0.999 8 between the varying absorbance and the concentration of Vitamin C within 0~20 μg/mL.It can be used to determine the amount of Vitamin C in samples with recovery rates 101%~105% and RSD 1.1%.

  11. Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects of the Reactions of Iodide and Hypoiodous Acid with Permanganate: Oxidation and Disproportionation.

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Salhi, Elisabeth; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-19

    Oxidation kinetics of iodide and HOI/OI(-) by permanganate were studied in the pH range of 5.0-10.0. Iodide oxidation and iodate formation were faster at lower pH. The apparent second-order rate constants (kobs) for iodide oxidation by permanganate decrease with increasing pH from 29 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5.0 and 6.9 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0 to 2.7 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. kobs for HOI abatement are 56 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5.0, 2.5 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0, and 173 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. Iodate yields over HOI abatement decrease from 98% at pH 6.0 to 33% for pH ≥ 9.5, demonstrating that HOI disproportionation dominates HOI transformation by permanganate at pH ≥ 8.0. MnO2 formed as a product from permanganate reduction, oxidizes HOI to iodate for pH OI(-) undergoes a fast permanganate-mediated disproportionation. PMID:27003721

  12. An Inquiry into the Green Preparation of Potassium Permanganate%高锰酸钾的制备绿色化的探究

    陈彦玲; 田丽

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept of green chemistry, this paper inquires the preparation experiment of potassittm permanganate in the course of inorganic chemistry experiment. The improved experiment has a better effect, saves medicine, and realizes the transformation from traditional experiment to green experiment.%本文根据绿色化学的理念,对无机化学实验课程中的高锰酸钾制备实验进行了探究。探究后的实验效果较好,节省了药品,实现了该实验向绿色化的转变。

  13. Potassium

    Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. It helps nerves and muscles communicate. ... products out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects ...

  14. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  15. 高锰酸钾与粉末活性炭联用去除水中微量有机污染物%Study on the effectiveness of potassium permanganate in combination with powdered activated carbon for the removal of micropollutants from water

    姜成春; 马军; 李圭白

    2000-01-01

    研究了高锰酸钾与粉末活性炭联用处理技术对水中微量苯酚的去除作用。试验发现了高锰酸钾预氧化使粉末活性炭产生吸附增量这一现象,证明了二者联用的协同污染去除作用。并对高锰酸钾与粉末活性炭联用技术的除污染效能进行了分析。%The paper investigated the effectiveness of potassium permanganate in combination withpowdered activated carbon for removal of phenols in trace amounts. The results show that potassiumpermanganate together with powdered activated carbon have synergistic effect which results in betterremoval effect than the added effect achieved when each of them was used alone. The phenomenonwhich potassium permanganate preoxidation can increase the saturated adsorption capacity of powderedactivated carbon was found. Some analysis on the effectiveness of potassium permanganate in combination with powdered activated carbon for the removal of pollutants from water was also given.

  16. Investigation on Simultaneous Effect of KMnO4 Concentration and Processing Time on Tensile Strength, Weight and Stiffness of Denim Jeans During Acid Washing with Pumice Stone

    Elias Khalil

    2015-01-01

    This present investigation deals with the effect of processing time and concentration of potassium permanganate on tensile strength, weight and stiffness of denim garments. Three 100% cotton denim jeans were treated with stone acid wash with the variation of processing time (1.5, 2 & 2.5 minutes) and concentration (1.5, 2& 2.5g/l) of potassium permanganate after typical enzyme bleach wash. Tensile Strength, Weight and Stiffness (bending length) were investigated before and after each ...

  17. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  18. DIRECT OXIDATION OF EUGENOL USING A PERMANGANATE

    Reinner Ishaq Lerrick

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct oxidation of eugenol has been done using potassium permanganate. This research attempts to produce benzyl carboxylic acid, an important intermediate reactant for isoflavone synthesis, directly by breaking the p bond of allillic group attached to eugenol. The oxidation procedures were adopted from Wahyuningsih and Kusumaningsih anetol oxidation reactions. There were three modifications done i.e. one polar system of the oxidation environment, variation of time of reflux and temperature. Eugenol was firstly diluted in water by converting to its salt type and then oxidized using KMnO4 at 75 oC for 4 hours. The expected acid was separated by acidifying using sulfuric acid. The result showed that direct oxidation of eugenol using modified method of Wahyuningsih gave only a vicinal diol which undergoes polymerization into product in 80% yield with 83% purity. However, variation of time of reflux of Wahyuningsih method showed the same result with Kusumaningsih method as brown oily viscous liquid. The product was only 38% purity.

  19. Microwave- and Ultrasound-Accelerated Green Permanganate Oxidation of Thioethers

    Luu, Thi Xuan Thi; Le, Huu Tan; Le, Thach Ngoc; Duus, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Product formation from the solvent-free oxidation of aliphatic, cyclic or aromatic thioethers by permanganate supported on copper sulfate pentahydrate has been investigated in detail with respect to the importance of the nature of thioethers, the molar ratio of potassium permanganate absorbed on copper sulfate pentahydrate and reaction activation methods. While microwave irradiation affects appropriately on the fast formation of the sulfones within 3-13 minutes to get the yield more than 74%,...

  20. Continuous postcolumn detection of underivatized polysaccharides in high-performance liquid chromatography by reaction with permanganate.

    Thomas, J; Mort, A J

    1994-11-15

    We describe a continuous postcolumn reaction system for colorimetric detection of carbohydrates suitable for use with both preparative and analytical HPLC separations. A fraction of the effluent from the column is mixed via a T-junction with a 0.02% solution of potassium permanganate in 3 M sulfuric acid. The mixture then passes through a reaction coil heated to 100 degrees C, and its absorbance at 525 nm is continuously monitored. Bleaching of the permanganate is proportional to the sugar concentration. The major advantages of the detection system are its mass rather than molar sensitivity and insensitivity to changes in nonoxidizable buffer concentrations. As little as 0.1 micrograms of sugar can be detected. These features make the system suitable for detection, with high sensitivity, of polysaccharides using gradient elution from ion-exchange columns. PMID:7695109

  1. Potassium

    ... Take all forms of potassium with a full glass of water or fruit juice.Add the liquid ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  2. Flotation of uranyl ions by alkylcarboxylic acid salts of potassium

    Physical and chemical features of uranyl cation flotation by potassium salts of fatty acids from diluted solutions are presented. Maximum degree of uranyl flotation is shown to occur in the range of pH=5-6 which corresponds to flotoactive forms of UO22+(OH)+ and to the form of collector as RCOO-. Efficiency of collector first increases with the length of hydrocarbon radical (due to decreasing sublate solubility) and then declines (due to increasing electrokinetic potential). Increase of the temperature of solutions leads to an increase in sublate solubility and to a decrease in the extent of uranyl flotation. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with aqueous permanganate.

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Triñanes, Sara; Cela, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant widely used in drinking water treatment, that can react with organic micropollutants. Thus, the oxidation kinetics and transformation route of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon reaction with potassium permanganate was investigated. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) system was used to follow the time course of pharmaceuticals concentrations and for the identification of their by-products. Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only two NSAIDs were significantly degraded: indomethacine and diclofenac. The degradation kinetics of these two drugs was investigated at different concentrations of permanganate, chlorides, phosphates and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range: 2-270 h for indomethacine and 3-558 h for diclofenac, equivalent to apparent second order constants between 0.65 and 9.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.27 and 7.4 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Permanganate concentration was the most significant factor on NSAIDs oxidation kinetics, but the pH also played a significant role in diclofenac reaction, being faster at acidic pH. In the case of indomethacine, the dose of permanganate seemed also to play an autocatalytic effect. The use of an accurate-mass high resolution LC-Q-TOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of 13 by-products. The transformation path of these drugs consisted mainly of hydroxylations, decarboxylations and oxidation of aromatic double bonds, with ring opening. The software predicted toxicity of these products indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than the NSAIDs, with the exception of two indomethacine by-products. Reaction in real samples was slower and/or incomplete for both pharmaceuticals, depending on the organic matter content of the sample. However, still all transformation products could be detected for

  4. CO2激光治疗及联合高锰酸钾粉封包治疗跖疣疗效观察%Curative effect observation of CO2 laser treatment combined with potassium permanganate powder packets for treatment of plantar warts

    田晓辉; 田晓川; 哈斯其其格

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察激光治疗联合高锰酸钾粉封包治疗跖疣的临床疗效。方法:收治跖疣患者120例,随机分为联合治疗组和对照组,各60例。联合治疗组采取激光气化联合高锰酸钾粉封包治疗;对照组采取单纯激光气化治疗。结果:治疗组治愈率88%,对照组治愈率66%,联合治疗组临床疗效优于对照组。结论:激光治疗联合高锰酸钾粉封包治疗跖疣疗效好。%Objective:To explore the curative effect of laser treatment combined with potassium permanganate powder packets for treatment of plantar warts.Methods:120 patients with plantar warts were selected.They were randomly divided into the combined treatment group and the control group with 60 cases in each group.The combined treatment group were treated with laser treatment combined with potassium permanganate powder packets;the control group were treated with single laser gasification therapy.Results:In the combined treatment group,the cure rate was 88% .In the control group,the cure rate was 66% .In the combined treatment group,the clinical efficacy was better than that of the control group.Conclusion:The curative effect of laser treatment combined with potassium permanganate powder packets for treatment of plantar warts is good.

  5. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (II): Pilot plant experiences; Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (II): Ensayos en planta piloto

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Gracia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2011-07-01

    The search for a detoxification treatment of the wastewater generated during industrial processes, has been a constant for all companies in general and for gold mining in particular, whose wastewater generally contains high concentrations of cyanide compounds with high toxicity. In the previous research work, developed in the laboratory, the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent for cyanidic wastewater, from a gold hydrometallurgical plant, has been demonstrated, achieving the destruction of copper cyanide complexes present in solution and the subsequent metal removal by precipitation as hydroxide. This paper presents the conclusions obtained after the implementation of the process developed in the laboratory, at pilot-plant scale. (Author) 30 refs.

  6. Dynamic analysis on the source water ammonia nitrogen and potassium permanganate index of lower reaches of Changjiang river Taihu lake basin Jiangyin period during 2008 to 2011%长江下游太湖流域江阴段2008-2011年水源水氨氮、高锰酸盐指数动态变化分析

    缪国忠; 陈军; 何政

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the pollution status of source water ammonia nitrogen and potassium permanganate index in Changjiang river Taihu basin Jiangyin segment Method Selecting the source water of 3 water plants in Jiangyin during 2008 to 2011 and monitoring ammonia nitrogen in the water and potassium permanganate index. Results In the past 4 years, ammonia nitrogen were among the level of 0. 10 to 0. 86 mg/L and average value was 0.15 ±0. 18 mg/L, the level raised year by year, but there was no statistically significant between the years. Water pollution was serious in dry season and light in wet season. Potassium permanganate index was during 0. 24 to 2. 80 mg/L, and the average was 1. 79 ± 1. 20 mg/L, it was increasing year by year, and there was statistically significant between the years, in autumn the pollution was the most serious. Conclusions The ammonia nitrogen and potassium permanganate index of taihu lake basin jiangyin period were increasing year by year, organic contaminant was the internal factors of the two rising%目的 揭示长江太湖流域江阴段水源水中氨氮、高锰酸盐指数的污染变化规律.方法 2008-2011年对江阴段3个水厂取水点源水进行氨氮、高锰酸盐指数监测.结果 4年间氨氮在0.10~0.86mg/L之间,平均值(0.15±0.18)mg/L;总体呈逐年上升趋势,每年间差异无统计学意义.季节上枯水期污染严重,丰水期较轻.高锰酸盐指数在0.24~2.80mg/L之间,平均值(1.79±1.20)mg/L;呈逐年上升趋势,每年间差异有统计学意义,季节上秋季污染最严重.结论 长江太湖流域江阴段源水中氨氮、高锰酸盐指数呈逐年上升趋势,有机污染物是两者升高的内在因素.

  7. 由软锰矿制备高锰酸钾实验技术的改进%Experimental technique improvement ofpotassium permanganate prepared from MnO2

    郝仕油; 薛晓东; 张方榜

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种高锰酸钾合成实验的改进方法.通过引入一定量的醋酸为锰酸钾歧化反应的介质,得到了纯度较高的高锰酸钾产品.利用醋酸为反应介质所合成的高锰酸钾纯度(94.5%)远远高于在锰酸钾溶液中通入CO2使其歧化所得高锰酸钾的纯度(70%左右).%An experimental technique improvement method of potassium permanganate prepared from MnO2 was introduced. A high purity potassium permanganate was synthesized using acetic acide as the medium of disproportionation reaction of potassium manganate. The purity of potassium permanganate (94.5% ) prepared using acetic acide as the reaction medium was higher than that ( about 70% ) of sample synthesized introducing CO2 into the solution of potassium manganate.

  8. Efficiency of trichloroethylene removal from the contaminated soil using potassium permanganate%高锰酸钾氧化去除砂壤土中三氯乙烯的试验研究

    吴嘉怡; 蔡信德; 靖元孝; 韩蕊; 郭杨

    2011-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in soil slurry system was investigated on effects of KMnO4 cocentration, pH, reaction time, initial TCE concentration and treatment times. Through the orthogonal test, the optimal operation condition of oxidation was determined to be KMnO4 concentration 125mg/L, pH value of 7.0, reaction time 30min, resulting in 100mg/kg TCE degradation reaching 93.7%. The removal rate of TCE was decreased with increased initial TCE concentration. Second treatments significantly enhanced contaminant removal,particularly in high-level TCE contaminated soils. Results from soil column experiments showed that TCE with initial concentration of 50mg/kg could be oxidized by KMnO4 at 88.1% removal rate after 12 days.%以环境中常见的污染物三氯(TGE)为研究对象,利用高锰酸钾(KMnO4)对工业场地土壤中的TCE进行处理,探讨了不同氧化条件、污染物初始浓度、氧化次数等对去除效果的影响.结果表明,采用正交试验获得优化操作条件为:KMnO4浓度125mg/L,pH7,反应时间30min.在此条件下,100mg/kg的TCE去除率达到93.7%.TCE的去除率随污染物浓度的增加而减小,对于污染程度高的土壤,2次处理能有效提高去除率.土柱实验结果表明经过KMnO4溶液淋洗12d后,初始浓度为50mg/kg的TCE氧化率均达到88.1%以上,降低淋洗流速可提高TCE的去除率.

  9. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of traces of molybdenum(VI) by its inhibitory effect on the oxidation of 4-hydroxycoumarine by potassium permanganate.

    Micic, Ruzica J; Simonovic, Ranko M; Petkovic, Branka B

    2006-05-01

    The present paper describes a simple, selective and sensitive kinetic method for the determination of trace amounts of molybdenum(VI) based on its inhibitory effect on the reaction oxidation of 4-hydroxycoumarine by KMnO(4) in the presence of hydrochloric acid, at pH 1.75 at 25 degrees C. The rate of the indicator reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of KMnO(4) at 525 nm. The development method includes optimization of the reagent concentration and temperature. The calibration graph was linear in the range of concentrations from 20 to 200 ng/cm(3) of molybdenum(VI). The probable relative error was in the interval 3.10 - 10.52% for the concentration range of 200 - 20 ng/cm(3) molybdenum(VI), respectively. The interference effects of the foreign ions were determined to assess the selectivity of the method. The developed method was found to have relatively good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity. The proposed method was applied to the determination of molybdenum(VI) in a particular type of steel and alloy (hastelloy). PMID:16770065

  10. Raman scattering spectra and crystal structure of acid potassium-lithium sulfate

    Paper presents the results of the comprehensive investigation into Raman scattering in potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal. A model of crystal structure is suggested on the basis of the study data. The suggested consistent model of the crystalline structure of potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal describes well both spectrum high-frequency and low-frequency sections and may be used to analyze models of phase transformation

  11. 高锰酸钾预氧化强化混凝去除绿藻的研究%The study of green algae removal by potassium permanganate pre-oxidation enhanced coagulation

    张龙; 乔俊莲; 雷青

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of permanganate oxidation on algae cell structure, zeta potential, extracellular organic matter molecular weight distribution and concentration, and explored the mechanisms of permanganate-enhanced chlorella algae removal by coagulation. When the dosage of permanganate was no more than 2 mg·L-1 , the composition of organic matter in suspension kept unchanged and partial extracellular organic matter ( EOM) was oxidized. At the beginning of oxidation, permanganate induced the release of EOM from the algae and thus increased the organic content in suspension. The zeta potential experienced an increase after a decrease while the algae activity was dropped by permanganate. However, the structure of algae kept complete and MnO2 produced after oxidation adhered to the algae surface which increased the algae density and favored the subsequent algal coagulation. When the concentration of permanganate was no less than 3 mg·L-1 , the algal cell structure was destroyed, the high molecular intracellular organic matter was released into the algae suspension, and zeta potential decreased, all of which had negative effects on subsequent algal coagulation. The results showed that the optimal dosage of permanganate was 2 mg·L-1 and the optimum contact time for permanganate oxidation was 1 h. Permanganate pre-oxidation could enhance algae removal by coagulation with PAC significantly.%以小球藻为对象,研究不同高锰酸钾投加量下小球藻胞外有机物分子量的分布、Zeta电位和胞外有机物浓度变化,并观察细胞结构,探讨预氧化强化混凝的机理.研究发现,当高锰酸钾浓度≤2 mg·L-1时,氧化前后藻液中的有机物组成基本不变,胞外分泌物(EOM)部分被氧化;在预氧化初期,EOM在高锰酸钾诱导下释放,胞外有机物浓度升高;藻的表面电位先下降后上升,藻活性由于高锰酸钾氧化受到抑制,但藻细胞结构保持完整,氧化后生成的MnO2附着在

  12. 高锰酸钾-鲁米诺化学发光体系测定香草醛%Determination of vanillin with potassium permanganate-luminol chemiluminescence system

    周艳梅; 王亚萍; 马同森; 谢晓龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fact that the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of potassium permanganate and luminol in alkaline medium could be enhanced by vanillin, a new analytical method of chemiluminescence to detect vanillin was developed, which expands the application of flow-injection chemiluminescence in food analysis. The effect of type of medium and concentration of reagents on CL intensity was investigated. The results showed that the optimum concentrations of NaOH, KMnO4 and Lumino were 0.20 mol/L, 3. 0 × 10 -5 mol/L and 7. 0 × 10-5 mol/L, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, linearity relationship of values of CL intensity and mass concentration of vanillin was obtained in the range of 5. 0× 10-8 ~3. 0 × 10-6g/mL, with a equation of linear regression as A/ = 7. 188 3 × 108 C( g/mL) + 71. 767 4 (r = 0.994 2). Parallel determination of 5. 0 × 10-7 g/mL vanillin for 11 times show that the RSD is 1.3% with a detection limit of 1.1 × 10-8 g/mL. A new method of flow-injection chemiluminescence to detect vanillin was found, which has been successfully applied to the determination of vanillin in pill and the recovery rate obtained were in the range of 98% -104%.%为了拓展流动注射化学发光法在食品检测中的应用,利用草醛能够增敏NaOH介质中高锰酸钾—鲁米诺化学发光体系的发光信号的特点,建立了化学发光测定香草醛的方法.文中考察了介质浓度、发光试剂浓度等因素对发光体系信号的影响,确定了测定香草醛的最佳条件:介质NaOH浓度为0.20 mol/L,高锰酸钾浓度为3.0×10-5 mol/L,鲁米诺浓度为7.0×10-5mol/L.在优化实验条件下,体系的发光强度与香草醛浓度在5.0×10-8~3.0×10-6g/mL内呈线性关系,标准曲线:△I=7.1883 ×108C(g/mL) +71.767 4(r =0.994 2).对5.0×10-7 g/mL的香草醛平行测定11次,相对偏差为1.3%,其检出限为1.1 × 10-8g/mL.建立了测定香草醛的流动注射化学发光法新方法,并成功地测定了片剂中香

  13. Potassium permanganate effects in postharvest conservation of the papaya cultivar Sunrise Golden Permanganato de potássio na conservação pós-colheita da cultivar de mamão Sunrise Golden

    Danieele Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of KMnO4 on the extension of postharvest life of 'Sunrise Golden' papaya, stored under modified atmosphere and refrigeration. Fruit with up to 10% yellow peel were harvested in a commercial orchard in Linhares, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Sets of three fruit (unit mass of 289.9±18.5 g were wrapped in low-density polyethylene films (28 ¼m thick containing sachets of KMnO4 at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g per bag. The bags were sealed and stored at 10.4±0.9°C and 90±5% relative humidity for 25 days. After this period, the fruit were removed from the bags and maintained at 21±0.8°C and 90±5% relative humidity until complete ripening. Four days after bag sealing, CO2 concentration stabilized in all treatments, and was higher in bags without KMnO4. In all treatments, fruit reached the climacteric respiratory peak on the third day after bag removal, coinciding with peel color index of 3.5. Increasing the KMnO4 dose reduced the losses in fruit fresh matter, consistency and pulp electrolyte leakage. Potassium permanganate was effective in maintaining the fruit at the pre-climacteric stage during the 25-day storage, and did not interfere with normal ripening after bag removal.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do KMnO4 na extensão da vida pós-colheita da cultivar de mamão Sunrise Golden, armazenada em atmosfera modificada e refrigeração. Frutos com até 10% da área superficial da casca amarela foram colhidos em pomar comercial em Linhares, ES. Conjuntos de três frutos (massa unitária de 289,9±18,5g foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade (28 µm de espessura, com sachês de KMnO4 nas doses de 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, e 2 g por embalagem. As embalagens foram hermeticamente fechadas e armazenadas a 10,4±0,9°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR, por 25 dias. Após esse período, os frutos foram retirados das embalagens e armazenados a 21±0,8°C e 90±5% de

  14. PERMANGANATE TREATMENT OF DNAPLS IN REACTIVE BARRIERS AND SOURCE ZONE FLOODING SCHEMES

    The goals of this study are (1) to elucidate the basic mechanisms by which potassium permanganate oxidizes common chlorinated solvents, various constituents in aqueous solution, and porous-medium solids, and (2) to assess the potential for chemical oxidation by potassium permanga...

  15. Flotation isolation of uranium(6) from acidic waste waters with the use of potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids

    The applicability of potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids of R2POOH type where R is C3-C10 hydrocarbon radical as uranium flotation collectors is investigated. Under similar conditions the degree of uranium flotation isolation from nitrate solutions is notably higher than from chloride solutions, and from the latter is higher than from sulfate solutions. The method of uranium flotation isolation using dialkylphosphinic acid soaps was tested in synthetic solutions simulating acid (pH = 2-5) waste waters. Possibility of flotation method to isolate 95-99% of uranium from acid solutions using potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids is demonstrated

  16. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I); Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (I)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Garcia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  17. 宽浓度范围水碘的碱性高锰酸钾氧化光度测定方法研究%Method for the determination of broad concentration range of iodide in drinking water by spectrophotometry with alkaline potassium permanganate oxidation

    张亚平; 黄嫣红; 林丽卿

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立一种简单的光度比色法,测定饮用水中宽浓度范围碘化物.方法 水中碘化物在碱性条件下经高锰酸钾氧化为碘酸盐,在酸性条件下用亚硝酸钠除去过量氧化剂并以氨基磺酸加尿素除去过量亚硝酸盐后,与碘化钾作用生成I_2并与淀粉显色进行光度比色测定,测定体系中加适量本底微量碘及氯化钠,解决在水样含碘量<100 μg/L时碘-淀粉显色与水碘浓度不成线性比例的显色灵敏度问题.结果 本方法标准曲线线性范围为0~1200 μg/L(r=0.9998);水碘检测限为4μg/L;对含碘量76.6、207.8、560.4μg/L水样各重复测定6次,相对标准偏差(RSD)均<1%;8份不同含碘量水样加标回收率范围为97.0%(485.2/500.0)~102.5%(102.5/100.0);试剂中加亚铁盐消除了水中6价铬(Cr~(6+))的干扰,加溴化钾及亚硝酸钠消除了水中溴酸盐(BrO_3~-)的干扰,水中含0.2 mg/L Cr~(6+)、0.1 mg/L BrO_3~-不干扰测定.结论 本方法操作简单,检测浓度范围宽,具有良好的精密度和准确度,适于应用.%Objective To establish a simple photometric method for the determination of broad concentration range of iodide in drinking water. Methods Iodide in water was oxidized with potassium permanganate in alkaline medium to generate iodate. After excessive oxidant was eliminated with nitrite sodium in acidic medium condition and excessive nitrite was eliminated with a mixture of aminosulfonic acid and urea, iodate was used to react with potassium iodide reagent to form I_2 which further reacted with amylum to form color complex. The absorbance was determined by photometry. In determination reagent system suitable amount of iodide that acted as background and sodium chloride were added to solve the problem of the chromogenic sensitivity, i.e., when iodine concentration was < 100 μg/L in water sample the degree of iodine-starch complex color change could not be in linear proportion to the concentration of iodine in

  18. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    The study was aimed at developing a reference model for experimental pain and tenderness in the human temporal muscle by the local injection of hypertonic saline, potassium chloride and acidic phosphate buffer, using isotonic saline as control. The design was randomized and double-blind. Twenty...... healthy subjects had 0.2 ml test solution injected into one temporal muscle and saline into the other. Following each injection, pain was rated on a 10-point ordinal scale and pressure-pain thresholds were measured every minute for 10 min by a pressure algometer. Hypertonic saline (n = 11) and potassium...... chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent of...

  19. Permeability of solutes through cellophanes grafted with vinyl monomers. I. Diffusion of potassium chloride, urea, and uric acid

    The diffusive permeability of potassium chloride, urea, and uric acid through cellophanes grafted with acrylamide, acrylic acid, styrene, and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone by γ-ray irradiation was studied. The diffusive permeability coefficients of the permeants through the grafted cellophanes were increased with increase in hydration of the grafted membranes, except for the permeation of potassium chloride through cellophanes grafted with acrylic acid. The permeation of potassium chloride, urea, and uric acid through the various grafted cellophanes is explained by the free volume concept of homogeneously water-swollen membranes. However, the behavior of the permeation of potassium chloride through cellophane grafted with acrylic acid deviated from that of nonionic membranes because of the contribution of the electrical interaction between electrolyte and charge of the membrane. 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. [Influence of pH on Kinetics of Anilines Oxidation by Permanganate].

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Bo; Guan, Xiao-hong

    2016-02-15

    To investigate the effect of pH on the oxidation of anilines by potassium permanganate, aniline and p-Chloroaniline were taken as the target contaminants, and the experiments were conducted under the condition with potassium permanganate in excess over a wide pH range. The reaction displayed remarkable autocatalysis, which was presumably ascribed to the formation of complexes by the in situ generated MnOx and the target contaminants on its surface, and thereby improved the oxidation rate of the target contaminants by permanganate. The reaction kinetics was fitted with the pseudo-first-order kinetics at different pH to obtain the pseudo-first-order reaction constants (k(obs)). The second-order rate constants calculated from permanganate concentration and k,b, increased with the increase of pH and reached the maximum near their respective pKa, after which they decreased gradually. This tendency is called parabola-like shaped pH-rate profile. The second-order rate constants between permanganate and anilines were well fitted by the proton transfer model proposed by us in previous work. PMID:27363148

  1. Electrochromic iridium oxide films: Compatibility with propionic acid, potassium hydroxide, and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous thin films of It oxide were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering onto unheated substrates. The crystallite size was similar to 5 nm, and a small amount of unoxidized Ir was present. The electrochromic performance was studied by optical transmittance measurements and cyclic voltammetry applied to films in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes, specifically being 1 M propionic acid, 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li-PC). Cyclic v...

  2. Permanganate Reduction of Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples for Strontium and Actinides Removal

    The authors investigated the performance of permanganate treatment for the removal of strontium and actinides from actual high-level waste. Researchers also conducted comparison tests with monosodium titanate (MST) as a means of evaluating the permanganate performance. Tests utilized a Tank 37H/44F composite waste solution. Personnel significantly increased the concentration of alpha emitting actinides in the waste by the addition of acidic americium/curium solution (F-Canyon Tank 17.1 solution), which contained a significant quantity of plutonium, and neptunium-237 stock solution. Tests examined three permanganate treatment options

  3. Evaluation of Uncertainty in Determination of Permanganate Index in Water%水中高锰酸盐指数测定不确定度的评定

    何平; 周侣艳; 余海霞; 赵佳佳

    2012-01-01

    合理评定测量结果的不确定度是分析实验室必须重视的问题。通过酸性高锰酸钾氧化法测定水中高锰酸盐指数的实例,确立高锰酸盐指数测量的不确定度数学模型。讨论了高锰酸盐指数测定值不确定度的各种因素,对各不确定度分量进行分析和量化,求得其扩展不确定度。结果表明,影响其测量不确定度的主要因素是测量熏复性。在高锰酸盐指数值为4.17 mg/L的水样测定中,扩展不确定度为0.08 mg/L。%The reasonable evaluation of uncertainty in measurement results is a matter of especial importance for assay laboratory.Through the example of determination permanganate index in water by acidic potassium permanganate method,the mathematical model of uncertainty is established.Based on analysis and quantification of the factors influencing the uncertainty in measurement result of permanganate index in water,the expanded uncertainty is calculated.The result shows that repeatability of testing is the key factor affecting the uncertainty.When the permanganate index is 4.17mg/L,the expanded uncertainty is 0.08mg/L.

  4. [Inhibition of oxygen free radicals in potassium channels of cardiac myocytes and the action of salvianolic acid A].

    Bao, G

    1993-10-01

    By using the patch clamp technique, the effect of oxygen free radicals on the single potassium channels of cardiac papillary muscle cells were studied, as well as the action of salvianolic acid A. It was found that xanthane-xanthane oxidase generated oxygen free radicals could apparently inhibited the unitary currents of the single potassium channel activity. This inhibition was reversed by salvianolic acid A, which is an effective component extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. PMID:8168213

  5. Kinetics and Mechanistic Study of Permanganate Oxidation of Fluorenone Hydrazone in Alkaline Medium

    Fawzy, Ahmed; Saleh A. Ahmed; Althagafi, Ismail I.; Morad, Moataz H.; Khairou, Khalid S

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of fluorenone hydrazone (FH) using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium were measured at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm−3 and at 25°C using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. A first-order kinetics has been monitored in the reaction of FH with respect to [permanganate]. Less-than-unit order dependence of the reaction on [FH] and [OH−] was revealed. No pronounced effect on the reaction rate by increasing ionic strength was recorded. Intervention of free radicals was...

  6. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  7. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818.

    Mônica C B Martins

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina. To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100% without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  8. Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    Arulraj, James; Rajamathi, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni3Zn2(OH)8(OAc)2·2H2O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used.

  9. Vers l'abandon de la mesure de l'oxydabilité au permanganate en eaux de piscines

    Rosin, Christophe; Gassilloud, Benoît; Mehut, Romain; Munoz, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    International audience Le contrôle sanitaire des eaux de piscines prévoit que « la teneur en substance oxydable au permanganate de potassium à chaud en milieu alcalin exprimée en oxygène ne doit pas dépasser de plus de 4 mg.L-1 la teneur de l'eau de remplissage des bassins ». En l'absence de méthodes normalisées, la pratique actuelle des laboratoires se décompose entre mesure de l'oxydabilité (en milieu alcalin ou acide) et du carbone organique total (COT). Ces pratiques différentes abouti...

  10. The effect of potassium iodide on the production of acid phosphatase by Sporothrix schenckii

    P. S. Grover

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the in vitro effect of potassium iodide (KI on the production of acid phosphatase by fully characterized strain of S.schenckii isolated from a patient of Cutaneous Sporotrichosis. The enzyme acid phosphatase was estimated during the 3 phases of growth of S.schenckii, without and with three concentrations of KI incorporated in the culture medium. In the control and in the test proper, with various concentrations of KI, no adverse effect of KI was observed on the production of acid phosphatase in early and mid log phase of fungal growth. Whereas in the exponential phase in test proper, there was a statistical significant decrease in the enzyme production with 0.8% and 3.2% of KI. The low activity at 0.8% and 3.2% KI indicates that KI has inhibitory effect on the growth of S.schenckii and has led to decrease in the activity of the enzyme. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 65-8 Keywords: S.schenckii, acid phosphatase, potassium iodide

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate when used as technological additives for all animal species

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are already authorised for use in food and feed as preservatives. Sorbic acid and its potassium salt are safe when used at the maximum proposed dose in feed for pigs, poultry, dogs and cats (2 500 (sorbic acid and 3 400 (potassium sorbate mg/kg and young ruminants (6 700 (sorbic acid and 9 000 (potassium sorbate mg/kg. This conclusion is extended to all animal species. The contribution of potassium sorbate to the potassium supply of animals should be considered when formulating diets or when it is included in water for drinking. As no measurable residues of sorbic acid or potassium ion are expected in edible products of food-producing animals, sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are considered safe for the consumers when used up to the maximum proposed level. Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are skin, eye and respiratory tract irritants. The use of sorbic acid and its potassium salt in animal nutrition would not pose a risk to the environment. As sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are authorised food additives within the EU for use as preservatives, it is reasonable to expect that the effect in food will be observed in feed when it is used at comparable concentrations and under similar conditions. The FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of sorbic acid and its potassium salt as preservatives in complete feedingstuffs with a moisture content of ≤ 12 %. Equivalent concentrations for sorbic acid and potassium sorbate when used as preservatives in water for drinking should be specified.

  12. Electrodialysis recovery of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from eluates of SWC facilities at NPP with VVER

    To extract boric acid and potassium hydroxide from regenerates of SWC-2-46 facilities, an electrodialysis-sorption process has been devised consisting of the following operations: separation of boron-alkaline regenerate solution into desorbate and wash water; filling of desalination and concentration chambers, respectively, with desorbate and was water of electrodialysis equipment; production of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from desorbate by electrodialysis; removal of chloride-ion from boric acid solution on ion-exchange filter AB-17-18. The flow-sheet was tested and boron containing alkaline regeneration solutions were recovered from Novovoronezh NPP

  13. Production of Potassium and Calcium Hydroxide, Compost and Humic Acid from Sago (Metroxylon sagu Waste

    C. P. Auldry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture waste such as Sago Waste (SW has a potential to cause pollution when the waste is discarded into rivers. In order to add value to SW, a study was conducted to produce potassium and calcium hydroxide, compost and Humic Acid (HA from SW. Approach: The SW was air-dried and some grinded. The grinded SW was incinerated at 600°C. Potassium and calcium hydroxide was extracted by dissolving the ash in distilled water at a ratio of 1:500 (ash: water, equilibrated for 24 h at 150 rpm using a mechanical shaker and filtered. The ungrinded SW was used for compost production. The compost was produced by mixing SW (80% + chicken feed (10% + chicken dung slurry (5% + molasses (5%. Results: The hydroxide extracted from ash of SW was used to isolate HA of composted SW. The molarity and pH of the hydroxide were 0.002M and 10 respectively. Calcium (42.88 mg kg-1 and potassium (29.51 mg kg-1 content were high in the hydroxide compared with other elements. The compost took about 60 days to mature. There was an increased in pH, ash, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC and HA and a decreased in temperature, C/N ratio, C/P ratio and organic matter. The hydroxide was able to extract 1% of HA from the composted SW. A comparison between the yields of HA extracted from the composted SW using the hydroxide of the SW and that of the analytical grade showed no statistically difference. The chemical characteristics of HA from the composted SW were in standard range. Conclusion: Potassium and calcium hydroxide, compost and HA can be produced from sago waste. Low morality of the hydroxide is able to produce good quality of HA from composted sago waste. The HA can be reconstituted with K and Ca from potassium and calcium hydroxide to produce K-Ca-humate and this needs to be investigated as a form of organic based fertilizer.

  14. Protonated form: the potent form of potassium-competitive acid blockers.

    Hua-Jun Luo

    Full Text Available Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs are highly safe and active drugs targeting H+,K+-ATPase to cure acid-related gastric diseases. In this study, we for the first time investigate the interaction mechanism between the protonated form of P-CABs and human H+,K+-ATPase using homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation methods. The results explain why P-CABs have higher activities with higher pKa values or at lower pH. With positive charge, the protonated forms of P-CABs have more competitive advantage to block potassium ion into luminal channel and to bind with H+,K+-ATPase via electrostatic interactions. The binding affinity of the protonated form is more favorable than that of the neutral P-CABs. In particular, Asp139 should be a very important binding site for the protonated form of P-CABs through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. These findings could promote the rational design of novel P-CABs.

  15. Effect of Oxalic Acid on Potassium Release from Typical Chinese Soils and Minerals

    TU Shu-Xin; GUO Zhi-Fen; SUN Jin-He

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid plays an important role in improving the bioavailability of soil nutrients. Batch experiments were employed to examine the influences of oxalic acid on extraction and release kinetics of potassium (K) from soils and minerals along with the adsorption and desorption of soil K+. The soils and minerals used were three typical Chinese soils, black soil (Mollisol), red soil (Ultisol), and calcareous alluvial soil (Entisol), and four K-bearing minerals, biotite, phlogopite, muscovite, and microcline. The results showed that soil K extracted using 0.2 mol L-1 oxalic acid was similar to that using 1 mol L-1 boiling HNO3. The relation between K release (y) and concentrations of oxalic acid (c) could be best described logarithmically as y=a+blogc, while the best-fit kinetic equation of K release was y=a +b√t, where a and b are the constants and t is the elapsed time. The K release for minerals was ranked as biotite> phlogopite>> muscovite> microcline and for soils it was in the order: black soil> calcareous alluvial soil> red soil. An oxalic acid solution with low pH was able to release more K from weathered minerals and alkaline soils. Oxalic acid decreased the soil K+ adsorption and increased the soil K+ desorption, the effect of which tended to be greater at lower solution pH, especially in the red soil.

  16. Fast and efficient green synthesis of thiosulfonate S-esters by microwave-supported permanganate oxidation of symmetrical disulfides

    Thi, Luu Thi Xuan; Thi Nguyen, Thao-Tran; Le, Thach Ngoc;

    2015-01-01

    Potassium permanganate absorbed on copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate has been found to be an efficient, inexpensive, and green oxidation agent for the synthesis of “symmetrical” thiosulfonate S-esters by oxidation of the corresponding symmetrical disulfides. The oxidation reactions were carried out...

  17. Quantitation of Pyrantel Pamoate in Pharmaceuticals Using Permanganate by Visible Spectrophotometry

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-03-01

    Two simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for the assay of pyrantel pamoate (PP) in pharmaceuticals. The methods employ the oxidative property of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acidic and alkaline conditions. In the first method (method A), PP is converted into its free base, pyrantel (PR), and treated with known excess of KMnO4 in acidic condition followed by the measurement of unreacted KMnO4 at 550 nm. Method B is based on the registration of absorbance of green colored chromogen formed due to the reduction of KMnO4 by PP in alkaline condition. The methods obeyed Beer's law over a range of 1-20 μg/ml in inverse manner, and 0.75-15 μg/ml for method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 1.05ṡ104 and 2.85ṡ104 lṡmol-1ṡcm-1. The optical parameters such as limits of detection (LOD), quantification (LOQ), and the Sandell sensitivity values are also reported. The accuracy and precision of the methods are assessed on intra- and inter-day basis. A recovery study by standard addition procedure is also carried out for further assurance of accuracy. The developed methods are successfully applied to determine PP in tablets. The results are more satisfactory as per current ICH guidelines.

  18. Potassium fulvate as co-interpenetrating agent during graft polymerization of acrylic acid from cellulose.

    Ghazy, Mohamed B M; El-Hai, Farag Abd; Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A

    2016-10-01

    Grafting polymerization of acrylic acid onto cellulose in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) as a co-interpenetrating agent results enhanced water sorption compared to materials prepared similarly in its absence. The insertion of potassium fulvate (KF) did not affect the grafting process and is thought to proceed in parallel to the graft polymerization via intensive polycondensation reactions of its function groups (-COOH and OH) with COOH of the monomer and OH groups of cellulose. The combination of graft copolymerization and polycondensation reactions is assumed to produce interpenetrating network structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) confirmed successful incorporation within the network structure which is an evidence for formation of interpenetrating network. The obtained structures showed homogeneous uniform surface as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained superabsorbent possessed high water absorbency 422 and 48.8g/g in distilled water and saline (0.9wt.% NaCl solution), respectively, and enhanced water retention even at elevated temperatures as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This could be explained by the high content of hydrophilic groups. The new superabsorbents proved to be efficient devices for controlled release of fertilizers which expands their use in agricultural applications. PMID:27370745

  19. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Th4+, or UO22+ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 μmoles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure

  20. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    Baumann, E W

    1982-06-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure.

  1. Comparison of official methods for 'readily oxidizable substances' in propionic acid as a food additive.

    Ishiwata, H; Takeda, Y; Kawasaki, Y; Kubota, H; Yamada, T

    1996-01-01

    The official methods for 'readily oxidizable substances (ROS)' in propionic acid as a food additive were compared. The methods examined were those adopted in the Compendium of Food Additive Specifications (CFAS) by the Joint FAO-WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, FAO, The Japanese Standards for Food Additives (JSFA) by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan, and the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) by the National Research Council, USA. The methods given in CFAS and JSFA are the same (potassium permanganate consumption). However, by this method, manganese (VII) in potassium permanganate was readily reduced to colourless manganese(II) with some substances contained in the propionic acid before reacting with aldehydes, which are generally considered as 'readily oxidizable substances', to form brown manganese (IV) oxide. The FCC method (bromine consumption) for 'ROS' could be recommended because it was able to obtain quantitative results of 'ROS', including aldehydes. PMID:8647299

  2. Effect of metallic dopants on potassium acid phthalate (KAP) single crystals

    Chithambaram, V. [Department of Physics, AMET University, Kanathur-603 112, Chennai (India); Jerome Das, S. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, Chennai-600 034 (India); Arivudai Nambi, R. [Department of Chemistry, AMET University, Kanathur, Chennai-603 112 (India); Srinivasan, K. [Department of Physics, R. M. K. Engineering College, Kavaraipettai-601 206 (India); Krishnan, S., E-mail: skrishnanjp@gmail.co [Department of Physics, R. M. K. Engineering College, Kavaraipettai-601 206 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Optically transparent single crystals of Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} doped potassium acid phthalate (KAP) were grown in aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the changes in the lattice parameters of the doped crystals. The presence of functional groups in the crystal lattice has been determined qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Optical absorption studies revealed that the doped crystals possess very low absorption in the entire visible region. The dielectric constant has been studied as a function of frequency for the doped crystals at temperatures viz., 328, 348, 368 K. Further the influence of metal dopants on the dielectric behaviour has been studied which clearly exhibited the ferroelectric properties of the crystal.

  3. Sorption of Ba and Sr on potassium-copper, -nickel, -cobalt, -zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) and DOWEX-50 from hydrochloric and sulfuric acid solutions

    We have determined sorption coefficients of Ba and Sr on nickel-potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) (NiNF), cobalt-potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) (CoNF), cupric-potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) (CuNF) and on the ion exchange resin (Dowex-50) in the sulfuric and hydrochloric acid solutions. The results indicate that Ba is strongly sorbed on the investigated hexacyanoferrates and Dowex-50 from sulfuric acid while it is sorbed from the hydrochloric acid at the low acid concentrations. The sorption mechanism of Sr from H2SO4 and HCl is similar, at all presented acid concentrations the values of the coefficients for Sr are rather low. (author)

  4. Catalyzing the oxidation of sulfamethoxazole by permanganate using molecular sieves supported ruthenium nanoparticles.

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Huang, Yuying; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    This study developed a heterogeneous catalytic permanganate oxidation system with three molecular sieves, i.e., nanosized ZSM-5 (ZSM-5A), microsized ZSM-5 (ZSM-5B) and MCM-41, supported ruthenium nanoparticles as catalyst, denoted as Ru/ZSM-5A, Ru/ZSM-5B and Ru/MCM-41, respectively. The presence of 0.5gL(-1) Ru/ZSM-5A, Ru/ZSM-5B and Ru/MCM-41 increased the oxidation rate of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by permanganate at pH 7.0 by 27-1144 times. The catalytic performance of Ru catalysts toward SMX oxidation by permanganate was strongly dependent on Ru loading on the catalysts. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses confirmed that Ru catalyst acted as an electron shuttle in catalytic permanganate oxidation process. Ru(III) deposited on the surface of catalysts was oxidized by permanganate to its higher oxidation state Ru(VII), which could work as a co-oxidant with permanganate to decompose SMX and was then reduced to its initial tri-valence. During the successive runs, Ru/ZSM-5A could not maintain its catalytic activity due to the deposition of MnO2, which was the reductive product of permanganate, onto the surface of Ru/ZSM-5A. Thus, the regeneration of partially deactivated Ru catalysts by reductant NH2OH⋅HCl or ascorbic acid was proposed. Ru/ZSM-5A regenerated by NH2OH⋅HCl displayed comparable catalytic ability to its virgin counterpart, while ascorbic acid could not completely remove the deposited MnO2. A trace amount of leaching of Ru into the reaction solution was also observed, which would be ameliorated by improving the preparation conditions in the future study. PMID:26196405

  5. Production of Potassium and Calcium Hydroxide, Compost and Humic Acid from Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Waste

    C. P. Auldry; Ahmed, O. H.; A. M.N. Muhamad; H.M. Nasir; M. Jiwan

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Agriculture waste such as Sago Waste (SW) has a potential to cause pollution when the waste is discarded into rivers. In order to add value to SW, a study was conducted to produce potassium and calcium hydroxide, compost and Humic Acid (HA) from SW. Approach: The SW was air-dried and some grinded. The grinded SW was incinerated at 600°C. Potassium and calcium hydroxide was extracted by dissolving the ash in distilled water at a ratio of 1:500 (ash: water), equilibrated for ...

  6. Treatability assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated marine sediments using permanganate, persulfate and Fenton oxidation processes.

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-05-01

    Various chemical oxidation techniques, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), Fenton (H2O2/Fe(2+)), and the modified persulfate and Fenton reagents (activated by ferrous complexes), were carried out to treat marine sediments that were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dredged from Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that KMnO4 was the most effective of the tested oxidants in PAH degradation. Owing to the high organic matter content in the sediment that reduced the efficiencies of Na2S2O8 and regular Fenton reactions, a large excess of oxidant was required. Nevertheless, KH2PO4, Na4P2O7 and four chelating agents (EDTA, sodium citrate, oxalic acid, and sodium oxalate) were utilized to stabilize Fe(II) in activating the Na2S2O8 and Fenton oxidations, while Fe(II)-citrate remarkably promoted the PAH degradation. Increasing the molecular weight and number of rings of PAH did not affect the overall removal efficiencies. The correlation between the effectiveness of the oxidation processes and the physicochemical properties of individual PAH was statistically analyzed. The data implied that the reactivity of PAH (electron affinity and ionization potential) affected its treatability more than did its hydrophobicity (Kow, Koc and Sw), particularly using experimental conditions under which PAHs could be effectively oxidized. PMID:26915591

  7. Acidity-controlled selective oxidation of alpha-pinene, isolated from Indonesian pine's turpentine oils (pinus merkusii)

    Masruri; Farid Rahman, Mohamad; Nurkam Ramadhan, Bagus

    2016-02-01

    Alpha-pinene was isolated in high purity from turpentine oil harvested from Pinus merkusii plantation. The recent investigation on selective oxidation of alpha-pinene using potassium permanganate was undertaken under acidic conditions. The result taught the selective oxidation of alpha-pinene in acidic using potassium permanganate lead to the formation of 2-(3-acetyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetaldehyde or pinon aldehyde. The study method applied reaction in various different buffer conditions i.e. pH 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively, and each reaction product was monitored using TLC every hour. Product determination was undertaken on spectrometry basis such as infrared, ultra violet-visible, gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  8. 地表水中高锰酸盐指数分析的质量控制%Quality control in analysis of permanganate index

    舒彩凤

    2013-01-01

      为了提高高锰酸盐指数项目测定的准确性,通过实验分析,从高锰酸钾的校正系数、蒸馏水空白值、水浴的温度、加热的时间、样品酸度、滴定的过程、滴定终点的判断等因素加以分析,找出其影响测定结果的原因。实验操作中,应注重上述因素的质量控制,以提高测试的准确性。%In order to improve the determination of permanganate index , Through experimental analysis , The correction coefficient from potassium permanganate, distilled water blank value, water bath temperature, heating time, acidity of sample, titration, titration and other factors analysis, To find out the influencing measurement result .The experimental operation, Should pay attention to the factor of the quality control, In order to improve the accuracy of the test .

  9. Influence of Humic Acid on Interaction of Ammonium and Potassium Ions on Clay Minerals

    ZHANG Wen-Zhao; CHEN Xiao-Qin; ZHOU Jian-Min; LIU Dai-Huan; WANG Huo-Yan; DU Chang-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of ammonium (NH4+) and potassium (K+) is typical in field soils.However,the effects of organic matter on interaction of NH4+ and K+ have not been thoroughly investigated.In this study,we examined the changes in major physicochemical properties of three clay minerals (kaolinite,illite,and montmorillonite) after humic acid (HA) coating and evaluated the influences of these changes on the interaction of NH4+ and K+ on clay minerals using batch experiments.After HA coating,the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) of montmorillonite decreased significantly,while little decrease in CEC and SSA occurred in illite and only a slight increase in CEC was found in kaolinite.Humic acid coating significantly increased cation adsorption and preference for NH4+,and this effect was more obvious on clay minerals with a lower CEC.Results of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis showed that HA coating promoted the formation of H-bonds between the adsorbed NH4+ and the organo-mineral complexes.HA coating increased cation fixation capacity on montmorillonite and kaolinite,but the opposite occurred on illite.In addition,HA coating increased the competitiveness of NH4+ on fixation sites.These results showed that HA coating affected both the nature of clay mineral surfaces and the reactions of NH4+ and K+ with clay minerals,which might influence the availability of nutrient cations to plants in field soils amended with organic matter.

  10. The First-in-Class Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker, Vonoprazan Fumarate: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations.

    Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2016-04-01

    Vonoprazan fumarate (Takecab) is a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker that has been available in the market in Japan since February 2015. Vonoprazan is administered orally at 20 mg once daily for the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer, at 20 and 10 mg once daily for the treatment and secondary prevention of reflux esophagitis, respectively, at 10 mg once daily for the secondary prevention of low-dose aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulcer, and at 20 mg twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. It inhibits H(+),K(+)-ATPase activities in a reversible and potassium-competitive manner with a potency of inhibition approximately 350 times higher than the proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole. Vonoprazan is absorbed rapidly and reaches maximum plasma concentration at 1.5-2.0 h after oral administration. Food has minimal effect on its intestinal absorption. Oral bioavailability in humans remains unknown. The plasma protein binding of vonoprazan is 80% in healthy subjects. It distributes extensively into tissues with a mean apparent volume of distribution of 1050 L. Being a base with pKa of 9.6 and with acid-resistant properties, vonoprazan is highly concentrated in the acidic canaliculi of the gastric parietal cells and elicited an acid suppression effect for longer than 24 h after the administration of 20 mg. The mean apparent terminal half-life of the drug is approximately 7.7 h in healthy adults. Vonoprazan is metabolized to inactive metabolites mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and to some extent by CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and SULT2A1. A mass balance study showed that 59 and 8% of the orally administered radioactivity was recovered in urine as metabolites and in an unchanged form, respectively, indicating extensive metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 may influence drug exposure but only to a clinically insignificant extent (15-29%), according to the

  11. Evaluation of crop residues on potassium kinetics in an acid soil and potassium use efficiency in potato-garlic sequence using tracer 86Rb

    Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted on an acid soil in order to evaluate the role of two crop residues i.e. paddy and wheat along with farmyard manure on potassium kinetics and its availability in the potato-garlic sequence using tracer 86Rb. Under rapid equilibrium, application of crop residues of paddy, wheat straw and FYM were able to enhance soil pH and organic carbon content. In addition, their application helped in enhancing soil K availability indices like water soluble, available and non-exchangeable -K. This was further augmented by the Q/I studies using 86Rb where application of organic residues helped in lowering the potassium buffering capacity of the soil. Greenhouse study supplemented the results obtained from laboratory study where application of crop residues/FYM were able to improve the potato yield significantly and maintained higher concentration of K in potato leaf at early growth stages. A significant correlation was obtained between leaf K and haulms-K with that of 86Rb activities in potato leaf at 35 days and 86Rb absorbed in the haulms, respectively. Residues/ FYM and PK application to potato left sufficient residual effect on succeeding garlic crop. In potato-garlic sequence, K recovery was highest with FYM while N and P recoveries were higher with wheat residues. The nutrient recoveries with PK application followed law of diminishing returns. (author)

  12. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition

    Meng WANG; Bao-jing GU; Ying GE; Zhen LIU; De-an JIANG; Scott X. CHANG; Jie CHANG

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hang-chowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on Pn, soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  13. Uptake of permanganate from aqueous environment by surfactant modified montmorillonite batch and fixed bed studies

    N Mahadevaiah; B Vijayakumar; K Hemalatha; B S Jai Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Organo-clay was prepared by incorporating different amounts (in terms of CEC, ranging from 134–840 mg of quaternary ammonium cation (QACs) such as hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide ([C19H42N]Br) into the montmorillonite clay. Prepared organo-clays are characterized by CHN analyser and XRD to measure the amount of elemental content and interlayer spacing of surfactant modified clay. The batch experiments of sorption of permanganate from aqueous media by organo-clays was studied at different acidic strengths (pH 1–7). The experimental results show that the rate and amount of adsorption of permanganate was higher at lower pH compared to raw montmorillonite. Laboratory fixed bed experiments were conducted to evaluate the breakthrough time and nature of breakthrough curves. The shape of the breakthrough curves shows that the initial cationic surfactant loadings at 1.0 CEC of the clay is enough to enter the permanganate ions in to the interlamellar region of the surfactant modified smectile clays. These fixed bed studies were also applied to quantify the effect of bed-depth and breakthrough time during the uptake of permanganate. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters shows that the sorption of permanganate is spontaneous and follows the first order kinetics.

  14. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals

    Haugh, M. J. [NSTec; Wu, M. [SNL; Jacoby, K. D. [NSTec; Loisel, G. P. [SNL

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a dual goniometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and...

  17. Purine twisted-intercalating nucleic acids: a new class of anti-gene molecules resistant to potassium-induced aggregation

    Paramasivam, Manikandan; Cogoi, Susanna; Filichev, Vyacheslav V.; Bomholt, Niels; Pedersen, Erik B; Xodo, Luigi E.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence-specific targeting of genomic DNA by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) is a promising strategy to modulate in vivo gene expression. Triplex formation involving G-rich oligonucleotides as third strand is, however, strongly inhibited by potassium-induced TFO self-association into G-quartet structures. We report here that G-rich TFOs with bulge insertions of (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylethynyl)-phenylmethyl] glycerol (called twisted intercalating nucleic acids, TINA) show a much lower te...

  18. Improvement Seedling Growth Of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) Using Humic Acid, Potassium Silicate And Low Gamma Irradiation Doses

    The effects of different priming treatments either at room temperature or at 5 degree C in an incubator for 16 hours were studied. An experiment of pots was planted using hydro priming celery ( Apium graveolens L.) seeds for comparison with those primed in different solutions. Seeds were soaked in Petri dishes containing: tap water, different concentrations of potassium silicate (2, 4, 8, 16 mM Si) and humic acid concentrations (5, 20,100, 200 mM ) at room temperature and 5 degree C in an incubator before planting for 16 hours. Also, some dry seeds we re exposed to gamma rays at different low doses (20, 40, 60 Gy) before priming in tap water. This work aimed to improve the tolerance of celery seeds subjected to chilling stress by priming seeds in different concentrations of humic acid and potassium silicate in addition to use low doses of ionizing radiation to accelerate plants proliferation, growth, and leaves yield. Humic acid and potassium silicate were effective as priming solutions for alleviating the chilling stress, stimulating celery growth, and proliferation. In addition, using of low doses of ionizing radiation had a stimulant effect on plants after 120 days from planting

  19. Coupling Surfactants with Permanganate for PCE DNAPL Removal: Coinjection or Sequential Application as Delivery Methods

    Dugan, P. J.; Siegrist, R. L.; Crimi, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments and two-dimensional (2-D) flow-through cell experiments were conducted to investigate coupling surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for PCE mass destruction. Previous batch screening tests were performed on surfactants and cosolvents in the presence of the oxidant potassium permanganate, to assess compatibility for coupling with permanganate. The anionic surfactants sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), and sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (Dowfax 8390) were compatible and selected for use. Two delivery methods were investigated: (1) coinjection of 0.66 pore volumes (PVs) of 1.0-wt% Aerosol-OT, 0.5-wt% Dowfax 8390, 0.35-wt% CaBr2, and 0.75-wt% NaBr, (for enhanced PCE solubilization) with 0.5-wt% permanganate(for DNAPL mass destruction), and (2) sequential application of 0.66 PVs of the same surfactant solution followed by 0.66 PVs of 0.5-wt% permanganate flush. The 2-D cell packing configuration consisted of a fine-grained silica sand matrix with an embedded medium- grained sand lens, which allowed for the development of a high saturation PCE DNAPL source zone (~9-11% v/v) within the lens of each cell. For both experiments the flushing solutions were delivered at a linear velocity of 52 cm/day. Water quality samples were collected from eight point sampling ports, as well as the cell effluent. Samples were analyzed for PCE, chloride, and permanganate. At the conclusion of the experiments, the mass of PCE removed was quantified by destructively analyzing the cell. Results indicate complete mass removal using sequential application as a delivery method. In the coinjection experiment, cores extracted at the conclusion revealed that 99.8% of PCE DNAPL mass was removed. However, it was not possible to close a mass balance between the initial PCE added and the PCE removed. It is hypothesized this result was due to incomplete

  20. Dissolution Of Plutonium Metal Using Nitric Acid Solutions Containing Potassium Fluoride

    The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO3) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO2). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO3 and a reduction in the KF concentration to 0.175 M

  1. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  2. Preparation of anionic clay–birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni3Zn2(OH)8(OAc)2·2H2O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: ► Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. ► Ni–Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO4 to deposit MnO2 in the interlayer. ► Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. ► Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO4 used and reaction time

  3. Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    Arulraj, James [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India); Rajamathi, Michael, E-mail: mikerajamathi@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(OH){sub 8}(OAc){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO{sub 4} to deposit MnO{sub 2} in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO{sub 4} used and reaction time.

  4. Potassium salts of fatty acids as precipitating agents of alkaline earth metal ions

    Regularities have been studied of precipitation of ions of alkaline-earth elements with caprilate, pelargonate, caprinate, undecanate, laurate, tridecanate, myristate, pentadecanate, palmitate, and stearate of potassium. It has been shown that completeness of precipitation of metal ions is determined by the nature of alkaline-earth metal and potassium salt as well as by pH value and temperature of the solution. The study of temperature dependence of soaps of alkaline-earth metals makes it possible to calculate the heats of dissolution of laurates of alkaline-earth metals, and a change in entropy and free energy

  5. Purine twisted-intercalating nucleic acids: a new class of anti-gene molecules resistant to potassium-induced aggregation.

    Paramasivam, Manikandan; Cogoi, Susanna; Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Bomholt, Niels; Pedersen, Erik B; Xodo, Luigi E

    2008-06-01

    Sequence-specific targeting of genomic DNA by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) is a promising strategy to modulate in vivo gene expression. Triplex formation involving G-rich oligonucleotides as third strand is, however, strongly inhibited by potassium-induced TFO self-association into G-quartet structures. We report here that G-rich TFOs with bulge insertions of (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylethynyl)-phenylmethyl] glycerol (called twisted intercalating nucleic acids, TINA) show a much lower tendency to aggregate in potassium than wild-type analogues do. We designed purine-motif TINA-TFOs for binding to a regulatory polypurine-polypyrimidine (pur/pyr) motif present in the promoter of the KRAS proto-oncogene. The binding of TINA-TFOs to the KRAS target has been analysed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting experiments. We discovered that in the presence of potassium the wild-type TFOs did not bind to the KRAS target, differently from the TINA analogues, whose binding was observed up to 140 mM KCl. The designed TINA-TFOs were found to abrogate the formation of a DNA-protein complex at the pur/pyr site and to down-regulate the transcription of CAT driven by the murine KRAS promoter. Molecular modelling of the DNA/TINA-TFO triplexes are also reported. This study provides a new and promising approach to create TFOs to target in vivo the genome. PMID:18456705

  6. Treatment of algae-induced tastes and odors by chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate

    Buffin, Lisa Webster

    1992-01-01

    Chlorine (C12(sq»' chlorine dioxide (Cl02 ) and potassium permanganate (KMn04) were evaluated as oxidants for the removal of grassy and cucumber odors associated with the pure compounds, cis-3-hexenol and trans-2, cis-6-nonadienal, respectively, and for the removal of fishy odors associated with a culture of an alga, Synura petersenii. The effects of the oxidants on the pure compounds were assessed both by Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ef...

  7. Natural Monocrystalline Pyrite as Sensor for Potentiometric Redox Titrations. Part I. Titrations with Permanganate

    Vukanovic, B. V.; Mihajlovic, R. P.; Antonijevic, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Results obtained in potentiometric titrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), Fe(CN)64-, C2O42- and As(III) with standard potassium permanganate solution, are presented. The titration end point (TEP) was detected with a universal electrode whose sensor is natural crystalline pyrite. The titrations of As(III) were carried out in HCl (1.2 M) and H2SO4 solutions (0.1- 4.5 M), whereas oxalate was determined in H2SO4 (0.1-4.5 M). Iron(II) and hexacyanoferrate(II) were titrated in H2SO4 and also in H3PO4 soluti...

  8. Determination of olanzapine by spectrophotometry using permanganate

    Nagaraju Rajendraprasad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new spectrophotometric methods using permanganate as the oxidimetric reagent for the determination of olanzapine (OLP were developed and validated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods involved the addition of known excess of permanganate to OLP in either acid or alkaline medium followed by the determination of unreacted permanganate at 550 nm (method A or bluish-green color of manganate at 610 nm (method B. The decrease in absorbance in method A or increase in absorbance in method B as a function of concentration of OLP was measured and related to OLP concentration. Under optimized conditions, Beer's law was obeyed over the ranges 2.0 to 20 and 1.0 to 10 μg mL-1 in method A and method B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values were 1.34 x 10(4 and 2.54 x 10(4 l mol-1cm-1 for method A and method B respectively, and the respective Sandell sensitivities were 0.0233 and 0.0123 μg cm-2. The LOD and LOQ for method A were calculated to be 0.37 and 1.13 μg mL-1and the corresponding values for method B were 0.16 and 0.48 μg mL-1. Intermediate precision, expressed as RSD was in the range 0.51 to 2.66 %, and accuracy, expressed as relative error ranged from 0.79 to 2.24 %. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the assay of OLP in commercial tablets with mean percentage recoveries of 102 ±1.59 % (method A and 101 ±1.53 % (method B. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further confirmed by performing recovery tests via standard addition procedure.Dois métodos espectrofotométricos novos, usando o permanganato como o reagente oxidimétrico para a determinação da olanzapina (OLP foram utilizados e validados de acordo com as diretrizes atuais do ICH. Os métodos envolveram a adição de excesso conhecido de permanganato à OLP em meio ácido ou alcalino, determinando-se o permanganato que não reagiu em 550 nm (método A, ou pela cor verde-azulada do manganato a 610 nm (método B. A diminuição da

  9. Kinetics and Mechanistic Study of Permanganate Oxidation of Fluorenone Hydrazone in Alkaline Medium

    Ahmed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of fluorenone hydrazone (FH using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium were measured at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm−3 and at 25°C using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. A first-order kinetics has been monitored in the reaction of FH with respect to [permanganate]. Less-than-unit order dependence of the reaction on [FH] and [OH−] was revealed. No pronounced effect on the reaction rate by increasing ionic strength was recorded. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The reaction mechanism describing the kinetic results was illustrated which involves formation of 1 : 1 intermediate complex between fluorenone hydrazones and the active species of permanganate. 9H-Fluorenone as the corresponding ketone was found to be the final oxidation product of fluorenone hydrazone as confirmed by GC/MS analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The expression rate law for the oxidation reaction was deduced. The reaction constants and mechanism have been evaluated. The activation parameters associated with the rate-limiting step of the reaction, along with the thermodynamic quantities of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated and discussed.

  10. Sustained-Release Permanganate: Passive Reactive Barriers for Green and Sustainable Remediation

    Dugan, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive materials in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proven very useful for transforming or destroying organic waste in situ. Once emplaced they typically do not require a continued supply of electrical power and have the added benefit of creating a reactive zone for the destruction of contaminants in place. Controlled-release techniques have been utilized extensively in diverse fields such as pharmaceutical and agrochemical technologies. However, controlled- and sustained release of an oxidant during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an emerging concept that is extremely relevant to the field of environmental remediation, yet to-date has received little attention. ISCO using the oxidants permanganate, persulfate, and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide has shown great promise for remediation of many recalcitrant organic contaminants of concern (COC). Because the oxidant also reacts with natural organic matter, inorganic soil constituents, and other reduced compounds, the presence of a protective barrier that controls oxidant release may enhance the efficiency of ISCO and allow for long-term low-cost treatment of chlorinated solvents. To this end, sustained-release permanganate (SRP) was developed. Paraffin wax was used as the environmentally benign and biodegradable matrix material for encapsulating the solid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) particles. The paraffin matrix protects the solid KMnO4 particles from fast dissolution and potentially undesirable nonproductive reactions. The SRP material contains between 60%-80% permanganate and can be formed as candles for direct push applications in reactive barriers, or chipped material for hydro-fracturing into low permeability media. One-dimensional (1-D) SRP column experiments were conducted to evaluate permanganate release behavior using deionized (DI) water as the influent or COC removal efficiency using dissolved trichloroethene (TCE) as the influent. The influent dissolved TCE concentrations were 1 mg/L and

  11. Effects of unsaturated fatty acids on calcium-activated potassium current in gastric myocytes of guinea pigs

    Hai-Feng Zheng; Xiang-Lan Li; Zheng-Yuan Jin; Jia-Bin Sun; Zai-Liu Li; Wen-Xie Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of exogenous unsaturated fatty acids on calcium-activated potassium current [Ik(Ca)]in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pigs.METHODS: Gastric myocytes were isolated by collagenase from the antral circular layer of guinea pig stomach. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record Ik(Ca)in the isolated single smooth muscle cells with or without different concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), and oleic acid (OA).RESULTS: AA at concentrations of 2,5 and 10 μmol/L markedly increased IK(ca)in a dose-dependent manner. LA at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L also enhanced IK(Ca)in a dose-dependent manner. The increasing potency of AA, LA, and oleic acid (OA) on Ik(Ca) at the same concentration(10 μmol/L) was in the order of AA>LA>OA. AA (10 μmol/L)-induced increase of Ik(Ca) was not blocked by H-7 (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), or indomethacin (10 μmol/L),an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, and 17-octadecynoic acid (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 pathway, but weakened by nordihydroguaiaretic acid(10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway.CONCLUSION: Unsaturated fatty acids markedly increase Ik(Ca), and the enhancing potencies are related to the number of double bonds in the fatty acid chain. The lipoxygenase pathway of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism is involved in the unsaturated fatty acid-induced increase of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of guinea pigs.

  12. The production and use of citric acid for the removal of potassium from the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine, South Africa

    Peter J. Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the richer iron ore worldwide has made it necessary to process lower quality iron ore. Certain substances, such as potassium, contained within the lower quality iron ore, have a detrimental effect on the smelting process during steel manufacturing. Therefore, international steel-making companies charge penalties when purchasing iron ore concentrates containing high concentrations of potassium. To date, lower quality iron ore has been blended with high quality iron ore in an attempt to alleviate the potassium concentrations in the export iron ore; however, the ratio of low quality iron ore to high quality iron ore is increasing, thereby becoming an escalating problem within the economic functioning of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. It has, therefore, become necessary to develop an economically viable and environmentally friendly process to reduce the high potassium concentrations contained in the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. In this study, we compared solid substrate and submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger for the production of citric acid, which is used for the chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate. It was found that submerged fermentation proved to be more economical and efficient, producing a maximum citric acid concentration of 102.3 g/L in 96 h of fermentation. ‘Heap leaching’ simulation experiments were found to be uneconomical, due to the required addition of fungal growth medium every 5 days as a result of growth factor depletion within this time; however, this process removed 17.65% of the potassium from the iron ore concentrate. By contrast, chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate proved to be most efficient when using a 1 mol citric acid leaching solution at 60 ºC, removing 23.53% of the potassium contained within the iron ore concentrate. Therefore, the most economical and efficient process for the removal of potassium from the iron

  13. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA.

    Raja, Mobeen; Spelbrink, Robin E J; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette

    2007-12-11

    In this study, we investigated how the presence of anionic lipids influenced the stability and folding properties of the potassium channel KcsA. By using a combination of gel electrophoresis, tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments, we found that the presence of the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer slightly stabilized the tetramer and protected it from trifluoroethanol-induced dissociation. Surprisingly, the presence of phosphatidic acid (PA) had a much larger effect on the stability of KcsA and this lipid, in addition, significantly influenced the folding properties of the protein. The data indicate that PA creates some specificity over PG, and that it most likely stabilizes the tetramer via both electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions. PMID:18036565

  14. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    Graham Smith

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis[μ3-2-(3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetato]dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, and poly[μ-aqua-bis[μ3-2-(3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetato]dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged comple...

  15. The effect of ethylene glycol additive and growth rate on the capture of water by potassium acid phthalate crystals

    The types and quantities of the volatile products formed in cleavage of potassium acid phthalate crystals were detected by mass spectroscopy. The crystals analyzed were grown by conventional and fast-growth techniques from a nominally pure solution and from a solution containing 0.2 wt. % ethylene glycol additive. It was found that the amount of water released from the cleavage surface was reduced from 5.6x1015 to 2x1014 molecules/cm2 with an increase in the growth rate from 0.2 to 2 mm/day, and to 6.6x1013 molecules/cm2 with the addition of ethylene glycol. This effect was attributed to the fact that an increased growth rate and the presence of ethylene glycol hinder ordering of the adsorption layer and, therefore, make the capture of adsorbed water less probable

  16. Synthesis of 2-(3-Hydroxy-1-adamantane)-2-oxoacetic Acid%2-(3-羟基-1-金刚烷)-2-氧代乙酸的合成

    李先喆; 宗乾收; 吴建一; 车大庆

    2013-01-01

    2-(3-Hydroxy-l-adamantane)-2-oxoacetic acid, the intermediate of saxaglipitin for type 2 diabetes, was synthesized from adamantyl methyl ketone (2) via two-step oxidation by potassium permanganate with an overall yield of about 74.7% : ①the molecular ratio of potassium permanganate and 2 was 2.05 : 1, the temperature was controlled at 50 - 55 ℃ with tetrabutylammonium bromide as catalyst, and the pH value was adjusted to 12 - 13; ② additional 1.2 eq potassium permanganate was added, the temperature was controlled at 40 - 45 ℃ and the pH value was adjusted to 8 - 9.%金刚烷甲酮(2)经高锰酸钾两步氧化制得糖尿病药物沙格列汀中间体2-(3-羟基-1-金刚烷)-2-氧代乙酸,总收率为74.7%:氧化条件①以溴化四丁铵为相转移催化剂,高锰酸钾与2投料摩尔比2.05∶1,反应温度50~55℃、pH12~13;②续加1.2当量的高锰酸钾,温度40~45℃,pH8~9.

  17. Effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution on oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets

    LING Feng; LIU Ying-long; LIU Ai-jun; WANG Dong; WANG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial dysfunction in lungs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The beneficial effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution (LPD) have been reported in lung preservation, and LPD enables injured alveolar pneumocytes to recover. So we hypothesized that systemic administration of LPD may have benefits in treating acute lung injury. We investigated the effects of LPD on arterial blood gas and levels of some cytokines in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.Methods Oleic acid (0.1 ml/kg) was intrapulmonarily administered to healthy anesthetized juvenile piglets. Ten animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5 each): oleic acid-induced group (control group) with intravenous infusion of 12.5 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's solution 30 minutes before administration of oleic acid and LPD group with systemic administration of LPD (12.5 ml/kg) 30 minutes before injecting oleic acid. Blood gas variables and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, endothelin 1 and interleukin 10 were measured before and every 1 hour for 6 hours after initial lung injury.Results Compared with control group, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure in LPD group were improved (P<0.05or 0.01). Six hours after lung injury, concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue was lower in LPD group than control group (P<0.05). Plasmic concentration of endothelin 1 showed lower in LPD group while plasmic concentration of interleukin 10 showed higher in LPD group (P<0.05).Conclusions Before lung injury, systemic administration of LPD can improve gas exchange, attenuate pulmonary hypertension, decrease plasmic levels of endothelin 1, increase interleukin 10 and decrease concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.

  18. Sodium and potassium benzoate and benzoic acid as eluents for ion chromatography

    Gjerde, D.T.; Fritz, J.S.

    1981-12-01

    Benzoic acid is introduced as an eluent and is compared with benzoate salt eluents. Detector response to sample ions in single-column ion chromatogrphy is compared with dual-column (suppressed) ion chromatography. Benzoic acid has a higher background conductance; however, samples separated with benzoate salt eluents. Comparable sample peak areas are found with suppressor column treated benzoate eluents and benzoic acid eluents. Equations are described which predict detector response for a variety of conditions.

  19. Oxidation of estrone by aqueous permanganate:reaction kinetics and oxidation products%KMnO4氧化降解雌酮反应动力学与氧化产物

    庞素艳; 鲁雪婷; 江进; 袁立鹏; 马军

    2016-01-01

    为探讨KMnO4氧化降解雌酮( E1)的效能和反应机理,在假一级条件下,研究KMnO4氧化降解E1的动力学规律,利用三重四级杆串联线性离子阱液相-质谱联用仪( LC-MS/MS)对KMnO4氧化降解E1的产物进行分析.结果表明,KMnO4氧化降解E1符合假一级动力学规律,且假一级动力学常数 Kobs(s-1)随着 KMnO4浓度的增加呈线性增加,二级反应动力学常数k( L.mol-1.s-1 )随着pH的升高而增大.通过与HOCl和O3氧化E1对比,在中性pH附近,KMnO4氧化E1的二级反应动力学常数与HOCl相当,但远低于O3 .然而,实际水体中KMnO4的除污染效能明显高于HOCl和O3 ,主要是由于HOCl和O3在实际水体中的消耗速度比较快,有效剩余浓度低,而KMnO4在实际水体中的消耗速度比较慢.LC-MS/MS测定KMnO4氧化降解E1产物的结果表明,KMnO4易氧化进攻E1苯环上的活性位酚羟基,形成一系列羟基化、醌型、羧酸化芳香开环产物,并且有效降低其内分泌干扰活性.%The purpose of this article was to investigate the effectiveness and mechanism for the oxidation of estrone by aqueous potassium permanganate. Experiments were conducted to examine the reaction kinetics of potassium permanganate with estrone under the condition with potassium permanganate in excess over a wide pH range. Then, reaction products of estrone with potassium permanganate were identified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS ) . The results showed that the loss of estrone followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics with potassium permanganate, suggesting that the reaction is first-order with respect to estrone. The pseudo-first-order rate constant (Kobs, s-1) increased linearly with the increase of potassium permanganate concentration. The degradation of estrone of the second-order rate constants ( k, L·mol-1·s-1 ) increased with the increase of pH. Estrone was shown to exhibit similarly appreciable reactivity toward potassium permanganate

  20. 高锰酸根褪色光度法测定土壤中的有机碳%Determination of organic carbon in soil by permanganate fading spectrophotometry

    胡小明; 程国平; 王俊格

    2012-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method has been established to determine soil organic carbon using potassium permanganate. In sulfuric acid medium,permanganate can be reduced by organic carbon very quickly , the absorbance of potassium permanganate solution at 525 nm would change significantly when organic carbon presents in the solution, and the difference of absorbances in direct proportion to organic carbon concentration. The results showed that a good linear relationship is obtained in the range of 0. 40 ~ 28.00 mg/L of organic carbon, the linear regression equation is A = 0. 046 6 p + 0. 058 ( mg/L) with a correlation coefficient of 0. 998 7 and the apparent molar absorption coefficient of 8. 39× 103 L/(mol·cm). The detection limit is 0. 170 mg/L, the RSD is 0. 390% . The method has been used in the determination of organic carbon in soil standard materials, the relative standard deviation was less than 2.90%.%建立了以KMnO4测定土壤中有机碳的分光光度法.在硫酸介质中,有机碳能快速、定量的还原高锰酸根,在加入有机碳前后,高锰酸钾溶液在波长525nm处的吸光度发生明显变化,且吸光度之差△A与加入的有机碳的浓度成正比.结果表明,有机碳浓度在0.40~28.00mg/L范围内与溶液吸光度差值呈良好线性关系,线性回归方程为△A =0.0466ρ+0.058(mg/L),相关系数r=0.9987,检出限为0.170mg/L,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.390%,表观摩尔吸光系数ε=8.39×103L/( mol·cm).用于测定国家标准土壤样品中有机碳的含量,相对标准偏差小于2.90%.

  1. Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid at high pressures

    Highlights: • CO2 solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were studied. • The CO2 partial pressures studied was up to 1000 kPa. • The temperatures studied were (313.2, 333.2, 353.2) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. • The CO2 absorption capacity of the studied systems was high and comparable with monoethanolamine. - Abstract: In the present work, the solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of potassium prolinate (KPr) and potassium α-aminobutyrate (KAABA) was measured at temperatures (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and CO2 partial pressures up to 1000 kPa for amino acid salt concentrations: KPr, w = (7.5, 14.5, and 27.4 wt%) and KAABA, w = (6.9, 13.4, and 25.6 wt%). It was found that the CO2 absorption capacities of the studied amino acid salt systems were considerably high and comparable with that of industrially important alkanolamines including monoethanolamine. The CO2 loadings in aqueous potassium α-aminobutyrate at high pressures were also found to be generally higher than the loadings in aqueous potassium prolinate. A modified Kent–Eisenberg model was applied to correlate the CO2 solubility in the amino acid salt solution as function of CO2 partial pressure, temperature, and concentration. The model gave good representation of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data obtained for the amino acid salt systems studied, and provided accurate predictions of the solubility

  2. Acid sensitive background potassium channels K2P3.1 and K2P9.1 undergo rapid dynamin-dependent endocytosis

    Mant, Alexandra; Williams, Sarah; O'Kelly, Ita

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensitive, two-pore domain potassium channels, K2p3.1 and K2p9.1, are implicated in cardiac and nervous tissue responses to hormones, neurotransmitters and drugs. K2p3.1 and K2p9.1 leak potassium from the cell at rest and directly impact membrane potential. Hence altering channel number on the cell surface drives changes in cellular electrical properties. The rate of K2p3.1 and K2p9.1 delivery to and recovery from the plasma membrane determines both channel number at the cell surface and...

  3. Potassium Iodide

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during ... the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and ...

  4. Peptide nucleic acid-anthraquinone conjugates: strand invasion and photoinduced cleavage of duplex DNA.

    Armitage, B.; T. Koch; Frydenlund, H; Orum, H; Batz, H G; Schuster, G B

    1997-01-01

    A bis-peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-anthraquinone imide (AQI) conjugate has been synthesized and shown to form strand invasion complexes with a duplex DNA target. The two arms of the bis-PNA each consist of five consecutive thymine residues and are linked by a flexible, hydrophilic spacer. Probing with potassium permanganate reveals that the bis-PNA complexes to duplex DNA at A5.T5sites with local displacement of the T5DNA strand. The 5 bp sequence targeted by the PNA is the shortest strand inva...

  5. 75 FR 80496 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment and Other Docket Actions

    2010-12-22

    ...), lindane, oleic acid sulfonates, potassium permanganate, and zinc silicate. These pesticides do not...)ethylamine, lindane, oleic acid sulfonates, potassium permanganate, and zinc silicate because these... for registration review. The revised work plan has removed a leaching/ migration...

  6. Role of arachidonic acid in hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents in gastric myocytes

    Meng YANG; Wen-xie XU; Xing-lan LI; Hui-ying XU; Jia-bin SUN; Bin MEI; Hai-feng ZHENG; Lian-hua PIAO; De-gang XING; Zhai-liu LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites on the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) in gastric myocytes. Methods: Membrane currents were recorded by using a conventional whole cell patch-clamp technique in gastric myocytes isolated with collagenase. Results: Hyposmotic membrane stretch and AA increased both IK(Ca) and spontaneous transient outward currents significantly.Exogenous AA could potentiate the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca). The hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca) was significantly suppressed by dimethyleicosadienoic acid (100 μmol/L in pipette solution), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, significantly suppressed AA and hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increases in IK(Ca). External calcium-free or gadolinium chloride, a blocker of stretch-activated channels, blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca) significantly, but it was not blocked by nicardipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker. Ryanodine, a calcium-induced calcium release agonist, completely blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca); however, heparin, a potent inhibitor of inositol triphosphate receptor, did not block the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca). Conclusion:Hyposmotic membrane stretch may activate phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to ultimately produce AA; AA as a second messenger mediates Ca2+ influx, which triggers Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and elicits activation of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of the guinea pig.

  7. Molybdate and molybdate/permanganate conversion coatings on Mg-8.5Li alloy

    Wang Guixiang, E-mail: wgx0357@126.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin; Wu Ruizhi [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-01-15

    A novel environment-friendly conversion coating for Mg-8.5Li alloy was obtained by immersing in a solution of molybdate. The concentration of ammonium molybdate and the addition of potassium permanganate were discussed in this experiment. The surface morphology of the conversion coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of Mg-8.5Li alloy and conversion coatings were investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurement. The results showed that the coatings with cracked morphology were homogeneous and uniform. The conversion coatings were mainly composed of metal-oxide as detected by XPS. The results of electrochemical measurement and weight loss measurement revealed that the molybdate conversion coating had better corrosion resistance than bare alloy and chromate conversion coating, and the molybdate/permanganate conversion coating had lower corrosion current density and higher coating resistance than the molybdate conversion coating.

  8. Visualization of diffusion of the drug solution during aluminum potassium tannic acid injection therapy: a pilot study.

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Miwa, Mitsuharu

    2013-06-01

    Sclerotherapy with aluminum potassium tannic acid (ALTA), which was approved in Japan for the treatment of internal hemorrhoids in July 2004 (Takano et al., Int J Colorectal Dis 21:44-51, 2006), has been widely accepted because of its effectiveness and low invasiveness. More than 200,000 patients have received ALTA injection therapy. ALTA is injected directly into 4 points of an internal hemorrhoid (4-step injection) to induce sclerosis and remission of the hemorrhoids, and consequently, resolution of symptoms such as prolapse and bleeding. The precision of the 4-step injection is considered to be a crucial determinant of the success of this therapy and the risk of complications. However, sufficient evidence has not yet been obtained concerning the diffusion and distribution of the injected drug. A pilot study visualized the real-time diffusion/distribution of the drug solution following the 4-step injection, using the ICG (indocyanine green) fluorescence technique, and an infrared camera (Photodynamic EYE; PDE, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.). PMID:23229838

  9. Influence of formic acid on electrical, linear and nonlinear optical properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals

    In present investigation 0.5 and 1 mol% formic acid (FA) added potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been grown by a slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of different functional groups has been qualitatively analyzed by the FT-IR spectral analysis. The optical transparency and optical constants were assessed employing UV–visible studies in the range of 200–900 nm. The wide optical band gap of 1 mol% FA added KDP has been found to be 5 eV. The frequency dependent dielectric measurements were studied for pure and KDP added FA crystals. The enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystals was determined by a classical Kurtz–Perry powder technique. The encouraging third order nonlinear properties were examined employing a Z-scan technique using He–Ne laser, at 632.8 nm. The effective negative index of refraction and high figure of merit (FOM) essential for laser stabilization were determined for grown crystals. - Highlights: • Study on electrical and optical properties of formic acid (FA) added KDP was reported for the first time. • Optical properties were found to be enhanced with increasing concentration of FA. • The SHG efficiency of 1 mol% FA added KDP was 1.13 times that of KDP. • The high concentration of FA contributed lower dielectric properties to KDP suitable for microelectronics applications. • The improved third order nonlinear parameters were ascertained with addition of FA in KDP crystal

  10. Ca2+- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in lateral chain

    Bukiya, Anna N.; Patil, Shivaputra; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane; Dopico, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. Here, we performed structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the acc...

  11. The selectivity, voltage-dependence and acid sensitivity of the tandem pore potassium channel TASK-1: contributions of the pore domains

    Yuill, KH; Stansfeld, PJ; Ashmole, I; Sutcliffe, MJ; Stanfield, PR

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the contribution to ionic selectivity of residues in the selectivity filter and pore helices of the P1 and P2 domains in the acid sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. We used site directed mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies, assisted by structural models built through computational methods. We have measured selectivity in channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using voltage clamp to measure shifts in reversal potential and current amplitudes when Rb+ or Na+ repla...

  12. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions

  13. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Downs, Bernard W. [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Bagchi, Manashi [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V. [Laila Impex Research Center, Vijayawada (India); Shara, Michael A. [Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States); Preuss, Harry G. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Bagchi, Debasis [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States) and Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States)]. E-mail: debsis@creighton.edu

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca{sup 2+}/K{sup +} bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca{sup 2+} (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K{sup +} (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca{sup 2+} ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K{sup +}, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  14. Reactions of Am(III) and Eu(III) with potassium ferricyanide in nitric acid solutions

    The reactions between Am or Eu present in 0.1 M nitric acid solutions, alone or both together, with 0.25 M K3Fe(CN)6, were studied at room temperature. When Am was the only trivalent metal ion in solution, precipitation of AmFe(CN)6 occurs and the residual Am concentration is about equal to 0.95 mM. However, when Am initial concentration is less than the above specified value for AmFe(CN)6 solubility, Am residual concentration measured is lower that its concentration in the initial solutions. The solubility of EuFe(CN)6 was found to be equal to 30 mM. However, when precipitate formation occurs, the Eu residual concentration after phase separation is about in average 8 mM. When Am and Eu were simultaneously present at the same concentration in solution, the solubility of Am differs little from that measured with Am alone. For initial Am concentrations below 1 mM, the solubility of Am is higher than that observed in the absence of Eu. For initial concentrations of about 8 mM, the Am solubility is lower (about 0.7 mM) than that observed for Am alone. When the initial Eu concentration is constant at 29 mM, the Am precipitation efficiency is much higher than observed in the absence of Eu, for Am concentrations between 30 and 0.5 mM. The residual Am concentratixon in solution thus drops considerably in the presence of Eu (29 mM), and is about 0.04 mM for initial Am concentrations below 4 mM

  15. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on the Dynamics of Synthesis of Nucleic Acids and Proteins in the Different Phases of Wheat Development

    The influence of different nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels on the dynamics of RNA synthesis and raw proteins, as well as the uptake of phosphorus in the different phases of wheat development, were studied by applying radioactive phosphorus 32P . The rate of the uptake of phosphorus is proportional to its concentration in the nutrient supply in all phases of wheat development, in spite of the fact that the uptake of phosphorus during vegetation decreases with the plant's maturity. The influence of nitrogen on the uptake of phosphorus is inversely proportional to the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient, while the influence of potassium depends on the relation of the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus. The increased levels of nitrogen and phosphorus are directly proportional to the increase of RNA synthesis, and conversely the decrease of these levels decreases the RNA synthesis. The RNA synthesis decreases with the wheat's maturity during vegetation and is considerably greater in the first phase than in the later phases of the plant's development. Nitrogen and phosphorus have the greatest influence on protein synthesis; potassium has far less influence. These investigations show that the synthesis of nucleic acids and the building up of phosphorus in the RNA-fraction is directly proportional to the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient supply, even though the uptake of phosphorus by wheat is not proportional to the increased nitrogen levels. Investigations now being carried out provide further explanations concerning the mutual relationship of some forms of RNA of the cells and the amino acids in the synthesis of certain protein fractions of wheat under the influence of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. (author)

  16. Determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the mixture

    Bodiroga Milanka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodometric and permanganometric titrations were used for determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the mixture. Two procedures were described and compared. Titrations could be done in only one vessel, in the same reaction mixture, when iodometric titration of peracetic acid was continued after the permanganometric titration of H2O2, (procedure A. Peracetic acid and H2O2, as oxidizing agents, reacted with potassium iodide in an acid medium, evolving iodine. This reaction was used for the quantitative iodometric determination of total peroxide in procedure B. H2O2 reacted with potassium permanganate in acid medium, but peracetic acid did not react under the same conditions. That made possible the selective permanganometric determination of H2O2 in the presence of peracetic acid. The procedure B was performed in two titration vessels (KV=3.4% for peracetic acid, 0.6% for H2O2. The procedure A for iodometric determination of peracetic acid in one titration vessel after permanganometric titration of H2O2 was recommended (KV=2,5% for peracetic acid, 0,45% for H2O2.

  17. Characterization of kerogen from Timahdit shale (Y-layer) based on multistage alkaline permanganate degradation

    Ambles, A.; Halim, M.; Jacquesy, J.-C.; Vitorovic, D.; Ziyad, M. (Universite de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Lab. de Chimie)

    1994-01-01

    A 15-step alkaline permanganate degradation of kerogen from Moroccan Timahdit Oil Shale (Y-layer) was carried out. Oxidation products were obtained in a good yield (64 wt% based on initial kerogen). Detailed g.c. and g.c.-m.s. analyses of ether- and water-soluble acids and products of further controlled permanganate degradation of precipitated acids served as a basis for the quantitative estimation of the contributions of various types of products and for comparison with other kerogens. Taking into account the dominant aliphatic (44.2%) and aromatic (34.8%) nature of the acidic oxidation products, the existence of an aliphatic cross-linked nucleus mixed with cross-linked aromatic units in the Timahdit-Y shale kerogen is postulated. These findings were corroborated by FT-i.r. and [sup 13]C CP-MAS n.m.r. analyses. Saturated hydrocarbons were also found in the oxidation products; they were probably trapped in the kerogen matrix. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 as food additives

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 which are authorised as food additives in the EU and have been previously evaluated by the SCF and JECFA. JECFA allocated an ADI “not limited”. The SCF concluded that potassium propionate could be added to the list of preservatives and established an ADI ”not specified”. Propionates are naturally occurring substances in the normal diet. The Panel considered that forestomach hyperplasia reported in long-term studies in rodents is not a relevant endpoint for humans because humans lack this organ. Based on the reported presence of reversible diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the oesophagus the LOAEL for a 90-day study in dogs was considered by the Panel to be 1 % propionic acid in the diet and the NOAEL to be 0.3 % propionic acid in the diet. The Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The Panel concluded that the present database did not allow allocation of an ADI for propionic acid - propionates. The overall mean and 95th percentile exposures to propionic acid - propionates resulting from their use as food additives (major contributor to exposure ranged from 0.7-21.1 and 3.6-40.8 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The Panel noted that the concentration provoking site of contact effect in the 90-day study in dogs (1 % propionic acid in the diet is a factor of three higher than the concentration of propionic acid - propionates in food at the highest permitted level and concluded that for food as consumed, there would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.

  19. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors

    J.F. Cunha

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC50 values of 18 µM and Emax of 100% (N = 10 or 20 µM and Emax of 92% (N = 10, respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 ± 7.0, 43 ± 3.9 and 78 ± 5.6% in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively. Tetraethylammonium (100 µM, a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 µM, a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 ± 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 µM, at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 µM, a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N G-nitroarginine (100 µM, a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 µM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 µM or ODQ (1 µM, the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-P-Cl-Phe6,Leu17[VIP] (0.1 µM, a VIP receptor antagonist

  20. Determination of cinnamic acid in human urine by flow injection chemiluminescence

    Xuemei Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that cinnamic acid can react with potassium permanganate in the acidic medium and produce chemiluminescence, which was greatly enhanced by glyoxal. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the determination of cinnamic acid was 1.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-4 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 8.0×10-9 mol L-1, the relative standard deviation was 1.7% for 2.0×10-6 mol L-1 cinnamic acid solution in nine repeated measurements. This method was found to be novel0simple0fast and sensitive, it was successfully applied to the determination of cinnamic acid in human urine. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanism was also discussed.

  1. Potassium test

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...

  2. Individual Reactions of Permanganate and Various Reductants - Student Report to the DOE ERULF Program for Work Conducted May to July 2000

    Gauger, Amber M.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2012-09-15

    Tank waste on the Hanford Site contains radioactive elements that need to be removed from solution prior to disposal. One effective way to do this is to precipitate the radioactive elements with manganese solids, produced by permanganate oxidation. When added to tank waste, the permanganate reacts quickly producing manganese (IV) dioxide precipitate. Because of the speed of the reaction it is difficult to tell what exactly is happening. Individual reactions using non-radioactive reductants found in the tanks were done to determine reaction kinetics, what permanganate was reduced to, and what oxidation products were formed. In this project sodium formate, sodium nitrite, glycolic acid, glycine, and sodium oxalate were studied using various concentrations of reductant in alkaline sodium hydroxide solutions. It was determined that formate reacted the quickest, followed by glycine and glycolic acid. Oxalate and nitrite did not appear to react with the permanganate solutions. The products of the oxidation reaction were examined. Formate was oxidized to carbonate and water. Glycolic acid was oxidized slower producing oxalate and water. Glycine reactions formed some ammonia in solution, oxalate, and water. The research reported by Amber Gauger in this report was part of a DOE ERULF student intern program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the direction of Richard Hallen in the summer of 2000.

  3. Growth, electronic absorption and vibrational spectral analysis of semiorganic nonlinear optical material potassium acid phthalate: A scaled quantum mechanical force field study

    Alen, S.; Sajan, D.; Vijayan, N.; Chaitanya, K.; Němec, Ivan; Jothy, V. Bena

    2013-05-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the crystallized semiorganic nonlinear optical molecule Potassium Acid Phthalate (KAP) have been recorded and analyzed by FT-IR, Raman and UV techniques. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following structure optimizations and force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Normal coordinate calculations were performed using the DFT force field corrected by a recommended set of scaling factors yielding fairly good agreement between the observed and calculated wavenumbers. KAP is thermally stable up to 275.0 °C and optically transparent in the visible region.

  4. Straightforward preparation of labeled potassium cyanate by ozonization and application to the synthesis of [13C] or [14C] ureido-carboxylic acids

    The development of new efficient syntheses of labeled reagents is a great challenge. Avoidance of overcomplicated procedures, availability and cost of starting materials are important considerations in choosing the synthetic route. In this report, we describe a facile and rapid preparation of labeled cyanate by ozonization of cyanide, a basic precursor. The crude cyanate was used without purification for the synthesis of various [13C] or [14C]ureido-carboxylic acids (20-68% yield from potassium cyanide). According to these results, cyanide ozonization may prove to be a promising alternative to traditional preparations of labeled cyanate. (authors)

  5. Separate extraction of manganese and vanadium compounds from acid technological solutions

    The technological scheme of separate extraction of manganese (2) and vanadium compounds (vanadates) from acid technological solution forming at the production of technical vanadium dioxide (5) from the slag of metallurgical production by hydro-metallurgical method by their treatment by the solution of potassium permanganate with the selection of total manganese mass into manganese dioxide deposit extracted from acid solutions by the filtration or flotation has been described. After the extraction of manganese from acid solutions they are feeding to hydrolythical extraction of technical vanadium dioxide (5). The tests have shown that previous purification of technological acid solutions from manganese was of 89-96%, which leads to the decrease of its content in the melted ferrovanadium with the increase of the quality and cost of the latter

  6. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA

    Raja, M.M.; Spelbrink, R E J; de Kruijff, B.; Killian, J A

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the presence of anionic lipids influenced the stability and folding properties of the potassium channel KcsA. By using a combination of gel electrophoresis, tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching experiments, we found that the presence of the anionic lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer slightly stabilized the tetramer and protected it from trifluoroethanol- induced dissociation. Surprisingly, the presence of phosph...

  7. Bench-scale visualization of DNAPL remediation processes in analog heterogeneous aquifers: surfactant floods and in situ oxidation using permanganate.

    Conrad, Stephen H; Glass, Robert J; Peplinski, William J

    2002-09-01

    We have conducted well-controlled DNAPL remediation experiments within a 2-D, glass-walled, sand-filled chamber using surfactants (Aerosol MA and Tween 80) to increase solubility and an oxidant (permanganate) to chemically degrade the DNAPL. Initial conditions for each remediation experiment were created by injecting DNAPL as a point source at the top of the chamber and allowing the DNAPL to migrate downward through a water-filled, heterogeneous, sand-pack designed to be evocative of a fluvial depositional environment. This migration process resulted in the DNAPL residing as a series of descending pools. Lateral advection across the chamber was used to introduce the remedial fluids. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrate interactions between the introduced fluids and the DNAPL. In the surfactant experiments, we found that DNAPL configured in a series of pools was easily mobilized. Extreme reductions in DNAPL/water interfacial tension occurred when using the Aerosol MA surfactant, resulting in mobilization into low permeability regions and thus confounding the remediation process. More modest reductions in interfacial tension occurred when using the Tween 80 surfactant resulting in modest mobilization. In this experiment, capillary forces remained sufficient to exclude DNAPL migration into low permeability regions allowing the excellent solubilizing properties of the surfactant to recover almost 90% of the DNAPL within 8.6 pore volumes. Injection of a potassium permanganate solution resulted in precipitation of MnO2, a reaction product, creating a low-permeability rind surrounding the DNAPL pools. Formation of this rind hindered contact between the permanganate and the DNAPL, limiting the effectiveness of the remediation. From these experiments, we see the value of performing visualization experiments to evaluate the performance of proposed techniques for DNAPL remediation. PMID:12236553

  8. Effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid and lactates as postprocessing dipping solutions to control Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored vacuum packaged at 4.5 degrees C.

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, Maryuri T; Keeton, Jimmy T; Acuff, Gary R; Ringer, Larry J; Lucia, Lisa M

    2004-05-01

    The safety of ready-to-eat meat products such as frankfurters can be enhanced by treating with approved antimicrobial substances to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. We evaluated the effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid, potassium lactate, or lactic acid postprocessing dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes inoculated (ca. 10(8) CFU/ml) onto the surface of frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored in vacuum packages at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. Two frankfurter formulations were manufactured without (control) or with potassium lactate (KL, 3.3% of a 60% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup). After cooking, chilling, and peeling, each batch was divided into inoculated (four strains of L. monocytogenes mixture) and noninoculated groups. Each group was treated with four different dips: (i) control (saline solution), (ii) acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid (ACS, 1:2 water), (iii) KL, or (iv) lactic acid (LA, 3.4% of a 88% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup) for 30 s. Noninoculated frankfurters were periodically analyzed for pH, water activity, residual nitrite, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), and L. monocytogenes counts (modified Oxford medium) were determined on inoculated samples. Surface APC counts remained at or near the lower limit of detection (dip, which indicated a residual bactericidal effect when L. monocytogenes populations were monitored over 12 weeks. L. monocytogenes numbers were also reduced, but not to the same degree in franks made without or with KL and treated with LA. These results revealed the effectiveness of ACS (bactericidal effect) or LA (bacteriostatic effect) as postprocessing dipping solutions to inhibit or control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters stored at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. PMID:15151227

  9. Investigations on the growth, optical, thermal, dielectric, and laser damage threshold properties of crystal violet dye-doped potassium acid phthalate single crystal

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-03-01

    Influence of crystal violet dye with different concentration on potassium acid phthalate single crystal grown by conventional method has been studied. No change has been observed in the structure, whereas changes have been observed in the external morphology of the crystal when the dyes are incorporated in the crystal lattice. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show the onset decomposition temperatures to be at 302, 285, 284, and 285 °C for pure, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mol% crystal violet-doped potassium acid phthalate crystals, respectively. The dielectric measurement was carried out on the grown crystals as a function of frequency at various temperatures. In addition, strong luminescent emission bands at 638, 648, and 640 nm were observed in which the relative intensity was found to be reversed as a result of doping concentration. The laser damage threshold value significantly increased for dye-doped crystal in comparison with pure crystal which may make it suitable for the solid-state dye laser applications.

  10. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  11. Potassium Iodide (KI)

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Potassium Iodide (KI) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... I get KI (potassium iodide)? What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of ...

  12. Sensitive spectrophotometric assay of simvastatin in pharmaceuticals using permanganate

    Kalsang Tharpa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective and inexpensive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of simvastatin (SMT in bulk drug and in tablets using permanganate as the oxidimetric reagent. In method A, SMT is treated with a measured excess of permanganate in acetic acid medium and the unreacted oxidant is measured at 550 nm, whereas in method B the reaction is carried out in alkaline medium and the resulting manganate is measured at 610 nm. In method A, the amount of permanganate reacted corresponds to the SMT content and the absorbance is found to decrease linearly with the concentration; and in method B, the absorbance increases with concentration. The working conditions of assays were optimized, and the methods were validated according to the current ICH guidelines. Under optimum conditions, SMT could be assayed in the concentration ranges, 1.47 - 17.67x10-5 and 2.27 - 27.18 x10-6 mol/L by method A and method B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities are 3.2 x 10³ and 2.5 x 10(4 L/mol/cm for method A and method B, respectively with corresponding Sandell sensitivity values of 0.0387 and 0.0178 μg/cm². The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ have also been reported. Accuracy and precision for the assay were determined by calculating the intra-day and inter-day at three concentrations; the intra-day RSD was Dois métodos espectrofotométricos simples, sensíveis, seletivos e baratos são descritos para a determinação de sinvastatina (SMT a granel e em comprimidos, utilizando permanganato como reagente oxidimétrico. No método A, a SMT é tratada com excesso conhecido de permanganato em meio de ácido acético e o oxidante que não reage é medido a 550 nm, enquanto no método B, a reação é efetuada em meio alcalino e o manganato resultante é medido a 610 nm. No método A, a quantidade de permanganato que reage corresponde ao conteúdo de SMT e a absorbância diminui linearmente com o aumento da

  13. An Alternative and Rapid Method for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Ixodid Ticks by Potassium Acetate Procedure

    Islay Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four variants of the potassium acetate procedure for DNA extraction from ixodid ticks at different stage of their life cycles were evaluated and compared with phenol-chloroform and ammonium hydroxide methods. The most rapid and most efficient variant was validated in the DNA extraction procedure from the engorged ticks collected from bovine, canine as well as from house ticks for the screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. The ammonium hydroxide procedure was used for non-engorged ticks. All the variants were efficient and allowed obtaining PCR-quality material according to the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment of the original tick. DNA extracted from the ticks under the study was tested by multiplex PCR for the screening of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. amplification products were obtained from 29/48 extracts. Ammonium hydroxide protocol was not efficient for two extracts. Detection of amplification products from the PCR indicated that DNA had been successfully extracted. The potassium acetate procedure could be an alternative, rapid, and reliable method for DNA extraction from the ixodid ticks, mainly for poorly-resourced laboratories.

  14. Potassium clavulanate

    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  15. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia; Rasmussen, Salka E.

    2004-01-01

    To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes in...... fruit and vegetable consumption. Furthermore, the urinary excretions of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) and potassium were investigated as other potential biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was designed as a 5-d randomized, controlled crossover study. On d 1-3, the men (n = 12) consumed a self......-restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing...

  16. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia;

    2004-01-01

    -restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing......To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes in...... fruit and vegetable consumption. Furthermore, the urinary excretions of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) and potassium were investigated as other potential biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was designed as a 5-d randomized, controlled crossover study. On d 1-3, the men (n = 12) consumed a self...

  17. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    Smith, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinucle...

  18. Kinetics of oxidation of uranium(IV) by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate media

    The kinetics of oxidation of uranium(IV) by permanganate ion in 1.0 mol dm-3 perchloric acid solution has been investigated using a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The reaction was found to be second order overall and first order in the concentrations of both reactants. The catalytic effect of the perchlorates of Hg2+, Cu2+, and Fe3+ on the reaction rate has been investigated. The activation parameters were evaluated and found to be ΔS not= 30.52 ± 1.22 kJ-1 mol-1, ΔH not= 62.89 ± 1.87 kJ mol-1, and ΔG not=53.79 ± 1.44 kJ mol-1. A tentative mechanism consistent with the kinetics is discussed. (author)

  19. Selective extraction by dissolvable (nitriloacetic acid-nickel)-layered double hydroxide coupled with reaction with potassium thiocyanate for sensitive detection of iron(III).

    Tang, Sheng; Chang, Yuepeng; Shen, Wei; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-07-01

    A highly selective method has been proposed for the determination of iron cation (Fe(3+)). (Nitriloacetic acid-nickel)-layered double hydroxide ((NTA-Ni)-LDH) was successfully synthesized and used as dissolvable sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction to pre-concentrate and separate Fe(3+) from aqueous phase. Since Fe(3+) has a larger formation constant with NTA compared to Ni(2+), subsequently ion exchange occurred when (NTA-Ni)-LDH was added to the sample solution. The resultant (NTA-Fe)-LDH sol was isolated and transferred in an acidic medium containing potassium thiocyanate (KSCN). Since (NTA-Fe)-LDH could be dissolved in acidic conditions, Fe(3+)was released and reacted with SCN(-) to form an Fe-SCN complex. The resulting product was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry for quantitative detection of Fe(3+). Extraction factors, including sample pH, reaction pH, extraction temperature, extraction time, reaction time and concentration of KSCN were optimized. This method achieved a low limit of detection of 15.2nM and a good linear range from 0.05 to 50μM (r(2)=0.9937). A nearly 18-fold enhancement of signal intensity was achieved after selective extraction. The optimized conditions were validated by applying the method to determine Fe(3+) in seawater samples. PMID:27154694

  20. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound

    Deng, Jing; Tang, Kai; Zhu, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kejia; Song, Yali; Li, Xueyan; Li, Qingsong; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Kejin

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L−1). Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs) in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO4 systems (KMnO4/ultrasound) were investigated to find out whether there is a competitive degradation of multiple contaminants or not. Results indicate that the degradation ratios of target SEs were all more than 50% after 120 min reaction contact, greatly enhanced when compared with the single KMnO4 (2 mg·L−1) oxidation of E2 (37.0%), EE2 (34.4%), and E1 (34.0%), and the single sonochemical oxidation of E2 (37.1%), EE2 (31.1%), and E1 (29.7%). In the adopted processes, the degradations of SEs fit the first-order kinetic reaction, with different reaction rates. Kinetic parameters revealed there was little difference between coexisting SEs, which means there was almost no competitive degradation. The removal efficiency and degradation rate of SEs in natural water was higher than those in pure water, which suggested that the coupled KMnO4/ultrasound technology had prospective applications in the removal of complex contaminants in actual drinking water treatment. PMID:26690185

  1. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound

    Jing Deng; Kai Tang; Shijun Zhu; Xiaoyan Ma; Kejia Zhang; Yali Song; Xueyan Li; Qingsong Li; Zhenhua Liu; Kejin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L−1). Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs) in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO4 sys...

  2. PHASE-TRANSFER-CATALYST APPLIED TO THE OXIDATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    Chlorinated ethylenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are common contaminants (Plumb 1991; Westrick et al., 1984). They opccur in the subsurface as zones of residual saturation or occasionally as free products. Because of their inherently low solubil...

  3. SIMULATING THE IN-SITU OXIDATIVE TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ETHYLENES BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    In recent years, MnO{sub}4 oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes (PCE, TCE, and DCE) has emerged as a potentially useful approach for destroying these componds in water. Recently, more applied studies have looked at whether KMnO{sub}4 could be used in remediating sites contaminated ...

  4. Oxidation of volatile organic vapours in air by solid potassium permanganate

    Mahmoodlu, M.G.; Hartog, N.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Raoof, A.

    2013-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may frequently contaminate groundwater and pose threat to human health when migrating into the unsaturated soil zone and upward to the indoor air. The kinetic of chemical oxidation has been investigated widely for dissolved VOCs in the saturated zone. But, so far th

  5. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound

    Jing Deng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L−1. Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO4 systems (KMnO4/ultrasound were investigated to find out whether there is a competitive degradation of multiple contaminants or not. Results indicate that the degradation ratios of target SEs were all more than 50% after 120 min reaction contact, greatly enhanced when compared with the single KMnO4 (2 mg·L−1 oxidation of E2 (37.0%, EE2 (34.4%, and E1 (34.0%, and the single sonochemical oxidation of E2 (37.1%, EE2 (31.1%, and E1 (29.7%. In the adopted processes, the degradations of SEs fit the first-order kinetic reaction, with different reaction rates. Kinetic parameters revealed there was little difference between coexisting SEs, which means there was almost no competitive degradation. The removal efficiency and degradation rate of SEs in natural water was higher than those in pure water, which suggested that the coupled KMnO4/ultrasound technology had prospective applications in the removal of complex contaminants in actual drinking water treatment.

  6. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound.

    Deng, Jing; Tang, Kai; Zhu, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kejia; Song, Yali; Li, Xueyan; Li, Qingsong; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Kejin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L(-1)). Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs) in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO₄ systems (KMnO₄/ultrasound) were investigated to find out whether there is a competitive degradation of multiple contaminants or not. Results indicate that the degradation ratios of target SEs were all more than 50% after 120 min reaction contact, greatly enhanced when compared with the single KMnO₄ (2 mg·L(-1)) oxidation of E2 (37.0%), EE2 (34.4%), and E1 (34.0%), and the single sonochemical oxidation of E2 (37.1%), EE2 (31.1%), and E1 (29.7%). In the adopted processes, the degradations of SEs fit the first-order kinetic reaction, with different reaction rates. Kinetic parameters revealed there was little difference between coexisting SEs, which means there was almost no competitive degradation. The removal efficiency and degradation rate of SEs in natural water was higher than those in pure water, which suggested that the coupled KMnO₄/ultrasound technology had prospective applications in the removal of complex contaminants in actual drinking water treatment. PMID:26690185

  7. Ultratrace potassium determination in plutonium oxide

    A new method improving the detection limit for potassium in plutonium oxide samples in a high acid matrix was developed. Ultratrace detection limits (sub parts per million) for potassium in plutonium oxide digestate were achieved by optimizing several instrument parameters. Using the Horiba Jobin-Yvon Ultima 2 ICP-AES spectrometer different settings and conditions were examined to improve the detection limit for potassium. The optimized parameters of 0.875 L min-1 sheath gas flow, 20/80 µm entrance/exit slit, 8 s MAX mode signal integration, and blank subtraction were able to lower the potassium reporting limit to 10 ng mL-1. (author)

  8. Effect of glutamic acid on broilers given submarginal crude protein with adequate essential amino acids using feeds high and low in potassium.

    Moran, E T; Stilborn, H L

    1996-01-01

    Broiler males were examined for their response to feeds containing CP 1 to 2% below levels advocated by NRC (1994) and when supplemented with L-glutamic acid. Crude protein and glutamic acid treatments were imposed in starting, growing, and finishing feeds over 7 wk with K at high and low levels likely to occur in practice (0.80 vs 0.65 to 0.55%). All feeds were formulated to be isocaloric (3.20 kcal ME/g) and satisfy NRC (1994) essential amino acid (EAA) minimum requirements. Improved live weight gain occurred during the first 6 wk with supplementation of glutamic acid to the low CP feed but not when intact protein per se was used to increase CP. A similar advantage in growth was obtained from glutamic acid in response to its addition at equivalence of 1 to 2% CP as well as when dietary adjustments maintained low CP. Response to altered K could not be interpreted because of concurrent differences in glutamic acid and AMEn intakes. High glutamic acid levels did not decrease abdominal fat unless CP increased concurrently, whereas carcass back bruising and drumstick deformations were relieved by supplemental glutamic acid independent of CP. Increased weight gain from glutamic acid was only evident with drumsticks and debris that included the back when carcasses were cone-deboned. Supplemental glutamic acid is believed to improve the rate of connective tissue formation during rapid growth. PMID:8650101

  9. Oxidative degradation of anion exchange resin in chloride form during purification of reactor coolant after alkaline permanganate treatment in dilute chemical decontamination

    In boiling water reactors, primary system piping is contaminated by radioactive species like 51Cr and 60Co, resulting in high radiation fields. Dilute Chemical Decontamination (DCD) is a preferred choice to reduce the radiation field. In DCD process, oxidation step involving alkaline permanganate or acid permanganate is employed for effective dissolution of oxides (rich in chromium), from the metal surfaces of reactor components. After completion of the oxidation step, removal of the unused chemicals is carried out by the use of ion exchange process. This poses a problem of possible degradation of ion exchange resin by the oxidative chemicals during the removal. In this paper, this aspect has been investigated and the results obtained are discussed. (author)

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance (ID 400, 407) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claims are calcium and potassium. The Panel considers that calcium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “calcium contributes to acid/base balance within metabolism” and “mineral/potassium: key function......-base balance is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that no evidence has been provided showing that the dietary intake of calcium and potassium affects normal acid-base balance in the general healthy population. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established...

  11. Effect of dietary potassium and anionic salts on acid-base and mineral status in periparturient cows.

    Rérat, M; Schlegel, P

    2014-06-01

    Dry cow diets based on grassland forage from intensive production contain high amounts of K and could be responsible for a reduced ability to maintain Ca homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a moderate anionic salt supplementation to a forage-based pre-calving diet with varying native K content affects the mineral and acid-base status in transition cows. Twenty-four dry and pregnant Holstein cows, without antecedent episodes of clinical hypocalcemia, were assigned to two diets during the last 4 weeks before estimated calving date. Twelve cows were fed a hay-based diet low in K (18 g K/kg DM), and 12, a hay-based diet high in K (35 g K/kg DM). Within each diet, six cows received anionic salts during the last 2 weeks before the estimated calving day. After calving, all cows received the high K diet ad libitum. Blood samples were taken daily from day 11 pre-partum to day 5 post-partum. Urine samples were taken on days 7 and 2 pre-partum and on day 2 post-partum. The anionic salt did not alter feed intake during the pre-partum period. Serum Ca was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Feeding pre-partum diets with low K concentrations induced a reduced metabolic alkalotic charge, as indicated by reduced pre-partum urinary base-acid quotient. Transition cows fed the low K diet including anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis before calving, as indicated by higher urinary Ca, lower urinary pH and net acid-base excretion. Although serum Ca during the post-partum period was not affected by dietary treatment, feeding a low K diet moderately supplemented with anionic salts to reach a dietary cation-anion difference close to zero permitted to obtain a metabolic response in periparturient cows without altering the dry matter intake. PMID:23796109

  12. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  13. Comparison of potassium hydroxide mount and mycological culture with histopathologic examination using periodic acid-Schiff staining of the nail clippings in the diagnosis of onychomycosis

    Shenoy M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a common problem noticed in clinical practice. Currently available standard laboratory methods show inconsistent sensitivity; hence there is a need for newer methods of detection. Aims: This study involves comparison of standard laboratory tests in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, namely, potassium hydroxide mount (KOH mount and mycological culture, with histopathologic examination using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the nail clippings. Methods: A total of 101 patients with clinically suspected onychomycosis were selected. Nail scrapings and clippings were subjected to KOH mount for direct microscopic examination, culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar (with and without antibiotics and histopathologic examination with PAS staining (HP/PAS. Statistical analysis was done by McNemar′s test. Results: Direct microscopy with KOH mount, mycological culture, and HP/PAS showed positive results in 54 (53%, 35 (35%, and 76 (75% patients respectively. Laboratory evidence of fungal infection was obtained in 84 samples by at least one of these three methods. Using this as the denominator, HP/PAS had a sensitivity of 90%, which was significantly higher compared to that of KOH mount (64% or mycological culture (42%. Conclusions: Histopathologic diagnosis with PAS staining of nail clippings was the most sensitive among the tests. It was easy to perform, rapid, and gave significantly higher rates of detection of onychomycosis compared to the standard methods, namely KOH mount and mycological culture.

  14. Calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in the lateral chain.

    Bukiya, Anna N; Patil, Shivaputra A; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane D; Dopico, Alex M

    2012-10-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. We performed a structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the accessory BK β1 subunit. The latter protein is highly abundant in smooth muscle but scarce in most other tissues. Modifications to the LCA lateral chain length and functional group yielded two novel smooth muscle BK channel activators in which the substituent at C24 has a small volume and a net negative charge. Our data provide detailed structural information that will be useful to advance a pharmacophore in search of β1 subunit-selective BK channel activators. These compounds are expected to evoke smooth muscle relaxation, which would be beneficial in the pharmacotherapy of prevalent human disorders associated with increased smooth muscle contraction, such as systemic hypertension, cerebral or coronary vasospasm, bronchial asthma, bladder hyperactivity, and erectile dysfunction. PMID:22945504

  15. Lamellar Liquid Crystal Improves the Skin Retention of 3-O-Ethyl-Ascorbic Acid and Potassium 4-Methoxysalicylate In Vitro and In Vivo for Topical Preparation.

    Li, Yuanru; Dong, Cuilian; Cun, Dongmei; Liu, Jie; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed at increasing the skin retention of 3-O-ethyl-ascorbic acid (EA) and potassium 4-methoxysalicylate (4-MSK) via topical administration for effective skin-whitening. To achieve this goal, EA and 4-MSK were formulated into lamellar liquid crystalline (LLC) cream, and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the formulation. Polarized light microscopy (PLM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and rheological experiments were performed to confirm the presence of the LLC structure in the base of cream. In addition, a comparison analysis of the skin retention of the two drugs between the LLC cream and the common o/w (COW) cream was made through in vitro permeation and in vivo drug distribution experiments. As a result, the optimal formulation was defined as 1.2% of EA, 1.48% of 4-MSK, 14.05% of Schercemol™ DISM Ester (DISM) as the oil, 4.0% of Emulium® Delta as the emulsifier, and 3.0% of stearyl alcohol as the co-emulsifier. In comparison with the COW cream, the LLC cream significantly increased the skin retention of EA and 4-MSK both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the LLC carrier serves as a promising choice for topical preparation by enhancing skin retention and providing desirable rheological characteristics. PMID:26349686

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  17. Silencing gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor alpha 1 subunit expression and outward potassium current in developing cortical neurons

    Tao Bo; Jiang Li; Jian Li; Xingfang Li; Kaihui Xing

    2011-01-01

    We used RNA interference (RNAi) to disrupt synthesis of the cortical neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) α1 in rats during development, and measured outward K+ currents during neuronal electrical activity using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Three pairs of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for GABAAR α1 subunit were designed using OligoEngine RNAi software. This siRNA was found to effectively inhibited GABAAR α1 mRNA expression in cortical neuronal culture in vitro, but did not significantly affect neuronal survival. Outward K+ currents were decreased, indicating that GABAAR α1 subunits in developing neurons participate in neuronal function by regulating outward K+ current.

  18. Reactivity of β-blockers/agonists with aqueous permanganate. Kinetics and transformation products of salbutamol.

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    The possible oxidation of two β-blockers, atenolol and propranolol, and one β-agonist, salbutamol, with aqueous potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was investigated by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only salbutamol did significantly react. In this way, the oxidation kinetics of salbutamol was further investigated at different concentrations of KMnO4, chloride, phosphate and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range 1-144 min for drug and it was observed that KMnO4 concentration was the most significant factor, resulting in increased reaction rate as it is increased. Moreover, the reaction of salbutamol is also enhanced at basic pH and to a minor extent by the presence of phosphates, being both factors more relevant at low KMnO4 concentrations. The use of an accurate-mass LC-QTOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of seven transformation products (TPs). The transformation path of the drug begins by the attack of KMnO4 on two double bonds of the aromatic ring of salbutamol via 3 + 2 and 2 + 2 addition reactions, which resulted in the ring opening and that continues with oxidative reactions to finally produce smaller size TPs, ending with tert-butyl-formamide, as the smallest TP identified. Reaction in real samples showed a slower and partial oxidation of the pharmaceutical, due to other competing water organic constituents, but still exceeding 60%. Moreover, the software predicted toxicity of TPs indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than salbutamol, in contrast to the results obtained for the predicted toxicity of chlorination TPs, excepting predicted developmental toxicity. PMID:25965887

  19. ABTS as an Electron Shuttle to Enhance the Oxidation Kinetics of Substituted Phenols by Aqueous Permanganate.

    Song, Yang; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Pang, Su-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ze; Yang, Yi; Luo, Cong-Wei; Zhang, Jian-Qiao; Gu, Jia; Qin, Wen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, it was, interestingly, found that 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS), a widely used electron shuttle, could greatly accelerate the oxidation of substituted phenols by potassium permanganate (Mn(VII)) in aqueous solutions at pH 5-9. This was attributed to the fact that these substituted phenols could be readily oxidized by the stable radical cation (ABTS(•+)), which was quickly produced from the oxidation of ABTS by Mn(VII). The reaction of Mn(VII) with ABTS exhibited second-order kinetics, with stoichiometries of ∼5:1 at pH 5-6 and ∼3:1 at pH 7-9, and the rate constants varied negligibly from pH 5 to 9 (k = (9.44 ± 0.21) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). Comparatively, the reaction of ABTS(•+) with phenol showed biphasic kinetics. The second-order rate constants for the reactions of ABTS(•+) with substituted phenols obtained in the initial phase were strongly affected by pH, and they were several orders of magnitude higher than those for the reactions of Mn(VII) with substituted phenols at each pH. Good Hammett-type correlations were found for the reactions of ABTS(•+) with undissociated (log(k) = 2.82-4.31σ) and dissociated phenols (log(k) = 7.29-5.90σ). The stoichiometries of (2.2 ± 0.06):1 (ABTS(•+) in excess) and (1.38 ± 0.18):1 (phenol in excess) were achieved in the reaction of ABTS(•+) with phenol, but they exhibited no pH dependency. PMID:26378975

  20. Natural Monocrystalline Pyrite as Sensor for Potentiometric Redox Titrations. Part I. Titrations with Permanganate

    B. V. Vukanovic

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained in potentiometric titrations of Fe(II, Mn(II, Fe(CN64-, C2O42- and As(III with standard potassium permanganate solution, are presented. The titration end point (TEP was detected with a universal electrode whose sensor is natural crystalline pyrite. The titrations of As(III were carried out in HCl (1.2 M and H2SO4 solutions (0.1- 4.5 M, whereas oxalate was determined in H2SO4 (0.1-4.5 M. Iron(II and hexacyanoferrate(II were titrated in H2SO4 and also in H3PO4 solutions (0.1-4.5 M. The titrations of Mn(II were performed in H2P2O72- media at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0. The results obtained by using the pyrite electrode were compared with those obtained by the application of a Pt-electrode, and good agreement, reproducibility and accuracy were obtained. The potentials in the course of the titration and at the end-point (TEP are rapidly established. The potential changes at the TEP ranged from 90 to 330 mV/0.1 mL, depending on the titrated system. The highest changes were observed in titrations of Fe(II in H3PO4 (240-330 mV/0.1 mL. Reversed titrations were also performed and accurate and reproducible results were obtained.

  1. 腐植酸钾/丙烯酸型保水剂的合成及性能研究%Synthesis and performance of potassium humate/acrylic acid water-retaining agent

    魏友华; 顾铭茜; 季燕; 陈洪龄

    2013-01-01

    以腐植酸钾(KHA)与丙烯酸(AA)为原料,N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为交联剂,过K2SO4为引发剂,进行水溶液聚合,制备得到腐植酸钾/丙烯酸高吸水性保水树脂.研究了反应物比例、反应温度、交联剂、引发剂用量、中和度等因素对产物性能的影响.考察了产物的热稳定性、保水性能、耐电解质和重复使用性能.结果表明,树脂最大吸水率为609g·g-1,耐盐性良好,50℃环境温度下9h保水树脂仍有94.2%的保水率.%Potassium humate/acrylic acid water retention resin was prepared from potassium humate and acrylic acid by aqueous polymerization with the crosslinking agent of N, N-methylene-bis-acrylamide and the initiator of potassium persulfate. The effect of reactant ratio, reaction temperature, the amount of cross-linking agent and initiator, and the neutralization degree were investigated. In addition, thermal stability, water retention and reuse ability of the products were studied. Results show that the maximum water absorption ability of potassium humate/acrylic acid superabsorbent resin was 609g·g-1 for distilled water. At the environment temperature 50℃, the water retention resin still have 94.2% of the water retention rate after 9 hour.

  2. The production and use of citric acid for the removal of potassium from the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine, South Africa

    Peter J. Williams; Thomas E. Cloete

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of the richer iron ore worldwide has made it necessary to process lower quality iron ore. Certain substances, such as potassium, contained within the lower quality iron ore, have a detrimental effect on the smelting process during steel manufacturing. Therefore, international steel-making companies charge penalties when purchasing iron ore concentrates containing high concentrations of potassium. To date, lower quality iron ore has been blended with high quality iron ore in an a...

  3. Evaluation of Nitrogen and Potassium Uptake and Efficiency of Two Rice Varieties Cultivated on an Acid Soil

    Shajarutulwardah M. Yusob

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot study was carried with the following objectives: (i To investigate N and K uptake of MR 220 and ARC 2 rice varieties grown on Bekenu series (Tipik Tualemkuts, and (ii To investigate N and K use efficiency of MR 220 and ARC 2 grown on Bekenu series. Treatments evaluated were: (i MR 220 and ARC 2 under fertilized condition (T1, and (ii MR 220 and ARC 2 under unfertilized condition (T0. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. Altogether 24 pots were used having a completely randomized design (CRD with 6 replications (for each treatment and each variety. Nitrogen and K were applied in the forms of urea (46 % N and muriate of potash (60 % K2O for the two varieties. For T1 of MR 220, N, K, and P were applied at the rates of 4.0 g N, 1.10 g K2O and 2.13 g P2O5 per pot, respectively in split. In the case of T1 of ARC 2, N, K, and P rates used were 1.30 g N, 0.8 g K2O, and 1.70 g P2O5 per pot, respectively in split. At 65 days (ARC 2 and 70 days (MR 220 after planting, plants were sampled and partitioned into roots and stem, and their dry weight, N, and K concentrations determined using standard procedures. Soil sampling was done before and after fertilization. Soil total N was determined using the Kjeldahl method while exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na were extracted by the double acid method and their concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The dry ashing method was used for the determination of K, Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in plant tissues while the Kjeldahl method was used to determine total N in plant tissues. The concentrations multiplied by the oven dried weight of roots and stem provided N, K, Ca, Mg and Na uptake in these plant parts. The N and K use efficiency was then calculated using the subtraction method. With the exception of Ca, urea and KCl application significantly increased soil N, K, Mg, and Na concentrations. Application of K

  4. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers.

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged complex units. The irregular six-coordination about the alkali cations comprises a bridging water mol-ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis, the phen-oxy O-atom donor and a triple bridging carboxyl-ate O atom of the oxo-acetate side chain of the 3,5-D ligand, and the second carb-oxy-ate O-atom donor also bridging. The K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7238 (15)-2.9459 (14) and 2.832 (2)-3.050 (2) Å, respectively, and the K⋯K and Rb⋯Rb separations in the dinuclear units are 4.0214 (7) and 4.1289 (6) Å, respectively. Within the layers which lie parallel to (100), the coordinating water mol-ecule forms an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond to the single bridging carboxyl-ate O atom. PMID:26594400

  5. Graphite oxides: effects of permanganate and chlorate oxidants on the oxygen composition.

    Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2012-10-15

    Research on graphene materials has refocused on graphite oxides (GOs) in recent years. The fabrication of GO is commonly accomplished by using concentrated sulfuric acid in conjunction with: a) fuming nitric acid and KClO(3) oxidant (Staudenmaier); b) concentrated nitric acid and KClO(3) oxidant (Hofmann); c) sodium nitrate for in situ production of nitric acid in the presence of KMnO(4) (Hummers); or d) concentrated phosphoric acid with KMnO(4) (Tour). These methods have been used interchangeably in the graphene community, since the properties of GOs produced by these different methods were assumed as almost similar. In light of the wide applicability of GOs in nanotechnology applications, in which presence of certain oxygen functional groups are specifically important, the qualities and functionalities of the GOs produced by using these four different methods, side-by-side, was investigated. The structural characterizations of the GOs would be probed by using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Further electrochemical applicability would be evaluated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Our analyses highlighted that the oxidation methods based on permanganate oxidant (Hummers and Tour methods) gave GOs with lower heterogeneous electron-transfer rates and a higher amount of carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities compared with when using chlorate oxidant (Staudenmaier and Hofmann methods). These observations indicated large disparities between the GOs obtained from different oxidation methods. Such insights would provide fundamental knowledge for fine tuning GO for future applications. PMID:22961662

  6. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken ...

  7. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Process Development for Permanganate Addition During Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tanks Sludges

    Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Peterson, Reid A.; Blanchard, David L.

    2007-10-30

    Previous Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI)-sponsored studies have targeted optimizing sodium permanganate for the selective oxidation of chromium from washed Hanford tank sludges (Rapko et al. 2004; Rapko et al. 2005). The recommendation from previous work was that contact with sodium permanganate in a minimally caustic solution, i.e., 0.1 to 0.25 M [OH-] initially, provided maximum Cr dissolution while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution. At the request of BNI, further work on oxidative alkaline leaching was performed.

  9. Effect of amino acid dopants on the spectral, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of potassium acid phthalate crystals for possible optoelectronic and frequency doubling applications

    Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph; Gnanaraj, J. Martin Sam; Dhavud, S. Shek; Ekadevasena, S.

    2015-09-01

    Undoped and amino acid (L-Arginine and L-Valine) doped KAP crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The changes in the structural, spectral, optical, mechanical and thermal properties were observed. The sharp prominent peaks in the indexed powder XRD pattern confirms the crystalline nature of the sample. Optical studies reveal that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible light region. Thermal stability was checked by TG/DTA analysis. The mechanical stability was evaluated from Vicker's microhardness test. The SHG efficiency for the title materials was tested with different particle sizes by the Kurtz and Perry powder method, which established the existence of phase matching.

  10. KV7 potassium channels

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  11. Sodium and potassium

    Present article is devoted to sodium and potassium content in fluoride. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on sodium and potassium distribution in fluorite 892 mono mineral samples of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan were analyzed. The content of sodium and potassium in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined.

  12. Optimization of potassium oxalate extracting of phytic acid from rapeseed cake by response surface methodology%响应面法优化草酸钾溶液提取菜籽饼中植酸工艺

    汤务霞; 杨虎; 刘超; 欧阳磊; 阙晓莉

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed cake is a good raw material of extracting phytic acid, and phytic acid has unique biological activities. The solution of potassium oxalate was used to extract phytic acid from rapeseed cake. On the basis of single factors experiments, the extraction technic was optimized by response surface methodology , and a quadratic polynomial mathematical model was established. The optimal conditions were as follows; pH 8, ratio of liquid to solid 14:1, concentration of potassium oxalate 0.075 mol/L, extraction time 5 h. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of phytic acid was 1. 81%.%菜籽饼是提取植酸的良好原料,植酸具有独特的生物活性.采用草酸钾溶液提取菜籽饼中的植酸,在单因素试验的基础上,通过响应面法优化植酸提取工艺,建立了以草酸钾溶液提取植酸的二次多项数学模型,并得到最佳工艺条件为:pH 8,液料比14∶1,草酸钾溶液浓度0.075 mol/L,提取时间5h.经过验证试验,在最佳工艺条件下,植酸得率为1.81%.

  13. Protective effect of low potassium dextran solution on acute kidney injury following acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in piglets

    WU Rui-ping; LIANG Xiu-bin; GUO Hui; ZHOU Xiao-shuang; ZHAO Li; WANG Chen; LI Rong-shan

    2012-01-01

    Background Low potassium dextran (LPD) solution can attenuate acute lung injury (ALI).However,LPD solution for treating acute kidney injury secondary to ALI has not been reported.The present study was performed to examine the renoprotective effect of LPD solution in ALI induced by oleic acid (OA) in piglets.Methods Twelve animals that suffered an ALI induced by administration of OA into the right atrium were divided into two groups:the placebo group (n=6) pretreated with normal saline and the LPD group (n=6),pretreated with LPD solution.LPD solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 12.5 ml/kg via the auricular vein 1 hour before OA injection.Results All animals survived the experiments with mild histopathological injury to the kidney.There were no significant differences in mean arterial pressure (MAP),creatinin and renal damage scores between the two groups.Compared with the placebo group,the LPD group had better gas exchange parameters at most of the observation points ((347.0±12.6)mmHg vs.(284.3±11.3) mmHg at 6 hours after ALI,P<0.01).After 6 hours of treatment with OA,the plasma concentrations of NGAL and interleukin (IL)-6 in both groups increased dramatically compared to baseline ((6.0±0.6) and (2.50±0.08) folds in placebo group; and (2.5±0.5) and (1.40±0.05) folds in LPD group),but the change of both parameters in the LPD group was significantly lower (P <0.01) than in the placebo group.And 6 hours after ALl the kidney tissue concentration of IL-6 in the LPD group ((165.7 ± 22.5) pg.ml-1.g-1 protein) was significantly lower (P <0.01) than that in placebo group ((67.2± 25.3) pg.ml-1.g-1 protein).Conclusion These findings suggest that pretreatment with LPD solution via systemic administration might attenuate acute kidney injury and the cytokine response of IL-6 in the ALl piglet model induced by OA injection.

  14. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    Adewuyi Adewale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP. The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition.

  15. Analisis Kadar Angka Permanganat Pada Air Minum Dan Air Bersih Di Balai Dinas Kesehatan Medan

    Barutu, Mai Fransiska

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of levels permanganate value in dringking water and clean water. content analysis by permanganate oxidation-reduction titration method in acid state, where the organic substances in water were oxidized by potassium permanganate was reduced by the excess of oxalic acid, excess of oxalic acid was titrated back with potassium permanganate. From the analysis was done of the obtained levels of permanganate numbers in drinking water samples from sample I to sample IV is 3.7 mg / l, 5.0 mg...

  16. Potassium and Health123

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits dep...

  17. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity. PMID:24747752

  18. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Potassium food supplement

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  20. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    V-Cillin K® ... Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 ...

  1. A five-year performance review of field-scale, slow-release permanganate candles with recommendations for second-generation improvements.

    Christenson, Mark; Kambhu, Ann; Reece, James; Comfort, Steve; Brunner, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the 7.6-cm oxidant candles have been refurbished approximately once per year by gently scraping off surface oxides. In 2012, we reported initial results; in this paper, we provide a 5-yr performance review since installation. Temporal sampling shows oxidant candles placed in wells have steadily reduced migrating TCE concentrations. Moreover, these candles still maintain an inner core of oxidant that has yet to contribute to the dissolution front and should provide several more years of service. Oxidant candles inserted by direct-push have stopped reducing TCE concentrations because a MnO2 scale developed on the outside of the candles. To counteract oxide scaling, we fabricated a second generation of oxidant candles that contain sodium hexametaphosphate. Laboratory experiments (batch and flow-through) show that these second-generation permanganate candles have better release characteristics and are less prone to oxide scaling. This improvement should reduce the need to perform maintenance on candles placed in wells and provide greater longevity for candles inserted by direct-push. PMID:26901481

  2. Permanganate Degradation of Reillex HPQ Ion Exchange Resin for Use in HB-Line

    This study evaluated the use of Reillex TM HPQ resin as a replacement for the Ionac A-641 resin currently authorized for use in H B-Line. The study concentrated on the ability of the existing alkaline permanganate digestion process to convert spent resin for disposal

  3. Permanganate Degradation of Reillex HPQ Ion Exchange Resin for Use in HB-Line

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-06-02

    This study evaluated the use of Reillex TM HPQ resin as a replacement for the Ionac A-641 resin currently authorized for use in H B-Line. The study concentrated on the ability of the existing alkaline permanganate digestion process to convert spent resin for disposal.

  4. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes. PMID:24050380

  5. Comparative Study on Treatment of Micropolluted Raw Water with Potassium Permanganate Composite and Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ozone%PPC替代高锰酸钾和臭氧处理微污染原水研究

    秦庆东; 马军; 查人光; 沈莉萍; 王春

    2007-01-01

    比较了高锰酸盐复合药剂(PPC)预氧化与高锰酸钾、臭氧联合预氧化处理南方某水厂微污染原水的效果.生产性试验结果表明,PPC处理出水水质与高锰酸钾、臭氧联合处理的出水水质相近,其中TOC指标和Ames试验结果较后者有所改善.经计算,用PPC替代高锰酸钾和臭氧进行预氧化可节省制水费用约0.016元/m3.因此,用PPC预氧化替代高锰酸钾和臭氧联合预氧化是可行的.

  6. Mass removal of chlorinated ethenes from rough-walled fractures using permanganate

    Tunnicliffe, B. S.; Thomson, N. R.

    2004-11-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) employing permanganate is an emerging technology that has been successful at enhancing mass removal from DNAPL source zones in unconsolidated media at the pilot-scale. The focus of this study was to evaluate the applicability of flushing a permanganate solution across two single vertical fractures in a laboratory environment to remove free phase DNAPL. The fracture experiments were designed to represent a portion of a larger fractured aquifer system impacted by a near-surface DNAPL spill over a shallow fractured rock aquifer. Each fracture was characterized by hydraulic and tracer tests, and the aperture field for one of the fractures was mapped using a co-ordinate measurement machine. Following DNAPL emplacement, a series of water and permanganate flushes were performed. To support observations from the fracture experiments, a set of batch experiments was conducted. The data from both fracture experiments showed that the post-oxidation effluent concentration was not impacted by the oxidant flush; however, changes in the aperture distribution, flow field, and flow rate were observed. These changes resulted in a significant decrease to the mass loading from the fractures, and were attributed to the build-up of oxidation by-products (manganese oxides and carbon dioxide) within the fracture which was corroborated by the batch experiment data and visual examination of the walls of one fracture. These results provide insight into the potential impact that a permanganate solution and oxidation by-products can have on the aperture distribution within a fracture and on DNAPL mass transfer rates. A permanganate flush or injection completed within a fractured rock aquifer may lead to the development of an insoluble product adjacent to the DNAPL which results in the reduction or complete elimination of advective regions near the DNAPL and reduces mass transfer rates. This outcome would have significant implications on the plume generating

  7. Protective role of adjuvant and potassium permanganate on oxidative stress response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Saprolegnia ferax

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy

    2013-01-01

    Saprolegniosis are one of the most important oomycetes affecting freshwater fish worldwide. It leads to huge losses in fish farms due to their massive destruction to the fish epidermis leading to sever heamodilution and death, yet little literature studied the oxidative stress response regarding the saprolegniosis. Nile tilapia fish were subcutaneously abraded and divided into four groups: control group, abraded but not challenged, infected group, challenged with Saprolegnia. ferax (S. ferax)...

  8. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE AND CLINOPTILOLITE ZEOLITE FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE: LABORATORY STUDY

    There are tens of thousands of closed landfills in the United States, many of whicih are unlined and sited on alluvial deposits. Landfills are of concern because leachate contains a variety of pollutants that can contaminate ground and surface water. Data from chemical analysis...

  9. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  10. Comparing the effectiveness of two applications of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate against Ichthyobodosis (Costiosis) on sunshine bass in tanks

    The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator, more commonly known as Costia, can cause significant fish losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. It is often associated with young fish that have been crowded, underfed, and held in waters with low flow, but ...

  11. Degradation of aromatic amines in textile-dyeing sludge by combining the ultrasound technique with potassium permanganate treatment.

    Liang, Jieying; Ning, Xun-An; An, Taicheng; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Yujie

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports, for the first time, a combined technique of ultrasound (US) with KMnO4 degradation of aromatic amines in a textile-dyeing sludge. The reaction mechanisms and the degradation kinetics of aromatic amines at various operating parameters (KMnO4 dosage, US power density and pH) were systematically examined by the combined system of US-KMnO4. The results indicated that there was a synergistic effect between US and KMnO4, as US greatly enhanced KMnO4 in the degradation of aromatic amines and exhibited apparent sludge disintegration and separated pollutants from the sludge. In addition to accelerating the Mn(VII) reaction with pollutants in the filtrate, US also caused Mn(VII) to enter the porous sludge and sufficiently facilitated the reaction of the strongly absorbed aromatic amines. The combined treatment of US-KMnO4 was effective in the degradation of aromatic amines in textile-dyeing sludge. On average, 58.7% of monocyclic anilines, 88.3% of other forms of aromatic amines, and 24.0% of TOC were removed under the optimal operating conditions of a KMnO4 dosage of 12mM, an US power density of 1.80W/cm(3) and pH 5. The present study proposed US-KMnO4 treatment as a practical method for the disposal of aromatic amines in textile-dyeing sludge. PMID:27107230

  12. Use of potassium-form cation-exchange resin as a conductimetric enhancer in ion-exclusion chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    Iwata, Tomotaka; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2009-09-15

    In this study, a cation-exchange resin (CEX) of the K(+)-form, i.e., an enhancer resin, is used as a postcolumn conductimetric enhancer in the ion-exclusion chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The enhancer resin is filled in the switching valve of an ion chromatograph; this valve is usually used as a suppressor valve in ion-exchange chromatography. An aliphatic carboxylic acid (e.g., CH(3)COOH) separated by a weakly acidic CEX column of the H(+)-form converts into that of the K(+)-form (e.g., CH(3)COOK) by passing through the enhancer resin. In contrast, the background conductivity decreases because a strong acid (e.g., HNO(3)) with a higher conductimetric response in an eluent converts into a salt (e.g., KNO(3)) with a lower conductimetric response. Since the pH of the eluent containing the resin enhancer increases from 3.27 to 5.85, the enhancer accelerates the dissociations of analyte acids. Consequently, peak heights and peak areas of aliphatic carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid) with the enhancer resin are 6.3-8.0 times higher and 7.2-9.2 times larger, respectively, than those without the enhancer resin. Calibrations of peak areas for injected analytes are linear in the concentration range of 0.01-1.0mM. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) range from 0.10 microM to 0.39 microM in this system, as opposed to those in the range of 0.24-7.1 microM in the separation column alone. The developed system is successfully applied to the determination of aliphatic carboxylic acids in a chicken droppings sample. PMID:19615503

  13. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat, E-mail: chanat@sut.ac.th [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0531 (United States); School of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: cvtcns@ku.ac.th [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Dvorak, Bruce, E-mail: bdvorak1@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0531 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transport experiments used transmissive and low permeability zones (LPZs). • {sup 14}C-labeled TCE was used to quantify oxidation of DNAPL in LPZs by permanganate. • Stabilization aids prevented MnO{sub 2} rind formation. • DNAPL oxidation improved when xanthan and stabilization aids were used. - Abstract: Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO{sub 4}{sup −}) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase {sup 14}C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO{sub 2} rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with {sup 14}C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO{sub 4}{sup −} alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO{sub 2} rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO{sub 4}{sup −}, the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP + MnO{sub 4}{sup −} improved TCE destruction by

  14. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transport experiments used transmissive and low permeability zones (LPZs). • 14C-labeled TCE was used to quantify oxidation of DNAPL in LPZs by permanganate. • Stabilization aids prevented MnO2 rind formation. • DNAPL oxidation improved when xanthan and stabilization aids were used. - Abstract: Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO4−) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase 14C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO2 rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with 14C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO4− alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO2 rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO4−, the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP + MnO4− improved TCE destruction by ∼16% over MnO4− alone (56.5% vs. 40.1%). These results support combining

  15. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  16. Single-step-synthesis of [1,2-14C]trichloroacetic acid starting from [1,2-14C]potassium acetate

    Modern trends in investigating tree damages have initiated an actual interest in [14C]trichloroacetic acid with specific activities >3,7 GBq/mmol. Oxidation of representative volatile air pollutants, as the chlorocarbons 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene, by UV-light leads to trichloroacetic acid. Their biotransformation can be examined only by tracer technique. However, [1,2-14C]trichloroacetic acid (I) of high specific activity is not commercially produced and the described methods for the synthesis of (I) are not feasible in a small scale synthesis (<1 mmol) with a maximum of radioactivity. (orig.)

  17. Effect of trivalent metal ion impurities (Al3+, Cr3+ and Fe3+) on the growth, structural and physical properties of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals

    Kanchana, P.; Elakkina Kumaran, A.; Sekar, C.

    2013-08-01

    Trivalent metal ion (Al, Cr, Fe) doped potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystals have been grown from aqueous solution at room temperature. Powder XRD and ICP-OES studies confirmed the metal ion doping into KAP crystals. The presence of functional groups in the crystal has been observed by FTIR analysis. Optical transmission studies were carried out by allowing the UV-NIR ray of wavelength between 190 and 1000 nm to pass through the (0 1 0) face of the grown KAP crystals. Dielectric constant value of Fe-doped KAP at 100 Hz was found to be significantly higher than that of undoped and Cr and Al-doped KAP. TG-DTA studies show the decomposition temperatures to be 255, 270, 258 and 287 °C for pure, Al3+, Cr3+ and Fe3+ doped KAP crystals respectively. Microhardness studies reveal that the Cr3+ and Fe3+ doped crystals have higher hardness values than that of undoped and Al-doped KAP. The grown crystals were also subjected to second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency tests.

  18. 以有机酸钾盐为可燃剂的气溶胶灭火剂试验%Experimental study on aerosol fire extinguishing agent with organic acid potassium as combustible material

    王鹏; 李玉

    2011-01-01

    用1 m密闭试验葙进行灭火性能试验,采用半分法得出两种以有机酸钾盐为主要可燃剂的气溶胶灭火剂的配方,并对比其灭火时间.在热气溶胶灭火剂中添加碳酸钾作为热耗散剂,以降低反应速度,减小火焰外喷.用兰利法进行试验,得出了两种灭火剂的99%概率灭火效能,在70~75 g/m之间.经测量,气溶胶灭火剂的燃烧产物是低毒的.气溶胶灭火剂在灭火时的不确定度很大,应以概率论的方法研究其灭火能力.%An airtight box with 1 m3 was used to test fire extinguishing performance; two kinds of aerosol fire extinguishing agents with organic acid potassium as combustible material were got by split- half method, and the fire- extinguishing time was compared. Potassium carbonate was added into aerosol fire extinguishing agents as heat dissipative agents to slow down the reaction and reduce the flame. Langlie method was used in experiments, the 99% application density of these twa extinguishing agents were got, between 70~75 g/m3. At last, the toxicity of combustion product of these two aerosol fire extinguishing agents was tested to be low. The application of probability theory in the study of fire extinguishing performance of aerosol fire extinguishing agent is necessary because of the uncertainty of putting out fire by aerosol fire extinguishing agents.

  19. Potassium sorbate-A new aqueous copper corrosion inhibitor

    Abelev, Esta [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ein-Eli, Yair [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.il

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the novel nature of 2,4-hexadienoic acid potassium salt (potassium sorbate (KCH{sub 3}CH=CHCH=CHCO{sub 2})) as an effective copper aqueous corrosion inhibitor. The influence of pH and potassium sorbate concentration on copper corrosion in aerated sulfate and chloride solutions is reported. Degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in potassium sorbate concentration; an optimum concentration of this inhibitor in sulfate solutions was found to be 10 g/L. Copper is highly resistant to corrosion attacks by chloride ions in the presence of potassium sorbate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that copper protection is achieved via the formation of a mixed layer of cuprous oxide, cupric hydroxide and copper(II)-sorbate at the metal surface.

  20. Effect of Nitric Acid Oxidation on Performance of Hard-water Resistance of Potassium Humate%硝酸氧化对腐植酸钾抗硬水性能的影响

    杭波; 王小宇; 杨晓军; 陈养平; 孙婷; 赵光跃

    2013-01-01

    Oxidizing lignite by 40%nitric acid at 75℃for 40 minutes with 10∶3 ratio could improve cohesion limits by 4.9%, but the cost of production is higher. Therefore, the technics of oxidative degradation of humic acid raw mate-rial was not recommended. In addition,nitric acid oxidation could not enhance the cohesion limits of weathered coal obviously. Factory production of potassium humate which had good performance of anti-hard water should used high-activity lignite as raw material, especially used lignite with higher cohesion limits and E4/E6 value.%  褐煤与40%浓度的硝酸以10∶3的比例,在75℃氧化40 min,可以提高凝聚限度4.9%,但由此增加的生产成本较高,所以在工厂化生产腐植酸钾时不建议采用氧化降解腐植酸原料分子量;风化煤经硝酸氧化后凝聚限度提高不明显;工厂化生产抗硬水比较好的腐植酸钾应采用活性比较好的褐煤为原料,以凝聚限度和E4/E6值比较大的原料为首选.

  1. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation of V2O5–(WO3)/TiO2 catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx upon exposure to aerosols of KCl or K2SO4, at different temperatures, has been studied. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours lost a substantial fraction of their initial activity although lower...... the transport of potassium. Using a newly developed experimental protocol consisting of two-layer pellets of SCR catalysts, where one side is impregnated with KCl or K2SO4, the potassium transport in such systems, which is assumed to take place through reactionand diffusion over acid sites, was investigated...

  2. Acid dissociation constant and apparent nucleophilicity of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide of sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase

    A combination of competitive labeling with [3H]acetic anhydride and immunoaffinity chromatography is described that permits the assignment of the acid dissociation constant and the absolute nucleophilicity of individual lysines in a native enzyme. The acid dissociation constant of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide in native (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was determined. This lysine had a normal pKa of 10.4. The rate constant for the reaction of the free base of lysine-501 with acetic anhydride at 10 degrees C is 400 M-1 s-1. This value is only 30% that for a fully accessible lysine in a protein. The lower than normal apparent nucleophilicity suggests that lysine-501 is hindered from reacting with its intrinsic nucleophilicity by the tertiary structure of the enzyme and is consistent with its location within a pocket that forms the active site upon the surface of the native protein

  3. Thermal decomposition of potassium bis-oxalatodiaquaindate(III) monohydrate

    Tesfahun Kebede; Karri V Ramana; M S Prasada Rao

    2001-08-01

    Indium (III) is precipitated with oxalic acid in the presence of potassium nitrate maintaining an overall concentration of 0 125 M in HNO3. Chemical analysis of the complex salt obtained indicates the formula, K[In(C2O4)2] 3H2O. Thermal decomposition studies show that the compound decomposes first to the anhydrous potassium indium oxalate and then to the final mixture of the oxides through formation of potassium carbonate and indium (III) oxide as intermediates. Isothermal study, X-ray diffraction pattern and IR spectral data support the proposed thermal decomposition mechanism.

  4. Influence of the amount of co-infused amino acids on post-therapeutic potassium levels in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Werner, Rudolf A; Lapa, Constantin; Bluemel, Christina; Lückerath, Katharina; Schirbel, Andreas; Strate, Alexander; Buck, Andreas K.; Herrmann, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Background Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is routinely used for advanced or metastasized neuroendocrine tumours (NET). To prevent nephrotoxicity, positively charged amino acids (AA) are co-infused. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk for therapy-related hyperkalaemia with the total amount of AA infused. Methods Twenty-two patients undergoing PRRT with standard activities of 177Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC were monitored during two following treatment cycles with co-i...

  5. Enhanced secretion of glucosyltransferase by changes in potassium ion concentrations is accompanied by an altered pattern of membrane fatty acids in Streptococcus salivarius.

    Markevics, L J; Jacques, N A

    1985-01-01

    Growth of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 in a Na+-based medium containing 1 to 50 mM K+ enhanced extracellular glucosyltransferase production by 3.7-fold over the level of enzyme found in a K+-based medium containing 184 mM K+. Enzyme synthesis and secretion were further enhanced in a nonlinear manner with respect to the concentration of K+ in the medium when cells were cultured from an inoculum grown in the presence of 1 mM K+. This concentration of K+ was the minimum required to maintain a near-maximum growth rate for S. salivarius in medium where K+ was limited. A maximum sevenfold stimulation of glucosyltransferase production occurred at 18 mM K+ under these conditions. Analysis of the total membrane lipids showed that the composition of octadecanoic acid increased with decreasing K+ concentration essentially at the expense of the octadecenoic acid moiety. Extracellular glucosyltransferase production was found to be directly related to the ratio of these two fatty acids. Similar confirmatory results over a greater range of enzyme production were obtained with nonproliferating cell suspensions. PMID:3156125

  6. PREPARED POTASSIUM SALT OF CARBOXYMETHYL PINE WOOD IN A MICROWAVE

    Вадим Иванович Маркин; Марина Юрьевна Чепрасова; Наталья Григорьевна Базарнова; Евгения Олеговна Фролова

    2013-01-01

    Microwave radiation to intensify the process of carboxymethylation of pine wood without prior separation of the individual components is proposed to use . Carboxymethylated pine wood in the form of the potassium salt obtained by treating the pine potassium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid in 2-propanol . Composition and properties of the products were investigated . Carboxymethylcellulose isolated from carboxymethylated pine wood. Increasing the power of microwave radiation (210 to 700 W) ...

  7. Hg(0) absorption in potassium persulfate solution.

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-05-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag(+) was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg(0) concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg(0) were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg(0) increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg(0) was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO(3). High Hg(0) concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  8. Americium(III) oxidation by copper(III) periodate in nitric acid solution as compared with the action of Bi(V) compounds of sodium, lithium, and potassium

    The oxidative action of a Cu(III) periodate compound toward Am(III) in nitric acid was studied. The extent of oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) was investigated using a constant initial Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio of 10:1 and varying nitric acid concentrations from 0.25 to 3.5 mol/L. From 0.25 to 3 mol/L HNO3, more than 98% of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(VI); however, at 3.5 mol/L HNO3, the conversion to Am(VI) was only 80%. Increasing the Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio to 20:1 in 3.5 mol/L HNO3 resulted in 98% conversion to Am(VI). For comparison, oxidation of Am(III) with NaBiO3 was studied at 3.5 mol/L HNO3 and the same stoichiometric excess of Bi(V) oxidant over Am(III) (stoichiometric ratio of 3.33:1). With NaBiO3, the extent of Am(III) conversion to Am(VI) was only 19%, while with the Cu(III) compound this value was found to be about 4 times higher under otherwise identical conditions. Similar results were obtained with other Bi(V) salts. These results show that the Cu(III) periodate compound is a superior oxidant to NaBiO3, yielding rapid conversion to Am(VI) in a homogeneous acidic solution, and is, therefore, an excellent candidate for further development of Am separation systems.

  9. Americium(III) oxidation by copper(III) periodate in nitric acid solution as compared with the action of Bi(V) compounds of sodium, lithium, and potassium

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Radiochemical Processing Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The oxidative action of a Cu(III) periodate compound toward Am(III) in nitric acid was studied. The extent of oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) was investigated using a constant initial Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio of 10:1 and varying nitric acid concentrations from 0.25 to 3.5 mol/L. From 0.25 to 3 mol/L HNO3, more than 98% of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(VI); however, at 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, the conversion to Am(VI) was only 80%. Increasing the Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio to 20:1 in 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3} resulted in 98% conversion to Am(VI). For comparison, oxidation of Am(III) with NaBiO{sub 3} was studied at 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3} and the same stoichiometric excess of Bi(V) oxidant over Am(III) (stoichiometric ratio of 3.33:1). With NaBiO{sub 3}, the extent of Am(III) conversion to Am(VI) was only 19%, while with the Cu(III) compound this value was found to be about 4 times higher under otherwise identical conditions. Similar results were obtained with other Bi(V) salts. These results show that the Cu(III) periodate compound is a superior oxidant to NaBiO{sub 3}, yielding rapid conversion to Am(VI) in a homogeneous acidic solution, and is, therefore, an excellent candidate for further development of Am separation systems.

  10. Analysis of potassium-40 in fertilizers containing potassium

    Remarking on gamma emitters, and making use of a pure germanium detector and a multichannel pulse-height-analyzer, analysis of natural radioactive nuclides in several fertilizers containing potassium was carried out. As the result of analyses on five samples, 228>Th, 226Ra, 235U and 40K were observed in all of the three compound-fertilizers, but no nuclide excepting 40Kwas observed in potassium chloride and potassium sulfate. 40K was fixed to be the most abundant nuclide, and the others were observed only in trace amounts. The activities of 40K in these fertilizers were nearly proportional to the contents of potassium in the samples. Contents of potassium in the fertilizers were obviously estimated from the values of 40K activities on the basis of natural abundance of 40K in potassium, and the contents estimated were in good agreement with the values determined by a chemical method

  11. Effects of deletion and insertion of amino acids on the activity of HelaTx1, a scorpion toxin on potassium channels.

    Peigneur, Steve; Esaki, Nao; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-03-01

    Four analogs of HelaTx1, a 25-mer peptide from scorpion venom, were synthesized by deleting its C-terminal hexapeptide fragment and N-terminal Ser residue and by inserting an amino acid in the middle part of the molecule. CD spectrum of HelaTx1(1-19) was almost superimposable to that of native HelaTx1. Functional characterization showed that HelaTx1(1-19) retained its inhibitory activity on Kv1.1 channel although 3 times less potent than HelaTx1, indicating that C-terminal part of HelaTx1 was not essential for its conformation and activity. Further deletion of N-terminal Ser residue and insertion of Ala in the middle part of the molecule affected the CD spectra and resulted in the decrease of activity. PMID:26724500

  12. The influence of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone on catalytic currents in the system molybdenum(VI) - potassium chlorate in acid sulfate solutions

    The polarographic catalytic current in acid solutions of Mo(VI), 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (TSC 2,3-DHBA) and chlorate ions has been investigated. The scheme of reactions, taking place in the solutions and on the electrode, has been proposed. The increase of the catalytic current is explained by the formation of an active intermediate complex [Mo(V) TSC 2,3-DHBA (ClO-3)]. The rate constant of this complex formation K = 2.56x106 mol-1 dm3 s-1, the activation energy Ea = 15.9 kcal x mol-1 and the reaction activation entropy ΔSa≠ = -23.5 e.u. have been calculated. (authors)

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF THIOSEMICARBAZONE 2,3-DIHYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE ON CATALYTIC CURRENTS IN THE SYSTEM MOLYBDENUM (VI – POTASSIUM CHLORATE IN ACID SULFATE SOLUTIONS

    Ludmila Chiriac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The polarographic catalytic current in acid solutions of Mo(VI, thiosemicarbazone 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (TSC 2,3-DHBA and chlorate ions has been investigated. The scheme of reactions, taking place in the solutions and on the electrode, has been proposed. The increase of the catalytic current is explained by the formation of an active intermediate complex [Mo(V×TSC 2,3-DHBA (ClO-3]. The rate constant of this complex formation K = 2.56 × 106 mol-1×dm3×s-1, the activation energy Ea = 15.9 kcal×mol-1 and the reaction activation entropy ∆Sa¹ = -23.5 e.u. have been calculated.

  14. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  15. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  16. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  17. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a)

  18. Potassium-Related Periodic Paralysis

    A Lesani; MH Moradi Nejad

    1995-01-01

    Potassium-related periodic paralysis may be associated with hypo, normo, or hyperkalemic disturbance of the Potassium level. Clinical features, laboratory findings and ECG as well as EMG changes are different in the 3 types of the disease. The treatment demands correction of the Potassium level of the blood serum. The disease is normally transferred as an autosomal dominant trait. In this article we present a 9-year old girl who suffered from hypokalemic paralysis since she was 4 years old.

  19. Recipe for potassium

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (e (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density ρmax (107, 108, and 109 [g/cm3]), and the e-fold time τ for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have ρmax = 109[g/cm3]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  20. Positron scattering by potassium

    Coupled-state calculations in a K(4s, 4p, 5s, 5p, 3d) + Ps(1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d) approximation are reported for positron scattering by ground-state potassium in the energy range 0.5-60.0 eV. Comparison is made with the earlier work of Hewitt et al (1993, 1994) in a K(4s, 4p, 5s, 5p) + Ps(1s, 2s, 2p) approximation. For the first time cross sections for positronium formation in n = 3 states are obtained. (author)

  1. Potassium in milk and milk products

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. Examining the Critical Roles of Protons in Facilitating Oxidation of Chloride Ions by Permanganates: A Cluster Model Study

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Zhenrong; Wang, Xue B.

    2015-06-18

    The oxidation power of permanganates (MnO4–) is known to be strongly dependent on pH values, and is greatly enhanced in acidic solutions, in which, for example, MnO4– can even oxidize Cl– ions to produce Cl2 molecules. Although such dependence has been ascribed due to the different reduced states of Mn affordable in different pH media, a molecular level understanding and characterization of initial redox pair complexes available in different pH solutions is very limited. Herein, we report a comparative study of [MnO4]– and [MnO4•Sol]– (Sol = H2O, KCl, and HCl) anion clusters by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and theoretical computations to probe chemical bonding and electronic structures of [MnO4•Sol]– clusters, aimed to obtain a microscopic understanding of how MnO4– interacts with surrounding molecules. Our study shows that H2O behaves as a solvent molecule, KCl is a spectator bound by pure electrostatic interactions, both of which do not influence the MnO4– identity in their respective clusters. In contrast, in [MnO4•HCl]–, the proton is found to interact with both MnO4– and Cl– with appreciable covalent characters, and the frontier MOs of the cluster are comprised of contributions from both MnO4– and Cl– moieties. Therefore the proton serves as a chemical bridge, bringing two negatively charged redox species together to form an intimate redox pair. By adding more H+ to MnO4–, the oxygen atom can be taken away in the form of a water molecule, leaving MnO4– as an electron deficient MnO3+ species, which can subsequently oxidize Cl– ions.

  3. Impact of injection system design on ISCO performance with permanganate — mathematical modeling results

    Cha, Ki Young; Borden, Robert C.

    2012-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using permanganate (MnO 4-) can be a very effective technique for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. However, many ISCO projects are less effective than desired because of poor delivery of the chemical reagents to the treatment zone. In this work, the numerical model RT3D was modified and applied to evaluate the effect of aquifer characteristics and injection system design on contact and treatment efficiency. MnO 4- consumption was simulated assuming the natural oxidant demand (NOD) is composed of a fraction that reacts instantaneously and a fraction that slowly reacts following a 2nd order relationship where NOD consumption rate increases with increasing MnO 4- concentration. MnO 4- consumption by the contaminant was simulated as an instantaneous reaction. Simulation results indicate that the mass of permanganate and volume of water injected has the greatest impact on aquifer contact efficiency and contaminant treatment efficiency. Several small injection events are not expected to increase contact efficiency compared to a single large injection event, and can increase the amount of un-reacted MnO 4- released down-gradient. High groundwater flow velocities can increase the fraction of aquifer contacted. Initial contaminant concentration and contaminant retardation factor have only a minor impact on volume contact efficiency. Aquifer heterogeneity can have both positive and negative impacts on remediation system performance, depending on the injection system design.

  4. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the results from the two human intervention studies provided which investigated the effects of potassium citrate on bone mineral density in post-menopausal women are conflicting, and that the adequately powered intervention study of longer duration...

  6. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate that...... they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure. The...

  7. The Oxidation of Terminal Alkenes by Permanganate: A Practical Demonstration of the Use of Phase Transfer Agents.

    Brown, Keith C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Use of phase transfer agents to facilitate/accelerate chemical reactions has become an established practice, particularly in organic chemistry. Describes an undergraduate laboratory procedure demonstrating the principles involved in the use of said agents. Includes student results from phase transfer assisted permanganate oxidations. (Author/JN)

  8. NF EN 14109. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the potassium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy; NF EN 14109. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en potassium par spectrometrie d'absorption atomique

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of sodium contents for concentrations equal or greater than 0.5 mg/kg. This method is applicable to fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) intended to be incorporated to mineral oils. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  9. Yield and Cs137 and Sr90 accumulation by crops depending on rates of potassium fertilizer

    In field experiments was established that Cs137 and Sr90 content in crops are reduces at the increasing of extractable potassium content in soils up to 240-260 mg/kg of soils. The effectiveness of application of potassium fertilizers depends on potassium soil status, soil acidity and level of manure application. The high rate of potassium fertilizers taking account of soil fertility allows to increase the crop yield i 1,5-4,8 times with reducing of Cs137 and Sr90 accumulation in 1,3-4,0 times tj the control treatment without fertilizers

  10. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation lowers bone turnover and calcium excretion in older men and women a randomized dose-finding trial

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bic...

  11. Remediating RDX-contaminated ground water with permanganate: laboratory investigations for the Pantex perched aquifer.

    Adam, M L; Comfort, S D; Morley, M C; Snow, D D

    2004-01-01

    Ground water beneath the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant is contaminated with the high explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine). The USDOE Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) program identified in situ oxidation by permanganate as a technology fit for further investigation. We evaluated the efficacy of KMnO(4) to transform and mineralize RDX by determining degradation kinetics and carbon mass balances using (14)C-RDX. Aqueous RDX solutions (2-5 mg L(-1)) and RDX-contaminated slurries (50% solids, w/v) were treated with KMnO(4) at 1000, 2000, 4000, and 20000 mg L(-1). Treating an aqueous RDX solution of 2.8 mg L(-1) with 20000 mg KMnO(4) L(-1) decreased RDX to 0.1 mg L(-1) within 11 d while cumulative mineralization proceeded for 14 d until 87% of the labeled carbon was trapped as (14)CO(2). Similar cumulative mineralization was obtained when Pantex aquifer material was included in the solution matrix. Other experiments using 4000 mg KMnO(4) L(-1) showed that initial RDX concentrations (1.3-10.4 mg L(-1)) or initial pH (4-11) had little effect on reaction rates. Attempts to identify RDX degradates and reaction products showed that N(2)O was a product of permanganate oxidation and constituted 20 to 30% of the N balance. Time-course measurements of a (14)C-RDX solution treated with KMnO(4) revealed few (14)C-labeled degradates but through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, we present evidence that 4-nitro-2,4-diaza-butanol is formed. Aquifer microcosm studies confirmed that the transformation products not mineralized by KMnO(4) were much more biodegradable than parent RDX. These results indicate permanganate can effectively transform and mineralize RDX in the presence of aquifer material and support its use as an in situ chemical oxidation treatment for the Pantex perched aquifer. PMID:15537939

  12. Test Report for Permanganate and Cold Strontium Strike for Tank 241-AN-102

    Duncan, James B.; Huber, Heinz J.; Smalley, Colleen S.

    2013-11-27

    Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 supernatants contain soluble Sr-90 and transuranic elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste specification (WTP Contract, DE-AC27-01RV 14136, Specification 2.2.2.8, "Radionuclide Concentration Limitations") and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission provisional agreement on waste incidental to reprocessing (letter, Paperiello, C. J., "Classification of Hanford Low-Activity Tank Waste Fraction"). These two tanks have high concentrations of organics and organic complexants and are referred to as complexant concentrate tanks. A precipitation process using sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) was developed and tested with tank waste samples to precipitate Sr-90 and transuranic elements from the supernate (PNWD-3141, Optimization of Sr/TRU Removal Conditions with Samples of AN-102 Tank Waste). Testing documented in this report was conducted to further evaluate the use of the strontium nitrate/sodium permanganate process in tank farms with a retention time of up to 12 months. Previous testing was focused on developing a process for deployment in the ultrafiltration vessels in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. This environment is different from tank farms in two important ways: the waste is diluted in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant to ~5.5 M sodium, whereas the supernate in the tank farms is ~9 M Na. Secondly, while the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant allows for a maximum treatment time of hours to days, the in-tank farms treatment of tanks 241-AN102 and 241-AN-107 will result in a retention time of months (perhaps up to12 months) before processing. A comparative compilation of separation processes for Sr/transuranics has been published as RPP-RPT-48340, Evaluation of Alternative Strontium and Transuranic Separation Processes. This report also listed the testing

  13. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of substituted benzylamines by cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    Raghvendra Shukla; Pradeep K Sharma; László Kótai; Kalyan K Banerji

    2003-04-01

    Oxidation of meta- and para-substituted benzylamines by cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) to the corresponding aldimines is first order with respect to both the amine and CTAP. Oxidation of deuteriated benzylamine (PhCD2NH2) exhibited the presence of a substantial kinetic isotope effect (/ = 5.60 at 293 K). This confirmed the cleavage of an -C-H bond in the ratedetermining step. Correlation analyses of the rates of oxidation of 19 monosubstituted benzylamines were performed with various single and multiparametric equations. The rates of the oxidation showed excellent correlations in terms of Yukawa-Tsuno and Brown’s equations. The polar reaction constants are negative. The oxidation exhibited an extensive cross-conjugation, in the transition state, between the electron-donating substituents and the reaction centre. A mechanism involving a hydride-ion transfer from the amine to CTAP in the rate-determining step has been proposed.

  15. Investigations on organolead compounds V. Lead---lead bond cleavage reactions of hexaphenyldilead

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1968-01-01

    It has been shown that a number of nucleophilic and weakly electrophilic reagents (organolithium and organomagnesium compounds, metallic lithium, potassium permanganate, sodium ethoxide, diaryl disulphides, sulphur, ozone, hypochlorous acid and iodine/iodide) selectively cleave the lead---lead bond

  16. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  17. 钾水平对巴西橡胶树幼苗磷组分和酸性磷酸酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Potassium Levels on Components of Phosphorus and Activities of the Acid Phosphatase in H.brasiliensis Seedlings

    吴敏; 何鹏; 韦家少; 吴炳孙

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of different potassium levels on components of phosphorus and activities of acid phosphatase in different organs of H. Brasiliensis seedling. [ Method] Seedlings derived from seeds of rubber trees of Clone RRIM600 ( H. Brasiliensis ) were grown under hydroponic culture at different levels of potassium (K2O concentration was 0, 1, 10, 50, 250 mg/L) to determine their components of phosphorus and the activities of the acid phosphatase. [ Result] The results indicated that the contents of the soluble phosphoruses and the ratios were decreased under the deficiency of the potassium nutrients, but increased the contents and the ratios of the insoluble phosphorus. The results of significance test of difference indicated that the contents of the soluble phosphorus which were the highest in roots, secondly in skins of the stem, thirdly in leaves were significantly different in different organs, but the contents of the insoluble phosphorus in the roots were significantly greater than the contents in the leaves and the skins of the stem, moreover the contents of the insoluble phosphorus were not significant different between the roots and the skins of the stem. The activities of the acid phosphatase were highly significantly different among the different organs, but oppositely in same organs under the different levels of potassium. [ Conclusion] The study reveals the components characters of phosphorus and activities change law of the acid phosphatase in different organs of H. Brasiliensis seedling under different potassium levels, can lay theoretic basis for reasonable application of potassium and phosphorus during the growth periods of H. Brasiliensis.%[目的]研究不同钾水平对巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)幼苗各器官磷组分和酸性磷酸酶活性的影响.[方法]采用水培试验.试验材料为巴西橡胶树RRIM600种子实生幼苗,K2O浓度分别为0、1、10、50、250 mg/L.[结果]缺钾降低了橡

  18. [Determination of potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy].

    Xie, C; Wen, X; Jia, Y; Sun, S

    2001-06-01

    Sodium is used as a coolant in China experiment fast reactor (CEFR). Potassium in sodium has an influence on heat property of reactor. A analytical method has been developed to determinate potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy. Sodium sample is dissolved by ultrasonic humidifier. The working conditions of the instrument and inTerferences from matrix sodium, acid effect and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with potassium chloride. The percentage recoveries are 94.7%-109.8%. The relative standard deviation is 4.2%. The analytical range accords with sodium quality control standard of CFFR. The precision corresponds to the international analytical method in sodium coolant reactor. PMID:12947670

  19. PREPARED POTASSIUM SALT OF CARBOXYMETHYL PINE WOOD IN A MICROWAVE

    Вадим Иванович Маркин

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiation to intensify the process of carboxymethylation of pine wood without prior separation of the individual components is proposed to use . Carboxymethylated pine wood in the form of the potassium salt obtained by treating the pine potassium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid in 2-propanol . Composition and properties of the products were investigated . Carboxymethylcellulose isolated from carboxymethylated pine wood. Increasing the power of microwave radiation (210 to 700 W and the duration of the first and second stages of the process of carboxymethylation (20-30 sec increases the content of carboxymethyl groups (18,3-25,6 %. Abnormally low solubility of the potassium salts of carboxymethylated pine wood (10–18% compared to the sodium salt with a comparable content of carboxymethyl groups was detected. Study viscosity of aqueous solutions carboxymethylated pine and carboxymethylcellulose derived from it was performed. It is shown that the samples obtained at microwave power of 210 W have abnormal flow curves.

  20. An evaluation of potassium ions as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in porcine coronary arteries.

    Bény, J L; Schaad, O

    2000-11-01

    In the rat hepatic artery, the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) was identified as potassium. Potassium hyperpolarizes the smooth muscles by gating inward rectified potassium channels and by activating the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase). Our goal was to examine whether potassium could explain the EDHF in porcine coronary arteries. On coronary strips, the inhibition of calcium-dependent potassium channels with 100 nM apamin plus 100 microM charibdotoxin inhibited the endothelium-dependent relaxations, produced by 10 nM substance P and 300 nM bradykinin and resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. The scavenging of potassium with 2 mM Kryptofix 2.2.2 abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxations produced by the kinins and resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. Forty microM 18alpha glycyrrethinic acid or 50 microM palmitoleic acid, both uncoupling agents, did not inhibit these kinin relaxations. Therefore, EDHF does not result from an electrotonic spreading of an endothelial hyperpolarization. Barium (0.3 nM) did not inhibit the kinin relaxations resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. Therefore, EDHF does not result from the activation of inward rectified potassium channels. Five hundred nM ouabain abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxations resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin without inhibiting the endothelium-derived NO relaxation. The perifusion of a medium supplemented with potassium depolarized and contracted a coronary strip; however, the short application of potassium hyperpolarized the smooth muscles. These results are compatible with the concept that, in porcine coronary artery, the EDHF is potassium released by the endothelial cells and that this ion hyperpolarizes and relaxes the smooth muscles by activating the Na(+)-K(+)ATPase. PMID:11053218

  1. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  2. Exploring the potential of the permanganate oxidation method as a tool to monitor soil quality in agricultural upland systems of Southeast Asia

    Hepp, Catherine M.; Bruun, Thilde Bech; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The transition to more intensified upland systems is having an impact on the soil quality, defined as the ability of a soil to both provide and maintain essential services to an ecosystem. As many tropical upland soils are inherently low in quality, it is essential that impacts be monitored. Soil quality is assessed by using a combination of parameters that serve as indicators and cover the soil chemical, biological and physical properties. An ideal indicator should be sensitive to changes in the environment and management practices and should be widely accessible, meaning low resource requirement (i.e. time and equipment). Total organic carbon (TOC) content is a commonly used indicator of soil quality as it is linked to many soil functions and processes; however analysis is costly and requires access to advanced instrumental facilities, rendering it unsuited for many developing countries. An alternative indicator is the soil fraction dominated by easily decomposable carbon; this may be measured by treating soil samples with 0.2M potassium permanganate (KMnO4), an oxidizing agent which is thought to mimic the enzymes released by the soil microbial community. The advantage of this method is that it is accessible: it is fast, requires little resource input and is field appropriate. There is no consensus however as to which soil carbon fraction the method targets. Furthermore Skjemstad et al. (2006) has indicated that KMnO4 may oxidise charcoal, a component of the non-labile carbon pool; this has implications for the suitability of the method when used for soils of shifting cultivation systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of permanganate oxidizable carbon (Pox C) as a reliable indicator of soil quality in agricultural upland systems in Northern Lao PDR. Focus was placed on the relations between Pox C and other soil quality parameters (bulk density, pH, CEC, TOC, total N, exchangeable K, plant available P) and upland rice yields. The

  3. Kinetic, mechanistic and spectral investigation of ruthenium (III)-catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate (stopped-flow technique)

    Rahamatalla M Mulla; Gurubasavaraj C Hiremath; Sharanappa T Nandibewoor

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0.30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry (atenolol : KMnO4). The reaction shows first-order dependence on [permanganate] and [ruthenium (III)] and apparently less than unit order on both atenolol and alkali concentrations. Reaction rate decreases with increase in ionic strength and increases with decreasing dielectric constant of the medium. Initial addition of reaction products does not affect the rate significantly. A mechanism involving the formation of a complex between catalyst and substrate has been proposed. The active species of ruthenium (III) is understood as [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of mechanism are calculated. Activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanism are computed and discussed and thermodynamic quantities are also calculated.

  4. 21 CFR 520.88h - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... of amoxicillin with clavulanate potassium equivalent to 12.5 milligrams of clavulanic acid. (b... milligrams (equivalent to 5 milligrams amoxicillin and 1.25 milligrams clavulanic acid) per pound of body....5 milligrams (1 milliliter) (50 milligrams of amoxicillin and 12.5 milligrams clavulanic acid)...

  5. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders

    V.G. Goffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni2+ ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiOx. This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH.

  6. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders.

    Goffman, V G; Gorokhovsky, A V; Gorshkov, N V; Fedorov, F S; Tretychenko, E V; Sevrugin, A V

    2015-09-01

    Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni(2+) ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiO x . This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH. PMID:26217788

  7. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium. PMID:23425010

  8. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers; Brenner, B M; Cooper, M E; Parving, Hans-Henrik Dyring; Shahinfar, S; Grobbee, D; de Zeeuw, D

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  9. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. Simple and Efficient Synthesis of Racemic 2-(tert-Butoxycarbon-ylamino-2-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylpropanoic Acid, a New Derivative of β-(1,2,4-Triazol-1-ylalanine

    Abdelali Kerbal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic approach to racemic N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylalanine (5 in four steps and 68% overall yield starting from oxazoline derivative 1 is reported. This synthesis involves the alkylation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole with an O-tosyloxazoline derivative, followed by an oxazoline ring-opening reaction and oxidation of the N-protected β‑aminoalcohol by potassium permanganate.

  11. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  12. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  15. The key role of water in the heterogeneous permanganate oxidation of $\\omega$-hydroxy alkenes

    Baskaran, Sundarababu; Islam, Imadul; Vankar, Padma S; Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    1990-01-01

    Potassium permanganate–copper sulphate in dichloromethane in the presence of a catalytic amount of water effects a smooth oxidative cyclization of $\\omega$-hydroxy alkenes to $\\omega$-lactones in good yields with the net loss of one or more carbon atoms in the process.

  16. Evaluation of Three Flow Injection Analysis Methods for the Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand

    Korenaga, Takashi; Moriwake, Tosio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1984-01-01

    Three methods for determining chemical oxygen demand (COD) by means of flow injection analysis (FIA) with potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, or cerium(IV) sulfate as oxidant, developed in this laboratory, are described from the point of view of their operating properties. The permanganate method is the most sensitive and common, but forms manganese(IV) oxide precipitate which blocks the FIA lines and connectors. Addition of phosphoric acid in the reagent system is, however, effecti...

  17. Electroprecipitation of potassium americyl carbonate from potassium carbonate solutions

    Precipitation of potassium americyl carbonate was carried out at multigram scale by oxidizing americium(III) at the platinum anode in 3M K2CO3 solutions. Early investigations were conducted on pure americium 241 solutions on the 10 to 40 mg scale, in order to study the different parameters of the electrolysis, and to prove the feasibility of the process. Further experiments were performed on the 20 g scale, in impure americium 241 solutions. Electrolysis performed at 600C with a platinum grid as the anode, and a tantalum rod immersed in a cathodic compartment, precipitated 20 g of americium 241 with yields above 99% in 2 h. The electroprecipitation process presents the advantage of being clean and suitable for automation techniques in comparison with the chemical oxidation process using potassium persulphate. (orig.)

  18. Electroprecipitation of potassium americyl carbonate from potassium carbonate solutions

    Precipitation of potassium americyl carbonate was carried out at multigram scale by oxidizing at platinum anode Am(III) in 3 M K2CO3 solutions. Early investigations were conducted on pure americium 241 solutions on 10 to 40 mg scale, in order to study the different parameters of the electrolysis, and to prove the faisability of the process. Further experiments have been performed on the 20 grams scale, in impure americium 241 solutions. Electrolysis performed at 600C with platinum grid as anode, and tantalum rod immersed in a cathodic compartment, precipitates 20 grams of americium 241 with yields above 99% in two hours. The electroprecipitation process presents the advantage to be clean and suitable for automation technique in comparison with the chemical oxidation process using potassium persulfate

  19. 高锰酸钾强化预氯化处理微污染原水%Pre-chlorination Enhanced by Potassium Permanganate for Micropolluted Raw Water Treatment

    杨艳玲; 李星; 王晓玲; 李圭白; 张辉

    2003-01-01

    以总大肠菌群、细菌总数作为检测指标,采用人工配水考察了氯、高锰酸钾各自和联合应用灭活水中微生物的效果.结果表明,氯和高锰酸钾联用对配水中的指示微生物灭活效果好于这两种消毒剂单独使用的效果.通过Berenbaum公式计算证实,氯和高锰酸钾联用在灭活微生物指标上为协同作用,因而对微污染原水进行预氯化处理时,在获得相同消毒效果的前提下,投加高锰酸钾可以减少氯的投量,进而减少氯化副产物的生成.

  20. Application research of potassium permanganate in denim washing%高锰酸钾在牛仔洗水中应用研究

    刘中君

    2013-01-01

    根据漂、雪花洗和喷马骝工艺的不同,研究了高猛酸钾和磷酸不同配比对靛蓝牛仔布加工的效果,确定了高猛酸钾和磷酸在各个工序的最佳配比和在生产中的调配方法.

  1. Fast and Green Microwave-Assisted Conversion of Essential Oil Allylbenzenes into the Corresponding Aldehydes via Alkene Isomerization and Subsequent Potassium Permanganate Promoted Oxidative Alkene Group Cleavage

    Luu, Thi Xuan Thi; Lam, Trinh To; Le, Thach Ngoc;

    2009-01-01

    oxidation of the latter to the corresponding benzaldehyde by KMnO4/CuSO4 center dot 5H(2)O. The assistance by microwave irradiation results in very short reaction times (<15 minutes). The green conversion of eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) into vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) has been carried...... out in a similar way, requiring however two additional microwave-assisted synthetic steps for acetylation of the hydroxy group prior to the oxidation reaction, and for the final deacetylation of vanillin acetate (4-acetoxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) by KF/Al2O3 under solvent-free conditions, respectively....

  2. Fast and Green Microwave-Assisted Conversion of Essential Oil Allylbenzenes into the Corresponding Aldehydes via Alkene Isomerization and Subsequent Potassium Permanganate Promoted Oxidative Alkene Group Cleavage

    Thi X. Thi Luu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil allylbenzenes from have been converted quickly and efficiently into the corresponding benzaldehydes in good yields by a two-step “green” reaction pathway based on a solventless alkene group isomerization by KF/Al2O3 to form the corresponding 1-arylpropene and a subsequent solventless oxidation of the latter to the corresponding benzaldehyde by KMnO4/CuSO4·5H2O. The assistance by microwave irradiation results in very short reaction times (<15 minutes. The green conversion of eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol into vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde has been carried out in a similar way, requiring however two additional microwave-assisted synthetic steps for acetylation of the hydroxy group prior to the oxidation reaction, and for the final deacetylation of vanillin acetate (4-acetoxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde by KF/Al2O3 under solvent-free conditions, respectively.

  3. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  4. Fast and Green Microwave-Assisted Conversion of Essential Oil Allylbenzenes into the Corresponding Aldehydes via Alkene Isomerization and Subsequent Potassium Permanganate Promoted Oxidative Alkene Group Cleavage

    Thi X. Thi Luu; Trinh To Lam; Thach Ngoc Le; Fritz Duus

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil allylbenzenes from have been converted quickly and efficiently into the corresponding benzaldehydes in good yields by a two-step “green” reaction pathway based on a solventless alkene group isomerization by KF/Al2O3 to form the corresponding 1-arylpropene and a subsequent solventless oxidation of the latter to the corresponding benzaldehyde by KMnO4/CuSO4·5H2O. The assistance by microwave irradiation results in very short reaction times (<15 minutes). The green conversion of ...

  5. Determination of silicon dioxide in siliceous refractory materials by potassium fluosilicate precipitation-acid base titration method%氟硅酸钾沉淀-酸碱滴定法测定硅质耐火材科料中二氧化硅

    李环亭; 董艳艳; 刘晓毅; 孙晓红; 赵维平

    2011-01-01

    提出一种不用铂金坩埚和不需要用氢氟酸挥硅的氟硅酸钾沉淀-酸碱滴定法测定硅质耐火材料中SiO2含量方法,考察了检测的准确度和精确度,探讨了影响检测的干扰因素和可能的干扰机理.试样在银或者镍坩埚中,用氢氧化钠熔融,二氧化硅转化为硅酸钠,在有过量氯化钾存在的强酸性溶液中加入氟化钾溶液,生成氟硅酸钾沉淀,经过滤、洗涤后溶于沸水中,以酚酞为指示剂,NaOH标准溶液滴定水解后生成的氢氟酸.试样中SiO2的质量分数与Al2O3的质量分数比值大于或等于3.5时Al2O3对测定没有影响.应用本法检测硅质砂岩、硅砖等硅质耐火材料样品中的SiO2含量,测定值与认定值相符,且重复性较好.%A determination method of silicon dioxide in siliceous refractory materials by potassium fluosilicate precipitation-acid-base titration method was established. Neither a platinum crucible nor the volatilization of silicon by hydrofluoric acid was needed. The determination accuracy and precision were investigated. The interference factors and possible interference mechanism were discussed. The samples were melted in a silver or nickel crucible with sodium hydroxide, during which the silicon dioxide in sample was converted into sodium silicate. Then, potassium fluoride solution was added into strong acid solution containing excessive potassium chloride to form potassium fluosilicate precipitation. After filtration and washing, the precipitates were dissolved in boiling water. The generated hydrofluoric acid through hydrolysis was titrated with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as indicator. It was generally considered that. when the ratio between mass fraction of silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide in sample was higher or equal to 3. 5, the aluminum oxide had no influence on the determination. This method has been applied to the determination of silicon dioxide in siliceous refractory materials

  6. Determination of arsenic by pervaporation-flow injection hydride generation and permanganate spectrophotometric detection

    Rupasinghe, Thusitha; Cardwell, Terence J.; Cattrall, Robert W.; Potter, Ian D.; Kolev, Spas D

    2004-05-17

    A novel pervaporation-flow injection (PFI) system for the determination of As(III) in aqueous samples at {mu}g l{sup -1} level is described. The analytical procedure involved stopping the acceptor stream and injecting acidified As(III) samples into a 0.3 M HCl stream which was mixed with a 0.14 M sodium borohydride in 0.025 M NaOH stream. The arsine generated was transported in the pervaporation unit across a semi-permeable membrane (1.5 mm thickness) into the static acceptor solution containing 1.0x10{sup -4} M KMnO{sub 4} in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} where it was oxidised. The acceptor stream was restarted after 6.5 min, and the decrease in permanganate absorbance at 528 nm was monitored to determine the initial concentration of As(III) in the samples. The method is characterised by a linear calibration range from 0.25 to 2000 {mu}g l{sup -1}, a detection limit of 0.18 {mu}g l{sup -1} and a sampling frequency of 7 h{sup -1}. Samples containing As(V) were pre-treated with KI and HCl prior to injection to reduce As(V) to As(III). The effects of common anionic and cationic interferences, and the elimination of some metallic interferences using L-cysteine are discussed. The method was applied to the analysis of environmental waters and the results were in good agreement with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric data.

  7. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  8. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  9. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  10. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  11. Bioinspired Artificial Sodium and Potassium Ion Channels.

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Nuria; Fuertes, Alberto; Amorín, Manuel; Granja, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, all biological systems present a high level of compartmentalization in order to carry out a wide variety of functions in a very specific way. Hence, they need ways to be connected with the environment for communication, homeostasis equilibrium, nutrition, waste elimination, etc. The biological membranes carry out these functions; they consist of physical insulating barriers constituted mainly by phospholipids. These amphipathic molecules spontaneously aggregate in water to form bilayers in which the polar groups are exposed to the aqueous media while the non-polar chains self-organize by aggregating to each other to stay away from the aqueous media. The insulating properties of membranes are due to the formation of a hydrophobic bilayer covered at both sides by the hydrophilic phosphate groups. Thus, lipophilic molecules can permeate the membrane freely, while the small charged or very hydrophilic molecules require the assistance of other membrane components in order to overcome the energetic cost implied in crossing the non-polar region of the bilayer. Most of the large polar species (such as oligosaccharides, polypeptides or nucleic acids) cross into and out of the cell via endocytosis and exocytosis, respectively. Nature has created a series of systems (carriers and pores) in order to control the balance of small hydrophilic molecules and ions. The most important structures to achieve these goals are the ionophoric proteins that include the channel proteins, such as the sodium and potassium channels, and ionic transporters, including the sodium/potassium pumps or calcium/sodium exchangers among others. Inspired by these, scientists have created non-natural synthetic transporting structures to mimic the natural systems. The progress in the last years has been remarkable regarding the efficient transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions, despite the fact that the selectivity and the ON/OFF state of the non-natural systems remain a present and future challenge

  12. Utility of inorganic oxidants for the spectrophotometric determination of ganciclovir in dosage forms

    Ayman A. Gouda; Amin, Alaa S.

    2011-01-01

    Eight direct spectrophotometric methods for determination of ganciclovir has been developed and validated. These methods were based on the oxidation of the drug by different inorganic oxidants: ceric ammonium sulphate, potassium permanganate, ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanadate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate and potassium periodate. The oxidation reaction were performed in perchloric acid medium for ceric ammonium sulphate and in sulfuric acid medium for the ...

  13. Plant growth, Leaf Nutrient status, fruit yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco as influenced by potassium (K fertigation with four potash fertilizer sources

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of different potassium (K fertilizers applied through fertigation system during three different seasons on yield and quality behaviors of 14-16 years Nagpur mandarin an experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Citrus, Nagpur during 2009-2012. The Nagpur mandarin plants requires potassium which, when applied in different amounts during the flower bud initiation to before fruit maturity can affect the yield and quality of fruit as well. The treatments in experiment consisted of; T1 - fertigation with potassium chloride [KCL], T2- fertigation with potassium nitrate [KNO3], T3- fertigation with potassium sulphate [K2SO4] and T4- fertigation with mono potassium phosphate [KH2PO4] @ 150 g K2O/plant. The recommended fertigation dose was 500:150:150 (N:P:K and given through these treatments along with various fertilizers combination of urea of phosphate, urea, and P2O5 acid. Nitrogen elemnet was given from October to January month and N, P and K all were given from February to June month. Each fertigation treatment was given at 15 days interval and fruit yield and quality were measured at harvest. Results showed the highest response of the fruit yield (31.13 t/ha with treatment mono potassium phosphate followed by in fertigation with potassium nitrate (29.4 t/ha. The total soluble solids was highest (10.49 0Brix in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate followed by fertigation with potassium sulphate (10.48 0Brix. Highest juice content (38.76 % and low acidity (0.77 % was found in K fertigation with mono potassium phosphate. The highest TSS to acidity ratio (sweetness indicator was observed in Mono potassium Phosphate (13.6 followed by Potassium sulphate (13.1.

  14. Impaired homeostatic mechanism of potassium handling after acute oral potassium load in diabetes mellitus.

    H.J. Kim; Ahn, Y. H.; Park, C H; Kang, C M; Park, H C; Bae, H. Y.; Choi, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic stable diabetic patients (n = 6) were compared with healthy control subjects (n = 5) after acute oral intake of 50 mEq of potassium chloride (KCl) to investigate for possible derangements of homeostatic responses for acute term (3 hrs) to acute potassium load. Plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) known as a useful semiquantative index of distal nephron potassium secretion were measured. All the baseline paramete...

  15. Structural studies of several solvated potassium salts of tenatoprazole crystallizing as conglomerates

    Tauvel, G.; Sanselme, M.; Coste-Leconte, S.; Petit, S.; Coquerel, G.

    2009-11-01

    Despite the weak acidic character of tenatoprazole it is possible to crystallize, in strong alkaline media, different solvated salts of this active pharmaceutical ingredient. Among these solid phases, some potassium salts exhibiting non congruent solubilities, form stable conglomerates in equilibrium with their mother liquors without detectable partial solid solutions between the enantiomers. The crystal structures of the ethanol and the ethylene glycol stoichiometric solvates of potassium salts have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing that the solvent molecules play an important role in the crystal cohesion. They participate to the coordination polyhedra of the potassium cations and also contribute to strong periodic bond chains. Moreover, there is no direct link between the tenatoprazole anions and the potassium cations, so the solvent molecules act as electrostatic relays between ions of opposite charges.

  16. Complexing properties of the main organic acids used in decontamination solutions for nuclear power plants and reactions involved in their degradation or elimination

    Deposited activity on PWR equipment and component surfaces sometimes has to be decontaminated. An appropriate method for the dissolution of contaminated chromium-rich grow-on oxides uses an alternation of oxidizing steps (generally alkaline permanganate) and a reducing step made of organic acids. These organic acids have simultaneously reducing and chelating properties. Then, chelates are destroyed on cation exchangers in the H+ form and the resulting acids are oxidized with the permanganate of the first step. Basic information on chemical properties important in these three steps has been determined: acid-base properties of the considered organic acids, stability constants of the complexes formed between these acids and the metal cations originating from the stainless steel constituents (Fe, Ni, Cr, Co), ion exchange process, oxidation of the organic acids with emphasis on various products generated before the final products (CO2, H2O). (orig.)

  17. Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Korsholm; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acne...

  18. Neutron diffraction studies of potassium thiocyanate

    Measurements of some low frequency phonon dispersion curves in potassium thiocyanate have been made using inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Elastic neutron powder diffraction measurements have also been made on potassium thiocyanate to resolve discrepancies in the literature concerning its structure. (author) 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  20. A survey of Io's potassium cloud

    Trafton, L.

    1981-08-01

    Io's potassium cloud exhibits spatial and temporal variations similar to those observed for Io's sodium cloud. Spectra from five apparitions show that the potassium cloud is elongated so that it extends forward from Io's leading, inner hemisphere and makes an angle with Io's orbit of 10-30 deg, slightly less than the angle for the sodium cloud. The potassium cloud is a long-lived phenomenon which undergoes periodic fluctuations in response to solar radiation pressure and the ionizing influence of Jupiter's plasma torus. These give rise to east-west and north-south asymmetry variations similar to those observed for the sodium cloud. Evidence for temporary jets of potassium streaming from Io have also been observed. These similarities with the sodium cloud suggest that both sodium and potassium are ejected from nearly the same regions of Io by the same physical mechanism.

  1. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...... modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based on the...... Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting that...

  2. Effects of trans-4-(aminomethyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid/potassium azeloyl diglycinate/niacinamide topical emulsion in Thai adults with melasma: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled study

    Viyoch, Jarupa; Tengamnuay, Isaree; Phetdee, Khemjira; Tuntijarukorn, Punpimol; WARANUCH, NETI

    2010-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentary disorder characterized by dark patches or macules located on the cheeks, forehead, upper lip, chin, and neck. Treatment of melasma involves the use of topical hypopigmenting agents such as hydroquinone, tretinoin, and azelaic acid and its derivatives.

  3. Calculation of potassium critical temperature

    The paper describes the algorithm of the functional prediction which is based on the selforganization of nonlinear algebraic models. The calculation procedure includes the module for the recognition of the dependence type hitch allows to restrict the number of choice of the prediction functions at the each step of the model building. The characteristic property of this algorithm is bootstrap method application as the external criteria of the selforganization. The calculation module is built using APL*PLUS and the user-friendly interface is implemented using Clipper 5.01 under Windows control. When using the algorithm and the programs, the critical point of potassium has been predicted on the base of the solubility curves of liquid and steam. 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  4. Removing Oscillatoria and Humic Acid from Mixed Water by Potassium Ferrate(Ⅵ) Pre-oxidation and Co-coagulation%K2FeO4预氧化复合絮凝处理颤藻和腐殖酸混合水

    赵春禄; 刘琰

    2011-01-01

    采用K2FeO4预氧化复合高岭土和聚合氯化铝(PAC)混凝处理了含颤藻和腐殖酸的混合水,并探讨了对处理后水中残留铝含量及其形态分布的影响.结果表明:投加4.0 mg·L-1K2FeO4预氧化就能使混合水样的浊度、腐殖酸和藻类的去除率分别达到94.05%、91.67%和90.78%,明显优于相同条件下单纯的PAC处理效果;水样的pH值对K2FeO4预氧化有显著的影响,在pH=6.5时效果最好;K2FeO4预氧化影响处理后水中残留铝的含量和形态,在最佳条件下总铝浓度降低了51.8%,特别是对人体毒害作用最大的溶解态铝降低了43.9%.%The mixed water containing Oscillatoria and humic acid was disposed by using potassium ferrate(Ⅵ) as the pre-oxidation agent, poly-aluminum chloride(PAC) and Kaolin as the co-coagulation agents. The residual aluminum morphology was also studied.The consequence was that the ferrate concentration with 4.0 mg· L-1 could improve the removal rate of turbidity, HA and algae, whose value was 94.05%, 91.67% and 90. 78% respectively, and the effect was much better than PAC singly. The pH value affected the efficiency of ferrate pre-oxidation processing mixed water. In acidic condition (pH = 6. 5) the effect was best. Potassium ferrate(Ⅵ) pre-oxidation affected the content and form of residual aluminum. Under the best condition the total aluminum concentration reduced by 51.8%, and especially the dissolved aluminum which poisoned human body decreased by 43.9%.

  5. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  6. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate-luminol luminescence system.

    Navarrro, Mercedes Villar; Payán, María Ramos; López, Miguel Angel Bello; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Mochón, Manuel Callejón

    2010-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sulfite has been developed by combining flow-injection analysis and its sensitizing effect on the known chemiluminescence emission produced by the oxidation of luminol in alkaline medium; in this work permanganate has been proposed as oxidizing reactive. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were established. The chemiluminescence was proportional to the sulfite concentration over the range 1.6 × 10(-5) and 4.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). The detection limit was 4.7 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) of sulfite. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of free and bound sulfite in wines. PMID:20875609

  7. Inhibitory actions of GABA on rabbit urinary bladder muscle strips: mediation by potassium channels.

    Ferguson, D R; Marchant, J S

    1995-05-01

    1. The actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) upon rabbit urinary bladder muscle were investigated to determine whether they were mediated through potassium channels. 2. In vitro experiments were undertaken in which bladder muscle strips were caused to contract with carbachol. Addition of GABA or baclofen reduced the size of such evoked contractions in the case of GABA by 20.7 +/- 3.2%, in the case of baclofen by 22.4 +/- 2.2%. 3. Electrical stimulation of autonomic nerves in bladder wall strips also evoked contractions which were significantly smaller in potassium-free Krebs solution. The size of contractions produced by carbachol on the other hand were unaffected by the absence of potassium in the Krebs solution. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA and baclofen on carbachol-induced contractions of bladder muscle were detected at much lower concentrations in potassium-free compared with potassium containing solutions. 5. The inhibitory effects of baclofen were completely reversed by tetraethyl ammonium chloride between 1 and 5 mM, caesium chloride between 0.5 and 3 mM and barium chloride between 0.5 and 2.5 mM. The actions of baclofen were only partially reversed by 4-amino-pyridine between 1 and 5 mM. 6. It was concluded that the GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory actions on rabbit urinary bladder smooth muscle cells were produced by activation of potassium channels. PMID:7647988

  8. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  9. 关于对高锰酸钾标准溶液配制和标定的理解%The Understanding of the Standard Solution of Potassium Permanganate Preparation and Calibration about Potassium Permanganate Standard Solution Configuration and Demarcation Understanding

    邹燕

    2010-01-01

    在配制高锰酸钾溶液时,应考虑高锰酸钾的纯度来称取高锰酸钾的量及其溶液,易见光分解做到避光保存.在标定过程中,注意溶液的温度、酸度、滴定速度对标定的影响.

  10. Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate

    Zaremba, T.

    2012-09-01

    Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

  11. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Cleber Franklin Santos de Oliveira; Valéria Pereira Rodrigues; José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K) (2.50 g/kg), supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg) of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels ...

  12. Determination of microamounts of potassium in sodium iodide by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microdetermination of potassium in sodium iodide was developed by the standard addition method. Twenty grams of sample were dissolved in 50 ml of water in a quartz beaker. To the solution, 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and 30 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide were added, and evaporated to dryness. By this process sodium iodide was converted into sodium chloride. The cake thus obtained was dissolved in water and diluted to exactly 200 ml. To 25 ml aliquots of the solution, the standard potassium and cesium chloride solutions were added and diluted to 50 ml with water; the concentration of potassium was 0 -- 1 mg/l and that of cesium 4 mM. These solutions were introduced into an air-propane flame and the absorbances were measured at 769.9 nm. During the conversion reaction, hydrochloric acid was completely decomposed, and remained hydrogen peroxide had no influence for absorbance, and other backgrounds were negligible. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range 0 -- 2 mg of potassium per liter. Potassium in sodium iodide was determined by this method within the coefficient of variation of +-(20 -- 3)% in the range (1.7 -- 32.5) ppm. (author)

  13. Determination method of methanol and ethanol in the uranium-bearing waste water with potassium dichromic oxidation

    The authors describe the method for determining the contents of methanol and ethanol which are containing in the uranium-bearing waste water. The method is based on the oxidation of methanol and ethanol by the potassium dichromic in a suitable content of sulfonic acid, and the excess of residual potassium dichromic will be titrated by the standard solution of ammonium ferrous sulfate. For this method, the precision is better than 5%, the recovery rate is about 95%-104%

  14. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    ... myotonia Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Muscular Dystrophy Association Resource list from the University of Kansas Medical Center Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Potassium aggravated myotonia ClinicalTrials. ...

  15. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    ... to 120 mL/min) . A registered dietitian or nutritionist can help to create a low-potassium meal ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  16. Transition properties of potassium atom

    Nandy, D K; Shah, B P; Sahoo, B K

    2012-01-01

    We report here oscillator strengths, transition rates, branching ratios and lifetimes due to allowed transitions in potassium (K) atom. We evaluate electric dipole (E1) amplitudes using an all order relativistic many-body perturbation method. The obtained results are compared with previously available experimental and theoretical studies. Using the E1 matrix elements mentioned above and estimated from the lifetimes of the 4P states, we determine precise values of static and dynamic polarizabilities for the first five low-lying states in the considered atom. The static polarizabilities of the ground and 4P states in the present work are more precise than the available measurements in these states. Only the present work employs relativistic theory to evaluate polarizabilities in the 3D states for which no experimental results are known to compare with. We also reexamine "magic wavelengths" for the $4P_{1/2} \\rightarrow 4S$ and $4P_{3/2} \\rightarrow 4S$ transitions due to the linearly polarized light which are u...

  17. Independent effects of aldosterone and potassium on induction of potassium adaptation in rat kidney.

    Stanton, B.; Pan, L.; Deetjen, H; Guckian, V; Giebisch, G

    1987-01-01

    We examined the independent effects of a high potassium diet and increased aldosterone levels on the development of renal potassium adaptation. This condition is defined by the increased ability of the kidneys to excrete an acute infusion of potassium. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) and received aldosterone at basal levels (0.5 microgram/100 g X d) or at high levels (2.0 micrograms/100 g X d) for 10 d. In each experimental group, animals received either a control diet or a high potassium di...

  18. POTASSIUM MEASUREMENT: CAUSES OF ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

    Kavitha; Omprakash

    2014-01-01

    It is not a easy task to recognize the errors in potassium measurement in the lab. Falsely elevated potassium levels if goes unrecognized by the lab and clinician, it is difficult to treat masked hypokalemic state, which is again a medical emergency. Such cases require proper monitoring by the clinician, so that cases with such history of pseudohyperkalemia which cannot be easily identified in the laboratory should not go unrecognized by clinician. The aim of this article is t...

  19. Radioactivity measurements in potassium enriched vegetation

    Measurements of radioactivity in food stuffs/vegetation is important because radiation dose to human population due to inhalation and ingestion (external and internal exposure) poses health hazard and contribute significantly to the total dose from natural sources. The radium and thorium isotopes always present in the body are measured in units of a millionth or a billionth of a gram, but when it comes to potassium we are talking about grams of material. The 2.5 g of potassium ingested each day contains 80 Becquerel (Bq) (or 2100 pCi) of 40K that quantity which produces 80 radioactive decays each second. The 140 g of potassium in a normal male contains about 4400 Bq (or 120,000 pCi) of 40K; that quantity produces a decay rate of about 4400 disintegrations per second. That means that 4400 radioactive 40K atoms decay and emit radiation in our bodies each second for as long as we live. Since potassium is found in the intracellular fluids, about 98 % of the potassium in the body is within cells. Thus at least 98 % of these disintegrations take place within body cells, and are potentially capable of altering the cell's DNA. Therefore, it is very essential to measure the activity concentration in the potassium enriched food stuffs. Knowledge of radioactivity present in potassium enriched food stuffs enables one to assess any possible radiological hazard to mankind by the use of such materials. In the light of the above mentioned facts, it is, therefore, fundamental to assess the radioactivity in commonly available potassium enriched foods. (author)

  20. On specific radioactivity of potassium in seawater

    To check up the validity of an assumption on the constancy of potassium specific radioactivity Asub(k) in seawater, 14 samples selected from the Pacific Ocean in 1982 at different depths and geographic coordinates have been investigated. The Asub(k) mean value in these samples is shown to coincide with the potassium aspecific activity in terrestrial rocks. However some deviations related to sampling latitude and deoth have been observed. The deviations are associated with the entries of cosmic and volcanic substances

  1. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  2. Estimated potassium content in Hanford workers

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the US Dept. of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. The 40K activity in females ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. The total body potassium (TBK) content in females averaged 98 ± 0.6 g. The 40K activity in males ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.2 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average TBK value for males aged 20-49 y was 140 g. The average TBK values for both genders decreased with age. The average potassium concentrations calculated for the different age ranges for males were 15-25% less than the value (1.9 gK per kg) obtained using the reported ICRP reference potassium and reference weight values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index and body weight. These correlations could possibly be utilised to help assess the risk for disease. Future work is planned to evaluate whether monitoring of potassium concentrations could be used as a tool for the detection of diabetes and hypertension. (authors)

  3. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females

  4. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  5. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  6. Pharmacodynamics of potassium channel openers in cultured neuronal networks.

    Wu, Calvin; V Gopal, Kamakshi; Lukas, Thomas J; Gross, Guenter W; Moore, Ernest J

    2014-06-01

    A novel class of drugs - potassium (K(+)) channel openers or activators - has recently been shown to cause anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activating hyperpolarizing K(+) currents, and therefore, may show efficacy for treating tinnitus. This study presents measurements of the modulatory effects of four K(+) channel openers on the spontaneous activity and action potential waveforms of neuronal networks. The networks were derived from mouse embryonic auditory cortices and grown on microelectrode arrays. Pentylenetetrazol was used to create hyperactivity states in the neuronal networks as a first approximation for mimicking tinnitus or tinnitus-like activity. We then compared the pharmacodynamics of the four channel activators, retigabine and flupirtine (voltage-gated K(+) channel KV7 activators), NS1619 and isopimaric acid ("big potassium" BK channel activators). The EC50 of retigabine, flupirtine, NS1619, and isopimaric acid were 8.0, 4.0, 5.8, and 7.8µM, respectively. The reduction of hyperactivity compared to the reference activity was significant. The present results highlight the notion of re-purposing the K(+) channel activators for reducing hyperactivity of spontaneously active auditory networks, serving as a platform for these drugs to show efficacy toward target identification, prevention, as well as treatment of tinnitus. PMID:24681057

  7. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 90K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH2, where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A0 + A1T3, while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A0 is dependent on the RRR, while A1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  8. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  9. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  10. THE INDIRECT ANALYSIS OF MANGANESE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES OF MINES AND RIVERS

    村田, 勝夫; MLOMBO, Moses

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on an indirect analysis of manganese from environmental samples of an old copper mine and its neighboring river. Sediment and surface water were analyzed for the presence of manganese. Manganese was extracted, in the case of sediment, using aqua regia, followed by oxidation to the violet permanganate complex (MnO_4^-) with potassium periodate, in a hot acid solution. Analysis of the permanganate complex, by colorimetric and spectrophotometric analytical methods, shows that ...

  11. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  12. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  13. Magnesium Mono Potassium Phosphate Grout For P-Reactor Vessel In-Situ Decomissioning

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material (≤ 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH2PO4 and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete(regsign) magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  14. The antifungal plant defensin AtPDF2.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana blocks potassium channels.

    Vriens, Kim; Peigneur, Steve; De Coninck, Barbara; Tytgat, Jan; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion toxins that block potassium channels and antimicrobial plant defensins share a common structural CSαβ-motif. These toxins contain a toxin signature (K-C4-X-N) in their amino acid sequence, and based on in silico analysis of 18 plant defensin sequences, we noted the presence of a toxin signature (K-C5-R-G) in the amino acid sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana defensin AtPDF2.3. We found that recombinant (r)AtPDF2.3 blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 potassium channels, akin to the interaction between scorpion toxins and potassium channels. Moreover, rAtPDF2.3[G36N], a variant with a KCXN toxin signature (K-C5-R-N), is more potent in blocking Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels than rAtPDF2.3, whereas rAtPDF2.3[K33A], devoid of the toxin signature, is characterized by reduced Kv channel blocking activity. These findings highlight the importance of the KCXN scorpion toxin signature in the plant defensin sequence for blocking potassium channels. In addition, we found that rAtPDF2.3 inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that pathways regulating potassium transport and/or homeostasis confer tolerance of this yeast to rAtPDF2.3, indicating a role for potassium homeostasis in the fungal defence response towards rAtPDF2.3. Nevertheless, no differences in antifungal potency were observed between the rAtPDF2.3 variants, suggesting that antifungal activity and Kv channel inhibitory function are not linked. PMID:27573545

  15. Role of potassium-40 in evolutionary mutagenesis

    The radioactive isotope 40k is the largest source of natural radioactivity within living cells. Although 40K occurs naturally in low abundance (0.01% of all potassium), it represents approximately 40% of the internal radiation dose in man. It has been suggested that decay of 40K by electron capture has played a significant role in gene mutation and evolution. The authors examined cell growth and mutagenicity in several strains of E. coli grown in Tris medium containing natural potassium or potassium greatly depleted in 40K. Doubling times were the same in both media. In glucose limited chemostat cultures containing natural potassium or depleted potassium, there was no significant difference in mutation rate to bacteriophage T5 resistance, within standard errors of about 15%. In all cases, the mutation rate to T5 resistance was approximately 3 x 10-8 mutants cell-1 generation-1. The authors conclude that for mutation to T5 resistance, there was no measurable contribution of naturally occurring 40K to the spontaneous mutation rate

  16. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 104–105. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10−2 to 10−6–10−7 Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10−2 Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10−6–10−7 Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 104–105. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures

  17. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hybrid Avant were submitted to the potassium leachate, standard germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, field emergence and cold tests. The amount of potassium leachate was determined after seed imbibition for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes, at 25°C; a flame photometer adjusted to 50 mug K+ mL-1 pattern and reading 50 was used to determine the amount of leached potassium. The potassium leachate test consistently ranked the seed lots according to their physiological quality in comparison to other tests, and is a new alternative test for maize seed quality control programs.

  18. La nutrición potásica afecta el crecimiento y fotosíntesis en Lilium cultivado en turba ácida The potassium nutrition affects the growth and photosynthesis of Lilium cultivated in acidic peat

    Enoc Barrera-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Lilium (Lilium sp. es una de las especies ornamentales de mayor valor y se le cultiva para producir flores de corte o plantas en maceta. La incorporación de la floricultura a la tecnología de cultivos sin suelo demanda precisar los niveles óptimos de nutrición de cada uno de los elementos requeridos. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de la concentración de K en la solución nutritiva para definir la concentración que permita una producción de flores de Lilium cultivado en turba ácida. Las soluciones en estudio consistieron en cuatro concentraciones de K: 0, 5, 10 y 20 mM. La mayoría de las variables respuesta evaluadas permitió definir una concentración óptima de K entre los 5 y 10 mM, intervalo que sería el equivalente a los niveles de suficiencia nutrimental. Lo anterior fue observado en parámetros como el diámetro de la flor, altura de planta y peso seco total de planta. En contraste, niveles excesivos (20 mM o de deficiencia (0 mM de K causaron una reducción en la altura y en el peso seco total. El aumento de la concentración de K en la solución nutritiva estuvo relacionado con un incremento en la concentración de K en todos los órganos, pero principalmente en la raíz. La mayor fotosíntesis neta registrada en las hojas jóvenes se presentó con el suplemento de 0 ó 20 mM de K, lo cual puede deberse a una regulación del proceso por falta de carbohidratos como sugiere la menor biomasa acumulada.Lilium (Lilium sp. is one ofthe ornamental species with the highest value and is cultivated to produce fresh cut flowers or potted plants. The incorporation of floriculture to crop technology of crops without soil requires the determination of optimum levels ofnutrition for each ofthe required elements. In the present study, the effect of the K concentration in the nutritive solution was evaluated in order to define the concentration that permits the production of Lilium flowers to be cultivated in acidic peat. The

  19. Emission infrared spectra of molten potassium heptafluoroniobate

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Bessonova, V.A. (AN SSSR, Apatity. Kol' skij Filial)

    1984-01-01

    Emission infrared spectra of potassium heptafluoroniobate molten in the air, vacuum and inert gas atmosphere are obtained. The analysis of different sections of the in got as well as potassium heptafluoroniobate condensate obtained upon long remelting in the air has shown that the investigated phases have complex composition. Along with the heptafluoroniobate potassium oxyfluoroniobate, mainly K/sub 2/NbOF/sub 5/ is present in them, in case of condensate-KNbOF/sub 4/. The pyrohydrolysis process consists of two-mutually compensating each other stages, that is parallel to the oxyfluoroniobate production the process of their destruction and partial removal from the melting surface takes place. It is shown that hydrogen fluoride produced as a result of KNbF/sub 5/ pyrohydrolysis can affect to considerable extent the ion structure of the melt.

  20. Effect of hydrocarbon radical length of fatty acid collectors on flotation separation process of thorium ions

    It is shown experimentally that the degree of flotation separation of thorium ions collected by their means increases firstly (potassium laurate), then decreases (potassium tridecanate) and after that increases again (potassium palminate) when increasing the length of the hydrocarbon radical of potassium soaps of saturated fatty acids. The first increase of the collector efficiency is due to the decrease of solubility of thorium-containing sublates, and drop and further increase is due to the change in colloidchemical properties of sublates