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Sample records for acidic hot spring

  1. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in Acidic Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park▿

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João,; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56°C at the source and 40°C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56°C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain.

  2. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  3. Biomineralization of radioactive sulfide minerals in strong acidic Tamagawa hot springs

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive sulfide minerals by bacteria in strong acidic hot spring water was found at Tamagawa Hot Springs, Akita prefecture in Japan. The hot spring water produces Hokutolite of radioactive minerals high radium and radon. The β-ray measurements of sediments and biofilms indicate 1850-2420 and 5700 cpm, respectively, which are 50-100 times higher than that of the water and the air (50-90 cpm). The characteristics of hot spring water show pH (1.2), Eh (140 mV), EC (29 mS/cm), DO (0.8 mg/l), and water temperature (99.5degC), indicating extremely strong acidic and reducing conditions. The hot spring water contains mainly HCl associated with high concentrations of Ca2+, Al3+, Fe2+, HSO4- and SO42-. SEM-EDX and TEM demonstrate some insight into how microorganisms affect the chemistry and microbiological characteristics of the strong acidic surroundings with high S, As, Ba, and Ca contents in biofilms. Especially SEM-EDX, ED-XRF, and STEM-EDX elemental content maps illustrate the distribution of sulfur-bearing compounds of barite (BaSO4), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), elemental sulfur (S) and orpiment(As2S3) in the reddish orange biofilms. The presence of a hydrogen sulfide-rich (H2S) thermal spring and gypsum deposits suggest the volatilization of H2S from the spring water, oxidation of the H2S gas to sulfuric acid, and reaction of the sulfuric acid. TEM micrographs of bacteria in the biofilms reveal in detail the intimate connections between biological and mineralogical processes that the cells are entirely accumulated with spherical grains, 100∼200 nm in diameter. The relationship among sulfide minerals, such as barite, gypsum, sulfur, orpiment, and Hakutolite, associated with bacteria implies that heavy metals have been transported from strong acidic hot spring water to sediments through bacteria metabolism. It is possible that the capability of radioactive sulfide biofilms for heavy metal immobilization can be used to counteract the disastrous

  4. Diversity of putative archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.

    Hongming WANG; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified putative archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated read...

  5. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  6. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems. PMID:26125684

  7. Investigation of the Movement of Infiltrating Acidic Hot-Spring Water in the Ground by Means of Radioisotopes

    Tamagawa hot spring in Akita Prefecture gushes hot water of 1 pH hydrochloric acid at some 140 1/s. This quantity flows into the River Tama with the result that the river has been hindered from any significant hydropower development thus far. For the purpose of mitigating die acidity of the water river, the hot spring water is carried away through channels and infiltrated into the soil of a mountain-side for chemical neutralizing through seepage before flowing into the river. To select the sites where the water can infiltrate and to determine its distribution, the authors studied, with the aid of radioisotope tracers, the capacity and ability for neutralization by mountain soil and the mechanism of the process. They carried out a total of nine experiments at the site from 1956 to 1960. Such radioisotopes as I131, P32, Rb46, Co60 and H3 as tracers were poured into holes with carriers. The radioactivity of the water appeared in fissures of the river bed located over 200 m away from the input holes; this was measured and the movement of underground water was analysed by using the time variation of radioactivity obtained. As a result, it was found that the radioactivity increased considerably at sporadic intervals, that several holes had connections to one fissure for water, that the creeping time ranged from 6 to 82 h, that the radioactivity found was less than the input, that behaviours were different among the nuclides applied and that the aging of the underground water course was noticeable. (author)

  8. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  9. Structural and Functional Insights from the Metagenome of an Acidic Hot Spring Microbial Planktonic Community in the Colombian Andes

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation), and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ), associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA) indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment. PMID:23251687

  10. Structural and functional insights from the metagenome of an acidic hot spring microbial planktonic community in the Colombian Andes.

    Diego Javier Jiménez

    Full Text Available A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC. A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation, and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ, associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment.

  11. Microbial contributions to coupled arsenic and sulfur cycling in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool, New Zealand

    Katrin eHug

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sulfide hot springs are analogs of early Earth geothermal systems where microbial metal(loid resistance likely first evolved. Arsenic is a metalloid enriched in the acid-sulfide hot spring Champagne Pool (Waiotapu, New Zealand. Arsenic speciation in Champagne Pool follows reaction paths not yet fully understood with respect to biotic contributions and coupling to biogeochemical sulfur cycling. Here we present quantitative arsenic speciation from Champagne Pool, finding arsenite dominant in the pool, rim and outflow channel (55-75% total arsenic, and dithio- and trithioarsenates ubiquitously present as 18-25% total arsenic. In the outflow channel, dimethylmonothioarsenate comprised ≤9% total arsenic, while on the outflow terrace thioarsenates were present at 55% total arsenic. We also quantified sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfate and elemental sulfur, finding sulfide and sulfate as major species in the pool and outflow terrace, respectively. Elemental sulfur reached a maximum at the terrace. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic sequencing revealed the dominance of Sulfurihydrogenibium at all sites and an increased archaeal population at the rim and outflow channel. Several phylotypes were found closely related to known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizers, as well as sulfur- and sulfate-reducers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed genes underpinning sulfur redox transformations, consistent with sulfur speciation data, and illustrating a microbial role in sulfur-dependent transformation of arsenite to thioarsenate. Metagenomic analysis also revealed genes encoding for arsenate reductase at all sites, reflecting the ubiquity of thioarsenate and a need for microbial arsenate resistance despite anoxic conditions. Absence of the arsenite oxidase gene, aio, at all sites suggests prioritization of arsenite detoxification over coupling to energy conservation. Finally, detection of methyl arsenic in the outflow channel, in conjunction with

  12. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms. PMID:25605537

  13. Biomineralization of pisoliths in hot springs

    Biological activity can produce complex patterned structures in accretionary carbonate spheres (pisoliths) from hot springs. Pisoliths from a few millimeters to 50 mm diameter were collected from a geyser at the high-salinity Arima Hot Springs near Kobe, Japan. High-resolution electron microscope images show that microorganisms produced concentric laminar layers of aragonite alternating with Si- and Fe-rich layers. STEM elemental distribution maps show that the cementation of aragonite is associated with NaCl-rich bacterial cells and elevated phosphorous and sulfur concentrations. The filamentous microbes build the concentric framework for mineral laminae with a web-like network of microbial strands. The intricate patterns of mineralogical and bacterial variation in the pisoliths correlate with the change of water chemistry in the hot spring. These patterns could improve our understanding of nano-scale biomineralization. In addition, the terrestrial hot spring pisoliths might be a counterpart of the tiny spherules recently found on Mars

  14. Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfur-reducing carboxydotrophic bacterium from an acidic hot spring

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Kawaichi, Satoshi;

    2012-01-01

    growth on CO, H(2) and CO(2) were produced. Growth occurred on molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source. Growth was observed on various organic compounds under an N(2) atmosphere with the reduction of ferric iron. The temperature range for carboxydotrophic growth......A novel anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic bacterium, designated strain Ug1(T), was isolated from a volcanic acidic hot spring in southern Kyushu Island, Japan. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped (1.0-3.0 µm long) and motile due to peritrichous flagella. Strain Ug1(T...

  15. Bacterial community analysis of Indonesian hot springs.

    Baker, G C; Gaffar, S; Cowan, D A; Suharto, A R

    2001-06-12

    We report the first attempts to describe thermophilic bacterial communities in Indonesia's thermal springs using molecular phylogenetic analyses. 16S rRNA genes from laboratory cultures and DNA directly amplified from three hot springs in West Java were sequenced. The 22 sequences obtained were assignable to the taxa Proteobacteria, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, including a number of clades not normally associated with thermophily. PMID:11410357

  16. Corrosion Properties of a Volcanic Hot Spring

    Lichti, K. L.; Braham, V. J.; Engelberg, D.; Sanada, N.; Kurata, J.; Nanjo, H.; Ikeuchi, J.; Christenson, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    Volcanic hot pools on White Island, New Zealand provide ready access to acidic fluids at atmospheric pressure. These hot pools can be used to study the corrosion properties of construction materials that might be used for energy production from deep-seated and magma-ambient geothermal systems, or from shallow resources producing acidic fluids. corrosion results for a 1,hot pool are presented. A select group of moderate and high alloy materials appear suitable for energy plant applications. Ch...

  17. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation of...

  18. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  19. Initial Characterization of Carbon Metabolism in Iron Oxidizing Microbial Communities of Acidic Hot Springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Kreuzer, H. W.; Jennings, R. D.; Whitmore, L.; Inskeep, W. P.; Moran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park is home to several acidic, sulfidic hot springs. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The microbial communities in the iron oxidation zones are dominated by Archaea, including several members that appear to define previously unrecognized taxa. Abiotic iron oxidation rates are very slow at these temperatures (typically ~ 65-70 oC) and pH's (typically ~3). Therefore, the relatively rapid iron oxide deposition rate strongly suggests the process is microbially mediated, and an organism previously isolated from these springs, Metallosphaera yellowstonensis, has been shown to oxide iron in culture. M. yellowstonensis has been observed in the all microbial communities analyzed in the iron oxidizing zones of these springs, though metagenomic profiling suggests it constitutes only ~20% of the community membership. When we began our studies of C flow in the iron-oxidizing community, no C source had been demonstrated. Observed potential carbon sources in the springs include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, as well as random inputs of heterotrophic carbon in the forms of insect carcasses, pine needles, and animal scat. The temperatures in the iron oxidation zones are above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit, thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the community itself. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. We have demonstrated that M. yellowstonensis as well as excised samples of iron oxide mat communities can fix CO2, and our estimated isotopic fractionation factor is consistent with the 3-hydroxypropionate 4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. Genes of this pathway have been identified in the M. yellowstonensis genome. We have tentatively identified small amounts of organic compounds

  20. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  1. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  2. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  3. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  4. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn;

    2015-01-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7...

  5. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  6. Self potential survey, Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah

    Sill, W.R.; Johng, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale (35 km/sup 2/) self potential (SP) survey was made at Roosevelt Hot Springs. The survey consisted of approximately 47 line-km of profiles at station spacings of 100 m. The profiles were run using a fixed electrode and a traveling electrode out to distances of 1 to 2 km, before advancing the fixed electrode up to the last occupied station. Repeated measurements show a standard deviation about +- 6mv, although the spread on groups of measurements might be as large as 30 mv. Some of the SP profiles show correlations with the thermal system, having generally low values over the thermal high and the coincident resistivity low. Some of the smaller scale features appear to be associated with mapped faults. In plan view, the contoured self potential shows a character very similar to the 300 m, dipole-dipole resistivity. The SP values are generally low, where the resistivity is low. Along the eastern margin of the system, in the vicinity of steep resistivity gradients, the contour map show a series of localized highs.

  7. The Redox Potential of Hot Springs in Taiwan

    Wen-Fu Chen and Menghau Sung

    2009-01-01

    Scientists began acquiring the basic of geology, occurrence, water temperature and chemistry of hot springs in Tai wan over a century ago. However, data regarding redox potential and important redox couples still remains limited. This study explores the redox status of hot springs in Taiwan by measuring Eh in the field and by determining the concentrations of commonly found redox couples, i.e., O2/H2O, NO3 -/NH4 +, and HS-/SO4 -2. Water samples were collected at hot spring discharge pools or ...

  8. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic

  9. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  10. The Redox Potential of Hot Springs in Taiwan

    Wen-Fu Chen and Menghau Sung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists began acquiring the basic of geology, occurrence, water temperature and chemistry of hot springs in Tai wan over a century ago. However, data regarding redox potential and important redox couples still remains limited. This study explores the redox status of hot springs in Taiwan by measuring Eh in the field and by determining the concentrations of commonly found redox couples, i.e., O2/H2O, NO3 -/NH4 +, and HS-/SO4 -2. Water samples were collected at hot spring discharge pools or the heads of water wells using a pump. A total of 11 hot springs located at 9 different locations across Taiwan were surveyed. The measured values of Eh ranging from -23 to -277 mV indicate reducing conditions. Most of the water samples from the hot spring sources contained sulfide and ammonium. In the Tatun Volcano Group, hot springs originating from a mixture of fumarolic gas and stream water contained high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide as the dominant reducing agent. Ammonium, with concentrations ranging from 1 to 55 mg L-1, is another important electron donor. The finding revealed that there were negative Eh measured-values for dissolved oxy gen-contained waters, both in the field and in the laboratory. The presence of sulfide or ammonium was also detected in the samples. These results confirm that the Eh sensor displayed a more height ened sensitivity to sulfide and ammonium than dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Hot springs with deep circulations (Samples S1-S4 and M1-M4 lack in oxygen gas and may re act with mineral reducers such that they will consequently be in a reducing state rather than oxidizing. Hot spring waters containing dissolved ox y gen (S2, S4, and M2 and nitrate (S3, S4, and M2-M4 most likely have mixed with shallow groundwaters. Discussions reveal implications for redox potentials and redox couples for arsenic speciation, disinfection of ammonium-containing hot springs for the spa industry as well as the possibility of using redox

  11. Hydrological and geochemical study of Yuseong hot spring in Korea

    Lee, C.; Park, C.; Cho, Y.; LEE, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Yuseong hot spring is the first modernized hot spring in 1920's that has drawn the most tourists until 2000 before decline of tourists due to the aging of facility. It is located in the mid-west of South Korea. Geologically, it is in Precambrian metamorphic complex intruded by Mesozoic granite and porphyry. Fault zones exist in the E-W and NNW-SSE directions around Yuseong hot spring. Wells lie in the E-W direction indicating the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution. Water production rate has decreased gradually from 5,200 m3/d in 1993 to 2,500 m3/d in 2011. Water depth varies from 22 m - 57 m depending on pumping. Although enforced pumping has enacted last 50 years, water depth is observed to be stable. Water temperature is measured from the highest 51.8 degree Celsius to the lowest 25 degree Celsius. Yuseong hot spring is primarily the type of Na(Ca)-HCO3 whose pH ranges from low alkaline to alkaline with sufficient silica(≥40 mg/L).

  12. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  13. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs.

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Field, Erin K; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Young, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota. PMID:26341207

  14. An isotope study of hot springs in Nagano Prefecture

    The water samples from 28 hotsprings and mineral springs in Nagano Prefecture were examined for their stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur. The spring water of Kashio was highly saline and rich in heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. This spring water seems to be the mixture of deep brine and local surface water. The extrapolation of the linear relationship indicated that the deep brine was both isotopically and chemically very similar to the deep brine suggested for the springs at Arima, Takarazuka and Ishibotoke. A yet unknown common origin may be warranted among these postulated brines. The hot springs in Matsushiro are a Na-Ca-Cl type with high content of carbonate. Their hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were higher than the local surface water. From the data, these hot springs seemed to be the mixture of fossil sea water and the water of meteoric origin. The water samples from the other hot springs studied were of simple meteoric origin, belonging to the green tuff type water. (J.P.N.)

  15. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  16. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  17. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  18. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  19. Investigation of bacterial diversity of hot springs of Odisha, India

    Rajesh Kumar Sahoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis, targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. Sediment samples from two hot springs (Atri and Taptapani were collected. Atri and Taptapani metagenomes were classified into 50 and 51 bacterial phyla. Proteobacteria (45.17% dominated the Taptapani sample metagenome followed by Bacteriodetes (23.43% and Cyanobacteria (10.48% while in the Atri sample, Chloroflexi (52.39%, Nitrospirae (10.93% and Proteobacteria (9.98% dominated. A large number of sequences remained taxonomically unresolved in both hot springs, indicating the presence of potentially novel microbes in these two unique habitats thus unraveling the importance of the current study. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP057428.

  20. Measurement of radium in hokutolite from Tamagawa hot spring

    The concentrations of radium isotopes and the progenies (226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th) in three hokutolite samples from Tamagawa hot spring were measured. These isotopes were analyzed by a well-type HPGe γ-ray spectrometer for the 351, 609, 911 and 583 keV γ-ray from 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and 208Tl, respectively, each being in radioactive equilibrium with precursors. The 226Ra concentrations are in the range of 50-85 Bq/g, being higher in the lower layer. The 228Ra concentrations are in the range of 7.1-263 Bq/g, being higher in the upper layer. The activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra provided the estimation of the growth rate (0.06-0.15 mm/y). These estimated growth rate were correlated with SO42- concentration in Tamagawa hot spring water. (author)

  1. A biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs

    Klales, Anna; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2008-01-01

    Recent field investigations of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems, with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than the expected single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution field data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of differe...

  2. Photosynthate Partitioning and Fermentation in Hot Spring Microbial Mat Communities

    Nold, S C; Ward, D M

    1996-01-01

    Patterns of (sup14)CO(inf2) incorporation into molecular components of the thermophilic cyanobacterial mat communities inhabiting hot springs located in Yellowstone National Park and Synechococcus sp. strain C1 were investigated. Exponentially growing Synechococcus sp. strain C1 partitioned the majority of incorporated (sup14)CO(inf2) into protein, low-molecular-weight metabolites, and lipid fractions (45, 22, and 18% of total incorporated carbon, respectively). In contrast, mat cores from va...

  3. Characteristics and origins of hot springs in the Tatun Volcano Group, northern Taiwan

    Song, S.; Liu, C.; Tsao, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper systematically surveys the distributions, field occurrences of 14 hot springs and sampling for geochemical investigations in geothermal area of Tatun Volcano Group (TVG). Based on the Piper diagram, pH value, field occurrence and water-rock interaction, these hot springs are classified into three types: (1) Type I, the SO42--rich acidic water including the LFK, QG, SYK, TYK, SHP, and BY thermal springs which the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2) Type II, the near neutral spring including the TBQ, HS, MT, and LSK thermal waters, which the reservoir is located in volcanic rock body (andesite); and (3) Type III, the Cl--rich acidic one consisting of the SPT, TP and JT thermal waters except CC hot spring, which is the Cl--rich near neutral solution, and the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation. For the isotopic ratio, the δD and δ18O values are close to the right of meteoric water line of the Tatun areas with the values ranging from -26.2 ‰ to -3.5 ‰ and -3.2 ‰ to 1.6 ‰, respectively. However, the δD and δ18O values of hot springs for the samples away from the meteoric water line of Tatun area are -28.4 ‰ to -13.6 ‰ and -5.5 ‰ to -4.2 ‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal water can be distinguished into two groups: one ranges from 25‰ to 29‰ and the other from 1‰ to 8‰. Based on the field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been provided to illustrate the origin of those geothermal waters.

  4. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  5. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  6. Water Quality of Hot Water Unkeshwar Spring of Maharashtra, India

    Vyankatesh B. Yannawar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical, chemical, ionic, biological studies were conducted at hot springs Unkeshwar in (Maharashtra State, India. It is positioned on south east corner of Maharashtra. Unkeshwar is situated on the bank of river Penganga. Objective: This papers aims to study the physical, chemical and biological properties in the ecological system of Unkeshwar spring. Methods: The physical and chemical parameters were analyzed as per APHA. Results: The physical parameters included: Temperature, Total solids, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended solids and electrical conductivity. The chemical parameters included: pH, free carbon-dioxide, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, Phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity, Salinity. Ionic parameters like chloride, phosphate, sulphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, chromium and manganese. Also the biological parameters studied standard plate count and most probable number. Conclusions: The water quality comparison of Unkeshwar spring in Nanded reveals that although the situation is not worst but it has to be maintained. Some of the water characteristics are below the permissible limit in the post-monsoon season and some are above the permissible limits in pre-monsoon season. This may be due to dilution of water by raining. Overall study showed that the water is more polluted in pre-monsoon as compared to post-monsoon. Hence this hot water spring should be preserved for its sulphur contents that possess medicinal value and cure skin diseases.

  7. Characteristics and Origins of Hot Springs in the Tatun Volcano Group in Northern Taiwan

    Chia-Mei Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically surveyed distribution and field occurrences of 13 hot springs as well as geochemical investigation on the geothermal area of the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG. According to Piper diagrams, pH values, field occurrences and water-rock interactions, these hot springs can be classified into three types: (1 Type I, SO42- acidic water where the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2 Type II, HCO3- a near neutral spring where waters originate from the volcanic terrane (andesite; and (3 Type III, Cl- -rich acidic water where waters emanate from shallower Wuchishan Formation. In terms of isotopic ratio, δD and δ18O values, two groups of hot spring can be recognized. One is far away from the meteoric water line of the Tatun area with values ranging between -26.2‰ and -3.5‰, and from -3.2‰ to 1.6‰, respectively. However, another close to the meteoric water line of the Tatun area is between -28.4‰ and -13.6‰, and from -5.5‰ to -4.2‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal waters can also be distinguished into two groups, one ranging from 26.1‰ to 28.5‰, and the other between 0.8‰ and 7.8‰. Based on field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been proposed to illustrate the origin of these hot springs.

  8. Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana

    Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    Florence eSchubotz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streamer biofilm communities (SBC are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae, Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and ‘Bison Pool’, using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate and glucose to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10 to 30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at ‘Bison Pool’ and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20 and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at ‘Bison Pool’ and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being

  10. Study of tourists exposure rate in Mahallat hot Spring Region

    Introduction: High level radiation areas have been recognized on various parts of the earth. Some of these areas include: Brasilia, India, and Iran. Mahallat hot spring region in the central part of Iran is also one of these areas. Study of exposure in these areas could be helpful in investigating the effects of ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: In addition to several seasonal springs, Mahallat hot spring region contains five permanent springs named: Soleimani, Shafa, Dombe, Romatism and Sauda. Internal exposure (due to inhalation of radon gas and drinking water) and external exposure (due to cosmic rays and radioactive elements in the ground) to the tourists was studied. Used materials and apparatus include: RSS -112 ionizing chamber for environmental gamma rays exposure measurement, highly pure germanium detector for measuring radioactive elements in the ground, liquid scintillation counter for measuring 222Rn gas concentration in water samples, Bubbler chamber and Locus cells for Rn concentration measurements (Emanation method) and Alfa guard detector for 226Ra concentration measurements. Conclusions and Discussion: A total of 270 visitors are included in this study. Considering residual durations of the studied group in open and closed environment of bathrooms, hotel and inn rooms, obtained annual external effective dose is 75.4±8.7μSv and 138.3±11.8μSv for natives and travelers respectively. EEC coefficients has been used for calculating annual internal effective dose due to radon gas inhalation. Annual internal effective dose, in this path, is 0.9 and 2.1 mSv in open and closed environment for native and visitors respectively. Annual internal effective dose due to drinking water, is 0.43 and 0.09μSv for natives people and travelers, respectively. Measurements show that more than 90% of the received dose in the studied groups is due to radon gas inhalation. External and internal dose summation is 0.98 mSv for natives and 2.2 mSv for for travelers

  11. Carbonate Ion-Enriched Hot Spring Water Promotes Skin Wound Healing in Nude Rats

    Jingyan Liang; Dedong Kang; Yingge Wang; Ying Yu; Jianglin Fan; En Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing spee...

  12. Linkage of High Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Yellowstone Hot Springs to Unique Sequence Types in the Dissimilatory Sulfate Respiration Pathway

    Fishbain, Susan; Dillon, Jesse G.; Heidi L Gough; Stahl, David A

    2003-01-01

    Diversity, habitat range, and activities of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes within hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were characterized using endogenous activity measurements, molecular characterization, and enrichment. Five major phylogenetic groups were identified using PCR amplification of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) from springs demonstrating significant sulfate reduction rates, including a warm, acidic (pH 2.5) stream and several nearly neutral hot springs with ...

  13. A hot spring in granite of the Western Tianshan, China

    The western Tianshan range is a major Cenozoic orogenic belt in central Asia exposing predominantly Paleozoic rocks including granite. Ongoing deformation is reflected by very rugged topography with peaks over 7000 m high. Active tectonic deformation is tied to an E-W trending fracture and fault system that sections the mountain chain into geologically diverse blocks that extend parallel to the orogen. In the Muzhaerte valley upwelling hot water follows such a fault system in the Muza granite. About 20 L min-1 Na-SO4-Cl water with a temperature of 55 deg. C having a total mineralization of about 1 g L-1 discharge from the hot spring. The water is used in a local spa that is frequented by the people of the upper Ili river area. Its waters are used for balneological purposes and the spa serves as a therapeutic institution. The major element composition of the hot water is dominated by Na and by SO4 and Cl, Ca is a minor component. Dissolved silica (1.04 mmol L-1) corresponds to a quartz-saturation temperature of 116 deg. C and a corresponding depth of the source of the water of about 4600 m. This temperature is consistent with Na/K and Na/Li geothermometry. The water is saturated with respect to fluorite and contains 7.5 mg L-1 F- as a consequence of the low Ca-concentration. The water is undersaturated with respect to the primary minerals of the reservoir granite at reservoir temperature causing continued irreversible dissolution of granite. The waters are oversaturated with respect to Ca-zeolite minerals (such as stilbite and mesolite), and it is expected that zeolites precipitate in the fracture pore space and in alteration zones replacing primary granite. The stable isotope composition of O and H supports a meteoric origin of the water. The Cl/Br mass ratio of 1500 suggests that the salinity results from halite dissolution. Salts leached from powders of Muza granite show the same Cl/Br signature as the hot spring water. Sodium chloride is stored in fluid and

  14. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  15. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds. PMID:25671581

  16. Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Shaughnessy, Daniel P.; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V.; Roberto, Francisco F.; Young, Mark

    2012-01-01

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot s...

  17. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  19. Magnetotelluric models of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs (RHS) thermal area, which includes a hotwater-dominated fracture zone prospect, near the eastern margin of the Basin-Range tectonic province, conceivably possesses a whole family of resistivity structures that includes the following: deep hot brine reservoirs, deep-seated partially molten heat sources in the crust or upper mantle that drive the convective system, near-surface hydrothermal alteration zones, wet sedimentary fill in valleys, and a regional, apparently one-dimensional resistivity profile of the crust and upper mantle. This complex resistivity makeup, particular to RHS but probably similar to that at other geothermal areas in the Great Basin, must be treated as being fully three-dimensional (3-D). In an attempt to understand these structures, broadband (10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ Hz) tensor magnetotelluric (MT) data were obtained including apparent resistivities (rho/sub a/), impedance phases (phi) and vertical magnetic field transfer functions for 93 sites in the vicinity of this resource area.

  20. Lipid Biomarkers and Stable Isotope Signatures of Microbial Mats in Hot Springs of Kamchatka, Russia

    Romanek, C. S.; Mills, G. L.; Jones, M. E.; Paddock, L.; Li, Y.; Zhang, C. L.; Wiegel, J.

    2004-12-01

    Various hot springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, were analyzed for their chemical and stable isotope composition to better understand the relationship(s) between thermophilic microorganisms and the environments in which they live. The springs had water temperatures ranging from 40-90\\deg C and pH ranging from 5.6-5.9. Gases that emanated from the springs were composed predominantly of CO2 (20 to 90%), with lesser amounts of CH4, (CO2 fixation pathways, or other unknown mechanisms. Microbial mats were freeze-dried and extracted for lipid biomarker analysis. The lipids were separated into hydrocarbon, sterol, ether lipid, free fatty acid, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions. Among these fractions, PLFA indicated the community structure and abundance for Bacteria while the ether lipid fraction provided analogous information for Archaea. Results of PLFA showed 16:0 as the most abundant fatty acid (33-44%), which is universal in all living organisms. Other significant biomarkers included 18:1ω (19 to 24%), 18:2ω (5 to 13%), 16:1ω (3 to 12%), and 18:0 (2 to 7%). These biomarkers are characteristic of cyanobacteria, green-sulfur bacteria, and green non-sulfur bacteria, respectively, which are common autotrophic organisms in terrestrial hot springs. On the other hand, biomarkers of heterotrophic bacteria, such as iso- and anteiso-15:0 were low (2-8%), indicating that the bacterial carbon cycle was dominated by autotrophic organisms. Analogous archaeal constituents were present in significant abundance in the ether lipids fraction.

  1. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice.

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-06-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it. PMID:27021217

  2. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  3. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  4. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of hot springs along the along the Neogene Malawi rift.

    Atekwana, E. A.; Tsokonombwe, G. W.; Elsenbeck, J.; Wanless, V. D.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of major ions and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13CDIC), hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) of hot springs along the Neogene Malawi rift. We compared the results with those of streams and a cold spring. We aimed to assess the hot springs for evidence of addition of mantle mass, specifically water and carbon and (2) determine the processes that control the chemical and isotopic evolution of the hot springs. Understanding the source(s) of heat for the springs and if the chemical and isotopic characteristics show evidence of mantle processes is an important goal of the Project for Rift Initiation, Development and Evolution (PRIDE). The temperature of the hot springs ranged from 35 to 80 ºC. High temperature anomalies are observed between latitudes 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 degrees south along the rift axis. The δD and δ18O for the cold spring, hot springs and streams had a similar range, were positively correlated and lie on the trend of the local meteoric water line. We suggest negligible contribution of water from a connate or magmatic source and limited oxygen exchange from water-rock interaction or CO2 exchange from deep sedimentary carbonates. The DIC concentrations of the hot springs are higher (5 to 61 mg C/L) than those of streams (2 to 28 mg C/L) indicating addition of carbon to the DIC pool during the circulation of some springs. The range in the δ13CDIC of the hot springs (-17 to -8‰) is broader and lower compared to streams (-12 to -5‰) due to addition of carbon with a δ13CDIC of -15‰ to the spring water during circulation. Our results indicate that (1) the source of water for the hot springs is meteoric, (2) the hot springs have not experienced extensive water-rock interaction due to fast circulation suggesting highly permeable fault zones, (3) the source of carbon in the DIC of the hot springs is mostly CO2(g) from the soil zone and (4) the springs are heated by normal

  5. Mixing of hydrothermal water and groundwater near hot springs, Yellowstone National Park (USA): hydrology and geochemistry

    Gibson, Matthew L.; Hinman, Nancy W.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of hot springs have focused mainly on the properties of fluids and solids. Fewer studies focus on the relationship between the hot springs and groundwater/surface-water environments. The differences in temperature and dissolved solids between hot-spring water and typical surface water and groundwater allow interactions to be traced. Electromagnetic terrain (EMT) conductivity is a nonintrusive technique capable of mapping mixing zones between distinct subsurface waters. These interactions include zones of groundwater/surface-water exchange and groundwater mixing. Herein, hydrogeological techniques are compared with EMT conductivity to trace hot-spring discharge interactions with shallow groundwater and surface water. Potentiometric-surface and water-quality data determined the hydrogeochemistry of two thermally influenced areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Data from the sites revealed EMT conductivity contrasts that reflected the infiltration of conductive hot-spring discharge to local groundwater systems. The anomalies reflect higher temperatures and conductivity for Na+-Cl--rich hydrothermal fluids compared to the receiving groundwater. EMT conductivity results suggested hot springs are fed by conduits largely isolated from shallow groundwater; mixing of waters occurs after hot-spring discharge infiltrates groundwater from the surface and, generally, not by leakage in the subsurface. A model was proposed to explain the growth of sinter mounds.

  6. Spatial relationship between earthquakes, hot-springs and faults in Odisha, India

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jena, Ratiranjan

    2016-06-01

    Odisha is famous for Mineral rich Eastern-Ghat mobile belt, hot springs and cultural Heritage. The hot springs are known for centuries and are used by public as a place for worship. Odisha falls under the II and III seismic zones in India. Most of the seismicity in Odisha is due to motion along some active normal faults along the Mahanadi Graben. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the active faults and understand spatial distribution of seismic activity in Odisha. It is also important to understand the Earthquakes and their relation with the Geology of Odisha and understand the neo-tectonic activity. There are 7 major hot springs found along the North Odisha Boundary Fault and Mahanadi Shear Zone. The hot water percolates deep into the Earth through porous and permeable fractured rocks along the fault. Depth of source for most of the hot springs in Odisha must be some few feets to few meters; however most of these observations are not based on scientific geophysical data. Therefore, spatial relationship between thermal springs, earthquakes, and geology of Odisha may provide better understanding of the hot-spring setting. By using the earthquake and fault data, the sense of motion along faults can be easily interpreted. All these information can explain the spatial distribution and inter-relation between hot-springs, faults and earthquakes in Odisha.

  7. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L-1 in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m-3 in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10-4 to 5.0x10-3. Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation

  8. New bathing therapy in Japanese hot springs using radiation from radon

    Japanese-style bathing is an important part of the traditional culture of Japan, and most Japanese people love hot springs. Many kinds of hot springs exist all over Japan and are often a major factor when considering where to go for travel, relaxation and rest. However, other countries, especially in Europe, also use hot springs for medical treatments such as balneo therapy, hydrokinetic therapy, fango therapy and inhalation therapy. Some hot springs in Japan are located on radioactive springs. Five typical radioactive spring areas can be found in Tamagawa (Akita Pref.), Murasugi (Niigata Pref.), Masutomi (Yamanashi Pref.), Misasa (Tottori Pref.), and Sekigane (Tottori Pref.). While hot springs in Japan are mainly used for bathing, these radioactive springs are also used for bedrock bathing and/or inhalation therapy. In Italy, Fango therapy is a medical treatment conducted under a medical doctor's super vision with peloids maturated with hot spring water called 'Fango'. Japanese style Fango, named BiofangoR, has already been made by using natural hot springs that have been modified with Italian Fango. Medical evaluation of test subjects has shown good results after treatment with Fango therapy. An important point in Fango therapy is how to make satisfactory maturated peloids. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted at Masutomi hot spring to confirm the possibility of using radioactive spring water to make maturated peloids. The basement material for the peloids used for this experiment was made from bentonite mixed with original rock from the Masutomi hot spring area consisting of crushed basalt and granite that have a fine amount of radioactivity. These peloids were circulated through hot spring water for two weeks to a month and then used for treatment. The medical data showed that therapy using this method resulted in greater improvement in 'test subjects' body functions compared with the data from previous observations. This seems

  9. Using Hydrogen Isotopes to Distinguish Allochthony and Autochthony in Hot Springs Ecosystems

    Hungate, J.; DeSousa, T. M.; Ong, J. C.; Caron, M. M.; Brown, J. R.; Patel, N.; Dijkstra, P.; Hedlund, B. P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Hot springs are hosts to abundant and diverse microbial communities. Above the temperature threshold for photosynthesis (~73 degrees C), a variety of chemosynthetic organisms support autochthonous primary production in hot springs ecosystems. These organisms are thought to drive the carbon and energy budgets of these ecosystems, but the importance of energy inputs from the surrounding terrestrial environments - allochthonous inputs - is not well known. Here, we tested the efficacy of stable isotopes of hydrogen in distinguishing autochthonous from allochthonous sources of organic matter in hot springs ecosystems. Under laboratory conditions and in pure culture, we grew autotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic organisms from the Great Boiling Springs in northern Nevada as well as organisms typical of other hot springs environments. We measured the δ2H composition of biomass, water and organic matter sources used by the organisms to produce that biomass. We also surveyed organic matter in and around hot springs in Nevada and in the Tengchong geothermal region in China, sampling terrestrial plants at the hot springs margin, microorganisms (either scraped from surfaces or in the water column), and organic matter in the sediment accruing in the spring itself as an integrative measure of the relative importance of organic matter sources to the spring ecosystem. We found that autotrophic production in culture results in strongly depleted δ2H signatures, presumably because of fractionation against 2H-H2O during chemosynthesis. The observed difference between microbial biomass and water was larger than that typically found for terrestrial plants during photosynthesis, setting the stage for using δ2H to distinguish allochthonous from autochthonous sources of productivity in hot springs. In surveys of natural hot springs, microbial biomass sampled from the water column or from surfaces was often strongly depleted in δ2H, consistent with in situ chemosynthesis. Organic

  10. Isolation of Free-Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran

    Badirzadeh, A; Niyyati, M; Babaei, Z; Amini, H.; H Badirzadeh; Rezaeian, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distrib­uted in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran.Methods: Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring) were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtra­tion of wat...

  11. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232Th, 226Ra and 40K isotopes. The enrichment of 226Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  12. Characterization of a Yellowstone hot spring microbial community by 5S rRNA sequences.

    Stahl, D A; Lane, D J; Olsen, G J; Pace, N R

    1985-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting a 91 degrees C hot spring in Yellowstone National Park were characterized by sequencing 5S rRNAs isolated from the mixed, natural microflora without cultivation. By comparisons of these sequences with reference sequences, the phylogenetic relationships of the hot spring organisms to better characterized ones were established. Quantitation of the total 5S-sized rRNAs revealed a complex microbial community of three dominant members, a predominant archaebacterium af...

  13. Subaqueous hot springs in Köyceǧiz Lake and Dalyan Channel (SW Turkey)

    Avşar, Özgür; Avşar, Ulaş; Kurtuluş, Bedri; Arslan, Şebnem; Güleç, Nilgün

    2014-05-01

    The preliminary investigations within the scope of a subaqueous geothermal exploration project revealed a total of seven underwater hot springs in the Köyceǧiz Lake and through its outlet, namely Dalyan Channel. Within the scope of this project, horizontal temperature and electrical conductivity profiles of the lake water were obtained by using an YSI CTD probe along a dense survey grid. Any anomaly in the temperature and/or electrical conductivity profiles was inspected by scuba divers in detail, and water samples were taken from the explored hot springs by using a syringe type sampler. Four of these explored hot springs are located on the southern shore of Köyceǧiz Lake and the remaining ones are on the northern part of the Dalyan Channel. The temperature of the subaqueous hot springs range from 26.41 to 29.57 °C, which is slightly lower than the temperature range of the on-land hot springs in the region (i.e., 30-39 °C). Discovery of subaqueous hot springs and investigation of chemistry of these sources will lead a more comprehensive assessment of the hydrogeochemistry of the region.

  14. Estimation of growth rate of Hokutolite from Tamagawa Hot-Spring, Akita, Japan

    Concentrations of radium isotopes and the progenies (226Ra, 228Ra and 228Th) in three hokutolite samples and the hot-spring water from Tamagawa hot-spring were measured. These isotopes were analyzed by a well-type HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer for the 351, 609, 911 and 583 keV gamma-rays from 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac and 208Tl, respectively, each being in radioactive equilibrium with precursors. Radium-226 concentrations of hokutolite were in the range of 50-85 Bq/g, being higher in the lower layer, and 228R concentrations were in the range of 7.1-263 Bq/g, being higher in the upper layer. The activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra provided the estimation o the growth rate of hokutolite (0.06-0.15 mm/y). Activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra of Tamagawa hot spring-water ranged from 6 to 24, the seasonal variation pattern showed the higher ratio in summer season. Figure shows that estimated growth rate of hokutolite samples were correlated with SO42- concentration in Tamagawa hot- spring water. Estimated 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios in Tamagawa hot-spring water from hokutolite surface activity were concordant with those of the hot-spring water.

  15. Mathematical Model of the Geothermal Water Resources in the South Hot Spring System in Chongqing

    Liu Dongyan; Luo Yunju; Liu Xinrong

    2005-01-01

    The geothermal waters of south hot spring, small hot spring and Qiaokouba in Chongqing, are all part of the south hot spring geothermal water system. Exploitation has caused a decline in the water levels of the south and small hot springs, which have not flowed naturally for 15 years. Now, bores pump geothermal water to the springs. If the water level drops below the elevation of the rivers, river-water will replenish the geothermal water, destroying this resource. It is therefore an urgent task to model the geothermal water system, to enable sustainable development and continued use of the geothermal water in Qiaokouba. A numerical simulation of the geothermal water system was adopted and a quantitative study on the planning scheme was carried out. A mathematical model was set up to simulate the whole geothermal water system, based on data from the research sites. The model determined the maximum sustainable water yield in Qiaokouba and the two hot springs, and the south hot spring and small hot spring sustainable yields are 1 100 m3/d and 700 m3/d from 2006 to 2010, 1 300 m3/d and 1 000 m3/d from 2011 to 2015, and 1 500 m3/d and 1 200 m3/d from 2016 to 2036. The maximum exploitable yield is 3 300 m3/d from 2006 to 2036 in Qiaokouba. The model supplies a basis to adequately exploit and effectively protect the geothermal water resources, and to continue to develop the geothermal water as a tourist attraction in Chongqing.

  16. Evaluation of Current and Feasible Future Use of Geothermal Energy at Chinyunyu Hot Spring, Zambia

    Kapasa, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The main source of geothermal energy is the heat flow from the mantle beneath the Earth’s surface, generated by the gradual decay of radioactive isotopes in the Earth‘s crust. A hot spring is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater flowing out to the Earth’s surface. The Chinyunyu hot spring is located about 90km east of Lusaka, Zambia. Water from the spring has been artificially channeled into a large excavated pool which is used as a bathing place. Since the undiluted s...

  17. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)). PMID:26865126

  18. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  19. Cloning and expression of dnaK gene from Bacillus pumilus of hot water spring origin

    Murugan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of thermotolerant strains isolated from hot springs of Manikaran and Bakreshwar (India were selected with an aim to isolate dnak gene which encodes DnaK protein. The gene dnaK along with its flanking region was successfully amplified from 5 different strains (4 from Bakreshwar and one from Manikaran. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP revealed that amplicons were almost identical in sequence. The dnak gene from one representative, Bacillus pumilus strain B3 isolated from Bakreshwar hot springs was successfully cloned and sequenced. The dnaK gene was flanked by gene grpE on one side. The dnaK gene was 1842 bp in length encoding a polypeptide of 613 amino acid residues. Calculated molecular weight and pI of the protein were 66,128.36 Da and 4.72 respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene shared high sequence homology with other DnaK proteins and its homologue Hsp 70 from other microorganisms, but possessed 36 substitutions and two insertions, as compared to DnaK protein of Bacillus subtilis. The dnaK gene of B. pumilus was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL 21 (DE3 using pET expression systems. Heterologous expression of dnaK of B. pumilus in E. coli BL 21 (DE3 allowed for the growth of E. coli up to 50 °C and survival up to 60 °C for 16 h, suggesting that dnak from B. pumilus imparts tolerance to host cells under high temperature. This novel gene can be an important component for possible utilization in abiotic stress management of plants.

  20. Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community

    Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

  1. A culture-dependent survey of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Xiamen area in China

    YANG Bo; OUYANG Jianping; AO Jingqun; CHEN Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    Microbes are believed to play important roles in ecosystem function in many environments. The hot springs of Xiamen Island are close to the Xiamen Sea, and may have some characteristics different from those of inland hot springs. Microbes living in the hot springs of Xiamen may have new characteristics. However, little is known about microbial communities of hot springs close to the Xiamen Sea. A cuhure-dependent survey of microbial population in the Xiamen hot springs was pcrformed by using an approach combining total cellular protein profile identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 328 isolates of bacteria were obtained from liquid and sediment samples from the Xiamen hot springs, including neutrophilie thermophilic bacteria and moderately thermophilic acidophiles. Neutrophilic thermophilic bacteria, which grow at a temperature range of 55-90℃ including Rhodothermus marinus (Strain 1) , Thermus thermophilus (Strain 2), Thermus thiopara (Strain 3) , Geobacillus stearothermophilus(Strain 4) , Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Strain 5) , and Pseudomonas pseudoal-caligenes (Strain 6), were recovered by 2216E plates. Moderately thermophilic acidophiles, which can grow at temperatures above 50℃ and a pH range of 1. 8-3.5 such as Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (Strain 8) , Sul-fobacillus acidophilus (Strain 9), and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (Strain 10), were isolated on selective solid medium containing sulfur and Fe2+. Among these strains, Rhodothermus marinus, Thermus thermophilus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus are not only thermophilcs, but also halophiles. One bacterium strain (Strain 6) shared 99% nucleotide sequence homology with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes on the 16S rRNA gene se-quence, but was quite different from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in biological characteristics, suggesting that it may represent a novel thermophilic species. Results indicated that various species of neutrophilic thermophiles and moderately thermophilic

  2. Biological Sources of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (brGDGTs) in Terrestrial Hot Springs: A Possible Link Between Nitrogen-cycling Bacteria and brGDGT Production

    Wang, J. X.; Xie, W.; Boyd, E. S.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are common in peat, soil, lakes, rivers and hot springs. To seek the potential biological sources of brGDGTs in geothermal environments, we investigated 65 hot springs in the Yellowstone National Park (USA) and Tengchong (China). Together with previously published data from hot springs in the Great Basin (USA) and Tibet (China), we found that the abundance of brGDGTs tended to peak in springs with pH > 8. This contrasts with previous observations indicating an abundance of brGDGTs in acidic soils and peat bogs, suggesting a different biological source and function for lipids in these environments. In support of this hypothesis, a comparison of Cyclization ratios of Branched Tetraethers (CBT) between hot springs and surrounding soils indicated that more brGDGTs with cyclopentane moieties were produced in alkaline hot springs than in nearby low-temperature soils. Since Acidobacteria (the likely source of brGDGTs in peat bog environments) tend to have low CBT ratios, these data suggest a different source for brGDGTs in hot spring environments. RDA and regression analysis integrating brGDGT compounds and nitrogen species indicate that Bacteria involved in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle (ammonia oxidation and nitrite reduction) may be related to the production of brGDGTs in terrestrial hot springs. However, direct evidence showing the link between nitrogen-cycling bacteria and brGDGT production has yet to be demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, our study expands the possibility of brGDGT sources into bacterial communities in terrestrial geothermal systems where Acidobacteria are absent or only a minor component.

  3. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach

    Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; De Mandal, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units) comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%), Chloroflexi (21.37%), Cyanobacteria (12.96%) and unclassified bacteria (1.2%) respectively. PMID:26484205

  4. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring.

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring's outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59-0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring's pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  5. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach

    Amrita Kumari Panda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%, Chloroflexi (21.37%, Cyanobacteria (12.96% and unclassified bacteria (1.2% respectively.

  6. Thermal neutron activation analysis of the water Zamzam at Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the water of the fourty five hot springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas, USA

    Samples from the Islamic holy water Zamzam in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the famous mineral water of Hot Springs, in Hot Springs, Arkansas were analyzed for trace elements content by thermal neutron activation analysis. For Zamzam the concentration of 37S, 49Ca, 38Cl, 31Si, 42K, 24Na and 82Br were found, respectively, to be 3, 107, 11, 12, 4, 14, and 9 ppm; and that for Hot Springs Sample, replacing 82Br with 27Mg, are 2, 44, 2, 10, 1, 4, and 5 ppm. The experimental limit of detection for pure standards of the nuclides 27Mg, 128I, 64Cu, and 56Mn were found to be 8, 8x10-3, 6x10-2, and 2x10-4 μg, respectively. These nuclides were not detected in Zamzam, therefore, it was concluded that in Zamzam the concentration levels of the nuclides 27Mg, 128I, 64Cu, and 56Mn were below that of the limit of detection of pure standards. (orig./HP)

  7. Consideration on the analytical method for heat anomalies based on distribution of heat discharge by hot springs

    Distribution of heat discharge by hot spring is a valuable feature for evaluating geologic repository site because it reflects both underground temperature and underground hydrologic conditions. Considering preparatory procedure of updating the manner of heat discharge calculation, several points have been noted. The following two points are particularly significant. For the time being naturally discharging hot springs occupy about 30 percent of the total amount of hot spring water in Japan. Therefore (1) we must evaluate natural discharge and pumped hot water separately. Recently developed hot springs, especially those by deep wells, are likely to be suffered from changes in their condition such as decrease in water temperature and/or production rate in a shot period after development. Therefore (2) hot spring data should be carefully treated for evaluating heat discharge by them. (author)

  8. Radioactivity in hot spring water, Peitou, Taiwan and Taiwan earthquake in September, 1999

    Momoshima, N. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sugihara, S. [Kyushu Univ., Graduate School of Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Huang, C.W. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Department of Chemistry, TW (China); Wu, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ., Institute of Agriculture Chemistry, TW (China)

    2000-07-01

    Hot spring water sometimes contains high amounts of radioactivity. Peitou hot spring, located in north of Taipei, Taiwan, is well known its high concentrations of radium isotopes and production of rare radioactive rock, hokutolite. Substances dissolved in hot spring water would be useful tools to examine geochemical processes occurring under ground. Radionuclides in hot spring water give us an information about a time scale involved in the geochemical processes. We have analyzed concentrations of radionuclides in hot spring water to understand geochemical processes occurring at Peitou. Hot spring water was collected monthly at Peitou, Taiwan from September 1996. Radium isotopes in the hot spring water were co-precipitated with BaSO{sub 4}. The radioactivities in the BaSO{sub 4} were measured by gamma spectrometry. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra concentrations were determined by concentrations of their daughter nuclides after attaining radioactive equilibrium. The concentrations of {sup 226}Ra were distributed in a range between 0.02 Bq/l and 0.05 Bq/l, showing a gradual decrease from September 1996 to July 1998 as a whole followed by a fairly constant period and it increased again from May 1999. The concentrations of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra were distributed in ranges between 0.6 Bq/l and 1.2 Bq/l for {sup 228}Ra and between 3 Bq/l and 7.80 Bq/l for {sup 224}Ra, respectively. The concentrations of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra were 2 or 3 orders magnitude higher compared to that of {sup 226}Ra. The Peitou hot spring water is rich in radium isotopes belonging to thorium decay series. The concentrations of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra also changed a similar manner to {sup 226}Ra. A relatively large deviation from the gradual decline was observed on the sample collected on December 1997 and the sample taken just before the Taiwan earthquake in 21 September 1999 showed significant low concentrations. We observed higher concentration of {sup 224}Ra than {sup

  9. Radioactivity in hot spring water, Peitou, Taiwan and Taiwan earthquake in September, 1999

    Hot spring water sometimes contains high amounts of radioactivity. Peitou hot spring, located in north of Taipei, Taiwan, is well known its high concentrations of radium isotopes and production of rare radioactive rock, hokutolite. Substances dissolved in hot spring water would be useful tools to examine geochemical processes occurring under ground. Radionuclides in hot spring water give us an information about a time scale involved in the geochemical processes. We have analyzed concentrations of radionuclides in hot spring water to understand geochemical processes occurring at Peitou. Hot spring water was collected monthly at Peitou, Taiwan from September 1996. Radium isotopes in the hot spring water were co-precipitated with BaSO4. The radioactivities in the BaSO4 were measured by gamma spectrometry. 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations were determined by concentrations of their daughter nuclides after attaining radioactive equilibrium. The concentrations of 226Ra were distributed in a range between 0.02 Bq/l and 0.05 Bq/l, showing a gradual decrease from September 1996 to July 1998 as a whole followed by a fairly constant period and it increased again from May 1999. The concentrations of 228Ra and 224Ra were distributed in ranges between 0.6 Bq/l and 1.2 Bq/l for 228Ra and between 3 Bq/l and 7.80 Bq/l for 224Ra, respectively. The concentrations of 228Ra and 224Ra were 2 or 3 orders magnitude higher compared to that of 226Ra. The Peitou hot spring water is rich in radium isotopes belonging to thorium decay series. The concentrations of 228Ra and 224Ra also changed a similar manner to 226Ra. A relatively large deviation from the gradual decline was observed on the sample collected on December 1997 and the sample taken just before the Taiwan earthquake in 21 September 1999 showed significant low concentrations. We observed higher concentration of 224Ra than 228Ra. The activity ratio of 224Ra/228Ra far exceeded unity, more than 6, that is unusual because 224Ra and

  10. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide oxidizing microbes

  11. Formation and Fate of Fermentation Products in Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mats

    Anderson, Karen L.; Tayne, Timothy A.; Ward, David M.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of representative fermentation products (acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and ethanol) in hot spring cyanobacterial mats was investigated. The major fate during incubations in the light was photoassimilation by filamentous bacteria resembling Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Some metabolism of all compounds occurred under dark aerobic conditions. Under dark anaerobic conditions, only lactate was oxidized extensively to carbon dioxide. Extended preincubation under dark anaerobic condi...

  12. MICROBIAL POPULATION OF HOT SPRING WATERS IN ESKİŞEHİR/TURKEY

    Nalan YILMAZ SARIÖZLÜ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and find out the bacterial community of hot spring waters in Eskişehir, Turkey, 7 hot spring water samples were collected from 7 different hot springs. All samples were inoculated using four different media (nutrient agar, water yeast extract agar, trypticase soy agar, starch casein agar. After incubation at 50 ºC for 14 days, all bacterial colonies were counted and purified. Gram reaction, catalase and oxidase properties of all isolates were determined and investigated by BIOLOG, VITEK and automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter. The resistance of these bacteriawas examined against ampiciline, gentamisine, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. As a result, heat resistant pathogenic microorganisms in addition to human normal flora were determined in hot spring waters (43-50 ºC in investigated area. Ten different species belong to 6 genera were identified as Alysiella filiformis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, Molexalla caprae, M. caviae, M. cuniculi, M. phenylpyruvica, Roseomonas fauriae, Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas taetrolens.

  13. Genome Sequence of a Novel Archaeal Rudivirus Recovered from a Mexican Hot Spring

    Servín-Garcidueñas, L; Peng, X; Garrett, R;

    2013-01-01

    We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico....

  14. Hot spring therapy of the patients exposed to atomic bomb radiation, 15

    The patients exposed to the atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima area came to Beppu Spa to have hot spring therapy. During the fiscal year of 1982 (April, 1982, to March, 1983), 3972 persons came to the hot spring sanatorium, and 586 patients (14.8 %) received physical examination. Among them, 473 patients (80.7 %) were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation on August 6, 1945, or entered in the city of Hiroshima by August 20, 1945, according to the official notebook issued by the government. Physical examination was performed twice a week during their stay, and more than 53.5 % of the patients were older than 70, and the oldest was 93 years old. Blood pressure was measured when the patients came in and went out, and hypertensive patients were asked to observe the rule of treatment strictly. The complaints of the patients which brought them to the hot spring were mostly pain in bodies and lower extremities, and hypertension, common cold syndrome, diabetes and constipation. Patients took hot spring bath 2 - 3 times daily, and many patients had microwave and low frequency wave treatment. Soaking in a bath (containing 1.4 mg of cupric sulfate and 11.4 mg of zinc sulfate per liter) was practiced by diabetic patients. The therapeutic effects were difficult to judge because the period of stay of the most patients was about 10 days, but in most of them, subjective symptoms were relieved when they left the sanatorium. (Yamashita, S.)

  15. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BASELINE STUDY: VEGETATION AND SOILS OF THE ROOSEVELT HOT SPRINGS GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE AREA

    Identification and elemental concentrations of indigenous soil and plant systems found on the Roosevelt Hot Spring KGRA are described. Twenty-three different soils and five separate plant communities are geographically mapped and identified. One hundred forty-seven plant species ...

  16. Isolation of Free-Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran

    A Badirzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distrib­uted in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran.Methods: Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtra­tion of water samples was performed, and culture was done in non-nutrient agar medium enriched with Escherichia coli. Identification of the FLA was based on morphological criteria of cysts and trophozoites. Genotype identification of Acanthamoeba positive samples were also per­formed using sequencing based method.Results: Overall, 12 out of 28 (42.9% samples were positive for FLA which Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfiid amoebae were found in one (3.6% and 11 (39.3% samples, respectively. Se­quence analysis of the single isolate of Acanthamoeba revealed potentially pathogenic T4 geno­type corresponding to A. castellanii.Conclusion: Contamination of hot springs to FLA, such as Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (A. castel­lanii and Vahlkampfiid amoebae, could present a sanitary risk for high risk people, and health authorities must be aware of FLA presence.

  17. Caldimonas meghalayensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic betaproteobacterium isolated from a hot spring of Meghalaya in northeast India

    Rakshak, K.; Ravinder, K.; Nupur, T.N.R.; Srinivas, P.; Kumar, A.

    While studying the microbial diversity of hot springs of North-east India we isolated a strain AK31T from the Jakrem hot spring of Meghalaya. The strain formed light yellow colonies on nutrient agar and was Gram negative, non spore...

  18. Exposure to Particle Matters and Hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Hot Spring Hotels in Guangdong, China

    Qiusheng He; Qi Song; Yulong Yan; Zhichun Wang; Lili Guo; Xinming Wang

    2016-01-01

    In Guangdong province, many hot springs were exploited and developed into popular places for tourist. In addition, hotels have been set up near hot spring sites to attract people, including local citizens, to spend their spare time inside these so-called “spring hotels”. In our study, indoor air quality was investigated in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong province, China. Measured indoor pollutants included CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). As the result show, hig...

  19. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  20. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs.

  1. Production and early preservation of lipid biomarkers in iron hot springs.

    Parenteau, Mary N; Jahnke, Linda L; Farmer, Jack D; Cady, Sherry L

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51-54°C, pH 5.5-6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8-5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. This study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs--environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration. PMID:24886100

  2. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  3. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    None

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  4. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a radiation resistant thermophilic bacterium from radon hot spring

    A radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium strain R4-33 was isolated from radon hot spring water samples, pretreated with 60Co γ-rays and UV irradiation. Tests on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, fatty acid compositions, (G + C) mol% contents, and 16S rDNA sequencing were conducted. The results showed that strain R4-33 was of rod-shape, Gram-negative, atrichous, and endospore-forming. The optimum growth temperature and pH were 60 ℃ and 7.5, respectively. The strain utilized glucose, maltose and trehalose as carbon sources, and hydrolyzed casein and starch. Its catalase positive. The strain was sensitive to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin and ampicillin. The major cellular fatty acids were C14:1 (48.8%) and C15:1 (15.2%). The (G + C) mol% content of DNA was 58.2%. Phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequence showed R4-33 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Anoxybacillus, especially to that of Anoxybacillus gonensis (99.5%). Based on the above, the strain R4-33 was proposed to the evolution branch of Anoxybacillus and designated as Anoxybacillu sp. R4-33. The UV and γ-radiation tests showed that the strain R4-33 had an ability of resistance to UV of 396 J/m2 and 60Co γ-rays irradiation of 14.0 kGy, indicating that the strain was a radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium. (authors)

  6. Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs

    Benjamin Bolduc; Daniel P. Shaughnessy; Yuri I. Wolf; Eugene V. Koonin; Francisco F. Roberto; Mark Young

    2012-05-01

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.

  7. Gravity and ground magnetic surveys of the Thermo Hot Springs KGRA region, Beaver County, Utah

    Sawyer, Robert F.; Cook, Kenneth L.

    1977-08-01

    During the period June to September 1976, gravity and ground magnetic surveys were made in the Thermo Hot Springs KGRA region which is located southwest of the town of Milford, Beaver County, Utah. The regional surveys comprised 273 new gravity and magnetic stations and incorporated 104 previous gravity stations over an area of approximately 620 km{sup 2}. The detailed surveys consisted of 9 east-west profiles in the immediate vicinity of the Thermo Hot Springs KGRA. The gravity data were reduced and are presented as terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity anomaly maps. Terrain corrections were made to a distance of 18.8 km. The regional gravity map shows the following features: (1) a large north-south trend with total relief of 5 mgal extending through the central portion of the study area; (2) an east-west trend with relief of about 7-8 mgal south of the Star Range and Shauntie Hills; (3) a north-south trend with 5 mgal relief east of Blue Mountain; and (4) a broad low of approximately 5 mgal closure southwest of the Shauntie Hills. The trends are probably caused by major faults and the gravity low is probably caused by the southern end of the Wah Wah Valley graben. The detailed gravity map indicates two possible east-west trending faults intersecting a major north-south trending fault in the immediate vicinity of the Thermo Hot Springs. The location of the hot springs appears to be fault controlled. To facilitate interpretation of the gravity data, the following processing and modeling techniques were used: (1) high-pass frequency filtering; (2) polynomial fitting; (3) second derivative; (4) strike filtering; (5) two-dimensional modeling; and (6) three-dimensional modeling. These techniques proved helpful as they more clearly delineated features of interest. The residual maps outlined an elongate north-south graben that extends through the survey area. The strike-filtered maps emphasize the major north-south and east-west faults of the region. Modeling provided

  8. [Comment on “Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?”] Hydrothermal vents revisited

    Hoffman, Sarah

    It was gratifying to read Peter Bell's synopsis of our paper [Corliss et al., 1981] in the March 23 issue of Eos (Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?) however, in the last sentence, he wrote, ‘They note that microorganisms found in recent expeditions to the submarine hot springs of the East Pacific Rise would be evidence that the processes are still occurring.’In our final paragraph we actually said that while “events leading to the formation of complex organic compounds and “protocell” structures may still be occurring in present-day oceanic hydrothermal systems … the complex communities of bacteria in modern oceanic environments would outcompete and consume abiotically synthesized protocells…” Modern-day vent microbiota will probably mask or destroy any evidence for abiotic synthesis in the hydrothermal vents.

  9. Ecological differentiation in planktonic and sediment-associated chemotrophic microbial populations in Yellowstone hot springs.

    Colman, Daniel R; Feyhl-Buska, Jayme; Robinson, Kirtland J; Fecteau, Kristopher M; Xu, Huifang; Shock, Everett L; Boyd, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Chemosynthetic sediment and planktonic community composition and sizes, aqueous geochemistry and sediment mineralogy were determined in 15 non-photosynthetic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These data were used to evaluate the hypothesis that differences in the availability of dissolved or mineral substrates in the bulk fluids or sediments within springs coincides with ecologically differentiated microbial communities and their populations. Planktonic and sediment-associated communities exhibited differing ecological characteristics including community sizes, evenness and richness. pH and temperature influenced microbial community composition among springs, but within-spring partitioning of taxa into sediment or planktonic communities was widespread, statistically supported (P < 0.05) and could be best explained by the inferred metabolic strategies of the partitioned taxa. Microaerophilic genera of the Aquificales predominated in many of the planktonic communities. In contrast, taxa capable of mineral-based metabolism such as S(o) oxidation/reduction or Fe-oxide reduction predominated in sediment communities. These results indicate that ecological differentiation within thermal spring habitats is common across a range of spring geochemistry and is influenced by the availability of dissolved nutrients and minerals that can be used in metabolism. PMID:27306555

  10. Temporal and Seasonal Variations of the Hot Spring Basin Hydrothermal System, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Cheryl Jaworowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Yellowstone National Park’s hydrothermal systems and establishing hydrothermal baselines are the main goals of an ongoing collaborative effort between Yellowstone National Park’s Geology program and Utah State University’s Remote Sensing Services Laboratory. During the first years of this research effort, improvements were made in image acquisition, processing and calibration. In 2007, a broad-band, forward looking infrared (FLIR camera (8–12 microns provided reliable airborne images for a hydrothermal baseline of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. From 2008 to 2011, night-time, airborne thermal infrared image acquisitions during September yielded temperature maps that established the temporal variability of the hydrothermal system. A March 2012 airborne image acquisition provided an initial assessment of seasonal variability. The consistent, high-spatial resolution imagery (~1 m demonstrates that the technique is robust and repeatable for generating corrected (atmosphere and emissivity and calibrated temperature maps of the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Atmospheric conditions before and at flight-time determine the usefulness of the thermal infrared imagery for geohydrologic applications, such as hydrothermal monitoring. Although these ground-surface temperature maps are easily understood, quantification of radiative heat from the Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system is an estimate of the system’s total energy output. Area is a key parameter for calculating the hydrothermal system’s heat output. Preliminary heat calculations suggest a radiative heat output of ~56 MW to 62 MW for the central Hot Spring Basin hydrothermal system. Challenges still remain in removing the latent solar component within the calibrated, atmospherically adjusted, and emissivity corrected night-time imagery.

  11. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  12. Effects of Misasa hot spring water on the growth of vegetables (Joint research)

    Tottori University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a joint study to investigate the effect of hot spring water on the growth of vegetable plants in 2009. The aim of the study is to examine a feasibility of producing a regionally special vegetable with considering the characteristics of the Misasa district, where radon hot springs are historically famous. This report illustrates the intermediate results obtained from the study carried out from 2009 to 2010. (1) Screening test: Eighteen plants were examined for screening. As the results, Misasa hot spring water used in the water culture enlarged the growths of 14 plants. Lastly, 9 plants were selected as candidate plants for further examinations. (2) Sample preparation: Plants sampled in the water culture were lyophilized and stored in a freezer for nutrio-physiological analyses to select the suitable plant from the 9 plants. (3) Examination in labor-saving cultivation: Preliminary examinations were performed with a large-scale system to establish a practical labor-saving water culture system. (author)

  13. Biomineralization of phototrophic microbes in silica-enriched hot springs in South China

    PENG XiaoTong; ZHOU HuaiYang; WU ZhiJun; JIANG Lei; TANG Song; YAO HuiQiang; CHEN GuangQian

    2007-01-01

    Microbial mats in two hot springs in South China were sampled for the research of mineralization of microbes and its mechanism by the methods of geology and modern biology. The results show that hot spring microbes have the key capability for enrichment of Si, Al, Fe, Ca and other elements, and the microbes are also crucial for the formation of SiO2, CaCO3, clay and so on. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play important roles in the process of mineralization of hot spring microbes, which mainly takes place in the layer of EPS outside cell wall or sheath of cyanobacteria. The sheath outside cell wall, which keeps the normal metabolism of cyanobacteria during the process of mineralization on its surface, is also considerable for the biomineralization of cyanobacteria. According to structure and mineralization characteristics of two microbial mats, the process of mineralization can be divided into three stages, namely, early surface mineralization, middle degradation mineralization, and late desquamation of mineral. The above conclusions are significant for comprehension of the process of mineralization, the process of deposition and the preservation of microfossil in modern and ancient extreme environments.

  14. Cultivation-independent comprehensive survey of bacterial diversity in Tulsi Shyam Hot Springs, India

    Anjana Ghelani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic description of bacteria was deduced from 5.78 Mb metagenomic sequence retrieved from Tulsi Shyam hot spring, India using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP. Metagenome contained 10,893 16S rDNA sequences that were analyzed by MG-RAST server to generate the comprehensive profile of bacteria. Metagenomic data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP009559. Metagenome sequences represented the 98.2% bacteria origin, 1.5% of eukaryotic and 0.3% were unidentified. A total of 16 bacterial phyla demonstrating 97 families and 287 species were revealed in the hot spring metagenome. Most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (65.38%, Proteobacteria (21.21% and unclassified bacteria (10.69%. Whereas, Peptostreptococcaceae (37.33%, Clostridiaceae (23.36%, and Enterobacteriaceae (16.37% were highest reported families in metagenome. Ubiquitous species were Clostridium bifermentans (17.47%, Clostridium lituseburense (13.93% and uncultured bacterium (10.15%. Our data provide new information on hot spring bacteria and shed light on their abundance, diversity, distribution and coexisting organisms.

  15. Mantle-derived CO2 in Hot Springs of the Rehai Geothermal Field,Tengchong, China

    REN Jianguo; WANG Xianbin; OUYANG Ziyuan

    2005-01-01

    Gas concentrations and isotopic compositions of He and CO2 were determined on free gas samples from ten hot springs of the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, China. The results showed that hot-spring CO2 gas, together with He,was derived mainly from the mantle, indicating the accumulation of mantle-derived volatiles beneath the survey area. The δ13C values of CO2, higher than those of the typical mantle-derived carbon and the isotopic composition of hot-spring-free CO2 in unequilibrium with dissolved CO2, are recognized only in the Rehai geothermal field, suggesting that there seems to be a still-degassing magmatic intrusion at depths, which provides mantle-derived volatiles to the hydrothermal system above. The accumulation of those volatiles has probably played an important role in triggering earthquakes in this region.In addition, the isotopic characteristics of He and C also indicate that the magmatic intrusion seems to have been derived from the MORB source, and could be contaminated by crustal materials during its upwelling through the continental crust.

  16. Skeletal crystals of calcite and trona from hot-spring deposits in Kenya and New Zealand

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal crystals are hollow crystals that develop because their outer walls grow before their cores. The presence of skeletal crystals of calcite (three types--trigonal prisms, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and trona in hot (> 90 C) spring deposits in New Zealand (Waikite Springs and Ohaaki Pool) and Kenya (Lorusio hot springs) shows that they can form in natural sedimentary regimes. Analysis of samples from these deposits shows that this crystal morphology develops under disequilibrium conditions that are unrelated to a specific environmental or diagenetic setting. Skeletal crystals transform into solid crystals when subsequent precipitation fills their hollow cores. In some cases, this may involve precipitation of crystalline material that has a sieve-like texture. In other examples, the skeletal crystal provides a framework upon which other materials can be precipitated. Walls in the skeletal trigonal calcite prisms from Waikite Springs are formed of subcrystals that mimic the shape of the parent crystal. Similarly, plate-like skeletal crystals from Lorusio are formed of densely packed subcrystals that are < 0.5 {micro}m long. Conversely, the walls of the skeletal hexagonal calcite crystals from Ohaaki Pool and the skeletal trona crystals from Lorusio are not formed of subcrystals. Recognition of skeletal crystals is important because they represent growth that follows the reverse pattern of normal growth. Failure to recognize that crystal growth followed the skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal.

  17. Determining barriers to developing geothermal power generation in Japan: Societal acceptance by stakeholders involved in hot springs

    After many years of stagnant growth in geothermal power generation, development plans for new geothermal plants have recently emerged throughout Japan. Through a literature review, we investigated the relationships between the principal barriers to geothermal development and we thereby analyzed the deciding factors in the future success of such enterprises. The results show that the societal acceptance of geothermal power by local stakeholders is the fundamental barrier as it affects almost all other barriers, such as financial, technical, and political risks. Thus, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 stakeholders including developers, hot spring inn managers, and local government officials. Some hot spring inn managers and local government officials noted that they have always been strongly concerned about the adverse effects of geothermal power generation on hot springs; their opposition has delayed decision-making by local governments regarding drilling permits, prolonged lead times, and caused other difficulties. A key reason for opposition was identified as uncertainty about the reversibility and predictability of the adverse effects on hot springs and other underground structures by geothermal power production and reinjection of hot water from reservoirs. Therefore, we discuss and recommend options for improving the risk management of hot springs near geothermal power plants. - Highlights: • We clarify relationships between barriers to geothermal power development in Japan. • Local acceptance by hot spring managers is the most prominent barrier. • Uncertainty of reversibility and predictability induces low acceptance. • Risk transfer system and dialogue are needed to alleviate concerns

  18. High prevalence, genetic diversity and intracellular growth ability of Legionella in hot spring environments.

    Tian Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. METHODS: Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and sequence-based typing (SBT were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. RESULTS: Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (p<0.01. The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01. Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%, 6 (23.4%, 5 (19.2%, 1 (18.5%, 2 (10.2%, 8 (0.4%, 10 (0.8%, 9 (1.9% and 12 (0.4%. Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control

  19. Cultivable diversity of thermophilic arsenite/ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms in hot springs of Taiwan

    Lu, G.; Lin, Y.; Chang, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater and surface water bodies have posed a stringent threat to the deterioration of the water quality for drinking and agriculture purposes around the world. In particular, arsenic liberated from volcanic and sedimentary rocks at high temperatures would be immobilized through adsorption on iron oxide and/or crystallization of iron-bearing minerals downstream at low temperatures. Understanding how microbially-catalytic reactions are involved in the changes of the redox state of arsenic and iron along a flow path would provide important constraints on the arsenic mobility in natural occurrences. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize thermophilic arsenite- and iron-oxidizing microbes that would facilitate to establish the linkages between microbial distribution and in situ Fe/As cycling processes. Four source waters (LH05, LH08, SYK and MT) from acid-sulfate springs (pH 2-3, 60-97oC) located in the Tatun volcanic area of northern Taiwan were collected and inoculated into media targeting on autotrophic ferrous iron (FC3), arsenite (AC3 ,ACC3, AC7, ACC7), arsenite-resistant hydrogen (AH23), arsenite-resistant hydrogen-sulfur (AH2S3), and arsenite-resistant sulfur oxidations(AS3), and heterotrophic arsenite oxidation(AH3, AH7) at pH 3, and 7 at temperatures of 50, 70 and 80oC. Samples from the Kuantzuling mud springs (KTL) in southwestern Taiwan known with elevated arsenic levels (0.4 ppm) were also collected, inoculated into the heterotrophic medium and incubated at 50, 60, 70 and 80oC. Isolates obtained from KTL were subject to test on the AH7 and ACC7. Two positive enrichments for iron oxidation at 50oC and 70oC were confirmed by the steadily decrease of ferrous iron and increase of precipitates over 4 transfers for samples from the SYK spring. Diverse morphological types of microbes were enriched in all types of arsenite-bearing media at 50oC except for AH23. At 70oC, positive enrichments were found in media

  20. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. Finally, this study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration.

  1. A metastable equilibrium model for the relative abundances of microbial phyla in a hot spring.

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as "Bison Pool" in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that

  2. Caloramator quimbayensis sp. nov., an anaerobic, moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a terrestrial hot spring.

    Rubiano-Labrador, Carolina; Baena, Sandra; Díaz-Cárdenas, Carolina; Patel, Bharat K C

    2013-04-01

    An anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, terminal-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain USBA A(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring located at an altitude of 2683 m in the Andean region of Colombia (04° 50' 14.0″ N 75° 32' 53.4″ W). Cells of strain USBA A(T) were Gram-stain-positive, straight to slightly curved rods (0.9×2.5 µm), that were arranged singly or in pairs, and were motile by means of flagella. Growth occurred at 37-55 °C and pH 6.0-8.0, with a doubling time of 2 h under the optimal conditions (50 °C and pH 7.0). Glucose fermentation in strain USBA A(T) required yeast extract or peptone (each at 0.2 %, w/v). The novel strain fermented sugars, amino acids, Casamino acids, propanol, propionate, starch and dextrin, but no growth was observed on galactose, lactose, xylose, histidine, serine, threonine, benzoate, butyrate, lactate, pyruvate, succinate, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, casein, gelatin or xylan. The end products of glucose fermentation were formate, acetate, ethanol and lactate. Strain USBA A(T) did not grow autotrophically (with CO2 as carbon source and H2 as electron donor) and did not reduce thiosulfate, sulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, vanadium (V) or Fe (III) citrate. Growth of strain USBA A(T) was inhibited by ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, penicillin and streptomycin (each at 10 µg ml(-1)). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 32.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain USBA A(T) belonged in the phylum Firmicutes and that its closest relative was Caloramator viterbiensis JW/MS-VS5(T) (95.0 % sequence similarity). A DNA-DNA relatedness value of only 30 % was recorded in hybridization experiments between strain USBA A(T) and Caloramator viterbiensis DSM 13723(T). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence and the results of the DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, strain USBA A

  3. Nocardioides pakistanensis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani in Pakistan.

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Habib, Neeli; Abbas, Saira; Xiao, Min; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-spore forming, non-pigmented and non-motile bacterium, designated as NCCP-1340(T), was isolated from a hot water spring, Tatta Pani, Pakistan. Cells of strain NCCP-1340(T) were observed to be aerobic, rod shaped, catalase and urease positive but H2S production and oxidase negative. Growth was observed at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 20-40 °C (optimum 37 °C). The strain could tolerate 0-8 % NaCl (optimum 2 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain NCCP-1340(T) belongs to the genus Nocardioides and is closely related to Nocardioides iriomotensis JCM 17985(T) (96.8 %), Nocardioides daedukensis KCTC 19601(T) (96.6 %), Nocardioides jensenii KCTC 9134(T) (96.1 %) and Nocardioides daejeonensis KCTC 19772(T) (96.1 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1340(T) with N. iriomotensis JCM 17985(T), N. daedukensis KCTC 19601(T) and N. jensenii KCTC 9134(T) were found to be less than 53 %. The DNA G+C content of strain NCCP-1340(T) was determined to be 71.8 mol  %. The affiliation of strain NCCP-1340(T) to the genus Nocardioides was further supported by chemotaxonomic data which showed the presence of MK-8(H4) as major menaquinone system; iso-C16:0, C17:0, C16:0 10-methyl, iso-C15:0 and C 15:0 as major cellular fatty acids; and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids in the polar lipids profile. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained LL-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic amino acid. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics and the phylogenetic analyses, strain NCCP-1340(T) can be distinguished from the closely related taxa and thus represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-1340(T) (= DSM 29942(T) = JCM 30630(T)). PMID:27170166

  4. Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Hot and warm springs, geysers and Holocene stromatolites

    McCall, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    I carried out the first regional geological survey of the central Gregory Rift Valley in Kenya in 1958-60, and review here the numerous subsequent specialised studies focused on the unique endoreic Lake Bogoria (formerly Hannington), studies which embraced the sedimentology of the Holocene sediments around the lake shores, the hot-spring and geyser activities and the coring of the sediments beneath the lake. I focus on the occurrences of stromatolites in a hydrothermal environment, both in two closely spaced late Holocene (~ 4500 yr BP) generations at the lake margin, associated with algae and cyanobacteria, which represent a final more humid climatic phase after the several interglacial more humid phases (also represented by stromatolite occurrences in other rift valley lakes); and also at present being formed, at the edge of the now highly saline lake, in the very hot springs in association with thermophilic bacteria and with silica. I briefly mention the older occurrences in Lake Magadi to the south, which are quite different; and form three generations; and also present-day occurrences of stromatolites in a flood-plain environment, unlike the present-day environment at Lake Bogoria. Other stromatolite occurrences are mentioned, around Lake Turkana and the former lake in the Suguta River valley to the north. I suggest that the hot waterfall at Kapedo, at the head of the Suguta River, and the central island of Ol Kokwe (with hot springs, amidst the fresh water Lake Baringo) could well be investigated for stromatolite occurrences. Lake Bogoria, an empty wilderness occupied only by flamingos when I mapped it, is now more accessible and provides a unique open-air laboratory for such researches, but like all the Rift Valley lakes, is unique, sui generis. Results of detailed investigations of the type reviewed here, can only be applied to other occurrences of stromatolites elsewhere in the rift system or beyond the rift system with reservation.

  5. Geothermal investigations at Crystal Hot Springs, Salt Lake County, Utah. Report of Investigation No. 139

    Murphy, P.J.; Gwynn, J.W.

    1979-10-01

    The Crystal Hot Springs geothermal system is located in southern Salt Lake County, Utah 22.5 km (14 miles) south of Salt Lake City near the town of Draper. The system is immediately west of the Wasatch Mountains at the easternmost edge of the Basin and Range physiographic province within an active seismic zone referred to as the Intermountain Seismic Belt. The springs are located north of an east-west trending horst known as the Traverse Range. The range is intermediate in elevation between the Wasatch Range to the east and the valley grabens to the north and south. A series of northeast striking normal faults with a combined displacement of at least 90/sup 0/m (3000 ft) separate the horst from the Jordan Valley graben to the north. The spring system is located between two closely spaced range-front faults where the faults are intersected by a north-northeast striking fault. The fractured Paleozoic quartzite bedrock 25 m (80 ft) beneath the surface leaks thermal water into the overlying unconsolidated material and the springs issue along zones of weaknesses in the relatively impermeable confining zone that parallel the bedrock faults. Meteoric water from the Wasatch Range is warmed in the normal geothermal gradient of the province (approximately 32/sup 0/C/km) as the water circulates to a minimum depth of approximately 2.5 km (1.55 miles) via an undetermined path through aquifers and faults. Data collected at the Crystal Hot Springs system under the DOE state coupled program are presented for use by individuals interested in the system.

  6. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  7. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Robin L Miller-Coleman

    Full Text Available Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes. PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1 wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB, Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C

  8. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan M S 8.0 Earthquake

    Zhi Chen; Jianguo Du; Xiaocheng Zhou; Li Yi; Lei Liu; Chao Xie; Yueju Cui; Ying Li

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ 18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from me...

  9. Morphological, phylogenetic and physiological diversity of cyanobacteria in the hot springs of Zerka Ma

    Aharon Oren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater thermal springs of Zerka Ma'in, located in Jordan in the mountains of Moab east of the Dead Sea, are densely inhabited by cyanobacteria up to the highest temperature of 63°C. We have investigated the cyanobacterial diversity of these springs and their outflow channels by microscopic examination, culture-dependent and culture-independent phylogenetic analysis, and by physiological studies of selected isolates of special interest. Both unicellular and filamentous types of cyanobacteria are present, and we identified morphological types such as Thermosynechococcus, Chroogloeocystis, Fischerella (Mastigocladus, Scytonema (occurring as large masses at lower temperatures, and others. Although morphologically similar cyanobacteria have been identified in hot springs world-wide, the Zerka Ma’in strains were phylogenetically distinct based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Considerable diversity was detected also in the gene sequences of nifH (nitrogenase reductase, encoding one of the key enzymes involved in nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation in a Mastigocladus isolate obtained from the springs was investigated in further depth. The heterocystous strain could fix nitrogen (as assayed by acetylene reduction at tem peratures up to 53°C.

  10. Liquid chromatographic determination of uranium in Laki hot springs using bis(salicylaldehyde)propylene diimine as derivatizing reagent

    Preconcentration of uranium from water samples of Laki hot springs has been examined with aluminium oxide, followed by acid dissolution of the precipitate. Precolumn derivatization is carried out with bis(salicylaldehyde) propylenediimine (H/sub 2/SA/sub 2/pn). Elution and separation have been examined from YMC Pack ODS 5 mu m column with a mixture of methanol:acetonitrile:water (60:10:30 v/v/v). Detection UV was at 260 nm. Iron and copper are also detected and are simultaneously quantized with uranium. The amounts of metal ions obtained are within 11-89 mu g/L with coefficients variation (C.V) 2.6-4.5 preconcentration of 390 times. (author)

  11. Coordinating environmental genomics and geochemistry reveals metabolic transitions in a hot spring ecosystem.

    Wesley D Swingley

    Full Text Available We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the "Bison Pool" (BP Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92 °C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56 °C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic "transition" community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot

  12. In Situ Production of Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers in a Great Basin Hot Spring (USA

    ChuanlunZhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core-bGDGTs and polar (P- bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62-86°C in the Great Basin (USA. First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their Core (C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (“Atribacteria”. These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear.

  13. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community compos...

  14. A moderately thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote from a hot spring

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Elena V Lebedeva; Spieck, Eva; Stoecker, Kilian; Richter, Andreas; Daims, Holger; WAGNER, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The recent discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) dramatically changed our perception of the diversity and evolutionary history of microbes involved in nitrification. In this study, a moderately thermophilic (46°C) ammonia-oxidizing enrichment culture, which had been seeded with biomass from a hot spring, was screened for ammonia oxidizers. Although gene sequences for crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA and two subunits of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA and amoB) were detected via PCR, no hints fo...

  15. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  16. Naturally enhanced radium-226 at the Hammam Pharaon hot spring area

    A radiological study was conducted for Hammam Pharaon hot spring and the surrounding area. The naturally occurring 226Ra was determined using HpGe spectrometer. Gamma emissions 351.9 keV of the 214Pb and 609.3 keV, 1120.3 keV and 1764.5 keV of the 214Bi, in equilibrium with their 226Ra parent were used to calculate its specific activity in the water, soil and rock samples. The analysis revealed the presence of some hot spots in the studied area. Elevated values of 226Ra were found to be as high as 32,000 Bq/kg (∼ 0.9 nCi/gm). The absorbed dose rates, hazard indices, and radium equivalent values were calculated on the basis of the results obtained. The resulted high doses due to the elevated radium content necessitate controlled recreational activities in this area

  17. Investigation of the microbial community in the Odisha hot spring cluster based on the cultivation independent approach

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Gaur, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Deulajhari hot spring is located in the Angul district of Odisha. The significance of this hot spring is the presence of the hot spring cluster adjacent to the cold spring which attracts the attention of microbiologists to understand the role of physio-chemical factors of these springs on bacterial community structure. Next-generation sequencing technology helps us to depict the pioneering microflora of any ecological niche based on metagenomic approach. Our study represents the first Illumina based metagenomic study of Deulajhari hot spring DH1, and DH2 of the cluster with temperature 65 °C to 55 °C respectively establishing a difference of 10 °C. Comprehensive study of microbiota of these two hot springs was done using the metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA of V3‐V4 region extracting metagenomic DNA from the two hot spring sediments. Sequencing community DNA reported about 28 phyla in spring DH1 of which the majority were Chloroflexi (22.98%), Proteobacteria (15.51%), Acidobacteria (14.51%), Chlorobi (9.52%), Nitrospirae (8.54%), and Armatimonadetes (7.07%), at the existing physiochemical conditions like; temperature 65 °C, pH 8.06, electro conductivity 0.020 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 3.76%. About 40 phyla were detected in cluster DH2 at the existing physiochemical parameters like temperature 55 °C, pH 8.10, electro conductivity 0.019 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 0.58% predominated with Chloroflexi (41.98%), Proteobacteria (10.74%), Nitrospirae (10.01%), Chlorobi (8.73%), Acidobacteria (6.73%) and Planctomycetes (3.73%). Approximately 68 class, 107 order, 171 genus and 184 species were reported in cluster DH1 but 102 class, 180 order, 375 genus and 411 species in cluster DH2. The comparative metagenomics study of the Deulajhari hot spring clusters DH1, and DH2 depicts the differential profile of the microbiota. Metagenome sequences of these two hot spring clusters are deposited to the SRA database and are available in

  18. Evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The extension of ecological tolerance limits may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms adapt to novel environments, but it may come at the evolutionary cost of reduced performance under ancestral conditions. We combined a comparative physiological approach with phylogenetic analyses to study the evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. Among the 20 laboratory clones of Synechococcus isolated from collections made along an Oregon hot spring thermal gradient, four different 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified. Phylogenies constructed by using the sequence data indicated that the clones were polyphyletic but that three of the four sequence groups formed a clade. Differences in thermotolerance were observed for clones with different 16S rRNA gene sequences, and comparison of these physiological differences within a phylogenetic framework provided evidence that more thermotolerant lineages of Synechococcus evolved from less thermotolerant ancestors. The extension of the thermal limit in these bacteria was correlated with a reduction in the breadth of the temperature range for growth, which provides evidence that enhanced thermotolerance has come at the evolutionary cost of increased thermal specialization. This study illustrates the utility of using phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate how evolutionary processes have shaped historical patterns of ecological diversification in microorganisms.

  19. Biochemical comparison between radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    The radioactive and thermal effects of radon hot spring were biochemically compared under a sauna room or hot spring conditions with a similar chemical component, using the parameters that are closely involved in the clinic for radon therapy. The results showed that the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation functions, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produced in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response and increased the percentage of CD4 positive cells, which is the marker of helper T cells, and decreased the percentage of CD8 positive cells, which is the common marker of killer T cells and suppressor T cells, in the white blood cell differentiation antigen (CD8/CD4) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of α atrial natriuretic polypeptide (αANP), β endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and it decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that radon therapy contributes more to the prevention of life-style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune suppression than to thermal therapy. Moreover, these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain), and diabetes mellitus brought about more by radon therapy than by thermal therapy. (author)

  20. Structural insights of microbial community of Deulajhari (India hot spring using 16s-rRNA based metagenomic sequencing

    Archana Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insights about the distribution of the microbial community prove to be the major goal of understanding microbial ecology which remains to be fully deciphered. Hot springs being hub for the thermophilic microbiota attract the attention of the microbiologists. Deulajhari hot spring cluster is located in the Angul district of Odisha. Covered within a wooded area, Deulajhari hot spring is also fed by the plant litter resulting in a relatively high amount of total organic content (TOC. For the first time, Illumina sequencing based biodiversity analysis of microbial composition is studied through amplicon metagenome sequencing of 16s rRNA targeting V3‐V4 region using metagenomic DNA from the hot spring sediment. Over 28 phyla were detected through the amplicon metagenome sequencing of which the most dominating phyla at the existing physiochemical parameters like; temperature 69 °C, pH 8.09, electroconductivity 0.025 dSm−1 and total organic carbon 0.356%, were Proteobacteria (88.12%, Bacteriodetes (10.76%, Firmicutes (0.35%, Spirochetes (0.18% and chloroflexi (0.11%. Approximately 713 species were observed at the above physiochemical parameters. The analysis of the metagenome provides the quantitative insights into microbial populations based on the sequence data in Deulajhari hot spring. Metagenome sequence is deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession no. SRX1459736.

  1. Environmental inputs that can influence carbon isotopic compositions of hot spring biofilms

    Donatelli, J. L.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The carbon isotopic compositions of hydrothermal biofilms are influenced by microbial carbon cycling, and can be correlated with the presence or absence of specific genes in environmental genomic analyses (Havig et al., 2011, JGR). Additional isotopic data on potential environmental sources of carbon will enable further tests of the specific pathways of carbon assimilation and cycling throughout hydrothermal ecosystems. Hot springs at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are often located in open meadows or forested areas with varying amounts of vegetation and exposed soil surrounding the pools. These pools are open systems which have the potential to accumulate allochthonous materials via physical and biogenic processes. These inputs may affect the δ13C signatures of the hot spring waters and the biofilms associated with them. In the YNP hot springs we have studied since 2003, biofilms range in δ13C from -1.2 to -30.7%. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in coexisting fluids ranges from 4.3 to -3.9%. The heaviest biofilms typically show minimal isotopic fractionation from the DIC in coexisting fluids. DIC values are strongly influenced by inputs from magma degassing, water-rock reactions in the hydrothermal system, and the atmosphere. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values for the coexisting fluids range from -16.5 to -26.8%, which are within the range of biofilm δ13C values. DOC values will also be affected by diverse processes as precipitation infiltrates, reacts, and eventually returns to the surface as hydrothermal fluids, but may also be influenced by biologically derived inputs from the local environments where hot springs occur. In an effort to characterize the environmental context of hot springs, we have collected isotopic data on lodgepole pine needles, grasses, soils, insects and bison feces. Of these, the δ13C data for bison feces (-27.7 to -29.6%) are lighter than any of the DOC data. Pine needles (-26.3 to -29.1%) and soils (-24.8 to -27.1%) overlap with

  2. Measurement of natural radiation in hot spring areas in West Java

    Springs are found in several locations in Indonesia. Some of the springs give out warm water containing natural radioactivity due to the uranium decay products, particularly containing 226Ra, 222Rn and dissolved minerals. Usually used by public for medical treatment and recreation. Measurements were carried out for radioactive concentrations, working levels, and dose rates at Cipanas, Ciater, and Ciseeng in West-Java. The concentration measurements in these areas varies from 30 to 1,331 pCi.1-1 or 1.11 to 49.25 Bq.1-1 for 226Ra and that of 1,200 to 21,700 pCi.1-1 or 44.40 to 820.90 Bq.1-1 for 222Rn. For the working level varies from 0.13 x 10-3 to 1.98x10-3 WLM. The dose rate is approximately 5.4 to 35.6 urad.h-1. The effective equivalent dose received by employees and people who live surrounding the hot springs is about 807 mrem.y-1 or 8.07 mSv.y-1 at Cipanas, 1,446 mrem.y-1 or 14.46 mSv.y-1 at Ciater, and 2,168 mrem.y-1 or 21.68 mSv.y-1 at Cipanas, respectively. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  4. A spring-driven press device for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips.

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    A novel spring-driven press device was designed and manufactured for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips in this work. This simple device consisted of two semi-cylinder silicone rubber press heads, three steel clamping plates, and three compression springs that were assembled together using two screw bolts and two butterfly nuts. The three springs were clamped between the upper and the middle clamping plates, whereas the two press heads were assembled between the middle and the lower clamping plates. After an epoxy template covered by a PMMA plate or a PMMA channel plate together with a cover were sandwiched between two microscopic glass slides for embossing or bonding, respectively, they were clamped between the two elastic press heads of the press device by fastening the screw nuts on the upper clamping plate. Because the convex press heads applied pressure along the middle line of the glass slides, they would deform resulting in a negative pressure gradient from the middle to the sides so that air bubbles between the sandwiched parts could be squeezed out during embossing and bonding processes. High-quality PMMA microfluidic chips were prepared by using this unique device and were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of several cations. PMID:20665912

  5. Patterns of biomediated CaCO3 crystal bushes in hot spring deposits

    Peng, Xiaotong; Jones, Brian

    2013-08-01

    In the Eryuan hot spring, located in south China, the vent pool is covered with “crystal bushes”, up to 2 cm high, 1 cm in diameter, that grew in the biofilms that thrive in the spring waters that have a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 88 °C. The biofilms are formed largely of phototrophic purple bacteria and green bacteria. Growth of the crystal bushes, which are formed of aragonite crystals (wheat-sheaves, radiating clusters), rhombohedral and dodecahedral calcite crystals, amorphous CaCO3 (ACC), and opal-A, is attributed to precipitation in the micro-domains of the biofilms where physiochemical conditions can vary on the sub-micron scale. There is no evidence that the calcite was formed through recrystallization of the metastable aragonite and most of the calcite crystals developed as mesocrystals that are characterized by incomplete growth and porous crystal faces. With the onset of diagenesis, there is a high probability that the crystal bushes will lose much of their identity as the (1) biofilm is lost through decay, (2) ACC and aragonite change to calcite, (3) identities of the mesocrystals and incompletely formed crystals are lost through continued precipitation and/or recrystallization, and (4) porous crystal faces are converted to solid crystal faces. This means that most of the features considered indicative of biomediated calcite precipitation have a low preservation potential and that the recognition of biomediated precipitates in old spring deposits may remain problematical.

  6. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  7. Factors controlling the distribution of archaeal tetraethers in terrestrial hot springs.

    Pearson, Ann; Pi, Yundan; Zhao, Weidong; Li, WenJun; Li, Yiliang; Inskeep, William; Perevalova, Anna; Romanek, Christopher; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2008-06-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) found in hot springs reflect the abundance and community structure of Archaea in these extreme environments. The relationships between GDGTs, archaeal communities, and physical or geochemical variables are underexamined to date and when reported often result in conflicting interpretations. Here, we examined profiles of GDGTs from pure cultures of Crenarchaeota and from terrestrial geothermal springs representing a wide distribution of locations, including Yellowstone National Park (United States), the Great Basin of Nevada and California (United States), Kamchatka (Russia), Tengchong thermal field (China), and Thailand. These samples had temperatures of 36.5 to 87 degrees C and pH values of 3.0 to 9.2. GDGT abundances also were determined for three soil samples adjacent to some of the hot springs. Principal component analysis identified four factors that accounted for most of the variance among nine individual GDGTs, temperature, and pH. Significant correlations were observed between pH and the GDGTs crenarchaeol and GDGT-4 (four cyclopentane rings, m/z 1,294); pH correlated positively with crenarchaeol and inversely with GDGT-4. Weaker correlations were observed between temperature and the four factors. Three of the four GDGTs used in the marine TEX(86) paleotemperature index (GDGT-1 to -3, but not crenarchaeol isomer) were associated with a single factor. No correlation was observed for GDGT-0 (acyclic caldarchaeol): it is effectively its own variable. The biosynthetic mechanisms and exact archaeal community structures leading to these relationships remain unknown. However, the data in general show promise for the continued development of GDGT lipid-based physiochemical proxies for archaeal evolution and for paleo-ecology or paleoclimate studies. PMID:18390673

  8. Origin of platy calcite crystals in hot-spring deposits in the Kenya Rift Valley

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renault, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1998-09-01

    Platy calcite crystals, which have their c axis parallel to their shortest length axis, are common components of travertine deposits found around some hot springs in the Kenya Rift Valley. They are composite crystals formed of numerous paper-thin subcrystals. Individual plates allowed to grow without obstruction develop a hexagonal motif. The Kenyan crystals typically form in hot (>75 C) waters that have a low Ca content (<10 mg/l), a high CO{sub 2} content, and a high rate of CO{sub 2} degassing. At Chemurkeu, aggregates of numerous small platy crystals collectively form lattice crystals that superficially resemble ray crystals. The walls of the lattice crystals are formed of large platy crystals that have their long and intermediate length axes aligned parallel to the plane of the long axis of the lattice crystal. Internally, the lattice crystals are formed of small platy calcite crystals arranged in a boxlike pattern that creates the appearance of a lattice when viewed in thin section. Lattice crystals are highly porous, with each pore being enclosed by platy crystals. At Lorusio, travertines are mainly formed of pseudodentrites that are constructed by numerous small platy crystals attached to a main stem which is a large platy crystal that commonly curves along its long axis. The pseudodentrites are the main construction blocks in ledges and lilypads that form in the vent pool and spring outflow channels, where the water is too hot for microbes other than hyperthermophiles. The platy calcite crystals in the Kenyan travertines are morphologically similar to platy calcite crystals that form as scale in pipes in the geothermal fields of New Zealand and hydrothermal angel wing calcite from the La Fe mine in Mexico. Comparison of the Kenyan and New Zealand crystals indicates that platy calcite crystals form from waters with a low Ca{sup 2+} content and a high CO{sub 3}/Ca ratio due to rapid rates of CO{sub 2} degassing.

  9. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  10. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs. PMID:26761709

  11. A novel acidophilic, thermophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon isolated from a hot spring of tengchong, yunnan, China

    Jiannan Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermoacidophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing archaeon, strain YN25, was isolated from an in situ enriched acid hot spring sample collected in Yunnan, China. Cells were irregular cocci, about 0.9-1.02 µm×1.0-1.31 µm in the medium containing elemental sulfur and 1.5-2.22 µm×1.8-2.54 µm in ferrous sulfate medium. The ranges of growth and pH were 50-85 (optimum 65 and pH 1.0-6.0 (optimum 1.5-2.5. The acidophile was able to grow heterotrophically on several organic substrates, including various monosaccharides, alcohols and amino acids, though the growth on single substrate required yeast extract as growth factor. Growth occurred under aerobic conditions or via anaerobic respiration using elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Results of morphology, physiology, fatty acid analysis and analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain YN25 should be grouped in the species Acidianus manzaensis. Bioleaching experiments indicated that this strain had excellent leaching capacity, with a copper yielding ratio up to 79.16% in 24 d. The type strain YN25 was deposited in China Center for Type Culture Collection (=CCTCCZNDX0050.

  12. Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source

    Dulanya, Zuze; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Sivertun, Åke

    2010-06-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country's position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na-K, Na-K-Ca and K-Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na-K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na-K-Ca geothermometer and the K-Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  13. Recent Geochemical Variation of the Hot-Spring Gases from the Tianchi Volcano, Changbai Mountains, Northeast China

    Gao Ling; Wei Haiquan; Shangguan Zhiguan; Wu Chengzhi

    2007-01-01

    Recent fluid monitoring work shows that the contents of mantle-derived CO2, He and CH4 increased anomalously in 2002 and 2003. The 3He/4He ratio of the deep-fault-type Jinjiang hot springs increased highly anomalously in 2003, and then decreased in 2004. The 3He/4He ratio from the thermal-reservoir-type Changbaijulong hot springs increased slowly in 2003, and the increase continued in 2004. The mantle-derived He content of the He released from the Changbaijulong springs increased obviously in 2004. The anomaly of the released gases and the isotopic He was consistent with the trends of seismic activities in the Tianchi volcanic area between 2002 and 2004. The abnormal release of the Jinjiang hot springs apparently decreased after the seismic activities ceased in the second half of 2004, while the abnormal release from the Changbaijulong increased significantly after these seismic activities. It shows that the abnormal release of magmas-derived gases from the thermal-reservoir-type springs lags behind that of the deep-fault-type springs. These characteristics may be of great significance for identifying deep magmatic activity and predicting volcanic earthquakes in the future.

  14. Biological Characterization of Rhodomicrobium vannielii Isolated from a Hot Spring at Gadek, Malacca, Malaysia

    Ainon, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A purple nonsulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium, identified as Rhodomicrobium vannielii, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring using glutamate-malate medium (GMM and Pfennig’s M2 medium. The cells were motile, Gram negative, ovoid to spherical in shape and did not form intracellular sulfur globules. The isolate viewed under transmission electron microscope showed budding filament formation, which is a characteristic of Rm. vannielii. The isolate produced red pigment in both media. The dominant photosynthetic pigment is bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of lycopene and rhodopin. The growth of Rm. vannielii was better in anaerobic-light condition compared to growth in aerobic-dark. Optimum carotenoid production was achieved in 24 hours culture in GMM (pH 7.0 without yeast-extract and incubated in anaerobic-light condition at light intensity of 2000 lux.

  15. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Asao, M.; Madigan, M.T.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Fisher, J.C.; Stolz, J.F.; Culbertson, C.W.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  16. Subsurface temperature trend in response to exploitation of thermal water in Jiashi Hot Spring, northeastern Taiwan

    Chen, Wenfu; Chiang, Hsiehtang

    2015-04-01

    Temperature monitoring provides important information for sustainable management of a geothermal field. Previous studies show that decline of aquifer pressure is an obviously indicator of overexploitation for a thermal aquifer. However, many thermal water producing aquifers don't show pressure declining but with subtle temperature change. How to detect the temperature trend is an important topic for sustainable management of a geothermal field. In this study, we use borehole temperatures measured over a half year interval from 2011 to 2014 and Mann-Kendall method to determine the trends of subsurface temperature in Jiashi Hot Spring, northeastern Taiwan. Our results show that trends of subsurface temperature are related to the hydrogeology and flow field of groundwater. Flow directions of groundwater/thermal water are impacted by exploitation of thermal water of production wells, according to the depths and distribution. Repeatedly measured borehole temperature profiles provide important information to depict the trends of subsurface temperature change.

  17. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  18. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis

  19. Genome Analysis of a New Rhodothermaceae Strain Isolated from a Hot Spring

    Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Soon Wee; Liew, Kok Jun; Chan, Chia Sing; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ee, Robson; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated RA, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring on Langkawi Island of Malaysia using marine agar. Strain RA is an aerophilic and thermophilic microorganism that grows optimally at 50–60°C and is capable of growing in marine broth containing 1–10% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this strain is most closely related (<90% sequence identity) to Rhodothermaceae, which currently comprises of six genera: Rhodothermus (two species), Salinibacter (three species), Salisaeta (one species), Rubricoccus (one species), Rubrivirga (one species), and Longimonas (one species). Notably, analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain RA may represent the first member of a novel genus of Rhodothermaceae. The draft genome of strain RA is 4,616,094 bp with 3630 protein-coding gene sequences. Its GC content is 68.3%, which is higher than that of most other genomes of Rhodothermaceae. Strain RA has genes for sulfate permease and arylsulfatase to withstand the high sulfur and sulfate contents of the hot spring. Putative genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to osmotic stress were identified which encode proteins namely Na+/H+ antiporters, a sodium/solute symporter, a sodium/glutamate symporter, trehalose synthase, malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase, choline-sulfatase, potassium uptake proteins (TrkA and TrkH), osmotically inducible protein C, and the K+ channel histidine kinase KdpD. Furthermore, genome description of strain RA and comparative genome studies in relation to other related genera provide an overview of the uniqueness of this bacterium. PMID:27471502

  20. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a high- temperature hot spring

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the link of in situ nitrification activity to taxonomic identities of ammonia oxidizers in high-temperature environments remains poorly understood. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface and bottom sediments were 4.80 and 5.30 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the archaeal 16S rRNA genes and amoA genes were present in the range of 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 and 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 gene copies g-1 sediment, respectively, while bacterial amoA was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, which represented the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU) in both surface and bottom sediments. The archaeal predominance was further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) visualization. The cell-specific rate of ammonia oxidation was estimated to range from 0.410 to 0.790 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, higher than those in the two US Great Basin hot springs. These results suggest the importance of archaeal rather than bacterial ammonia oxidation in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  1. Exposure to Particle Matters and Hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Hot Spring Hotels in Guangdong, China

    Qiusheng He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Guangdong province, many hot springs were exploited and developed into popular places for tourist. In addition, hotels have been set up near hot spring sites to attract people, including local citizens, to spend their spare time inside these so-called “spring hotels”. In our study, indoor air quality was investigated in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong province, China. Measured indoor pollutants included CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. As the result show, high concentrations of carbon dioxide might be attributed to poor ventilation; and the variations of indoor PM10, PM2.5 concentrations were related to occupants’ activities. Alpha-pinene and toluene were the most common VOC species in the hot spring hotels other than monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX, which were at medium levels among the reported indoor pollutants. High cancer risk of benzene in the newly decorated rooms should be seriously taken into consideration in the future. Indoor to Outdoor air concentration ratios (I/O for CO2 and VOCs were higher than 1, indicating their strong indoor sources. Negative correlations were found between indoor CO2 and all the other compounds, and VOCs were shown to be significantly correlated (p < 0.01 to each other, including aromatic hydrocarbons and mono-terpenes. For indoor and outdoor air compounds, correlation coefficients among all compounds did not show a significant correlation, which indicated that these pollutants had different sources. Principal components analysis by SPSS showed that indoor materials, inhabitants’ activities and respiration, cleaning products and outdoor sources were the main sources of indoor detected pollutants in hot spring hotels.

  2. Diversity of thermophiles in a Malaysian hot spring determined using 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing

    Chia Sing eChan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sungai Klah (SK hot spring is the second hottest geothermal spring in Malaysia. This hot spring is a shallow, 150-meter-long, fast-flowing stream, with temperatures varying from 50 to 110°C and a pH range of 7.0 to 9.0. Hidden within a wooded area, the SK hot spring is continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC. In this study, a sample taken from the middle of the stream was analyzed at the 16S rRNA V3−V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 35 phyla were detected by analyzing the 16S rRNA data. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented approximately 57% of the microbiome. Approximately 70% of the detected thermophiles were strict anaerobes; however, Hydrogenobacter spp., obligate chemolithotrophic thermophiles, represented one of the major taxa. Several thermophilic photosynthetic microorganisms and acidothermophiles were also detected. Most of the phyla identified by 16S rRNA were also found using the shotgun metagenome approaches. The carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism within the SK hot spring community were evaluated by shotgun metagenome sequencing, and the data revealed diversity in terms of metabolic activity and dynamics. This hot spring has a rich diversified phylogenetic community partly due to its natural environment (plant litter, high TOC, and a shallow stream and geochemical parameters (broad temperature and pH range. It is speculated that symbiotic relationships occur between the members of the community.

  3. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  4. Hydrogeochemical Facies of Hot Springs Water in Jebel Mara Mountain, Darfur, Western Sudan

    Sami H. Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical assessment have been carried out to study the concentration ofNa+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-,SO42-, HCO3-, and other parameters like temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC, total hardness(T.H and total dissolved solid (TDS in ten hot springs water samples of some parts of Jebel Mara Mountain, Western Sudan. The results of water analysis revealed the average values of pH,electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hardness, 9.46, 428 µS/cm, 667.2 mg/l and 102 mg/l respectively. The pH, TDS and EC variations confirmed light-salty nature of groundwater. It is also apparent from the results that, average concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium,magnesium, chloride, sulphate,and bicarbonate ions were 43.6, 16.4, 53.7, 44, 37.5, 26.2, 428.5 mg/l, respectively. Chloride ion concentration ranged from (30 to 46 mg/l, sulphate ion concentration ranged from (10 to 40mg/l and carbonate concentration measured ranged from (215 to 800 mg/l.The results were found to be above the recommended values given by W.H.O., 1984 and warranty further recommended studies for the best improvement and utilization of springs water.

  5. Biodiversity within hot spring microbial mat communities: molecular monitoring of enrichment cultures

    Ward, D. M.; Santegoeds, C. M.; Nold, S. C.; Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Bateson, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the basis for incongruence between hot spring microbial mat populations detected by cultivation or by 16S rRNA methods. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to monitor enrichments and isolates plated therefrom. At near extincting inoculum dilutions we observed Chloroflexus-like and cyanobacterial populations whose 16S rRNA sequences have been detected in the 'New Pit' Spring Chloroflexus mat and the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat. Cyanobacterial populations enriched from 44 to 54 degrees C and 56 to 63 degrees C samples at near habitat temperatures were similar to those previously detected in mat samples of comparable temperatures. However, a lower temperature enrichment from the higher temperature sample selected for the populations found in the lower temperature sample. Three Thermus populations detected by both DGGE and isolation exemplify even more how enrichment may bias our view of community structure. The most abundant population was adapted to the habitat temperature (50 degrees C), while populations adapted to 65 degrees C and 70 degrees C were 10(2)- and 10(4)-fold less abundant, respectively. However, enrichment at 70 degrees C favored the least abundant strain. Inoculum dilution and incubation at the habitat temperature favored the more numerically relevant populations. We enriched many other aerobic chemoorganotrophic populations at various inoculum dilutions and substrate concentrations, most of whose 16S rRNA sequences have not been detected in mats. A common feature of numerically relevant cyanobacterial, Chloroflexus-like and aerobic chemorganotrophic populations, is that they grow poorly and resist cultivation on solidified medium, suggesting plating bias, and that the medium composition and incubation conditions may not reflect the natural microenvironments these populations inhabit.

  6. Thermoanaerobacter mathranii sp. nov., an ethanol-producing, extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from a hot spring in Iceland

    Larsen, L.; Nielsen, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The extremely thermophilic ethanol-producing strain A3 was isolated from a hot spring in Iceland, The cells were rod-shaped, motile, and had terminal spores: cells from the mid-to-late exponential growth phase stained gram-variable but had a gram-positive cell wall structure when viewed by transm...

  7. Genome Sequence of the Red Pigment-Forming Meiothermus taiwanensis Strain RP Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, India

    Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Meiothermus taiwanensis strain RP (MCC 2966), isolated from the Paniphala hot spring of India, which contains genes encoding for enzymes of the methyl erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis and carotenoid backbone synthesis. PMID:27365353

  8. RNA-Based Investigation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China ▿ †

    Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; DONG, HAILIANG; WANG, Peng; Wang, Fengping; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2010-01-01

    Using RNA-based techniques and hot spring samples collected from Yunnan Province, China, we show that the amoA gene of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea can be transcribed at temperatures higher than 74°C and up to 94°C, suggesting that archaeal nitrification can potentially occur at near boiling temperatures.

  9. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    Khalil, Amjad

    2015-06-04

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  10. Imaging Near-Surface Controls on Hot Spring Expression Using Shallow Seismic Refraction in Yellowstone National Park

    Price, A. N.; Lindsey, C.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used shallow seismic refraction to image near-surface materials in the vicinity of a small group of hot springs, located in the Morning Mist Springs area of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Seismic velocities in the area surveyed range from a low of 0.3 km/s to a high of approximately 2.5 km/s. The survey results indicate an irregular surface topography overlain by silty sediments. The observed seismic velocities are consistent with a subsurface model in which sorted sands and gravels, probably outwash materials from the Pinedale glaciation, are overlain by silts and fine sands deposited in the flat-lying areas of the Morning Springs area. These findings are supported by published geologic maps of the area and well logs from a nearby borehole. The near-surface materials appear to be saturated with discharging hydrothermal fluids of varying temperature, and interbedded with semi-lithified geothermal deposits (sinter). We hypothesize that the relatively low-conductivity deposits of fines at the surface may serve to confine a shallow, relatively low-temperature (sub-boiling) hydrothermal aquifer, and that the distribution of sinter in the shallow subsurface plays an important role in determining the geometry of hydrothermal discharge (hot springs) at the land surface. Few studies of the shallow controls on hot spring expression exist for the Yellowstone caldera, and the present study therefore offers a unique glimpse into near-subsurface fluid flow controls.

  11. Process for acidizing hot siliceous material

    Scheuerman, R. F.; Silverman, S. A.

    1985-10-22

    The dissolving of siliceous material in an environment containing corrodable metal and having a temperature exceeding about 300/sup 0/ F. is improved by using an aqueous solution containing an amount of ammonium fluoride equivalent to that in a 2-3 molar solution of hydrogen fluoride and enough weak acid and weak acid salt to provide a pH of near to but less than 7.

  12. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility. PMID:21777367

  13. Microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction potential in Chocolate Pots hot spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    Fortney, N W; He, S; Converse, B J; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Boyd, E S; Roden, E E

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) is a unique, circumneutral pH, iron-rich, geothermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Prior research at CP has focused on photosynthetically driven Fe(II) oxidation as a model for mineralization of microbial mats and deposition of Archean banded iron formations. However, geochemical and stable Fe isotopic data have suggested that dissimilatory microbial iron reduction (DIR) may be active within CP deposits. In this study, the potential for microbial reduction of native CP Fe(III) oxides was investigated, using a combination of cultivation dependent and independent approaches, to assess the potential involvement of DIR in Fe redox cycling and associated stable Fe isotope fractionation in the CP hot springs. Endogenous microbial communities were able to reduce native CP Fe(III) oxides, as documented by most probable number enumerations and enrichment culture studies. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR driven by oxidation of acetate, lactate, and H2 . Inhibitor studies and molecular analyses indicate that sulfate reduction did not contribute to observed rates of DIR in the enrichment cultures through abiotic reaction pathways. Enrichment cultures produced isotopically light Fe(II) during DIR relative to the bulk solid-phase Fe(III) oxides. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from enrichment cultures showed dominant sequences closely affiliated with Geobacter metallireducens, a mesophilic Fe(III) oxide reducer. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures confirmed the presence of a dominant G. metallireducens-like population and other less dominant populations from the phylum Ignavibacteriae, which appear to be capable of DIR. Gene (protein) searches revealed the presence of heat-shock proteins that may be involved in increased thermotolerance in the organisms present in the enrichments as well as porin-cytochrome complexes previously shown to be involved in extracellular electron transport. This analysis offers

  14. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  15. The hot spring and geyser sinters of El Tatio, Northern Chile

    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Gimeno-Torrente, D.; Saavedra-Alonso, J.; Martinez-Manent, S.

    2005-10-01

    The siliceous sinter deposits of El Tatio geothermal field in northern Chile have been examined petrographically and mineralogically. These sinters consist of amorphous silica (opal-A) deposited around hot springs and geysers from nearly neutral, silica-saturated, sodium chloride waters. Water cooling and evaporation to dryness are the main processes that control the opal-A deposition in both subaqueous and subaerial settings, in close spatial relation to microbial communities. All fingerprints of organisms observed in the studied sinter samples represent microbes and suggest that the microbial community is moderately diverse (cyanobacteria, green bacteria, and diatoms). The most important ecological parameter is the temperature gradient, which is closely related to the observed depositional settings: 1) Geyser setting: water temperature = 70-86 °C (boiling point at El Tatio: 4200 m a.s.l.); coarse laminated sinter macrostructure with rapid local variations; biota comprises non-photosynthetic hyperthermophilic bacteria. 2) Splash areas around geysers: water temperature = 60-75 °C; laminated spicule and column macrostructure, locally forming cupolas (Tatio is a natural laboratory of great interest because the sedimentary macrostructures and microtextures reflect the geological and biological processes involved in the primary deposition and early diagenesis of siliceous sinters.

  16. Iron isotope characteristics of Hot Springs at Chocolate Pots, Yellowstone National Park.

    Wu, Lingling; Brucker, Rebecca Poulson; Beard, Brian L; Roden, Eric E; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-11-01

    Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park is a hydrothermal system that contains high aqueous ferrous iron [∼0.1 mM Fe(II)] at circumneutral pH conditions. This site provides an ideal field environment in which to test our understanding of Fe isotope fractionations derived from laboratory experiments. The Fe(III) oxides, mainly produced through Fe(II) oxidation by oxygen in the atmosphere, have high ⁵⁶Fe/⁵⁴Fe ratios compared with the aqueous Fe(II). However, the degree of fractionation is less than that expected in a closed system at isotopic equilibrium. We suggest two explanations for the observed Fe isotope compositions. One is that light Fe isotopes partition into a sorbed component and precipitate out on the Fe(III) oxide surfaces in the presence of silica. The other explanation is internal regeneration of isotopically heavy Fe(II) via dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction farther down the flow path as well as deeper within the mat materials. These findings provide evidence that silica plays an important role in governing Fe isotope fractionation factors between reduced and oxidized Fe. Under conditions of low ambient oxygen, such as may be found on early Earth or Mars, significantly larger Fe isotope variations are predicted, reflecting the more likely attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium associated with slower oxidation rates under low-O₂ conditions. PMID:24219169

  17. Evaluation of radon in hot spring waters in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    It is well know that radon is a potent human carcinogen. Because of the health concern of radon exposure, concentrations of 222Rn were determined in ten hot spring water samples from the Mexican state of Zacatecas. The thermal water is collected in pools and used mainly for recreational purposes. In addition to radon level, the water samples were characterized for temperature, conductivity, and ph. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used to measure 222Rn and its decay products by mixing directly an aliquot of water with a commercial liquid scintillation. All measurements were carried out using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1411). The water temperature ranged from 28 to 59 C, while the ph varied from 7.2 to 9.0, and the water conductivity was between 202.4 and 1072 μS/cm. The 222Rn concentration varied in the range 3.9-32.6 Bq/L. In addition, the risk to radon exposure was assessed by considering three -real and possible- radon exposure scenarios: 1) ingestion of bottled thermal water, 2) direct ingestion of thermal water; and 3) vapor inhalation. The annual effective dose calculated for ingestion of bottled thermal water was 0.010-0.083 mSv/yr; for ingestion of water was 0.65-5.47 mSv/yr; and for inhalation was 0.28-2.81 mSv/yr. (Author)

  18. Induced-polarization measurements at Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, Utah

    Chu, J.J.; Sill, W.R.; Ward, S.H.

    1979-06-01

    An induced polarization survey was conducted at Roosevelt Hot Springs, using the dipole-dipole array. The survey consisted of two profile lines, one across the southern end of the system (2200N) and another across the northern portion (5950N). A total of 15 line-km of profiles was run, with 100 m and 300 m dipoles out to n spacings of 4 to 6. Apparent resistivity amplitude and phase data were gathered with a phase-sensitive receiver at frequencies between 32 Hz and 1/256 Hz. The data are presented in the form of apparent resistivity of phase pseudosections. Induced polarization effects in geothermal environments can result from clays and pyrite which are associated with hydrothermal alteration. Laboratory measurements on altered material show some induced polarization effects at frequencies below 1 Hz which are thought to be due to pyrite. A higher frequency polarization (> 1 Hz) is attributed to the effects of clays. The primary purpose of this survey was to investigate the feasibility of mapping clay alteration zones, and separating them from other conductive features, by making use of their polarization characteristics. The field data show some small, low frequency phase anomalies which may be the result of pyrite deposition. The higher frequencies show considerable phase effects, which can be the result of clays, but the effects of electromagnetic coupling have not, as yet, been assessed.

  19. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters. PMID:19297533

  20. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Kara Bowen De León; Robin eGerlach; Peyton, Brent M.; Matthew W Fields

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatur...

  1. Microscopic examination of distribution and phenotypic properties of phylogenetically diverse Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M; Vandieken, Verona;

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the diversity, distribution, and phenotypes of uncultivated Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park). By applying a directed PCR approach, molecular cloning, and sequence analysis of 16S...... rRNA genes, an unexpectedly large phylogenetic diversity among these bacteria was detected. Oligonucleotide probes were designed to target 16S rRNAs from organisms affiliated with the genus Chloroflexus or with the type C cluster, a group of previously discovered Chloroflexaceae relatives...

  2. Microscopic Examination of Distribution and Phenotypic Properties of Phylogenetically Diverse Chloroflexaceae-Related Bacteria in Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    Nübel, U.; Bateson, Mary M.; Vandieken, V.;

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the diversity, distribution, and phenotypes of uncultivated Chloroflexaceae-related bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park). By applying a directed PCR approach, molecular cloning, and sequence analysis of 16S...... rRNA genes, an unexpectedly large phylogenetic diversity among these bacteria was detected. Oligonucleotide probes were designed to target 16S rRNAs from organisms affiliated with the genus Chloroflexus or with the type C cluster, a group of previously discovered Chloroflexaceae relatives...

  3. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  4. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon (222Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  5. Life in hot acid: Pathway analyses in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea

    Auernik, Kathryne S.; Cooper, Charlotte R.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    The extremely thermoacidophilic archaea are a particularly intriguing group of microorganisms that must simultaneously cope with biologically extreme pHs (≤ 4) and temperatures (Topt ≥ 60°C) in their natural environments. Their expandi ng biotechnological significance relates to their role in biomining of base and precious metals and their unique mechanisms of survival in hot acid, at both the cellular and biomolecular levels. Recent developments, such as advances in understanding of heavy me...

  6. Reactions of Hot Tritiúm Atoms with Amino Acids

    In the existing literature there is a lack of systematic data on the interaction of tritium recoil atoms with amino acids, yet such data, in conjunction with results already obtained for organic acids and amines, could help in determining the mechanism of hot reactions in relation to the structure of compounds (chain length, functional substitutes). A study was made of the yields from the reaction of hot tritium atoms: (1) with amino acids having lengthened chains, and (2) with amino acids having a carbon chain of constant length, but with various functional substitutes. For this purpose mixtures of lithium carbonate and the acids under study were irradiated for 15 min with a slow neutron flux of 0.87 x 1013 cm2/s. Analysis was carried out on a gas chromatography unit with interchangeable columns (molecular sieves, and liquid petrolatum on kieselguhr) and with paper chromatography. Although the data obtained for the radiation survival capacity of amino acids as a function of carbon chain length were at variance with a basic tenet of radiation chemistry according to which the conservation of molecules increases in proportion to the length of their chains, the data can be explained in terms of an intramolecular transfer of energy along the carbon chain from the collision site of the hot atom to the hydroxyl group, and subsequent ''de-excitation''; on the other hand, although the energy, of tritium recoil atoms is greater than that of the chemical bond, the latter nevertheless exerts an influence on the radiation conservation of molecules with a carbon chain of constant length but with various substitutes. (author)

  7. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Jacob P. Beam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA, and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3 - 3.5; temperature = 68 - 75 °C in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4 - 40 d, and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 d, and reached steady-state levels within 14 - 30 d, corresponding to visible Fe(III-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 d, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 d and in mature Fe(III-oxide mats (1 - 2 cm thick. First-order rate constants of Fe(III-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 - 0.05 d-1, and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III-oxide mats are useful for understanding other Fe(II-oxidizing systems.

  8. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    Beam, Jake; Bernstein, Hans C.; Jay, Z.; Kozubal, Mark; Jennings, Ryan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Inskeep, William P.

    2016-02-15

    Iron oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous geobiological features on Earth and occur in extant acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA, and form as a result of microbial processes. The relative contribution of different organisms to the development of these mat ecosystems is of specific interest. We hypothesized that chemolithoautotrophic organisms contribute to the early development and production of Fe(III)-oxide mats, which could support later-colonizing heterotrophic microorganisms. Sterile glass slides were incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs in YNP, and spatiotemporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and abundance of relevant community members were measured. Lithoautotrophic Hydrogenobaculum spp. were first colonizers and the most abundant taxa identified during early successional stages (7 – 40 days). Populations of M. yellowstonensis colonized after ~ 7 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized after 30 days, and emerge as the dominant functional guild in mature iron oxide mats (1 – 2 cm thick) that form after 70 – 120 days. First-order rate constants of iron oxide accretion ranged from 0.05 – 0.046 day-1, and reflected the absolute amount of iron accreted. Micro- and macroscale microterracettes were identified during iron oxide mat development, and suggest that the mass transfer of oxygen limits microbial growth. This was also demonstrated using microelectrode measurements of oxygen as a function of mat depth, which showed steep gradients in oxygen from the aqueous mat interface to ~ 1 mm. The formation and succession of amorphous Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a predictable pattern of distinct stages and growth. The successional stages and microbial signatures observed in these extant Fe(III)-oxide mat communities may be relevant to other past or present Fe(III)-oxide mineralizing systems.

  9. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs.

    Beam, Jacob P; Bernstein, Hans C; Jay, Zackary J; Kozubal, Mark A; Jennings, Ryan deM; Tringe, Susannah G; Inskeep, William P

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3-3.5; temperature = 68-75°C) in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4-40 days), and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 days, and reached steady-state levels within 14-30 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 days, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 days and in mature Fe(III)-oxide mats (1-2 cm thick). First-order rate constants of Fe(III)-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 to 0.05 day(-1), and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II) is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III)-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III)-oxide mats are also useful for understanding other Fe(II)-oxidizing systems. PMID:26913020

  10. Distribution of Sequence-Based Types of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains Isolated from Cooling Towers, Hot Springs, and Potable Water Systems in China

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; GUAN, HONG; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discriminatio...

  11. PCR Detection and Analysis of the Free-Living Amoeba Naegleria in Hot Springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

    Sheehan, Kathy B.; Fagg, Jennifer A.; Ferris, Michael J.; Henson, Joan M.

    2003-01-01

    Free-living thermotolerant amoebae pose a significant health risk to people who soak and swim in habitats suitable for their growth, such as hot springs. In this survey of 23 different hot springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, we used PCR with primer sets specific for Naegleria to detect three sequence types that represent species not previously described, as well as a fourth sequence type identified as the pathogen Naegleria fowleri.

  12. Excretion of radon in expired air after bathing and drinking of radioactive hot spring water at Misasa spa

    The radon (Rn) content in expired air after bathing in, exposure in a hot air room to and drinking of Misasa radioactive hot spring water was determined, using an ionization chamber equipped with a vibrating reed electrometer. (1) The Rn contents in the indoor and outdoor air of Misasa spa were 0.5 - 1.0 pCi/l and 0.4 - 0.7 pCi/l, respectively. (2) The highest Rn content in the expired air of subjects bathed in radioactive hot spring (Rn 58.0 x 10-10 Ci/kg) was immediately after bathing, 10.8 - 25.9 pCi/l (bathing for 5 min), 16.8 - 27.9 pCi/l (for 10 min) and 38.8 - 59.3 pCi/l (for 15 min). The Rn content in expired air was reduced to about 1.0 pCi/l in 120 - 180 min. The longer the bathing time and the younger the subjects, the higher the Rn content in expired air. (3) The highest the Rn content in the expired air of subjects exposed in a hot air room (Rn in air 54.3 x 10-10 Ci/l, staying for 15 min) was 4.9 - 7.8 pCi/l. (4) The Rn content in the expired air of subjects immediately after drinking radioactive spring water (Rn content 596.8 x 10-10 Ci/kg, drinking 500 ml) was the highest, and 28.0 - 101.5 pCi/l, and reduced to about 1.3 pCi/l in 180 min. (J.P.N.)

  13. In situ expression of genes involved in carbon concentrating expression of genes involved in carbon concentratingmechanisms in hot spring cyanobacteria

    Jensen, Sheila Ingemann; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki;

    The photosynthetic microbial mat in the effluent channel of an alkaline hot spring (Mushroom Spring) in Yellowstone National Park experiences extreme diel fluctuations in physicochemical parameters. During the day, photosynthesis causes the oxygen concentration within the mat to rise to highly...

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics of hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    Chen, Z; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; C. Xie; Liu, L; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Y. Cui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations in the spring water. The water samples were collected in the 5 days after the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake, which occurred on 20 April 2013. The spring waters are classified into seven chemical types based on their hydrochemical compositions. Compared with hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and total dissolved so...

  15. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  16. Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction in Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    Fortney, N. W.; Roden, E. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Converse, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work on dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has focused on high temperature, low pH environments where soluble Fe(III) is utilized as an electron acceptor for respiration. Much less attention has been paid to DIR in lower temperature, circumneutral pH environments, where solid phase Fe(III) oxides are the dominant forms of Fe(III). This study explored the potential for DIR in the warm (ca. 40-50°C), circumneutral pH Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) in YNP. Most probable number (MPN) enumerations and enrichment culture studies confirmed the presence of endogenous microbial communities that reduced native CP Fe(III) oxides. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR coupled to acetate and lactate oxidation through repeated transfers over ca. 450 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the dominant organisms in the enrichments were closely affiliated with the well known Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Additional taxa included relatives of sulfate reducing bacterial genera Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfovibrio; however, amendment of enrichments with molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, suggested that sulfate reduction was not a primary metabolic pathway involved in DIR in the cultures. A metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures is underway in anticipation of identifying genes involved in DIR in the less well-characterized dominant organisms. Current studies are aimed at interrogating the in situ microbial community at CP. Core samples were collected along the flow path (Fig. 1) and subdivided into 1 cm depth intervals for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The presence of significant quantities of Fe(II) in the solids indicated that DIR is active in situ. A parallel study investigated in vitro microbial DIR in sediments collected from three of the coring sites. DNA was extracted from samples from both studies for 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing in order to obtain a

  17. Sub-glacial Origin of the Hot Springs Bay Valley hydrothermal System, Akutan, Alaska

    Stelling, P. L.; Tobin, B.; Knapp, P.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal energy in Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV) on Akutan Island, Alaska, has revealed a rich hydrothermal history, including what appears to be a stage of peak activity during a significant glacial period. Alteration mineralogy observed in 754 m of drill core recovered from the outflow zone is dominated by chlorite and includes minor smectite clays, a suite of zeolite species and several moderately high-temperature hydrothermal minerals (epidote/clinozoisite, prehnite, adularia and wairakite). The latter minerals each have minimum formation temperatures exceeding 200 oC, and fluid inclusion results in related calcite crystals indicate temperatures of formation to be as high as 275 oC, some 100 oC hotter than the modern boiling point with depth (BPD) curve at that depth (>62 m). In order to maintain liquid temperatures this high, the pressure during mineralization must have been substantially greater (~680 bar), a pressure change equivalent to erosion of ~280 m of rock (ρ=2.5 g/cm3). Although glacial erosion rates are too low (0.034 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003) for this amount of erosion to occur in a single glaciation, glacial melting and ablation are substantially more rapid (~100 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003; Person et al., 2012). Thus, a more probable scenario than pure erosion is that peak hydrothermal conditions occurred during a large glacial event, with the added pressure from the overlying ice allowing the high temperature minerals to form closer to the ground surface. Subsequent melting of the ice eroded upper tributary valleys and upper levels of the originally smectite-rich alteration assemblage, explaining the paucity of swelling clays in the region. We present mineralogical, fluid inclusion and geochronologic evidence to support these conclusions, and discuss the general implications of sub-glacial hydrothermal system formation and geothermal resource potential. References: Bekele, E., Rostron, B. and Person, M. (2003) Fluid pressure

  18. Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake

    Zhi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δD and δ18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+ and SO4− of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

  19. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

  20. Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada

    López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

  1. Korarchaeota diversity, biogeography, and abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin hot springs and ecological niche modeling based on machine learning.

    Miller-Coleman, Robin L; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Ross, Christian A; Shock, Everett L; Williams, Amanda J; Hartnett, Hilairy E; McDonald, Austin I; Havig, Jeff R; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7-8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies g(-1) wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pHapplication of a C-SVM to microbial ecology. PMID:22574130

  2. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: characterization of rock types and alteration in Getty Oil Company well Utah state 52-21

    Ballantyne, G.H.

    1978-11-01

    Getty Oil Company well 52-21 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area was drilled to 7500 feet in predominantly upper amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks. All lithologies in the drill hole are pervasively but weakly altered: the alteration assemblage is chlorite + sericite + clays with occasional traces of calcite, above 2300 feet, and chlorite + sericite + clays + calcite +- epidote below 2500 feet. A zone of increased alteration intensity from approximately 1800 feet to 2300 feet occurs within and adjacent to a dacite dike which cuts the metamorphic rocks. A second zone of stronger alteration extends from 6000 feet to the bottom of the drill hole. The drill hole which is located approximately 5000 feet south of the center of the silica apron known as the Opal Mound was apparently drilled beyond the influence of acid, high-sulfate brines such as have affected the upper portions of drill holes 72-16, 76-1 and University of Utah 1A and 1B.

  3. Changes in microbial intact polar membrane lipids related to environmental parameters at Yellowstone National Park hot springs

    Schubotz, F.; Boyd, E.; Lipp, J. S.; Fecteau, K.; Shock, E.; Summons, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Extremes in temperature, pH and other geochemical parameters force microorganisms to adapt their membrane composition to maintain fluidity and regulate ionic and electron gradients. Recently, it was shown that temperature and pH had a distinct influence on the ring distribution of different tetraether lipids in archaea found in hot springs (Pearson et al., 2008). However, these studies were never evaluated with respect to metabolic or community dynamics. Here we explore the composition of archaeal and bacterial intact polar membrane lipids in a diverse range of hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Our goal is to relate observed lipid patterns both to phylogeny as well as to a range of environmental parameters. The temperatures of the investigated samples covered a range from 32 to 90°C and the pH varied from pH 1.9 to pH 8.7. Membrane lipids broadly followed changes in the community composition: at elevated temperatures archaeal lipids were more dominant than bacterial lipids and matched 16S rDNA clone libraries. Bacterial lipids at hotter sites had abundant aquificales-specific lipids, such as aminopentanetetrol (APT) and phosphatidyl inositol (PI), whereas moderate, cyanobacteria-dominated sites showed abundant glycolipids typical for phototrophic organisms. Archaeal lipids were characterized by mono- and diglycosidic head groups with zero to four ring tetraether cores. More distinct shifts in head group and core lipid composition, such as ratios of phospho- to amino- or glycolipids will be evaluated with respect to changes in environmental parameters, including temperature, pH and nutrients, allowing for a deeper understanding of the role of membrane adaptations in extreme environments. Reference: Pearson A., Pi Y., Zhao W., Li W., Li Y., Inskeep, W., Perevalova A., Romanek C., Li S., Zhang C.L (2008) Factors controlling the distribution of archaeal tetraethers in terrestrial hot springs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74, 3523-3532.

  4. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  5. Phylogenetic Evidence for the Existence of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria in Hot Spring Sulfur-Turf Microbial Mats in Japan

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hiraishi, Akira; Kato, Kenji; Chiura, Hiroshi X.; Maki, Yonosuke; Shimizu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    So-called sulfur-turf microbial mats, which are macroscopic white filaments or bundles consisting of large sausage-shaped bacteria and elemental sulfur particles, occur in sulfide-containing hot springs in Japan. However, no thermophiles from sulfur-turf mats have yet been isolated as cultivable strains. This study was undertaken to determine the phylogenetic positions of the sausage-shaped bacteria in sulfur-turf mats by direct cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the bulk...

  6. On the stunted Mocambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (PIsces: Cichlidae of the Matiovila hot spring, Kruger National Park

    T Hecht

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A stunted population of Oreochromis mossambicus occurs in the Matiovila Hot Sulphur Spring in the Kruger National Park. The growth of the fishes can best be described by the Von Bertalanffy equation L, = ^^(l-e0154^028^ mm SL. Breeding occurs throughout the year and the smallest sexually mature female was 35 mm SL. The fish from this locality were morphometrically compared to another stunted population and to a population of 0. mossambicus from a large impoundment. Speculative reasons for and advantages of stunting are presented.

  7. Terminal Processes in the Anaerobic Degradation of an Algal-Bacterial Mat in a High-Sulfate Hot Spring

    Ward, David M.; Olson, Gregory J.

    1980-01-01

    The algal-bacterial mat of a high-sulfate hot spring (Bath Lake) provided an environment in which to compare terminal processes involved in anaerobic decomposition. Sulfate reduction was found to dominate methane production, as indicated by comparison of initial electron flow through the two processes, rapid conversion of [2-14C]acetate to 14CO2 and not to 14CH4, and the lack of rapid reduction of NaH14CO3 to 14CH4. Sulfate reduction was the dominant process at all depth intervals, but a mark...

  8. Genome sequencing and annotation of Laceyella sacchari strain GS 1-1, isolated from hot spring, Chumathang, Leh, India

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 3.3-Mb draft genome of Laceyella sacchari strain GS 1-1, isolated from hot spring water sample, Chumathang, Leh, India. Draft genome of strain GS 1-1 consists of 3, 324, 316 bp with a G + C content of 48.8% and 3429 predicted protein coding genes and 75 RNAs. Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strain NG80-2, Geobacillus kaustophilus strain HTA426 and Geobacillus sp. Strain G11MC16 are the closest neighbors of the strain GS 1-1.

  9. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  10. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Kara Bowen De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5 hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C. The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44°C and 63°C springs and a hyperthermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts.

  11. Boring of hot spring. Kussaku koji deno mondaiten/ryuiten; Onsen boringu ni tsuite. Problems and consideration in well drilling work

    Higuchi, K. [The Society of Engineers for Mineral Springs, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    Problems and consideration in well drilling from the application to the completion of the well are discussed from the viewpoint of hot spring drilling industry. In the case of developing a hot spring, it is required to make an application for drilling and get permission based on the hot spring law. Inquiries must be made for `other laws` to obtain necessary permission and a written consent. Subjects which should be considered regarding the core, drilling depth, and diameter of the well are introduced. The drilling depths from 1,000m to 1,500m become common recently, and wells with more than 2,000m depths are drilled sometimes. The technology for hot spring drilling is also an important factor. Documents desirable to be attached to the contract for preventing future troubles beforehand are indicated. Among the important works during the work period, confirmation whether the work has been carried on in accordance with the documents for design and plan is necessary. Problems and consideration during finishing and hot spring water pumping tests are discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. First Acetic Acid Survey with CARMA in Hot Molecular Cores

    Shiao, Y -S Jerry; Remijan, Anthony J; Snyder, Lewis E; Friedel, Douglas N

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is co-spatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with co-spatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations become available of large O and N-containing molecules? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at 3 mm wavelengths towards G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02 and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH$_3$COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH$_3$COOH is 2.0(1.0)$\\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and the...

  13. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters: Evidence from the Geysir geothermal field, Iceland

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter Z.; Keller, Nicole S.; Gudbrandsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to explore the extent and controls of silicon isotope fractionation in hot spring systems of the Geysir geothermal area (Iceland), a setting where sinter deposits are actively formed. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica measured in the spring water and sampling sites along outflowing streams, covering a temperature range between 20 and 100 °C, were relatively constant around +0.2‰, whereas the δ30Si signatures of associated opaline sinters from the streambeds were between -0.1‰ and -4.0‰, becoming progressively more negative in the downstream parts of the aprons. Here, the deposited sinters represent some of the most 30Si depleted abiotically produced terrestrial materials documented to date. Compared to the data reported for Icelandic basalts, considered to be the source of the silicon, the δ30Si values of the fluids and sinter deposits are higher and lower, respectively. The resulting values for apparent solid-water isotope fractionation (Δ30Sisolid-water) decreased with decreasing temperature from ca. -0.7‰ at ∼80 °C to -3.7‰ at ∼20 °C, locally down to -4.4‰. This temperature relationship was reproducible in each of the investigated hot spring systems and is qualitatively consistent with recent findings in laboratory experiments on kinetic fractionation for a flowing fluid. However, the apparent fractionation magnitudes observed in the field are ca. -2‰ more negative and thus significantly larger. We infer that solid-water silicon isotope fractionation during deposition of amorphous silica from a flowing fluid correlates inversely with temperature, but is essentially a function of the precipitation rate, such that the fractionation factor decreases with increasing rate. As an important corollary, the effective fractionation behavior during precipitation of silica from saturated solutions is a system-dependent feature, which should be taken into account when using silicon isotopes for paleo-environmental reconstructions.

  14. Community ecology of hot spring cyanobacterial mats: predominant populations and their functional potential

    Klatt, C. G.; Wood, J. M.; Rusch, D. B.;

    2011-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mat communities from 60¿°C and 65¿°C regions in the effluent channels of Mushroom and Octopus Springs (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) were investigated by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Analyses of assembled metagenomic sequences resolved six dominant chlorophototrophic...

  15. Oil yield and fatty acid composition of spring sunflower

    Shahbaz Ahmad; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

    2000-01-01

    Five sunflower hybrids were grown at four sowing dates to have variable maturity temperatures. The hybrids having the same oil yield potential may differ for the oil quality. Oil yield and oleic acid increased while linoleic acid decreased with increasing maturity temperature. The intersection point of oil yield and linoleic acid lines at 2000 growing degree days (GDD) may be the best compromise for high oil yield with the best quality.

  16. Chronic gamma radiation-induced changes in the content of fatty acids in spring rape seeds

    Chronic gamma irradiation of spring rape plants having no erucic acid and eicosanoic acid in seed oil induced changes both in the growth and in the morphological composition of the plants. The contents of erucic acid and eicosanoic acid did not increase. The greatest changes occurred in unsaturated acids, especially in macromutants resulting from irradiated plants located in the closest proximity of the radiation source or in places with the most significant plant growth inhibition. Nutants with a low, or a high, content of linolenic acid were obtained. (author)

  17. Life in hot acid: pathway analyses in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea.

    Auernik, Kathryne S; Cooper, Charlotte R; Kelly, Robert M

    2008-10-01

    The extremely thermoacidophilic archaea are a particularly intriguing group of microorganisms that must simultaneously cope with biologically extreme pHs ( or = 60 degrees C) in their natural environments. Their expanding biotechnological significance relates to their role in biomining of base and precious metals and their unique mechanisms of survival in hot acid, at both the cellular and biomolecular levels. Recent developments, such as advances in understanding of heavy metal tolerance mechanisms, implementation of a genetic system, and discovery of a new carbon fixation pathway, have been facilitated by the availability of genome sequence data and molecular genetic systems. As a result, new insights into the metabolic pathways and physiological features that define extreme thermoacidophily have been obtained, in some cases suggesting prospects for biotechnological opportunities. PMID:18760359

  18. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  19. Spring mires fed by hot artesian water in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    A.P. Grootjans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes two spring mire complexes in the Kruger National Park (South Africa that are fed by thermal water with a temperature of 37–42°C. The mires are small (1–20 m in diameter. The peat thickness is 1–2.5 m, of which 1–1.5 m is elevated above the surroundings. Some of the domes have dried out severely and show signs of erosion due to water flow and trampling by large animals. The mires lie in an almost straight line, supporting the hypothesis that the water originates from deep aquifers which discharge at geological faults. The long-term existence of these spring mire complexes may not be threatened because young stages of mire formation are present, but research to elucidate the timescales of peat development is needed to make a valid prognosis.

  20. Diversity of Culturable Thermophilic Actinobacteria in Hot Springs in Tengchong, China and Studies of their Biosynthetic Gene Profiles.

    Liu, Lan; Salam, Nimaichand; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The class Actinobacteria has been a goldmine for the discovery of antibiotics and has attracted interest from both academics and industries. However, an absence of novel approaches during the last few decades has limited the discovery of new microbial natural products useful for industries. Scientists are now focusing on the ecological aspects of diverse environments including unexplored or underexplored habitats and extreme environments in the search for new metabolites. This paper reports on the diversity of culturable actinobacteria associated with hot springs located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 58 thermophilic actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples collected from ten hot springs distributed over three geothermal fields (e.g., Hehua, Rehai, and Ruidian). Phylogenetic positions and their biosynthetic profiles were analyzed by sequencing 16S rRNA gene and three biosynthetic gene clusters (KS domain of PKS-I, KSα domain of PKS-II and A domain of NRPS). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, the 58 strains were affiliated with 12 actinobacterial genera: Actinomadura Micromonospora, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Nocardiopsis, Nonomuraea, Promicromonospora, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, Thermoactinospora, Thermocatellispora, and Verrucosispora, of which the two novel genera Thermoactinospora and Thermocatellisopora were recently described from among these strains. Considering the biosynthetic potential of these actinobacterial strains, 22 were positive for PCR amplification of at least one of the three biosynthetic gene clusters (PKS-I, PKS-II, and NRPS). These actinobacteria were further subjected to antimicrobial assay against five opportunistic human pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis). All of the 22 strains that were positive for PCR amplification of at least one of the biosynthetic gene domains exhibited

  1. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7. bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal. The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤ 70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS- and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO3-. Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤ 70°C.

  2. Microbiology and geochemistry of great boiling and mud hot springs in the United States Great Basin.

    Costa, Kyle C; Navarro, Jason B; Shock, Everett L; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Soukup, Debbie; Hedlund, Brian P

    2009-05-01

    A coordinated study of water chemistry, sediment mineralogy, and sediment microbial community was conducted on four >73 degrees C springs in the northwestern Great Basin. Despite generally similar chemistry and mineralogy, springs with short residence time (approximately 5-20 min) were rich in reduced chemistry, whereas springs with long residence time (>1 day) accumulated oxygen and oxidized nitrogen species. The presence of oxygen suggested that aerobic metabolisms prevail in the water and surface sediment. However, Gibbs free energy calculations using empirical chemistry data suggested that several inorganic electron donors were similarly favorable. Analysis of 298 bacterial 16S rDNAs identified 36 species-level phylotypes, 14 of which failed to affiliate with cultivated phyla. Highly represented phylotypes included Thermus, Thermotoga, a member of candidate phylum OP1, and two deeply branching Chloroflexi. The 276 archaeal 16S rDNAs represented 28 phylotypes, most of which were Crenarchaeota unrelated to the Thermoprotei. The most abundant archaeal phylotype was closely related to "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", suggesting a role for ammonia oxidation in primary production; however, few other phylotypes could be linked with energy calculations because phylotypes were either related to chemoorganotrophs or were unrelated to known organisms. PMID:19247786

  3. Description, field test and data analysis of a controlled-source EM system (EM-60). [Leach Hot Springs, Grass Valley

    Morrison, H.F.; Goldstein, N.E.; Hoversten, M.; Oppliger, G.; Riveros, C.

    1978-10-01

    The three sections describe the transmitter, the receiver, and data interpretations and indicate the advances made toward the development of a large moment electromagnetic (EM) system employing a magnetic dipole source. A brief description is given of the EM-60 transmitter, its general design, and the consideration involved in the selection of a practical coil size and weight for routine field operations. A programmable, multichannel, multi-frequency, phase-sensitive receiver is described. A field test of the EM-60, the data analysis and interpretation procedures, and a comparison between the survey results and the results obtained using other electrical techniques are presented. The Leach Hot Springs area in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, was chosen for the first field site at which the entire system would be tested. The field tests showed the system capable of obtaining well-defined sounding curves (amplitude and phase of magnetic fields) from 1 kHz down to 0.1 Hz. (MHR)

  4. Regulatory, Land Ownership, and Water Availability Factors for a Magma Well: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs, California

    Blackett, Robert

    1985-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently engaged in a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy from high-level molten magma bodies. The program is being carried out under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories where a number of individual projects support the overall program. The existing program elements include (1) high-temperature materials compatibility testing; (2) studies of properties of melts of various compositions; and (3) the investigation of the economics of a magma energy extraction system. Another element of the program is being conducted with the cooperation of the U.S. Geological Survey, and involves locating and outlining magma bodies at selected sites using various geophysical techniques. The ultimate goal here will be to define the limits of a magma body as a drilling target. During an earlier phase of the program, more than twenty candidate study sites considered were evaluated based upon: (1) the likelihood of the presence of a shallow magma chamber, (2) the accessibility of the site, and (3) physical and institutional constraints associated with each site with respect to performing long-term experiments. From these early phase activities, the number of candidate sites were eventually narrowed to just 2. The sites currently under consideration are Coso Hot Springs and the Long Valley caldera (Figure 1). This report describes certain attributes of these sites in order to help identify potential problems related to: (1) state and federal regulations pertaining to geothermal development; (2) land ownership; and (3) water resource availability. The information sources used in this study were mainly maps, publications, and informative documents gathered from the California Division of Oil and Gas and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Environmental studies completed for the entire Long Valley caldera study area, and for portions of the Coso Hot Springs study area were also used for reference.

  5. Composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and their contribution to nitrification in a high-temperature hot spring

    Chen, S.; Peng, X.-T.; Xu, H.-C.; Ta, K.-W.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes and associated organisms has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrification in high-temperature environments remains unclear. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface sinter and bottom sediments were 4.8 and 5.3 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Relative abundances of Crenarchaea in both samples were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", which represented the most abundant operation taxonomic units (OTU) in both sediments. Furthermore, bacterial amoA was not detected in this study. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that AOA and 16S rRNA genes were present in the range of 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 and 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 gene copies g-1 sediment. The cell-specific nitrification rates were estimated to be in the range of 0.41 to 0.79 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, which is consistent with earlier estimates in estuary environments. This study demonstrated that AOA were widely involved in nitrification in this hot spring. It further indicated the importance of archaea rather than bacteria in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  6. Composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and their contribution to nitrification in a high-temperature hot spring

    S. Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of ammonia by microbes and associated organisms has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrification in high-temperature environments remains unclear. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N–NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface sinter and bottom sediments were 4.8 and 5.3 nmol N g−1 h−1, respectively. Relative abundances of Crenarchaea in both samples were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", which represented the most abundant operation taxonomic units (OTU in both sediments. Furthermore, bacterial amoA was not detected in this study. Quantitative PCR (qPCR indicated that AOA and 16S rRNA genes were present in the range of 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 and 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 gene copies g−1 sediment. The cell-specific nitrification rates were estimated to be in the range of 0.41 to 0.79 fmol N archaeal cell−1 h−1, which is consistent with earlier estimates in estuary environments. This study demonstrated that AOA were widely involved in nitrification in this hot spring. It further indicated the importance of archaea rather than bacteria in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  7. Microbial community profiling of the Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") hot spring in Beppu, Japan: isolation and characterization of Fe(III)-reducing Sulfolobus sp. strain GA1.

    Masaki, Yusei; Tsutsumi, Katsutoshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Okibe, Naoko

    2016-09-01

    Chinoike Jigoku ("Blood Pond Hell") is located in the hot spring town of Beppu on the southern island of Kyushu in Japan, and is the site of a red-colored acidic geothermal pond. This study aimed to investigate the microbial population composition in this extremely acidic environment and to isolate/characterize acidophilic microorganism with metal-reducing ability. Initially, PCR (using bacteria- and archaea-specific primers) of environmental DNA samples detected the presence of bacteria, but not archaea. This was followed by random sequencing analysis, confirming the presence of wide bacterial diversity at the site (123 clones derived from 18 bacterial and 1 archaeal genera), including those closely related to known autotrophic and heterotrophic acidophiles (Acidithiobacillus sp., Sulfobacillus sp., Alicyclobacillus sp.). Nevertheless, successive culture enrichment with Fe(III) under micro-aerobic conditions led to isolation of an unknown archaeal organism, Sulfolobus sp. GA1 (with 99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Sulfolobus shibatae). Unlike many other known Sulfolobus spp., strain GA1 was shown to lack sulfur oxidation ability. Strain GA1 possessed only minor Fe(II) oxidation ability, but readily reduced Fe(III) during heterotrophic growth under micro-aerobic conditions. Strain GA1 was capable of reducing highly toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic/soluble Cr(III), demonstrating its potential utility in bioremediation of toxic metal species. PMID:27208660

  8. Enrichment of Thermophilic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from an Alkaline Hot Spring in the Great Basin, USA

    Zhang, C.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, H.; Wiegel, J.; Li, W.; Dong, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the major advances in the nitrogen cycle is the recent discovery of ammonia oxidation by archaea. While culture-independent studies have revealed occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nearly every surface niche on earth, most of these microorganisms have resisted isolation and so far only a few species have been identified. The Great Basin contains numerous hot springs, which are characterized by moderately high temperature (40-65 degree C) and circumneutral or alkaline pH. Unique thermophilic archaea have been identified based on molecular DNA and lipid biomarkers; some of which may be ammonia oxidizers. This study aims to isolate some of these archaea from a California hot spring that has pH around 9.0 and temperature around 42 degree C. Mat material was collected from the spring and transported on ice to the laboratory. A synthetic medium (SCM-5) was inoculated with the mat material and the culture was incubated under varying temperature (35-65 degree C) and pH (7.0-10.0) conditions using antibiotics to suppress bacterial growth. Growth of the culture was monitored by microscopy, decrease in ammonium and increase in nitrite, and increases in Crenarchaeota and AOA abundances over time. Clone libraries were constructed to compare archaeal community structures before and after the enrichment experiment. Temperature and pH profiles indicated that the culture grew optimally at pH 9.0 and temperature 45 degree C, which are consistent with the geochemical conditions of the natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the final OTU was distantly related to all known hyperthermophilic archaea. Analysis of the amoA genes showed two OTUs in the final culture; one of them was closely related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis. However, the enrichment culture always contained bacteria and attempts to separate them from archaea have failed. This highlights the difficulty in bringing AOA into pure culture and suggests that some of the AOA may

  9. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring. PMID:27290724

  10. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing

    Mehetre, Gajanan T.; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G.; Dharne, Mahesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche.

  11. Regulation of nif gene expression and the energetics of N2 fixation over the diel cycle in a hot spring microbial mat

    Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Jensen, Sheila I; Brecht, Eric;

    2008-01-01

    in the microbial mat of an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. The results showed a rise in nif transcripts in the evening, with a subsequent decline over the course of the night. In contrast, immunological data demonstrated that the level of the NifH polypeptide remained stable during the night...

  12. Separating natural acidity from anthropogenic acidification in the spring flood of northern Sweden

    Spring flood is an occasion for transient hydrochemical changes that profoundly effect the biodiversity of the aquatic ecosystem. Spring flood is also very susceptible to anthropogenic acidification. Belief that acid deposition is primarily responsible for pH decline during spring flood has been an important factor in the decision to spend close to one billion Swedish crowns to lime surface waters in northern Sweden during the last decade. The objective of this work is to present an operational tool, the Boreal Dilution Model (BDM), for separating and quantifying the anthropogenic and natural contributions to episodic acidification during spring flood episodes in northern Sweden. The limited data requirements of 10-15 stream water samples before and during spring flood make the BDM suitable for widespread use in environmental monitoring programs. This creates a possibility for distinguishing trends and spatial patterns in the human impact as well as natural pH decline. The results from applying the BDM, and a one point 'pBDM' version of the model, in northern Sweden demonstrate that the anthropogenic component associated with spring flood episodes is now generally limited. Instead it is the combination of natural organic acidity and dilution of the buffering capacity that is the major driving mechanism of episodic acidity during spring flood events in the region. While the anthropogenic component of episodic acidification generally contributes 0.1 to 0.3 pH units to the natural pH decline of up to 2.5 pH units, the current regional extent of areas that are severely affected by anthropogenically driven episodes is approximately 6%. Prior to the initiation of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's 'Episode Project' the limited spring flood data together with lack of a systematic methodology for determining liming candidates forced the liming authorities to base the remediation strategy in northern Sweden on biological indications. But, since there are more

  13. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (hot spring/water level/spring water, No. C-3 Akinomiya area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (onsen suii yusui, No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    As a part of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the results were summed up of the environmental effect survey conducted at the Akinomiya area of Ogachi-gun, Akita prefecture. In the survey, the drilling of N9-AY-4 exploration well and short-term injection tests of N8-AY-2/N9-AY-3 were carried out in the area. The survey was made aiming at grasping the effects on hot spring/ground water level/spring water in the area. The methods used for survey were surveys of hot spring variation, ground water level variation, precipitation, rivers, all spring sources, and analyses of hot spring water/spring water in the Akinomiya area. As a result of the survey, in hot spring/ground water level/spring water, no variations were recognized which were caused by the drilling of N9-AY-3/N9-AY-4/N9-AY-5 exploration wells and short-term injection tests of N8-AY-2/N9-AY-3 exploration wells. Moreover, since few changes of spring water quality were seen also in the result of the survey of all spring sources, it was judged that the drilling and short-term injection tests of the exploration wells described above have no effects on the hot spring, ground water level and spring water in the Akinomiya area. (NEDO)

  14. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA: DDH 1976-1

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

    1977-09-01

    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Alteration and mineral deposition recognized in a 200' drill core from DDH 1-76 is most intense in the upper 100 feet which consists of altered alluvium and opal deposits; the lower 100 feet is weakly altered quartz monzonite. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Comparison of the alteration mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth. The estimated heat flow varied from .02 HFU (for 200' depth, 400,000 yr duration, and no sulfur oxidation) to 67 HFU (for 5,000' depth, 1,000 yr duration, and all sulfur oxidized from sulfide). Heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration are comparable with those from a cooling granitic magma.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA - DDH 1976-1

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

    1977-09-01

    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Major alteration zones include: 1) an advanced argillic zone in the upper 30 feet of altered detritus containing alunite, opal, vermiculite, and relic quartz; 2) an argillic zone from 30 feet to 105 feet containing kaolinite, muscovite, and minor alunite; and 3) a propylitic zone from 105 to 200 feet containing muscovite, pyrite, marcasite, montmorillonite, and chlorite in weakly altered quartz monzonite. Comparison of the alternation mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth.

  16. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    Larson, P.B.; Phillips, A.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.; Manion, J.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640??ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480??ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300??m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ?? alunite ?? dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ?? adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100??m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170????C. An 40Ar/39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ?? 16,000??years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Incipient silicification of recent conifer wood at a Yellowstone hot spring

    Hellawell, Jo; Ballhaus, Chris; Gee, Carole T.; Mustoe, George E.; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Wirth, Richard; Rethemeyer, Janet; Tomaschek, Frank; Geisler, Thorsten; Greef, Karin; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    A branch of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) from a silica sinter apron of Cistern Spring, Yellowstone National Park, is partially mineralized with silica gel. The distribution of Si mapped in transverse sections of the branch suggests that mineralization was episodic. Early silica-rich solutions used the cellular structures in the wood as pathways, in particular the axial tracheids and rays. Later solutions infiltrated into the branch through shrinkage cracks along the decorticated branch's periphery. Among the tracheids, a distinct preference is noted for silica precipitates to line lumina of the earlywood tracheids, suggesting that this differential concentration in silica may reflect seasonal growth and water uptake in a live tree. Raman spectroscopy identifies the silica phases as amorphous silica gel. Secondary electron images of radial sections along the tracheids demonstrate that the distribution of silica is heterogeneous on a micrometer scale. Silica gel precipitates form micro spheroids with a spherical substructure that extends down to the sub-nanometer scale. All cell walls are templated with a monolayer consisting of closely spaced silica gel nano spheres around 100 nm in diameter. Transmission electron microscopy of focused ion beam sections through cell walls of partially mineralized tracheids reveals that the permineralization of cellular structures and the replacement of organic material by silica are processes that go hand in hand. The branch is dated with the 14C chronometer to 140 ± 33 years, underlining that the silicification reactions that preserve wood in the fossil record can be very rapid. Textural considerations of Si distribution in the wood suggest that the early stages of silicification in this branch date from a time when the pine tree was still alive.

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics of the hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations of the spring waters. The water samples were collected within 5 days after the Lushan earthquake. The spring waters are classified into 7 chemical types based on the hydrochemical compositions. Comparison with the hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and TDS of the waters from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs evidently increased, which resulted from enhancing interaction between deep-earth fluids and carbonate rocks by the increment of dissolved CO2 in the groundwater. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- of the waters from the Guanding, zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs were decreased, indicating dilution of precipitation water. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- of the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to the more supplement of fluids enriched in sulfur. The results indicate that hydrochemical components of spring water can be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  19. Hydrochemical characteristics of hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations in the spring water. The water samples were collected in the 5 days after the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake, which occurred on 20 April 2013. The spring waters are classified into seven chemical types based on their hydrochemical compositions. Compared with hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and total dissolved solid (TDS) in water samples from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs significantly increased, which may be the result of a greater increase in groundwater from carbonate rocks, and water-carbonate rock interactions, enhanced by the increment of CO2. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in water samples from the Guanding, Zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs decreased, indicating a dilution of shallow waters. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- in water samples from the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to water-granite interactions enhanced by H2S. The results indicated that hydrochemical components of spring water could be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  20. Hydrochemical characteristics of the hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    Z. Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations of the spring waters. The water samples were collected within 5 days after the Lushan earthquake. The spring waters are classified into 7 chemical types based on the hydrochemical compositions. Comparison with the hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3− and TDS of the waters from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs evidently increased, which resulted from enhancing interaction between deep-earth fluids and carbonate rocks by the increment of dissolved CO2 in the groundwater. Concentrations of Na+, Cl− and SO42− of the waters from the Guanding, zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs were decreased, indicating dilution of precipitation water. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42− of the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to the more supplement of fluids enriched in sulfur. The results indicate that hydrochemical components of spring water can be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  1. Geothermal investment analysis with site-specific applications to Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, Utah

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1978-12-01

    The analysis and modeling of investment behavior in the development of hydrothermal electric power facilities are reported. This investment behavior reflects a degree of sensitivity to public policy alternatives concerning taxation and regulation of the resource and its related energy conversion facilities. The objective of the current research is to provide a realistic and theoretically sound means for estimating the impacts of such public policy alternatives. A stochastic simulation model was developed which offers an efficient means for site-specific investment analysis of private sector firms and investors. The results of the first year of work are discussed including the identification, analysis, quantification and modeling of: a decision tree reflecting the sequence of procedures, timing and stochastic elements of hydrothermal resource development projects; investment requirements, expenses and revenues incurred in the exploration, development and utilization of hydrothermal resources for electric power generation; and multiattribute investment decision criteria of the several types of firms in the geothermal industry. An application of the investment model to specific resource sites in the state of Utah is also described. Site specific data for the Known Geothermal Resource Areas of Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale are given together with hypothesized generation capacity growth rates.

  2. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates from Tokushima to Misasa hot spring in Tottori using a scintillation survey meter

    In this work, a survey of environmental radiation dose rates from Tokushima to Misasa Hot Spring in Tottori has been performed using a portable NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter equipped in a car. It has been possible to record the environmental radiation dose rates together with time information by a portable personal computer. In the course of the present survey, the maximum value of the environmental radiation dose rates was 0.203 μSv/h into Kokubunji tunnel in Kagawa prefecture, while the minimum value was 0.016 μSv/h on the bridge of Seto-Ohashi. Radiation dose rates into tunnels were higher than those of public places, in contrast, those on bridges were lower. This trend is in agreement with generally recognized one. That is, the radiation dose rates into tunnels will increase by a top and sides of bedrocks, while those on bridges will decrease by the effect of shielding of river and sea waters for the natural occurring radiation due to bedrocks. Comparing the environmental radiation dose rates at public places in the following four prefectures, Tokushima, Kagawa, Okayama, and Tottori, except those tunnels and bridges, we found that the average radiation dose rate in Tottori was 0.079 ± 0.011 μSv/h and it was the highest value in the four prefectures. This suggests that granites, which generally have the highest content of U and Th, will be geologically distributed in the Chugoku District than the Shikoku One. (author)

  3. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  4. Terminal processes in the anaerobic degradation of an algal-bacterial mat in a high-sulfate hot spring

    The algal-bacterial mat of a high-sulfate hot spring (Bath Lake) provided an environment in which to compare terminal processes involved in anaerobic decomposition. Sulfate reduction was found to dominate methane production, as indicated by comparison of initial electron flow through the two processes, rapid conversion of [2-14C]acetate to 14CO2 and not to 14CH4, and the lack of rapid reduction of NaH14CO3 to 14CH4. Sulfate reduction was the dominant process at all depth intervals, but a marked decrease of sulfate reduction and sulfate-reducing bacteria was observed with depth. Concurrent methanogenesis was indicated by the presence of viable methanogenic bacteria and very low but detectable rates of methane production. A marked increase in methane production was observed after sulfate depletion despite high concentrations of sulfide (>1.25 mM), indicating that methanogenesis was not inhibited by sulfide in the natural environment. Although a sulfate minimum and sulfide maximum occurred in the region of maximal sulfate reduction, the absence of sulfate depletion in interstitial water suggests that methanogenesis is always severely limited in Bath Lake sediments. Low initial methanogenesis was not due to anaerobic methane oxidation

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyesteramide Hot Melt Adhesive from Low Purity Dimer Acid, Ethylenediamine, and Ethanolamine

    Pravin G. KADAM; Vaidya, Parth; Mhaske, Shashank T.

    2014-01-01

    Polyesteramide hot melt adhesive (HMA) was synthesized using low purity dimer acid (composition: 3% linoleic acid, 75% dimer acid, and 22% trimer acid), ethanolamine, and ethylenediamine. Ethanolamine was added as a partial replacement (10, 20, and 30%) of ethylenediamine. Prepared HMAs were characterized for acid value, amine value, hydroxyl value, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical (tensile strength, percentage strain at brea, and shore D hardness), thermal (glass transitio...

  6. Isotope hydrology of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system; a coupled system of crater lake and hot springs

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y.; Rouwet, D.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic 1982 eruption of El Chichón (>1.5 km3 of erupted material) opened the upper hundred meters of the existing volcano-hydrothermal system. In the new formed 200m-deep crater a large shallow crater lake and numerous hot springs were formed. The lake existence and its salinity depend on the precipitation (~4000 mm/y) as well as a group of geyser-like neutral saline springs (source of Cl and SO4) and hydrothermal steam vents discharging into the lake (source of SO4). The chemistry of these “Soap Pool” (SP) springs evolved from >13,000 ppm of Cl in 1995 to ~2000-3000 ppm of Cl in 2006. Since 2006, this Cl-concentration in SP waters is constant. Similar concentrations of Cl are observed in most flank hot springs located at altitudes of ~ 600 m asl, 2-3 km from the crater. Therefore, it can be suggested that the flank springs, crater lake and crater hot springs are manifestations of the upper, relatively shallow volcano-hydrothermal system developed beneath the crater in the volcano edifice. Water isotopic composition of all types of thermal and fresh waters including fumarolic steam condensates (>100 samples collected in 1995-2010) allow to classify and distinguish different processes of shallow mixing, boiling, evaporation and water-rock isotope exchange. All spring waters from the upper system have meteoric origin, with the isotopic composition plotting close to the meteoric water line. Crater waters are strongly evolved due to shallow boiling and loss of steam. Isotopic composition of water from the lower, deep hydrothermal system is characterized by a significant positive oxygen isotopic shift and a strong Cl-d18O linear correlation. Waters from numerous cold springs that drain pyroclastic deposits demonstrate a clear negative oxygen shift. Some problems related to water isotopic composition are still remain unresolved: (1) we cannot find any traces of the infiltrated isotopically heavy lake waters, i.e., the seepage from the lake at the volcano

  7. Cyanobacterial ecotypes in different optical microenvironments of a 68 C hot spring mat community revealed by 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region variation

    Ferris, Mike J.; Kühl, Michael; Wieland, Andrea;

    2003-01-01

    We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic photosynth......We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic...... distinct populations over the vertical interval. We were unable to identify patterns in genetic variation in Synechococcus 16S rRNA sequences that correlate with different vertically distributed populations. However, patterns of variation at the internal transcribed spacer locus separating 16S and 23S r...

  8. Isolation of phosphatase-producing phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Loriya hot spring: Investigation of phosphate solubilizing in the presence of different parameters

    Maryam Parhamfar; Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard; Mouj Khaleghi; Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Biofertilizers are the microorganisms that can convert useless nutrient to usable compounds. Unlike fertilizer, cost of biofertilizer production is low and doesn’t produce ecosystem pollution. Phosphate fertilizers can be replaced by phosphate biofertilizer to produce improvement. So, it is necessary to screen the climate-compatible phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Materials and methods: In this project samples were picked up from Loriya hot spring, which are located in Jiro...

  9. Cultivation and Genomic, Nutritional, and Lipid Biomarker Characterization of Roseiflexus Strains Closely Related to Predominant In Situ Populations Inhabiting Yellowstone Hot Spring Microbial Mats▿ †

    van der Meer, Marcel T.J.; Klatt, Christian G.; Wood, Jason; Bryant, Donald A.; Bateson, Mary M.; Lammerts, Laurens; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Madigan, Michael T.; Ward, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Roseiflexus sp. strains were cultivated from a microbial mat of an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. These strains are closely related to predominant filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs found in the mat, as judged by the similarity of small-subunit rRNA, lipid distributions, and genomic and metagenomic sequences. Like a Japanese isolate, R. castenholzii, the Yellowstone isolates contain bacteriochlorophyll a, but not bacteriochlorophyll c or chlorosomes, and grow phot...

  10. How important is hydrotherapy? Effects of dynamic action of hot spring water as a rehabilitative treatment for burn patients in Switzerland

    Moufarrij, S.; Deghayli, L.; Raffoul, W.; Hirt-Burri, N.; Michetti, M; de Buys Roessingh, A.; Norberg, M; Applegate, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation using hydrotherapy can have multiple benefits for the burn patient. The therapy uses specific mineral enriched hot spring water and water jets with varied hydro-pressure to combat hypertrophy, inflammatory reaction signs, abnormal pigmentation, and, more specifically, redness and scarring. Standard operating procedures for burn rehabilitation have been developed and integrated into the Standard of Care at the CHUV hospital using localized hydro-mechanical stimulation of bu...

  11. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing.

    Mehetre, Gajanan T; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G; Dharne, Mahesh S

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche. PMID:26950332

  12. Diel metabolomics analysis of a hot spring chlorophototrophic microbial mat leads to new hypotheses of community member metabolisms

    Young-Mo eKim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic environmental factors such as light, nutrients, salt, and temperature continuously affect chlorophototrophic microbial mats, requiring adaptive and acclimative responses to stabilize composition and function. Quantitative metabolomics analysis can provide insights into metabolite dynamics for understanding community response to such changing environmental conditions. In this study, we quantified volatile organic acids, polar metabolites (amino acids, glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates, nucleobases, nucleosides, and sugars, wax esters, and polyhydroxyalkanoates, resulting in the identification of 104 metabolites and related molecules in thermal chlorophototrophic microbial mat cores collected over a diel cycle in Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park. A limited number of predominant taxa inhabit this community and their functional potentials have been previously identified through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses and in situ metabolisms, and metabolic interactions among these taxa have been hypothesized. Our metabolomics results confirmed the diel cycling of photorespiration (e.g. glycolate and fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate, and lactate products, the carbon storage polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates, and dissolved gases (e.g. H2 and CO2 in the waters overlying the mat, which were hypothesized to occur in major mat chlorophototrophic community members. In addition, we have formulated the following new hypotheses: 1 the morning hours are a time of biosynthesis of amino acids, DNA, and RNA; 2 photo-inhibited cells may also produce lactate via fermentation as an alternate metabolism; 3 glycolate and lactate are exchanged among Synechococcus and Roseiflexus spp.; and 4 fluctuations in many metabolite pools (e.g. wax esters at different times of day result from species found at different depths within the mat responding to temporal differences in their niches

  13. Uranium, thorium and potassium occurrences in the vicinity of hot springs in the northern neotectonic belt in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Gamma ray measurements were carried out along two parallel lines close to each of the hot springs using a RS 125 spectrometer to find the concentration (ppm) of U, Th, and K at Polile Tshisa, Aliwal North, and Badfontein hot springs. The RS 125 spectrometer is auto-stabilized on the naturally occurring U, Th, and K, and provides concentrations (ppm) of the radioelements. The results show that the concentration of thorium is higher, and is below the world average hazardous threshold of 7.4 ppm. Thorium is related to the occurrence of monazite seen at the scanning electron microscope. Higher ratios of U/K are indicative of an increase of uranium relative to potassium. Binary diagrams (Th-U, K-U, and K-Th) do not show a clear best fit except at Polile Tshisa hot spring where thorium shows a quasi positive correlation to potassium. In general, it can be concluded that the concentrations of these three radioelements are quite low, acceptable for groundwater, and could be hazardous to the health of humans and animals if exposed to long time radiations. (author)

  14. Brines, thermal springs, and mineralization phenomena along the eastern coast of Sinai as compared to those of the hot deeps of the Red Sea (abstract)

    Issar, A. (Geological Survey of Israel); Rosenthal, E.; Eckstein, Y.; Bogoch, R.

    1969-01-01

    The chemical composition of brines found as formation waters in oil wells and emerging at the thermal springs along the western coast of the Sinai are shown to have equivalent ionic ratios which are similar to those of hot brines found in the three deeps on the bottom of the Red Sea. Along the cliff close to the thermal spring of Hammam el-Far'un, on the shore of the Suez Gulf, iron mineralization, dolomitization, and heavy-metal enrichment have been observed. The mineralization is shown to be similar to that found in cores collected from the Atlantic II, Discovery, and Chain Deeps of the Red Sea. The thermal regime in the area investigated is characterized by high gradient (10-15 m//sup 0/C) foci occurring within areas having lower gradients (up to 50 m//sup 0/C). Similar phenomena have been observed in the region of the Hot Deeps. The metals found in the waters are believed to be connected partly with hydrothermal activity and partly with the leaching of sedimentary formations. It is suggested that the hot brines of the Red Sea may be submarine thermal springs draining out mineralized formation waters trapped in the sediments underlying the Red Sea.

  15. Recombination does not hinder formation or detection of ecological species of Synechococcus inhabiting a hot spring cyanobacterial mat

    Melanie Crystal Melendrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of bacterial speciation have claimed to support the biological species concept—that reduced recombination is required for bacterial populations to diverge into species. This conclusion has been reached from the discovery that ecologically distinct clades show lower rates of recombination than that which occurs among closest relatives. However, these previous studies did not attempt to determine whether the more-rapidly recombining close relatives within the clades studied may also have diversified ecologically, without benefit of sexual isolation. Here we have measured the impact of recombination on ecological diversification within and between two ecologically distinct clades (A and B´ of Synechococcus in a hot spring microbial mat in Yellowstone National Park, using a cultivation-free, multi-locus approach. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries were constructed from mat samples collected at 60°C and 65°C. Analysis of multiple linked loci near Synechococcus 16S rRNA genes showed little evidence of recombination between the A and B´ lineages, but a record of recombination was apparent within each lineage. Recombination and mutation rates within each lineage were of similar magnitude, but recombination had a somewhat greater impact on sequence diversity than mutation, as also seen in many other bacteria and archaea. Despite recombination within the A and B´ lineages, there was evidence of ecological diversification within each lineage. The algorithm Ecotype Simulation identified sequence clusters consistent with ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes, and several hypothesized ecotypes were distinct in their habitat associations and in their adaptations to different microenvironments. We conclude that sexual isolation is more likely to follow ecological divergence than to precede it. Thus, an ecology-based model of speciation appears more appropriate than the biological species concept for bacterial and archaeal

  16. L-asparaginase production in the pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain JHS-71 isolated from Jooshan Hot-spring

    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase has lots of medical and industrial applications. Ever since L-asparaginase anti-tumor activity was first demonstrated, its production using microbial systems has attracted considerable attention owing to their cost-effective and eco-friendly nature. The aim of this study is to obtain L-asparaginase producing bacteria and determining the enzyme activity. Samples were picked up from Jooshan hot springs located in the Sirch, Kerman. The L-asparaginase producing bacteria were screened on the agar medium supplied with L-asparagine and phenol red indicator dye (pH-7.0. L-asparaginase activity was detected on the basis of pink color around the colony. Enzyme production was also performed based on ammonia detection by Nessler method. Among 24 strains, there were 7 strains which could produce L-asparaginase.Sequencing of 16S rRNA showed that, the best isolates producing L-asparaginase belongs to the Pseudomonas genus. Enzyme activity after 24 and 48 h of incubation showed that Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain JHS-71was the best strain that produced L-Asparaginase about 240 (U/ml after 48h of incubation. Results showed that, L-Asparaginase activity enhanced about 27% in the presence of Co+2. L-asparaginase JHS-71 retained more than 50% of its initial activity in the presence of Cu+2, Mn+2, Zn+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2. Because of various applications of L-asparaginase in biotechnology, P. pseudoalcaligenes strain JHS-71 can be used as a suitable candidate in these fields.

  17. Accurate prediction of hot spot residues through physicochemical characteristics of amino acid sequences

    Chen, Peng

    2013-07-23

    Hot spot residues of proteins are fundamental interface residues that help proteins perform their functions. Detecting hot spots by experimental methods is costly and time-consuming. Sequential and structural information has been widely used in the computational prediction of hot spots. However, structural information is not always available. In this article, we investigated the problem of identifying hot spots using only physicochemical characteristics extracted from amino acid sequences. We first extracted 132 relatively independent physicochemical features from a set of the 544 properties in AAindex1, an amino acid index database. Each feature was utilized to train a classification model with a novel encoding schema for hot spot prediction by the IBk algorithm, an extension of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm. The combinations of the individual classifiers were explored and the classifiers that appeared frequently in the top performing combinations were selected. The hot spot predictor was built based on an ensemble of these classifiers and to work in a voting manner. Experimental results demonstrated that our method effectively exploited the feature space and allowed flexible weights of features for different queries. On the commonly used hot spot benchmark sets, our method significantly outperformed other machine learning algorithms and state-of-the-art hot spot predictors. The program is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    This study investigates the contribution of radon (222Rn)-bearing water to indoor 222Rn in thermal baths. The 222Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM10 and PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m-3 of 222Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which 222Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average 222Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor 222Rn levels were influenced by the 222Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average 222Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10-4-4.1 x 10-3. The 24-h average levels of CO2 and PM10 in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM2.5. Radon and PM10 levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: → 222Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. → The PM2.5 and CO2 are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. → Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. → The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  19. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer...

  20. Isolation of phosphatase-producing phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Loriya hot spring: Investigation of phosphate solubilizing in the presence of different parameters

    Maryam Parhamfar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biofertilizers are the microorganisms that can convert useless nutrient to usable compounds. Unlike fertilizer, cost of biofertilizer production is low and doesn’t produce ecosystem pollution. Phosphate fertilizers can be replaced by phosphate biofertilizer to produce improvement. So, it is necessary to screen the climate-compatible phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Materials and methods: In this project samples were picked up from Loriya hot spring, which are located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in PKV medium for 3 days. Screening of phosphate solubilizing bacteria was performed on the specific media, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Phosphate solubilizing activity of this strain was considered in different carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and pH sources. Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results show that B. sp. LOR033 is closely related to Bacillus licheniformis, with 97% homology. In addition, results show that maximum enzyme production was performed after 2 days that incubation pH was decreased simultaneously when the time was increased. Carbon sources investigation show that glucose is the most appropriate in enzyme production and phosphate releasing. Furthermore, results show that the optimum initial pH for phytase production was pH5.0. Different phosphate sources show that tricalcium phosphate has the suitable effect on enzyme activity in three days of incubation. Discussion and conclusion: Phosphatase enzyme production capacity, growth in acidic pH and phosphate solubilizing potential in different salt and phosphate sources show that this strain has considerable importance as biofertilizers.

  1. Review of methods for long term monitoring of the environmental effects of geothermal development (hot spring). part 2. Chinetsu kaihatsu ni kakawaru choki kankyo monitoring donyu chosa. 2 (chikasui onsen(center dot)suishitsukei). ; Data sheet shu

    1990-03-01

    Pertaining to the geothermal development, this is a data sheet collection of domestic and foreign review documentation to establish environmental monitoring system. Global chemistry and physics review comprise examples in Shikano Hot Spring in Tottori Prefecture, deep portion in Shimosuwa region, etc. Hydrologic fluidization study of geothermal water system explained Kakkonda, Matsukawa, Sengan region, Asaseishikawa fault, Tateshina highland, Hakone Yumot, Beppu, etc. Apart, simulation is being made by geothermal structure model. As for the content of hot spring water, there are review results from Noboribetsu, Izu/Hakone, Shimabara, Beppu, etc. Relation between the discharge flow rate of hot spring and rainfall quantity comprises examples in Onikobe, Kusatsu, etc. As for the influence of hot spring development, secular statistic is made of the dynamic water level, temperature and quality of hot spring in Aomori, Bunpi, etc. Influence review of power generation plant installation comprises reports from Hatchobaru, Onikobe, Onuma, Mori, etc. Regarding the geothermal development and environmental assessment, study is made of the scenery, water quality, atmospheric pollution, land subsidence, hot spring exhaustion, change in hydrothermal system, etc. Foreign examples were also explained. 121 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Hydrochemical characteristics of the hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    Chen, Z; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; C. Xie; Liu, L; Y. Li; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Y. Cui

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations of the spring waters. The water samples were collected within 5 days after the Lushan earthquake. The spring waters are classified into 7 chemical types based on the hydrochemical compositions. Comparison with the hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3− and TDS of the waters from the Guanding...

  3. Direct use applications of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume II: appendixes

    Christiansen, C.C.

    1978-07-01

    The following appendixes are included: Desert Hot Springs (DHS) Geothermal Project Advisory Board, Geothermal Citizens Advisory Committee, community needs assessment, geothermal resource characterization, a detailed discussion of the geothermal applications considered for DHS, space/water heating, agricultural operations, detailed analysis of a geothermal aquaculture facility, detailed discussion of proposed energy cascading systems for DHS, regulatory requirements, environmental impact assessment, resource management plan, and geothermal resources property rights and powers of cities to regulate indigenous geothermal resources and to finance construction of facilities for utilization of such resources. (MHR)

  4. Chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidation by a thermophilic Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain TCC9-4 from a hot spring in Tengchong of Yunnan, China

    Jiang, Dawei; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-01-01

    A new facultative chemolithoautotrophic arsenite (AsIII)-oxidizing bacterium TCC9-4 was isolated from a hot spring microbial mat in Tengchong of Yunnan, China. This strain could grow with AsIII as an energy source, CO2–HCO3- as a carbon source and oxygen as the electron acceptor in a minimal salts medium. Under chemolithoautotrophic conditions, more than 90% of 100 mg/L AsIII could be oxidized by the strain TCC9-4 in 36 h. Temperature was an important environmental factor that strongly influe...

  5. Biochemical Characterization and 16S rRNA Sequencing of Few Lipase-Producing Thermophilic Bacteria from Taptapani Hot Water Spring, Orissa, India

    Satpal S. Bisht; Amrita K. Panda

    2011-01-01

    Three lipase-producing thermophilic bacteria (AK-P1, AK-P2, and AK-P3) were isolated from the Taptapani hot water spring in Orissa, India. The crude extra cellular lipases from cell-free culture supernatant were reacted in an olive oil mixture, and their lipolytic activities were compared. Identification of the bacteria was carried out using biochemical tests, 16SrRNA sequencing and sequences submitted to NCBI GenBank. Strain AK-P3, exhibited the highest lipolytic activity of 5.5 U/mL was ide...

  6. Influence of high-fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas

    LAN De; WU Daishe; LI Ping; WANG Tengsheng; CHEN Chengguang; WANG Wuyi

    2008-01-01

    Drinking water-type fluorosis is the most harmful endemic disease in China with the largest number of sufferers. Although the implementation of the policy to alter water sources to lower fluoride level has effectively controlled the spread of this kind of endemic disease, its prevalence could not thoroughly be stopped because the high-fluoride environmental background in these endemically diseased areas could still do harm to human health through food chain. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a more deep-going study on the drinking water-type fluorosis. To investigate the effect of high fluorine environmental background on crops and human health in the hot spring-type fluorosis-diseased areas, local water, paddy soil, rice, whole vegetables and soils around their roots were sampled for analysis. The results were compared with those of the control groups in fluorosis-free areas which are similar to the fluorosis-diseased areas both in natural background and in social background. It is indicated that rice and vegetables can accumulate water-soluble fluorine either in soils or in irrigating water, and different crops have different abilities of fixing fluorine. The contents of fluorine in different parts of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased and fluorosis-free areas were statistically categorized. The results showed that the fluorine contents of roots, tubers, leaves and flowers of vegetables in the fluorosis-diseased areas are 3.56, 1.17, 3.07 and 3.23 mg/kg, respectively. However, comparisons showed that in the fluorosis-free areas, the fluorine contents are 2.17, 0.70, 1.91 and 2.52 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, different parts of a crop also show significantly different fluorine fixation abilities. It is demonstrated that the fluorine contents of the strongly metabolic parts are relatively high. For example, the fluorine contents of roots, leaves and flowers of vegetables are much higher than those of stems. The fluorine fixation ability of seeds is very

  7. Cesium accumulation by bacterium Thermus sp.TibetanG7: hints for biomineralization of cesiumbearing geyserite in hot springs in Tibet, China

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7, isolated from hot springs in Tibet, China, was examined for the ability to accumulate cesium from solutions. Environmental conditions were simulated and the effects of pH, K+, Na+ and K+-regimes were then studied to determine the possible role of the bacterium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite around these hot springs. In despite of the inhibition of K+ and Na+, the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7 revealed noticeable accumulation of cesium from solutions, with maximum accumulations of 53.49 and 40.41 μmol Cesium/g cell dry weight in Na+ and K+ inhibition experiments, respectively. The accumulation of cesium by this microorganism is rapid, with 40%―50% accumulated within the first 5 min. K+-deficient cells showed a much higher capacity of cesium accumulation compared with K+-sufficient cells. It is evident that the bacteria within the genus thermus play a significant role in the cesium assembly. The formation of cesium-bearing geyserite is also considered.

  8. Expressions of lung cancer related genes and miRNA in peripheral blood of the residents surrounding hot springs with extremely high radon

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of lung cancer related genes and miRNA in peripheral blood of the residents surrounding the extremely high radon hot springs in Ruoergai County, Sichuan Province. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from the local residents. Expressions of lung cancer related genes (p53, k-ras) and miRNA (let-7a, miR-34a/b) were detected by real-time PCR and the protein expressions of p53 and k-ras were detected by Western blot. Results: The expressions of p53 and k-ras mRNA of the residents in high radon area were 0.97 and 1.33 times of the control respectively (t=0.13, -1.12, P>0.05), and the p53 and k-ras protein levels were 0.70 and 1.23 times of the control respectively (t=0.72, 0.46, P>0.05). The let-7a of the residents in high radon area was lower (t=1.63, P>0.05) while the miR-34a and miR-34b were significantly higher than those of the controls (t=-3.20, -3.32, P<0.05). Conclusions: Based on the expressions of p53 and k-ras gene and miRNA, it can be concluded that the residents surrounding the high radon hot springs received radiation damage. (authors)

  9. Culture Atmosphere Design Of Henan Tianrui outdoor Hot Spring%河南天瑞室外温泉文化氛围营造设计

    任少帅; 高成广

    2014-01-01

    Hot springs spa culture is formed by a variety of material carriers and cultural phenomena, cultural patterns, and materialized manifestation Based on Henan Tianrui Springs geographical location, cultural environment, geographical features and other content to the Buddhist culture as the theme, through the spa function zoning, environmental elements to create a " Over and over abundant rain, do and do lotus bloom," the spring landscape atmosphere.%温泉文化是以温泉为物质载体形成的各种文化形态与文化现象及其“物化”体现,本文根据河南天瑞温泉所处的地理位置、文化环境、地域特色等内容,以佛教文化为主题,通过对温泉功能分区、环境要素的营造,形成“遍地雨华,万莲竞放”的温泉景观氛围。

  10. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 8C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE......% phosphoric acid at 150 8C and at polarization of 2.5 V/SSCE is tantalum. In that case, even a gentle cathodic polarization is harmful in such an acidic environment. Hydrogen reduction leads to tantalum hydride formation, to loss of mechanical properties and to complete disintegration of the metal. Contrary...... to tantalum, titanium is free of any corrosion resistance in hot phosphoric acid. Its corrosion rate ranges from tens of millimetres to metres per year depending on temperature of the acid. Alloy bonded tantalum coating was recognized as an effective corrosion protection for both titanium and stainless steel...

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals in reeds collected from an acid mine drainage contaminated site in winter and spring.

    Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    Wetland plants such as Phragmites australis has been used to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) contaminated soil which is a serious environmental issue worldwide. This project investigated metal plaque content(s) and metal uptake in reeds grown in an AMD field in winter and spring. The results indicated that the level of Fe plaque was much higher than Mn and Al plaque as the soil contained more Fe than Al and Mn. The amounts of Mn and Al plaque formed on reeds in spring were not significantly different from that in winter (p > .05). However, more Fe plaque was formed on reeds collected in spring. The concentrations of metals in underground organs were positively related to the metal levels in soils. More Mn and Al transferred to the aboveground tissues of reeds during the spring while the Fe levels in reeds did not significantly vary with seasons. Roots and rhizomes were the main organs for Fe sequestration (16.3 ± 4.15 mg/g in roots in spring) while most Al was sequestered in the shoots of reeds (2.05 ± 0.09 mg/g in shoots in spring). Further research may be needed to enhance the translocation of metals in reeds and increase the phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26789500

  12. Spring flood pH decline in northern Sweden: Towards an operational model separating natural acidity from anthropogenic acidification

    Laudon, H.

    1999-10-01

    The spring flood is a defining feature of the ecosystem in northern Sweden. In this region, spring flood is an occasion for dramatic hydrochemical changes that profoundly effect the biodiversity of the aquatic ecosystem. Spring flood is also the period most susceptible to anthropogenic acidification. A belief in the anthropogenic component to pH decline during spring flood has been an important factor in spending over half a billion crowns to lime surface waters in Northern Sweden during the last decade. The natural component of episodic pH decline during spring flood, however, has received less attention. The main objective of this work is to present an operational model for separating and quantifying the anthropogenic and natural contributions of episodic acidification during high flow events in Northern Sweden. The key assumptions in this model are that baseflow ANC has not been affected by anthropogenic acidification, that DOC has not changed due to modern land-use practice and that natural dilution during hydrological episodes can be quantified. The limited data requirements of 10-15 stream water samples before and during spring flood make the model suitable for widespread use in environmental monitoring programs. This makes it possible to distinguish trends of human impact as well as natural pH decline in space and time. Modeling results from northern Sweden demonstrate that the natural driving mechanisms of dilution and organic acidity were the dominant factors in the episodic acidification of spring flood in the region. The anthropogenic contribution to spring pH decline was similar in size to the natural contribution in only two of the more than 30 events where this model was applied. Natural factors alone were found to cause pH values below 4.5 in some streams. Anthropogenic sources of acidity can be superimposed on this natural dynamics. In the sites studied, the magnitude of the anthropogenic ANC decline was correlated to the winter deposition of

  13. Geology of the Desert Hot Springs-Upper Coachella Valley Area, California (with a selected bibliography of the Coachella Valley, Salton Sea, and vicinity)

    Proctor, Richard J.

    1968-01-01

    The Desert Hot Springs area is in the upper Coachella Valley at the junction of three natural geomorphic provinces of California--the Transverse Ranges, the Peninsular Ranges, and the Colorado Desert. The mapped area is about 100 miles east of Los Angeles and lies principally in north central Riverside County. The oldest rocks in the area are Precambrian(?) amphibolitic and migmatized paragneisses of the San Gorgonio igneous-metamorphic (Chuckwalla) complex. They are intruded by Cretaceous diorite porphyry, Cactus Granite, quartz monzonite, intrusive breccia, and basic plutonic rocks. Of probable late Paleozoic age are the metamorphic rocks of the San Jacinto Mountains which form spurs projecting into San Gorgonio Pass and Coachella Valley.

  14. Influence of twin-screw hot extrusion on linolenic acid retention in flaxseed meal

    flaxseed (linum usitatissimum l.) provides multiple nutritional benefits including high quality protein, dietary fiber and is the most abundant source of alpha-linolenic acid (c18:3). This study focuses on the effect of twin-screw hot extrusion on alpha-linolenic acid retention in full-fat flaxseed meal. the ranges of processing variables selected using box-behnken design were barrel exit temperature (bet) of 120-140 degree c; screw speed (ss) of 200-400 rpm; feed rate (fr) of 1-2 kg/h and feed moisture (fm) of 20-30%. The amount of alpha-linolenic acid retention in extruded samples ranged from 89.2% to 99.3%. Optimal operating conditions were stablished; bet (121degree c), ss (388 rpm), fr (1 kg/h) and fm (22.2%) for maximum (99.9%) retention of degree-linolenic acid. This effect was mainly dependent on bet and fm (p degree 0.01), whereas ss and fr imparted a lesser effect (p=0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that the twin-screw hot extrusion can be successfully explored to produce fatty meals with significant fatty acids retention for commercially food or feed purposes. (author)

  15. 基于产业链视角的温泉旅游开发研究——以灰汤国际温泉度假区为例%A Study of Development of Hot Spring Tourism Based on Perspective of Industry Chain-A Case Study of Huitang Hot Spring Tourism & Holladay Zone

    郑旗; 钟家雨; 郑焱

    2013-01-01

    Tourism industry is a comprehensive industry,and in the development process of tourism,extending the industry China will improve the overall efficiency of tourism development.This paper,based on the industry chain,defined concept,analyzed the types and composition of and investigated formation dynamics of hot spring tourism industry chain.Then,taking Huitang hot spring Tourism & Holladay Zone as a case,this paper proposed some building and extending measurements of hot spring industry chain,such as innovative institutional mechanisms; reasonable industry layout; enhancing internal chain so to enhancing core appeal; extending the external chain so to enhance overall economic efficiency; improving the supporting facilities and service levels.%在产业链理论的基础上,对温泉旅游产业链进行了界定,分析了其类型和构成,探讨了其形成动因.在此基础上,以中国三大知名高温温泉旅游度假地之一的灰汤国际温泉度假区为实例,提出了创新体制机制;合理进行产业空间布局;提升内部产业链,增强核心吸引力;延伸外部产业链,增强综合经济效益;完善配套服务设施,提升服务水平等措施来构建和延伸温泉旅游产业链,以提高灰汤温泉旅游开发的综合效益.

  16. Concentrating Ge in zinc hydrometallurgical process with hot acid leaching-halotrichite method

    何静; 唐谟堂; 鲁君乐; 刘中清; 杨声海; 姚维义

    2003-01-01

    In recovering Ge and Ag from the calcine and fume dusts mixture of Huidong Lead-zinc Mine, the flow sheet of hot acid leaching-halotrichite method mainly consists of neutral leaching, low-acid leaching, high acid leaching and jarosite precipitation. In the ten circulation periods, the technology flow sheet was carried out smoothly.The loss of Ge in halotrichite residue is less than 5.0%, when iron is precipitated by using ferric potassium alum instead of common Na or ammonium alum and the conditions are controlled at temperature about 95 ℃ for more than 3 h, pH values below 1.5. Ge and Ag are concentrated in the high acid leached residue, and their contents are 0. 032% and 0. 162%, respectively, and the total recovery and direct recovery of zinc are 98.94% and 96.15%, respectively.

  17. Joint inversion of VES and TEM data for investigation of geothermal resources and sea water intrusion at Hammam Mousa hot spring, Sinai, Egypt

    Complete text of publication follows. Geoelectrical methods are pioneer in geothermal resources exploration. With the advent of computing technology, it has become convenient to apply sophisticated data analysis and joint inversion to different field data sets. Numerous studies have shown that, the joint interpretation of galvanic and inductive data, where a single model satisfies both data sets, will generally enhance the resolution of the subsurface resistivity structure. Thus, the inclusion of inductive data in the VES data set is expected to reduce problems with layer suppression, reduce the low and high resistivity equivalences that may be encountered with this method. In this work, DC resistivity and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at Hammam Mousa area, Sinai, Egypt to explore the geothermal resources, groundwater aquifer and the effect of sea water invasion on this aquifer. The field survey comprises 19 DC resistivity soundings (VESes) with AB/2 up to 1000m and 27 transient electromagnetic (TEM) stations using a square loop of 25 m side length. Both data sets were firstly inverted in 1-D scheme using a nonlinear least-squares method and gave a layered-earth resistivity model. Besides, the joint interpretation of both VES and TEM data, using the available geological information as a constraining factor, could successfully enhance the inversion results. The geoelectrical cross section resulted from the inversion process shows the effect of the Suez Gulf water intrusion in the western part of the study area. Meanwhile, hot water reduces the resistivity values drastically near the hot spring.

  18. Salicylic acid induces differential antioxidant response in spring maize under high temperature stress.

    Khanna, Palak; Kaur, Kamaljit; Gupta, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    High temperature is one of the important stress factors that affect crops in tropical countries. Plants do evolve or adopt different mechanisms to overcome such stress for survival. It is an interesting subject and has attracted many researchers to work upon. Here, we studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on seedling growth and antioxidative defense system in two spring maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes viz., CML-32 (relatively heat tolerant) and LM-11 (relatively heat susceptible), under high temperature stress. High temperature induced greater reduction in dry biomass of LM-1 1 seedlings as compared to those of CML-32. There was a parallel increase in ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the roots of CML-32 seedlings. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased and the contents of H202, proline and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) increased in seedlings of both the genotypes. Application of SA (400 µM) led to increased dry biomass in heat stressed CML-32 seedlings. It improved the efficiency of Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots of CML-32 seedlings as was evidenced by the enhanced ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase increased in both the tissues of LM-11 seedlings, whereas in CML-32, it was only in shoots, after SA application. Peroxidase activity increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, though the increase was comparatively higher in CML-32. The contents of H₂O₂ and MDA decreased and that of proline increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, under stress conditions. It may be concluded that SA induced differential antioxidant response by upregulating Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots and attaining high POX activity in both the tissues of CML-32 seedlings, under high temperature stress. PMID:27468465

  19. Passivity and passivity breakdown of 304L stainless steel in hot and concentrated nitric acid

    The objective of this study is to characterize the oxidation behavior of 304L stainless steel (SS) in representative conditions of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, i.e. in hot and concentrated nitric acid. In these conditions the SS electrochemical potential is in the passive domain and its corrosion rate is low. However when the media becomes more aggressive, the potential may be shifted towards the trans-passive domain characterized with a high corrosion rate. Passivity and passivity breakdown in the trans-passive domain are of a major interest for the industry. So as to characterize these phenomenons, this work was undertaken with the following representative conditions: a 304L SS from an industrial sheet was studied, the media was hot and concentrated HNO3, long term tests were performed. First, the surface of an immersed 304L SS was characterized with several complementary techniques from the micro to the nanometer scale. Then oxidation kinetics was studied in the passive and in the trans-passive domain. The oxidation behavior was studied thanks to weight loss determination and surface analysis. Finally, oxidation evolution as a function of the potential was studied from the passive to the trans-passive domain. In particular, this allowed us to obtain the anodic curve of 304L SS in hot and concentrated and to define precisely the 304L SS limits of in such conditions. (author)

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyesteramide Hot Melt Adhesive from Low Purity Dimer Acid, Ethylenediamine, and Ethanolamine

    Pravin G. Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyesteramide hot melt adhesive (HMA was synthesized using low purity dimer acid (composition: 3% linoleic acid, 75% dimer acid, and 22% trimer acid, ethanolamine, and ethylenediamine. Ethanolamine was added as a partial replacement (10, 20, and 30% of ethylenediamine. Prepared HMAs were characterized for acid value, amine value, hydroxyl value, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical (tensile strength, percentage strain at brea, and shore D hardness, thermal (glass transition temperature, melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, crystallization temperature, and enthalpy of crystallization, rheological (viscosity versus shear rate and viscosity versus time, and adhesion properties (T-peel strength and lap shear strength. Replacement of ethylenediamine by ethanolamine replaced certain amide linkages by ester linkages, decreasing the intermolecular hydrogen bonding, leading to decrease in the crystallinity of the material, and thus the mechanical, thermal, adhesion, and rheological properties. However, HMAs prepared using ethanolamine will have better low temperature flexibility due to low glass transition temperature and better adhesion process due to the lower viscosity.

  1. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches. PMID:27610214

  2. Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs.

    Gudbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Menzel, Peter; Krogh, Anders; Young, Mark; Peng, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Limited by culture-dependent methods the number of viruses identified from thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria is still very small. In this study we retrieved viral sequences from six hot spring metagenomes isolated worldwide, revealing a wide distribution of four archaeal viral families, Ampullaviridae, Bicaudaviridae, Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae. Importantly, we identified 10 complete or near complete viral genomes allowing, for the first time, an assessment of genome conservation and evolution of the Ampullaviridae family as well as Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1)-related viruses. Among the novel genomes, one belongs to a putative thermophilic virus infecting the bacterium Hydrogenobaculum, for which no virus has been reported in the literature. Moreover, a high viral diversity was observed in the metagenomes, especially among the Lipothrixviridae, as indicated by the large number of unique contigs and the lack of a completely assembled genome for this family. This is further supported by the large number of novel genes in the complete and partial genomes showing no sequence similarities to public databases. CRISPR analysis revealed hundreds of novel CRISPR loci and thousands of novel CRISPR spacers from each metagenome, reinforcing the notion of high viral diversity in the thermal environment. PMID:26439881

  3. Biochemical Characterization and 16S rRNA Sequencing of Few Lipase-Producing Thermophilic Bacteria from Taptapani Hot Water Spring, Orissa, India

    Satpal S. Bisht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three lipase-producing thermophilic bacteria (AK-P1, AK-P2, and AK-P3 were isolated from the Taptapani hot water spring in Orissa, India. The crude extra cellular lipases from cell-free culture supernatant were reacted in an olive oil mixture, and their lipolytic activities were compared. Identification of the bacteria was carried out using biochemical tests, 16SrRNA sequencing and sequences submitted to NCBI GenBank. Strain AK-P3, exhibited the highest lipolytic activity of 5.5 U/mL was identified as Porphyrobacter sp. The lipolytic activities of strains AK-P1 and AK-P 2 were 4.5 U/mL and 3.5 U/mL, respectively. Strains AK-P1 and AK-P2 were identified as Acinetobacter sp. and Brevibacillus spp. The GenBank accession numbers of the 16S rRNA gene sequences determined in this study for the strains AK-P1, AK-P2, and AK-P3 are HM359120, HM359119, and HM359118, respectively.

  4. Structural Evolution of Molybdenum Carbides in Hot Aqueous Environments and Impact on Low-Temperature Hydroprocessing of Acetic Acid

    Jae-Soon Choi; Viviane Schwartz; Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez; Mark Crocker; Samuel A. Lewis; Michael J. Lance; Meyer, Harry M.; More, Karren L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the structural evolution of molybdenum carbides subjected to hot aqueous environments and their catalytic performance in low-temperature hydroprocessing of acetic acid. While bulk structures of Mo carbides were maintained after aging in hot liquid water, a portion of carbidic Mo sites were converted to oxidic sites. Water aging also induced changes to the non-carbidic carbon deposited during carbide synthesis and increased surface roughness, which in turn affected carbide pore...

  5. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing

  6. The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing

    Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1σ) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2σ) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2σ) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower

  7. Biosorption of cadmium by Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain, a novel biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas

    Masoudzadeh, Nasrin [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakeri, Fardideh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Radiation Protection Department - Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfabad, Tayebe bagheri [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Hakimeh [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoomi, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Hoseein Shahbani; Ahmadian, Gholamreza [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari, E-mail: Akbari@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation and characterization of a novel cadmium-biosorbent (Brevundimonas sp. ZF12) from high background radiation areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 caused 50% removal of cadmium at the concentration level of 250 ppm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution pH values used for the reusability study have powerful desorptive features to recover Cd ions sorbed onto the biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study carried out so far for the cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel biosorbent Brevundimonas sp. ZF12. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our opinion, the isolate can be an attractive alternative to remove the cadmium-containing wastewaters. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to screen cadmium biosorbing bacterial strains isolated from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of radium ({sup 226}Ra) in Ramsar using a batch system. Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 strain isolated from the water with high {sup 226}Ra content caused 50% removal of cadmium at a concentration level of 250 ppm. The biosorption equilibrium data are fitted well by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo second-order model. The effect of different physico-chemical parameters like biomass concentration, pH, cadmium concentration, temperature and contact time on cadmium sorption was also investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD analytical techniques. A high desorption efficiency (above 90%) was obtained using a pH range of 2.0-4.0. Reusability of the biomass was examined under consecutive biosorption-desorption cycles repeated thrice. In conclusion, Brevundimonas sp. ZF12 is proposed as an excellent cadmium biosorbent that may have important applications in Cd removal from wastewaters.

  8. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ALKALOTHERMOSTABLE, ORGANIC SOLVENT TOLERANT AND SURFACTANT TOLERANT ESTERASE PRODUCED BY A THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM GEOBACILLUS SP. AGP-04, ISOLATED FROM BAKRESHWAR HOT SPRING, INDIA

    Amit Ghati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, kinetic parameters and activation/inhibition behavior towards some metal ions and chemicals. Tributyrin agar assay exhibited that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 secretes an extracellular esterase. The Vmax and Km values of the esterase were found to be 5099 U/Land 103.5µM, respectively in the presence of PNPB as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 esterase was 60oC and 8.0, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly altered by incubating crude extract solution at 20-70oC for 1 hour, the enzyme activity was fully lost at 90oC for same incubation period. The pH stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity is stable at a broad range (pH 5.0-10.0. Moreover, the enzyme was highly organic solvent and surfactant tolerant. The effect of some chemical on crude esterase activity indicated that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 produce an esterase which contains a serine residue in active site and for its activity -SH groups are essential. Besides, enzyme production was highly induced if fermentation medium contain polysaccharides and oil as carbon source.

  9. Screening and characterization of the alkaline protease isolated from PLI-1, a strain of Brevibacillus sp. collected from Indonesia's hot springs

    Wang, Shuai; Lin, Xuezheng; Huang, Xiaohang; Zheng, Li; Zilda, Dewi Seswita

    2012-06-01

    A total of 69 strains of thermophilic bacteria were isolated from water, soil and sediment samples from three Indonesia's hot spring areas (Pantai cermin, Kalianda and Banyu wedang) by using Minimal Synthetic Medium (MSM). The extreme thermophile Brevibacillus sp. PLI-1 was found to produce extracellular thermophilic alkaline protease with optimal activity at 70° and pH 8.0-9.0. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated to be around 56 kD by SDS-PAGE. The maximum activity of the protease was 26.54 U mL-1. The protease activity did not decrease after 30 min and still retained more than 70% of relative activity after 60 min at 70°C and pH 8.0. The ion Mg2+ was found to promote protease activity at both low and high concentrations, whereas Cu2+ and Zn2+ could almost completely inhibit the activity. Divalent cation chelator EDTA inhibited the enzyme activity by 55.06% ± 0.27%, while the inhibition caused by PMSF, Leupeptin, Pepstain A and Benzamidine were 66.78% ± 3.25%, 52.37% ± 0.25%, 62.47% ± 2.96% and 50.99% ± 0.24%, respectively. Based on these observations, the enzyme activity was conspicuously sensitive to the serine and cysteine protease inhibitors. All these results indicated that the protease isolated from the strain PLI-1 was a thermophilic protease and had a high-temperature stability and a pH stability.

  10. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  11. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  12. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    community structure. In addition, we identified at least one new species with potential for use in remediation of hot acidic soil.

  14. Structure design of a hot spring international hotel%某温泉国际大酒店结构方案设计

    缪世超; 司拓磊; 范李劼; 石建光

    2012-01-01

    某温泉国际大酒店是位于福建漳州市的在建五星级酒店,主楼高为六层,附属楼高为四层,属于大型公共建筑。该工程为大底盘结构,其中主体结构二层楼板开洞面积较大,为平面和竖向不规则结构。针对结构方案设计面临的结构体系选择、建筑要求的可供700人使用的大型宴会厅和三层挑高的大堂等要求,主体结构分别采用了混合结构、大跨度的网架结构和型钢混凝土越层柱等结构形式,既满足了业主对于酒店多功能、多用途等方面的要求,又保证了结构布置合理,技术可行,各项设计控制指标满足规范要求。%A hot spring international hotel building in five-star standard under construction is located in zhangzhou city of fujian province.The main building has six layers,the subsidiary building has four layers,and the hotel belongs to the large-scale public buildings.The engineering has a large podium at bottom,and it has irregular plane and vertical structure.The hole area of the second floor in the main structure of the second floor is large.According to the problems of the structure design,which contains the selection of the structure system,the architectural requirement for a large banquet hall which can accommodate 700 people and the lobby with the height of three layers,the main structure take some structure forms to cope with the requirements: composite structure,long-span space truss structure and steel reinforced concrete column.It not only met multifunctional and multipurpose requirements of the hotel to satisfy the owner,but also guaranteed the reasonable structural arrangement and feasible technology.In addition,the main structure control index can meet the requirements of specification.

  15. 基于Matlab的断裂带温泉水地球化学特征及地震活动性研究%Research on Geochemical Characteristic of Hot Spring Water and Seismicity in Fault Zone Based on MATLAB

    伍剑波; 张慧; 苏鹤军; 李晨桦

    2013-01-01

    The Matlab high-performance language for technical computing integrates computation,visualization,and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation.It allows you to solve many technical computing problems,especially those with matrix and vector formulations,in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar noninteractive language.The Matlab had a important application in seismic studies,such as,the ZMAP software used for scanning b value and application of Matlab software on intensity rapid report of Tianjin strong mation network.Authors developed the analysis software of the subsurface fluid based on Matlab,which combined with the function of some other geochemical software.This paper mainly discussed the water quality analysis by means of the software,and studied on the spring water in the north margin of western QinLing fault zone and comparatively analyzed the chemical composition characteristics of hot spring water in Wushan,Jiezi and Qingshui.In this paper,the types,water qualities,supply sources,the state of water-rock reaction and circulation depth of the water were discussed.And the paper analyzed that the circulation depth of hot spring water impacted on the seismicity of fault zone.In this paper,we drew the linear correlation diagram of δD and δ18O of hot spring water samples in the north margin of western Qinling fault zone.By the composition analysis of Hydrogen and Oxygen isotopes,it was showed that the supply sources of the water in three springs are precipitation and the isotope exchange effects caused positive shift of the 18O.Based on Rectangle hydrochemical diagram,it was the results that the hot spring water in Wushan and Jiezi was belonged to Na-HCO3·SO4·Cl and carbonated water of hydrochemical type,but the water in the Qingshui hot spring was belonged to Na-SO4·C1 and sulfuric water of hydrochemical type.In overall,three hot springs was the type

  16. 重庆南温泉洗浴废水用作植物灌溉水的可行性研究%A Study on Feasibility of South Hot Springs Bathing Wastewater for Green Plant Irrigation

    幸宏伟; 赖田利; 秦坤蓉; 徐武东

    2015-01-01

    Chongqing city has a lot of hot spring resources .Using hot spring bathing wastewater for greenbelt irrigation can save the cost and relieve the urban water crisis .Hot spring has both positive and negative effects on plants ,which is concerned with the plant kind and hot spring water quality and other factors .In this experiment ,two common kinds of plant ,namely water flower and Argy‐ranthemum frutescens ,are selected as the objects of study ,and four normal water quality indicators of hot spring bathing wastewater which affect the growth of plant ,including pH ,suspended solids ,KMnO4 ,total dissolved solids ,are analyzed through concentra‐tion comparison experiment .A method for getting the value of semi lethal concentration by using the relative electrical conductivity to fit Logistic equation is used to get the upper limit of tolerated thresholds of the green plants .Based on the above results ,the hot spring wastewater is treated to not only reach the irrigation water quality standard for greenbelt ,but also can maximally reduce the waste water treatment cost ,so as to make full use of water resources .%重庆市温泉资源丰富,温泉洗浴废水运用于绿地灌溉可以节约成本,缓解城市的水危机。温泉洗浴废水对植物生长有正负两方面的影响,与植物的种类,温泉洗浴废水的水质等因素有关。实验以重庆市常见的两种绿地植物冷水花木春菊为研究对象,对温泉洗浴废水中影响植物生长的pH、固体悬浮物、高锰酸钾,总溶解性固体4个常见指标进行了浓度值对比实验。运用对相对电导率拟合Logistic方程求半致死浓度值的方法,确定绿地植物所能耐受的上限阀值。以此为基础对温泉废水进行相关处理,使温泉废水既可以达到灌溉绿地的水质标准,又能最大限度地降低废水处理成本,从而充分利用水资源。

  17. Changes of Plasma Concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in climacteric women with hot flushes

    Chen Ya-qiong; Wu Wei-guang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of serotonin metabolism and the hot flushes in climacteric women.Methods.Ninety eight climacteric women, aged 40-60, were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: Group A: 20 cases of early menopausal transition.Group B: 26 cases of late menopausal transition, with skip of periods 3-12 months.Group C: 28 cases of early postmenopause (1-3 yrs).Group D: 24 cases of late postmenopause(>3-6 yrs).Twelve normal women of reproductive age (24±3yrs) were served as young controls.Fifty two postmenopausal women were subdivided into 3 groups according to the presence or the absence of hot flushes: (1) postmenopausal controls without hot flushz 17 cases, (2) mild hot flushes group: 20 eases,fewer≤5 times/d, (3) severe hot flushes group: 15 cases, more than 5 times/d.Plasma concentrations of tryptophan (TP), 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in all participants by high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence spectrophotometer (HPLC-FS).The relationship between serotonin metabolic parameters and menopause, hot flushes were analysed.Results: (1) Mean 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in climacteric women than those in young controls, especially in Group B.Mean 5-HTP and 5-HT levels were higher and 5-HIAA lower in Group D as compared with those of young controls.(2) Plasma 5-HT levels was positively correlated to luteinizing hormone concentration in postmenopansal women (P<0.01).(3) In the mild hot flushes group, only plasma 5-HTP levels were significantly higher than that in the non-hot flushes group.In severe hot flushes group,plasma 5-HT and 5-HTP contents were significantly higher and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio lower than those in the non-hotflushes groups.Conclusion: The results suggest that the catabolic disorder of serotonin maybe involve in the underling mechanism of

  18. Nicotinic acid as a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings on steels in diluted hydrochloric acid

    The inhibition effect of nicotinic acid for corrosion of hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings in diluted hydrochloric acid was investigated using quantum chemistry analysis, weight loss test, electrochemical measurement, and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Quantum chemistry calculation results showed that nicotinic acid possessed planar structure with a number of active centers, and the populations of the Mulliken charge, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were found mainly focused around oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and the cyclic of the benzene as well. The results of weight loss test and electrochemical measurement indicated that inhibition efficiency (IE%) increased with inhibitor concentration, and the highest inhibition efficiency was up to 96.7%. The corrosion inhibition of these coatings was discussed in terms of blocking the electrode reaction by adsorption of the molecules at the active centers on the electrode surface. It was found that the adsorption of nicotinic acid on coating surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm with single molecular layer, and nicotinic acid adsorbed on the coating surface probably by chemisorption. Nicotinic acid, therefore, can act as a good nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings in diluted hydrochloric acid solution

  19. Scythe (57% pelargonic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Although previous studies yielded important information concerning use of pelargonic acid as a potential organic herbicide, further research is indicated to increase the understanding of the relationship among application volumes, weed species, and weed maturity on herbicidal efficacy and crop injur...

  20. Chemical composition, hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios and tritium content of hot waters and steam condensates from the Oyasu-Doroyu-Akinomiya geothermal area in Akita prefecturs, Japan

    The major and minor chemical components, hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios and tritium content of river, cold spring and hot spring waters and fumarolic condensates in the Oyasu-Doroyu-Akinomiya geothermal area were analyzed. The hot water and steam condensate blown off from explorative wells and the hot waters collected from different depth of a bore in the Oyasu area were also analyzed. The hot springs and fumaroles in this area erupt mostly from Neogene system, and are distributed predominantly in the NE-SW direction regionally but in the NW-SE direction locally. The acidic Cl- and (SO4)2- types of hot spring water show distinct oxygen shift accompanied by hydrogen shift, but the neutral Na+.Cl- type of hot spring water and the hot water from geothermal wells hardly showed the oxygen shift as compared with the river and cold spring waters. The tritium content of hot water is relatively high in case of the acidic Cl- and (SO4)2- types, but in case of the neutral Na+.Cl- type, it did not exceed 1T.U., and the origin of the water is supposed to be precipitation of probably more than thirty years ago. (Kobatake, H.)

  1. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Ndazo S Minka; Olusegun J Ayo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control ...

  2. Investigation of thermal and viscoelastic properties of polymers relevant to hot melt extrusion - III: Polymethacrylates and polymethacrylic acid based polymers.

    Tapan Parikh; Simerdeep Singh Gupta; Anuprabha Meena; Serajuddin, Abu T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are a major part of final medicinal drug products prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME). Therefore it is necessary to understand their behavior when subjected to heat and mechanical stresses during the development of the HME processes. The aim of this work was to generate a database of the physicochemical properties for polymethacrylates and polymethacrylic acid based polymers relevant to HME. All six polymers tested were amorphous and had < 2% moisture. In differential scanning calo...

  3. A Combination of Amino Acids and Caffeine Enhances Sprint Running Capacity in a Hot, Hypoxic Environment.

    Eaton, Tom R; Potter, Aaron; Billaut, François; Panchuk, Derek; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Chen, Ting-Ting; McQuade, Leon; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Heat and hypoxia exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) fatigue. We therefore investigated whether essential amino acid (EAA) and caffeine ingestion attenuates CNS fatigue in a simulated team sport-specific running protocol in a hot, hypoxic environment. Subelite male team sport athletes (n = 8) performed a repeat sprint running protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in an extreme environment on 4 separate occasions. Participants ingested one of four supplements: a double placebo, 3 mg.kg-1 body mass of caffeine + placebo, 2 x 7 g EAA (Musashi Create)+placebo, or caffeine + EAA before each exercise session using a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Electromyography (EMG) activity and quadriceps evoked responses to magnetic stimulation were assessed from the dominant leg at preexercise, halftime, and postexercise. Central activation ratio (CAR) was used to quantify completeness of quadriceps activation. Oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. Mean sprint work was higher (M = 174 J, 95% CI [23, 324], p effect size, likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition versus EAAs alone. The decline in EMG activity was less (M = 13%, 95% CI [0, 26]; p < .01, d = 0.58, likely beneficial) in caffeine + EAA versus EAA alone. Similarly, the pre- to postexercise decrement in CAR was significantly less (M = -2.7%, 95% CI [0.4, 5.4]; p < .05, d = 0.50, likely beneficial) when caffeine + EAA were ingested compared with placebo. Cerebral oxygenation was lower (M = -5.6%, 95% CI [1.0, 10.1]; p < .01, d = 0.60, very likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition compared with LNAA alone. Co-ingestion of caffeine and EAA appears to maintain muscle activation and central drive, with a small improvement in running performance. PMID:26248498

  4. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C.; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100...

  5. Diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs and their surrounding environments in Kamchatka, Russia%俄罗斯堪察加地区热泉及其周边生境的泉古菌多样性

    宋兆齐; 王莉; 陈金全; 周恩民; 张传伦; 李文均

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Crenarchaeota is a major archaeal lineage in terrestrial hot springs and important in biogeochemical cycles of life-essential elements.In this study,we investigated the diversity of Crenarchaeota in hot springs and the surrounding environments in Kamchatka,Russia.In addition,we compared crenarchaeotal community structures in Kamchatka,Russia and Yunnan province,China.[Methods] Crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and the sequences and abundances of representational clone were obtained.Phylogenetic analysis was then performed and the community structures in different samples were compared.[Results] The high temperature spring Burlyashi Liza (BSL,89℃) comprised Thermoprotei.The moderate temperature spring TF Vent 2 (TFV,49℃) harbored unidentified Thermoprotei group,unidentified crenarchaeal group,HWCG-Ⅱ (hot water crenarchaeotal group Ⅱ),and Group1.1 b (one thaumarchaeotal subgroup).Most of sequences that obtained from surrounding environments (< 15℃)are closely with the representational clone pJP from a Yellowstone hot spring.Jackknife cluster and Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that the samples have more similarity in crenarchaeal communities at similar temperatures.[Conclusion] The diversities of Crenarchaeota in Kamchatka hot springs are somewhat different from those in Yunnan province.Terrestrial hot springs obviously affect the crenarchaeotal communities in surrounding environments.Temperature is the major factor controlling the community structure in terrestrial hot springs.%[目的]泉古菌为陆地热泉系统的主要古菌类群,可能在自然界生源元素的地球化学循环中发挥着重要作用.本研究旨在揭示俄罗斯堪察加地区热泉以及热泉周边区域的泉古菌多样性,同时基于之前已获得的我国云南地区热泉数据,比较两地区泉古菌群落差异.[方法]通过构建16S rRNA基因片段克隆文库获得序列信息和丰度,随后进行物种多

  6. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R;

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  7. 腾冲新生代火山区温泉CO2气体排放通量研究%CO2 flux estimations of hot springs in the Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic field, Yunnan Province, SW China

    成智慧; 郭正府; 张茂亮; 张丽红

    2012-01-01

    近期研究表明,不仅火山喷发期会向当时的大气圈输送大量的温室气体,火山间歇期同样会释放大量的温室气体.在火山活动间歇期,火山区主要以喷气孔、温(热)泉以及土壤微渗漏等形式向大气圈释放温室气体.腾冲是我国重要的新生代火山区,同时也是重要的水热活动区,那里出露大量的温泉,然而目前未见腾冲火山区温泉气体排放通量的研究报道.本文利用数字皂膜通量仪测量了腾冲新生代火山区温泉中CO2的排放通量.研究结果表明,腾冲新生代火山区温泉向当今大气圈输送的CO2通量达3.58×103t· a-1,相当于意大利锡耶纳Bassoleto地热区温泉中CO2的排放规模.腾冲火山区温泉的CO2释放通量主要受深部岩浆囊、断裂分布、地下水循环、围岩成分等多方面因素的影响.本文根据温泉中CO2的排放特征,将腾冲温泉分为南北两区,南区温泉CO2通量远高于北区的温泉,热海地热区的通量为腾冲CO2通量的最大值.在北温泉区,CO2通量主要受控于断裂的分布;而在南温泉区,除受到断裂控制外,热海地热区底部的岩浆囊及其与围岩的相互作用成为CO2气体的重要物质来源,同时高温的岩浆囊为温泉及CO2的形成提供了重要热源.%Recent research results have indicated that, beside volcanic eruption periods, dormant periods in the intermittent between the volcanic activities can emit a large amount of the greenhouse gases into atmosphere. In the intermittent between volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases are erupted from the volcanic eruptive fields in the forms of fumaroles, hot springs, soil micro-seepage and so oa Tengchong volcanic and geothermal system is one of the most important Cenozoic volcanic activity fields in China whereas the estimates of the greenhouse gases emitted from Tengchong have been poorly understood. Using a new apparatus named digital bubble flowmeter, we have measured the flux of

  8. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring

  9. Microbial Iron Cycling in Acidic Geothermal Springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating Molecular Surveys, Geochemical Processes, and Isolation of Novel Fe-Active Microorganisms

    Mark A Kozubal; Macur, Richard E.; Zack J Jay; Jake P Beam; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Susannah Green Tringe; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Thomas eBorch; Inskeep, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly si...

  10. Distribution of ether lipids and composition of the archaeal community in terrestrial geothermal springs: impact of environmental variables.

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Yufei; Zhu, Yuanqing; de la Torre, José R; Dong, Hailiang; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Hedlund, Brian P; Klotz, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community. PMID:25142282

  11. Hot test of a TALSPEAK procedure for separation of actinides and lanthanides using recirculating DTPA-lactic acid solution

    Results are reported from a hot test of a TALSPEAK type process for separation of higher actinides (Am, Cm) from lanthanides. Actinides and lanthanides are extracted by 1 M HDEHP and separated by selective strip of the actinides, using a mixture of DTPA and lactic acid (reversed TALSPEAK process). In order to minimize the generation of secondary waste, a procedure using recirculating DTPA-Lactic acid solution has been developed. A separation factor between Am and Eu of 132 was achieved. In regard to separations of Am and Cm from commercial HLLW (high level liquid wastes), the factor corresponds to 1.5% of the lanthanide group remaining with the actinides. The loss of Am was about 0.2%. 9 figures, 3 tables

  12. 基于温泉地热能利用的动力循环系统研究%Study on power cycle system of hot springs geothermal energy

    梁泽德; 王树杰

    2013-01-01

    Three systems of this article described all use water vapor as the working fluid, which characteristics were analyzed and compared, respectively. Analysis found that, when the demand was only for power generation and non-condensable gas content in hot springs geothermal water was not too high, given the relatively simple structure and the larger actual power generation of a single-stage flash power generation system, the single-stage flash evaporation electrical system was more favorable. Because of hot springs primarily for leisure travel and medical care function, and the demand for air conditioning and refrigeration was large, view of the single effect lithium bromide absorption power generation and refrigeration combined system not only to generate electricity but also refrigeration, the combined system was more favorable.%文章分别对3种以水蒸气为工作介质的发电系统的特点进行了分析和比较.通过分析发现:当仅有发电需求,并且温泉地热水不凝性气体含量不算太高时,鉴于单级闪蒸发电系统结构相对简单和实际发电功率较大的特点,采用单级闪蒸发电系统较为有利;由于温泉地热主要为休闲旅游及医疗保健功能,空调制冷的需求很大,鉴于单效溴化锂吸收式发电制冷联合系统即可发电又能制冷的特点,采用单效溴化锂吸收式发电制冷联合系统较为有利.

  13. Structural Evolution of Molybdenum Carbides in Hot Aqueous Environments and Impact on Low-Temperature Hydroprocessing of Acetic Acid

    Jae-Soon Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structural evolution of molybdenum carbides subjected to hot aqueous environments and their catalytic performance in low-temperature hydroprocessing of acetic acid. While bulk structures of Mo carbides were maintained after aging in hot liquid water, a portion of carbidic Mo sites were converted to oxidic sites. Water aging also induced changes to the non-carbidic carbon deposited during carbide synthesis and increased surface roughness, which in turn affected carbide pore volume and surface area. The extent of these structural changes was sensitive to the initial carbide structure and was lower under actual hydroprocessing conditions indicating the possibility of further improving the hydrothermal stability of Mo carbides by optimizing catalyst structure and operating conditions. Mo carbides were active in acetic acid conversion in the presence of liquid water, their activity being comparable to that of Ru/C. The results suggest that effective and inexpensive bio-oil hydroprocessing catalysts could be designed based on Mo carbides, although a more detailed understanding of the structure-performance relationships is needed, especially in upgrading of more complex reaction mixtures or real bio-oils.

  14. PRODUCTION OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHITOSAN BY HOT DILUTE SULFURIC ACID

    Akram Zamani; Mohammad Taherzadeh

    2010-01-01

    new method was developed for production of low molecular weight chitosan, in which high molecular weight chitosan was treated with dilute sulfuric acid at 120°C. Chitosan was dissolved in the acid solution in a few minutes, and as depolymerized to low molecular weight chitosan by longer times. Low molecular weight chitosan was recovered from the acid by cooling down the solution and increasing the pH to 8-10. A low molecular weight chitosan with Mv (viscosity average molecular weight) of 174×...

  15. Framework Spring

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  16. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  17. Prevention and repair of ''end grain corrosion'' of Type 347 stainless steel in hot nitric acid using laser surface remelting

    Operational experience in the original nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in the United Kingdom showed that in very corrosive situations, 347 stainless steel could suffer from preferential attack on tubes, plates and forgings in a direction parallel to the hot working direction. This became known as ''end grain'' corrosion. The key reason that ''end grain'' attack occurs is believed to be due to regions of impurity segregation associated with stringer inclusions of Mn 5 elongated in the rolling direction during the rolling operation. In hot nitric acid environments the Mn5 stringers dissolve quickly and the impurity regions are also susceptible to attack. Investigations are reported into the effectiveness of laser surface remelting as a means of refining and homogenising the microstructure and leading to the uniform redistribution of impurities. Niobium stabilized 347 stainless steel was used in the experiments. The results show that laser surface remelting techniques are a feasible means for the repair or prevention of ''end grain'' attack. Laser surface remelting of the as-formed 347 stainless steel plate surfaces is not recommended, however, as it leads to a reduced corrosion resistance level for these areas. (13 figures, 2 tables, 12 references. (UK)

  18. Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Fabrication Using Casting And Hot Press Techniques

    Park S.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable advanced polymer composites have recently received a large amount of attention. The present study aimed to design poly(lactic acid multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (PLA/MWCNTs using a simple fabrication technique. A PLA sheet was first dissolved in dichloromethane, and MWCNTs were subsequently added at various concentrations (0.5, 1.5 and 5% while applying shear strain stirring to achieve dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. These solutions were then molded and a hot press was used to generate sheets free of voids with entrapped solvent. The prepared samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Our data showed composite samples free of defects and voids, indicating that the hot press is capable of generating sufficiently compact polymer matrices. Additionally, TGA and FTIR showed significant bonding interactions between the PLA matrix and the nano-fillers. Collectively, our results suggest that incorporation of CNTs as nano-fillers into biodegradable polymers may have multiple applications in many different sectors.

  19. Glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation enhances performance of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical condition

    Joshua O. Olubodun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Day-old (day 1 commercial broiler chickens were fed i basal diet (control, ii basal diet +0.5% AminoGut (AG, or iii basal diet +1% AG from 1 to 42 d of age under the hot and humid tropical environment. AminoGut is a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of L-glutamine (Gln and L-glutamic (Glu acid. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the starter (1 to 21 d and overall (1 to 42 d periods improved linearly and quadratically with AG supplementation when compared to control. Supplementing birds with AG significantly reduced overall mortality rate. At 21 and 42 d of age, intestinal (duodenum and ileum villi height and crypt depth showed both linear and quadratic positive responses to AG supplementation. Intestinal amylase activity increased linearly and quadratically on d 21, and linearly only on d 42. In conclusion, Gln and Glu supplementation was beneficial in improving the growth performance and survivability of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical environment.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Associates of Pinus contorta in Soils Associated with a Hot Spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Cullings, Ken; Makhija, Shilpa

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) w...

  1. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Hot Dogs by Surface Application of Freeze-Dried Bacteriocin-Containing Powders from Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactococcus lactis BFE 920, L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, L. lactis subsp. cremoris ATCC 14365, Lactobacillus curvatus L442, Lact. curvatus LTH 1174, and Lact. bavaricus MN, were grown in cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources. Cell-free culture supernatants were freeze-dried, and the resulting bacteriocin-containing powders were applied on the surface of hot dogs that were inoculated (~4 log cfu/hot dog) with a five-strain Listeria monocytogenes cocktail. Hot dogs were vacuum-sealed and stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks. L. monocytogenes was enumerated, using both tryptic soy agar (TSA) and oxford listeria agar (OXA), on day 0 and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of the refrigerated storage. In hot dogs containing only the L. monocytogenes inoculum, L. monocytogenes counts increased from 4 up to 7 log cfu/hot dog. All samples containing freeze-dried bacteriocin-containing powders exhibited significantly lowered (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes populations on the surface of hot dogs throughout the 4-week study except for bavaricin MN powder. Bacterial counts on hot dogs packed without any powder were statistically equal on day 0 when enumerated on OXA. Freeze-dried bacteriocin-containing powders from Lact. curvatus L442 and L. lactis subsp. cremoris ATCC 14365 decreased L. monocytogenes populations on the surface of hot dogs by greater than 2 log cfu/hot dog throughout the 4-week study. For the powdered bacteriocin preparations from L. lactis BFE 920, L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, and Lact. curvatus LTH 1174, L. monocytogenes populations were determined to be approximately 3-log cfu/hot dog after 4 weeks of storage. PMID:27094263

  2. Viruses in acidic geothermal environments of the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Bize, Ariane; Peng, Xu; Prokofeva, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    Screening for viruses in samples taken from acidic hot springs of Kamchatka (Russia) revealed a collection of morphotypes, including linear, spherical and complex fusiform shapes, which show partial similarity to those found in acidic geothermal environments in other geographical locations. One...

  3. 温泉旅游地认知形象对游客体验和行为的影响分析%The Impact of Cognitive Image of Hot-Spring Destination on Tourists’ Experience and Behavioral Intention

    刘力; 陈浩

    2015-01-01

    通过对590位有过安徽汤池旅游经历的游客进行问卷调查收集数据,使用多元回归和层次回归分析方法检验温泉旅游地认知形象对游客体验和行为的影响以及旅游动机的调节作用。研究发现:温泉旅游地认知形象对游客体验和游后行为意向都有显著的正向影响,但不同的认知形象因子有着不同的影响模式和效应,总体而言,旅游设施与活动和温泉品质2个形象因子的影响效应要大于旅游交通和整体环境2个形象因子的影响效应;旅游动机在特定形象因子影响游客满意和重游意向的过程中产生了显著的调节作用,具体地说,旅游动机正向调节了旅游交通形象对游客满意的影响,负向调节了设施与活动形象、正向调节了温泉品质形象对游客重游意向的影响。%A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from 590 tourists who had ever been to Tang-chi-a little town famous for its hot springs, Anhui province.Multiple regression was used to test the direct effect of cognitive image on tourists ’ experience and behavioral intention and hierarchical regression was used to test the moderating role of travel motivation.The results can be explained from two aspects.First, although cognitive image has significant positive effects both on tourists’ experience and their behavioral intention, different dimension of cognitive image has different effect size on tourists’ experience and their behavioral intention.Overall, the effect sizes of facilities and activities and hot-spring quality are greater than that of traffic and overall environment.Sec-ond, travel motivation significantly moderates the effects of certain image factors on tourists’ experience and behav-ioral intention.Specifically, travel motivation positively moderates the effect of traffic on tourist satisfaction, nega-tively moderates the effect of facilities and activities and positively moderates the

  4. Spring Tire

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    Stockli, Daniel F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  6. 基于旅游动机的游客聚类研究-以甘肃温泉游客为例%Classiifcation of Tourists based on Motivation:A Case Study of Hot Spring Tourists in Gansu Province

    温煜华

    2015-01-01

    Understanding both the motivation and needs of tourist is the key to improve tourist satisfaction and to design tourist products. The present study investigated tourist motivation of hot springs in Gansu province through questionnaire survey. By compiling the data, six tourist motivations were acquired by“factor-cluster”analysis, and four types of hot spring tourists are identiifed. Variance analysis method was used to compare the difference of both demographic characteristics and travel behavior among four tourist types;it shows that three aspects of difference reached signiifcant level including education level, occupation and accommodation selection. Finally, this paper provides some management advice for product design and marketing strategy against different types of tourists.%深入了解游客的动机和需求,是提高游客满意度和设计产品的关键因素。本文选取甘肃温泉游客为研究对象,对其旅游动机进行了实证研究。首先,通过因子—聚类分析法获取甘肃温泉游客的六种主要动机,并在动机基础上把温泉游客分为四种类型,分别是“休憩型”、“自我发展型”、“友情型”和“多目的追求型”。其次,运用方差分析法对不同类型游客群体的人口特征和旅游行为方面的差异进行比较,得出不同类型游客在受教育程度、职业和住宿地的选择3个方面的差异达到了显著水平,而其他方面的差异则不明显。最后,针对不同游客群体的特点,提出相应的产品设计、营销策略等管理决策。

  7. Just Spring

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  8. Beginning Spring

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  9. Purification of The Antitumor Active Metabolite from Streptomyces xylophagus Ha.Ph-7 Crude Extract Isolated from Hamam Pharaoh Hot Spring

    Saad AM Moghannem1*, Kouka SE Abd-elwahab2, Hussein H Elsheikh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at production, extraction, purification and characterization of active antitumor compound from marine actinomycete secondary metabolites crude extract that was selected as most potent crude secondary metabolites from the preliminary screening of total fifty one extract. Material and methods: These tumor cell lines were breast cancer (MCF-7 (ATCC HTB-22 and Hepato-cellular carcinoma (HepG2 (ATCC 77400, colon cancer (Caco (ATCC HTB-37 and cervix carcinoma (HeLa (ATCC CRL-13011 cells. Purification process was done using silica gel column chromatography while purity was detected using thin layer chromatography (TLC. The active fraction was detected using morphological changes (cytotoxicity by microscopic examination and anti-proliferative activity using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Result: The result indicated that there is only one fraction responsible for antitumor activity. This active fraction has cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity against HepG2, MCF7, Caco and HELA cells with IC50=24.5, 20.1, 27.6 and 17.7µg/ml respectively. The analysis of physico-chemical, elemental and spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, H.NMR, Mass spectroscopy indicated that; the active compound has the nature of anthracycline compound. Conclusion: This purified compound has promising broad spectrum cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity in an in vitro system. The next research step shall include different optimization parameter that maximize productivity with long-term goal; discovery of an antitumor drug from actinomycetes native to Egyptian hot springshabitat

  10. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  11. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A RADIATION RESISTANT THERMOPHILIC BACTERIUM FROM RADON HOT SPRING%氡温泉中耐辐照嗜热菌的分离及其特性研究

    梁新乐; 杨龙; 张虹; 张蕾

    2011-01-01

    氡温泉水样经8kGy60Co γ射线预处理后,从中分离获得1株耐60Co γ射线和UV辐照的嗜热菌株R4-33.经形态观察、生理生化试验、脂肪酸分析、(G+C)mol%含量和16S rDNA序列测定,结果表明,菌株R4-33为杆状,革兰氏阴性菌,无鞭毛,形成末端芽孢;最适生长温度60℃,最适生长pH 7.5;能以葡萄糖、麦芽糖和海藻糖等作为唯一碳源生长,水解酪素和淀粉;过氧化氢酶阳性;对青霉素、新霉素、红霉素、万古霉素、链霉素、庆大霉素、丁胺卡拉和氨苄青霉素敏感;细胞主要脂肪酸为C14:1(48.4%)和C15:1(15.2%);基因组DNA中(G+C)mo1%含量58.2%.经比对菌株R4-33的16SrDNA序列与Anoxybacillus属菌株有较高的同源性,其中与Anoxybacillus gonensis菌株的相似性高达99.5%.经R4-33菌株生理生化试验及16S rDNA序列分析,该株菌归属于Anoxybacillus属,暂命名为Anoxybacillus sp.R4-33.耐辐射细胞存活试验结果显示菌株R4-33对UV的耐辐射能力达396J/m2,对60Coγ射线耐辐照能力为14kGy,表明其对UV和γ射线辐照具有较高耐受性.%A radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium strain R4 - 33 was isolated from radon hot spring water samples, pretreated with 60Co -γ - rays and UV irradiation. Tests on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, fatty acid compositions, (G + C) mol% contents, and 16S rDNA sequencing were conducted. The results showed that strain R4 -33 was of rod-shape, Gram-negative, atrichous, and endospore-forming. The optimum growth temperature and pH were 60°C and 7.5, respectively. The strain utilized glucose, maltose and trehalose as carbon sources,and hydrolyzed casein and starch. Its catalase positive. The strain was sensitive to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin and ampicillin. The major cellular fatty acids were C14:l (48. 4% ) and C15:1 (15. 2% ). The ( G + C) mol% content of DNA was 58. 2% . Phylogenetic tree based on

  12. Ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film fabricated by citric acid-assisted hot-water-treatment of aluminum-palladium alloy film

    Hot-water-treatment has been adapted to fabricate ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film from aluminum-palladium alloy film. Using citric acid as a chelating agent, a precipitation of boehmite (aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH) on the nanoporous palladium-aluminum film was suppressed. According to cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations, the ligament/pore sizes of the prepared nanoporous film were considerably small (on the order of 10 nm). Since this fabrication method only requires aluminum alloy film and hot-water with chelating agent, the ultrafine nanoporous film can be prepared simply and environmentally friendly

  13. Arsenite-Oxidizing Hydrogenobaculum Strain Isolated from an Acid-Sulfate-Chloride Geothermal Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    Donahoe-Christiansen, Jessica; D'Imperio, Seth; Jackson, Colin R.; Inskeep, William P.; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    An arsenite-oxidizing Hydrogenobaculum strain was isolated from a geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., that was previously shown to contain microbial populations engaged in arsenite oxidation. The isolate was sensitive to both arsenite and arsenate and behaved as an obligate chemolithoautotroph that used H2 as its sole energy source and had an optimum temperature of 55 to 60°C and an optimum pH of 3.0. The arsenite oxidation in this organism displayed saturation kinetics and ...

  14. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  15. Mefenamic acid taste-masked oral disintegrating tablets with enhanced solubility via molecular interaction produced by hot melt extrusion technology

    Alshehri, Sultan M.; Park, Jun-Bom; Alsulays, Bader B.; Tiwari, Roshan V.; Almutairy, Bjad; Alshetaili, Abdullah S.; Morott, Joseph; Shah, Sejal; Kulkarni, Vijay; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Martin, Scott T.; Mishra, Sanjay; Wang, Lijia; Repka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility as well as to mask the intensely bitter taste of the poorly soluble drug, Mefenamic acid (MA). The taste masking and solubility of the drug was improved by using Eudragit® E PO in different ratios via hot melt extrusion (HME), solid dispersion technology. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies demonstrated that MA and E PO were completely miscible up to 40% drug loads. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that MA was converted to its amorphous phase in all of the formulations. Additionally, FT-IR analysis indicated hydrogen bonding between the drug and the carrier up to 25% of drug loading. SEM images indicated aggregation of MA at over 30% of drug loading. Based on the FT-IR, SEM and dissolution results for the extrudates, two optimized formulations (20% and 25% drug loads) were selected to formulate the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). ODTs were successfully prepared with excellent friability and rapid disintegration time in addition to having the desired taste-masking effect. All of the extruded formulations and the ODTs were found to be physically and chemically stable over a period of 6 months at 40°C/75% RH and 12 months at 25°C/60% RH, respectively. PMID:25914727

  16. Overall Plan of Plum Blossom International Hot Spring Theme Park Resort in Yichun City%宜春市梅花国际温泉主题公园度假区总体规划探讨

    余文鹏; 余慧如; 陈飞平

    2013-01-01

    Through extension of plum culture, as well as with the local culture of the moon , the planning theme of “Mui all month, fertile soil Oasis,” was carried out.According to the principle of ecology lead-ing planning, three-dimensional development of green , culture infusing tourism, healthy leading living, innovating management system, specialty building advantages, the structure layout of an axis, two cen-tre, three veins, Ten scenery were put forward, and the resort area was divided into property hotel area , spa resort, agriculture sightseeing area, entrance commercial and residential areas .Plum Blossom Inter-national Hot Spring Theme Park Resort was set as one of high-quality leisure and tourist resort with beau-tiful natural landscape, profound cultural connotation, and convenient leisure facilities.%通过对梅花文化的延伸,以及与当地的月亮文化结合,形成“梅开月都,土沃甘泉”的规划主题,遵循生态引领规划,绿色立体开发,文化注入旅游,健康主导生活,创新管理体制,特色构筑优势的原则,进行一轴、二心、三脉、十景的结构布局,划分产权酒店区、温泉度假区、农业观光区、入口商住区,将梅花国际温泉主题公园度假区规划成为自然景观优美、文化内涵深刻、休闲度假设施丰富齐全的旅游度假胜地。

  17. Ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film fabricated by citric acid-assisted hot-water-treatment of aluminum-palladium alloy film

    Takashi Harumoto; Yohei Tamura; Takashi Ishiguro

    2015-01-01

    Hot-water-treatment has been adapted to fabricate ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film from aluminum-palladium alloy film. Using citric acid as a chelating agent, a precipitation of boehmite (aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH) on the nanoporous palladium-aluminum film was suppressed. According to cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations, the ligament/pore sizes of the prepared nanoporous film were considerably small (on the order of 10 nm). Since this fabri...

  18. Hot Money, Hot Potato

    2007-01-01

    International hot money flowing into Chinese capital markets has caught the attention of Chinese watchdogs The Chinese are not the only ones feasting on the thriving property and stock markets. Apparently, these markets are the targets of international h

  19. Tsek Hot Spring Campground Business Plan

    Stephen Jimmie

    2015-01-01

    In-SHUCK-ch Nation is creating its own path to sustainability by negotiating an agreement with the Canadian Governments. The In-SHUCK-ch Nation treaty will secure jurisdiction and resources from the Federal and Provincial Governments and they will transfer to the Nation after the successful conclusion of the treaty ratification process. Tsek (pronounced “Chick”) or District Lot 1747 is included in the land settlement package and the In-SHUCK-ch Nation will have jurisdiction and fee simple own...

  20. BASEMAP DATABASE, HOT SPRING COUNTY, ARKANSAS, USA

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. BATHING IN MANGPU HOT SPRING IN LHATSE

    2007-01-01

    Lhastse County in Shigatse Prefecture is well-known by multiple names such as the "North Entrance of theQ omolangma,""Food Grains Storage,""Hometown of Tibetan Knives,""Hometown of Dorxic (a kind of Tibetan music)" and also "the Way to Pilgrim". "Lhastse", in Tibetan, refers to the "Summit of Manitou". Int he secular world, it is called "Laxog" meaning "the holy place where the sunlight first touches" Naturally, some scholars prefer to dub "Lhastse" as"a place suffering from drought".

  2. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  3. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  4. A management research in hotel innovation of Guangxi’s resort industry--Xiangzhou Town’s Guang Xiang Hot Spring Resort%广西休闲度假型酒店创新管理研究--以象州县古象温泉度假村为例

    彭思羽

    2014-01-01

    文章从休闲旅游业的演变和人们不断上升的新需求入手,针对我国休闲度假型酒店发展现状及存在问题的分析,以广西来宾市象州县国家4A级温泉旅游度假景区-古象温泉度假村为研究对象,运用态势模型分析度假村的优势、劣势、机会与威胁,并在此基础上运用双核开发模式等相关理论,提出建设温泉文化、丰富营销手段、开发多样化度假型产品的创新经营管理对策,对提升地域性休闲度假型酒店的核心竞争力,进一步推动广西休闲度假型酒店的开发具有积极地促进作用。%A new and surging demand due to globalization and the burgeoning leisure and tourism industry calls for a better understanding of vacation spots, particularly hot spring resorts. This paper analyzes the current situation of the development of China's hotel and leisure vacation industry in the Xiangzhou town of Guangxi’s Laibin City National 4A Grade Hot Spring Resort scenic spot. With Gu Xiang Hot Spring Resort as the research subject, the utilization of a situation model combined with a dual development model and other related theories, puts forward the construction of a diversified development of China’s hot spring culture, luxury holiday product marketing and innovation management. This enhances the core competitiveness of regional leisure resorts to further promote the development of Guangxi’s actively promoted leisure resort.

  5. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  6. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  7. Berberine as an Environmental-Friendly Inhibitor for Hot-Dip Coated Steels in Diluted Hydrochloric Acid

    Hong Ju; Yulin Ju; Yan Li

    2012-01-01

    The inhibition effect of an excellent environmental-friendly corrosion inhibitor--berberine on hot-dip coated steels in the diluted HCI has been investigated by using quantum chemistry analysis, mass-loss tests, elec- trochemical measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Calculation results show that berberine has a nearly planar structure with a number of active centers. The value of Mulliken charge, and the distribution of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lower unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) imply that berberine has a good ability of electron exchange with metal surface. The test results indicate that inhibition efficiency (IE%) increases with the inhibitor concentration and the highest IE can reach 99%. Adsorption of berberine on the coating surface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a single molecular layer by chemisorption.

  8. Microbes in mercury-enriched geothermal springs in western North America.

    Geesey, Gill G; Barkay, Tamar; King, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Because geothermal environments contain mercury (Hg) from natural sources, microorganisms that evolved in these systems have likely adapted to this element. Knowledge of the interactions between microorganisms and Hg in geothermal systems may assist in understanding the long-term evolution of microbial adaptation to Hg with relevance to other environments where Hg is introduced from anthropogenic sources. A number of microbiological studies with supporting geochemistry have been conducted in geothermal systems across western North America. Approximately 1 in 5 study sites include measurements of Hg. Of all prokaryotic taxa reported across sites with microbiological and accompanying physicochemical data, 42% have been detected at sites in which Hg was measured. Genes specifying Hg reduction and detoxification by microorganisms were detected in a number of hot springs across the region. Archaeal-like sequences, representing two crenarchaeal orders and one order each of the Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, dominated in metagenomes' MerA (the mercuric reductase protein) inventories, while bacterial homologs were mostly found in one deeply sequenced metagenome. MerA homologs were more frequently found in metagenomes of microbial communities in acidic springs than in circumneutral or high pH geothermal systems, possibly reflecting higher bioavailability of Hg under acidic conditions. MerA homologs were found in hot springs prokaryotic isolates affiliated with Bacteria and Archaea taxa. Acidic sites with high Hg concentrations contain more of Archaea than Bacteria taxa, while the reverse appears to be the case in circumneutral and high pH sites with high Hg concentrations. However, MerA was detected in only a small fraction of the Archaea and Bacteria taxa inhabiting sites containing Hg. Nevertheless, the presence of MerA homologs and their distribution patterns in systems, in which Hg has yet to be measured, demonstrates the potential for detoxification by Hg reduction

  9. 春天%Spring

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  10. Algae in Lebanese springs: the influence of wind on the distribution of characterizes species

    This study was conducted by collecting freshwater samples from twenty springs distributed all over Lebanon. These springs vary widely in their altitude and nature. Water samples were analyzed for HCO3-,Cl-, SO42-, and SiO2 and for the major elements Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe. The analysis of these elements was carried out by atomic absorption Spectrometry using flame air-acetylene whereas the anions were determined by titration and colorimetric methods. It has been found that the major composition in the water samples of the studied springs is predominantly influenced by the composition of parent rocks n Lebanon. The slightly elevated values of pH(7.8) and the large amount of calcium carbonate are a result of dissolution of calcium carbonate, dolomite and lime- stone. The presence of algae is due to wind transportation. In fact, being a country of intersection between the west and the east. Lebanon receives numerous species of Cyanophyta and diatoms of both equatorial and central African origins. Even though most of the Lebanese water springs are calcareous and alkaline, some taxons that usually characterize acidic media were also found to colonize our substrata. Water springs that are characterized by similar chemical composition and similar ecological conditions appear to be dominated by different algae species. Diatoms formed were found in diverse types and species and the pennales were the most dominant in both abundance and diversity. Among the most interesting species encountered in certain stations, it was found Oscillatoria platensis, originating from tropical Africa, probably transported by migratory birds. Its importance lies in its being a food protein source in the ecosystem. In addition, certain species characteristic of the hot European springs, such as Symploca thermalis and Calothrix castelli, were also detected in some springs. The presence of these species appears to be only sporadic.(author)

  11. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    : Martin, Peter, (Edited By); Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  12. Impact of zeolite aging in hot liquid water on activity for acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-08-19

    The catalytic performance of zeolite in aqueous medium depends on a multitude of factors, such as the concentration and distribution of active sites and framework integrity. Al K–edge extended X–ray absorption fine structure and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopies in combination with DFT calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and 48 h 160 ºC water treated HBEA catalysts. There is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The distribution and concentration of Al T–sites, active centers for the dehydration of cyclohexanol, do not markedly impact the catalytic performance in water, because the Brønsted acidic protons are present in the form of hydrated hydronium ions and thus have very similar acid properties. The results suggest that all Brønsted acid sites are equally active in aqueous medium. The decrease of zeolite catalytic performance after water treatment is attributed to the reduced concentration of Brønsted acid sites. Increasing the stability of pore walls and decreasing the rate of Si–O–Si group hydrolysis may result in improved apparent zeolite catalytic performance in aqueous medium. Authors thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements, T. Huthwelker for support during Al XAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland), J. Z. Hu and S. D. Burton (PNNL) for support during NMR experiments. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MD acknowledges support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. HIM imaging and NMR experiments were performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Biological

  13. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  14. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  15. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  16. Radioactive mineral spring precipitates, their analytical and statistical data and the uranium connection

    Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    ; (5) Hydrous limonite precipitation and coprecipitated elements including uranium; (6) Rare earth elements deposited with detrital contamination (?); (7) Metal carbonate adsorption and precipitation. Economically recoverable minerals occurring at some localities in spring precipitates are ores of iron, manganese, sulfur, tungsten and barium and ornamental travertine. Continental radioactive mineral springs occur in areas of crustal thickening caused by overthrusting of crustal plates, and intrusion and metamorphism. Sedimentary rocks on the lower plate are trapped between the plates and form a zone of metamorphism. Connate waters, carbonate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks react to extreme pressure and temperature to produce carbon dioxide, and steam. Fractures are forced open by gas and fluid pressures. Deep-circulating meteoric waters then come in contact with the reactive products, and a hydrothermal cell forms. When hot mineral-charged waters reach the surface they form the familiar hot mineral springs. Hot springs also occur in relation to igneous intrusive action or volcanism both of which may be products of the crustal plate overthrusting. Uranium and thorium in the sedimentary rocks undergoing metamorphism are sometimes mobilized, but mobilization is generally restricted to an acid hydrothermal environment; much is redeposited in favorable environments in the metamorphosed sediments. Radium and radon, which are highly mobile in both acid and alkaline aqueous media move upward into the hydrothermal cell and to the surface.

  17. Comparative studies on conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) procedures for extraction and chemical characterization of pectin from peel waste of mango cultivar chaunsa

    Pectin, a naturally occurring heteropolysaccharide, is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its gelling and stabilizing properties. During the present study pectin was extracted from peel of mango (cultivar Chaunsa) using conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) methods. In conventional method, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, or HCl was used under variable conditions of pH (2.0, 2.5, 3.0), temperature (70, 80, 90, 100 degree C), duration of extraction (30, 60, 90, 120 min), and solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol). Maximum yield of 16.6 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained with HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5, 90 degree C, 90 min extraction, and ethanol. Whereas in non-conventional method, ultrasonication was used for different time intervals (10, 20, 40 min) using HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5 and 90 degree C. Maximum yield of 15.8 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained by this method in 20 min. Pectin extracted by the above two methods was found to be of high quality as was determined in respect of methoxyl and galacturonic acid contents, degree of esterification, equivalent weight, and FTIR spectra. Extraction of pectin from mango peel by employing non-conventional method (ultrasonication) was observed to be an energy efficient method due to its less extraction time (20 min as compared to 90 min in conventional method) suggesting its suitability on commercial scale for the extraction of pectin from mango and other available fruit peel wastes. (author)

  18. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. PMID:25980810

  19. Distinguishing of Ile/Leu amino acid residues in the PP3 protein by (hot) electron capture dissociation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Haselmann, Kim F; Sørensen, Esben S; Zubarev, Roman A

    2003-03-15

    In hot electron capture dissociation (HECD), multiply protonated polypeptides fragment upon capturing approximately 11-eV electrons. The excess of energy upon the primary c, z* cleavage induces secondary fragmentation in z* fragments. The resultant w ions allow one to distinguish between the isomeric Ile and Leu residues. The analytical utility of HECD is evaluated using tryptic peptides from the bovine milk protein PP3 containing totally 135 amino acid residues. Using a formal procedure for Ile/Leu (Xle) residue assignment, the identities of 20 out of 25 Xle residues (80%) were determined. The identity of an additional two residues could be correctly guessed from the absence of the alternative w ions, and only two residues, for which neither expected nor alternative w ions were observed, remained unassigned. Reinspection of conventional ECD spectra also revealed the presence of Xle w ions, although at lower abundances, with 44% of all Xle residues distinguished. Using a dispenser cathode as an electron source, identification of four out of five Xle residues in a 2.7-kDa peptide was possible with one acquisition 2 s long, with identification of all five residues by averaging of five such acquisitions. Unlike the case of high-energy collision-induced dissociation, no d ions were observed in the HECD of tryptic peptides. PMID:12659185

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  1. 台湾龟山岛海底热液和绿岛陆上热泉伴生气体组分组成%Gas composition of submarine hydrothermal systems off Guishandao and in coastal hot springs off Lüdao in Taiwan

    张海燕; 叶瑛; 杨灿尧; 陈镇东; 陈雪刚; 秦华伟; 金爱民; 丁茜; 潘依雯; 夏枚生

    2013-01-01

    Gas composition is important for analyzing the origin of hydrothermal activity, for assessing active magma level and for evaluating eco-environmental effects of hydrothermal activity. In this study, we obtained gas samples from submarine hydrothermal systems off Guishandao and in coastal hot springs off Lüdao in Taiwan using self-made piston gas samplers. The chemical compositions of these gas samples were measured using MAT271 mass spectrometer. The main component of gases from Guishandao hydrothermal area is CO2, characterized by low temperature volcanic zone with high content of CH4 and active gases of CO2 and H2S, and low levels of SO2 and HCl. In 2011, the average contents of CO2, N2 and CH4 from white vents are 642.8 ‰, 149.4 ‰, and 177.5 ‰, respectively; those from yellow vents are 740.1 ‰, 36.7 ‰, and 30.9 ‰, respectively. The gas samples of Lüdao hot springs are dominated by N2 and enriched in CH4. The contents of active gases such as CO2 and H2S are relatively low. In 2012, the average contents of hydrothermal gases CO2, N2 and CH4 of Zhaori egg boiling hot spring district are 642.8‰, 149.4 ‰, and 177.5 ‰, respectively; those from inshore side hot spring of intertidal zone are 740.1 ‰, 36.7 ‰, and 30.9 ‰, respectively. The gas from Guishandao area is originated from deeper stratum than that from Lüdao hot springs, and has reacted with surrounding rock less violently during upwelling.%热液伴生气体组成对分析热液来源,评估热液区岩浆活动的活跃程度,进而评估其生态环境效应具有重要意义。利用自制的活塞式水中游离气体取样器采集台湾龟山岛和绿岛上热液喷口热液活动伴生气体样品,采用MAT271型质谱计对其组分进行了分析。结果表明,龟山岛热液区热液活动伴生气体以 CO2为主,显示出高含量CH4、CO2和H2S等活性气体,低含量SO2、HCl等低温火山区温泉释放气体的特点;2011年龟山岛白泉喷口和

  2. Pro Spring Batch

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  3. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain

    Aria DOLATABADIAN; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-01-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid...

  4. Hot particles - a hot topic

    The health effects of hot particles have remained largely unknown. The nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl spread hot particles into the environment, and findings by a Finnish research team show that their health effects have generally been underestimated. The essential feature from the point of view of health effect is that hot particles cause a very high radiation dose in a very small area in the surrounding organ or tissue. Up to now it has generally been thought that a dose limited within a small area would be even less dangerous than the same dose distributed throughout the body. Hot particles, however, are very effective in causing malignant changes in cells. Beta radiation emitted by hot particles causes permanent mutations in the genetic constitution, or the DNA molecule, of cells. At the same time they effectively stimulate the multiplication of cells by first causing the death of cells in their vicinity. When this results in a chronic wound around the hot particle, cells that are further away from the particle try to heal the wound by dividing rapidly. These cells have received high radiation doses but managed to survive. The mutated cell is thus able to build a malignant clone, which can develop further into cancer. Exposure to hot particles takes place mostly through the skin and, in particular, through the respiratory tract Most of the particles that were carried to Finland from Chernobyl were small in both size and activity. They became deposited onto the ground within a few days, and thus disappeared quickly from breathing air (orig.)

  5. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2016-06-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased ( P glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved ( P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased ( P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased ( P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased ( P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased ( P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions ( P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA metabolism of broilers.

  6. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased (P glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved (P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased (P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased (P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA metabolism of broilers.

  7. Post irradiation examination of tight fit garter springs from Indian PHWR

    Garter springs play an important role in maintaining the annulus gap between hot pressure tubes and cold calandria tubes of PHWRs. Post irradiation examination (PIE) was carried out on the garter springs removed from Indian PHWR after around 8 and 15 Hot Operating Years (HOY). PIE studies included visual examination, dimensional measurements, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. The girdle wires of these garter springs were also examined and subjected to the tension and bend tests. This paper gives the results of the PIE investigations and discusses its relevance for continued performance of garter springs in PHWRs

  8. Framework Spring MVC

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  9. Spring integration essentials

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  10. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2016-06-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased (P consumption (DFC), the concentrations of Gln, glutamate (Glu), and GABA, and the activities of glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in breast muscle at 28, 35, and 42 days, while it increased (P < 0.05) the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved (P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased (P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased (P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA

  11. Pro Spring Integration

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  12. Chemical composition data and calculated aquifer temperature for selected wells and springs of Honey Lake Valley, California

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Major element, minor element, and gas composition data are tabulated for 15 springs and wells in Honey Lake Valley, California. Wendel and Amedee hot springs issue Na-S04-C1 waters at boiling or near boiling temperatures; the remaining springs and wells issue Na-HC03 waters at temperatures ranging from 14 to 33 deg C. Gases escaping from the hot springs are principally nitrogen with minor amounts of methane. The geothermometers calculated from the chemical data are also tabulated for each spring. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  14. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  15. Mockito for Spring

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  16. Masters of the springs

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...

  17. Hot Money,Hot Problems

    2009-01-01

    After emerging from the economic doldrums, developing economies are now confronted with a new danger-a flood of international hot money. But how has the speculative capital circumvented regulatory controls and what are the consequences concerning the stability of the developing world? Zhao Zhongwei, a senior researcher with the Institute of World Politics and Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed these issues in an article recently published in the China Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow

  18. The Prevalence of STIV c92-Like Proteins in Acidic Thermal Environments

    Jamie C. Snyder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of viral-induced lysis system has recently been discovered for two unrelated archaeal viruses, STIV and SIRV2. Prior to the lysis of the infected host cell, unique pyramid-like lysis structures are formed on the cell surface by the protrusion of the underlying cell membrane through the overlying external S-layer. It is through these pyramid structures that assembled virions are released during lysis. The STIV viral protein c92 is responsible for the formation of these lysis structures. We searched for c92-like proteins in viral sequences present in multiple viral and cellular metagenomic libraries from Yellowstone National Park acidic hot spring environments. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins demonstrates that, although c92-like proteins are detected in these environments, some are quite divergent and may represent new viral families. We hypothesize that this new viral lysis system is common within diverse archaeal viral populations found within acidic hot springs.

  19. Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995

    Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water

  20. Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning

    C. Wespes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze tropospheric O3 together with HNO3 during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport program, combining observations and model results. Aircraft observations from the NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites and NOAA ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate campaigns during spring and summer of 2008 are used together with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 to assist in the interpretation of the observations in terms of the source attribution and transport of O3 and HNO3 into the Arctic (north of 60° N. The MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well (within 15%, but some discrepancies in the model are identified and discussed. The observed correlation of O3 with HNO3 is exploited to evaluate the MOZART-4 model performance for different air mass types (fresh plumes, free troposphere and stratospheric-contaminated air masses.

    Based on model simulations of O3 and HNO3 tagged by source type and region, we find that the anthropogenic pollution from the Northern Hemisphere is the dominant source of O3 and HNO3 in the Arctic at pressures greater than 400 hPa, and that the stratospheric influence is the principal contribution at pressures less 400 hPa. During the summer, intense Russian fire emissions contribute some amount to the tropospheric columns of both gases over the American sector of the Arctic. North American fire emissions (California and Canada also show an important impact on tropospheric ozone in the Arctic boundary layer.

    Additional analysis of tropospheric O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR and from the IASI satellite sounder made

  1. Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning

    C. Wespes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze tropospheric O3 together with HNO3 during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport program, combining observations and model results. Aircraft observations from the NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites and NOAA ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate campaigns during spring and summer of 2008 are used together with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 to assist in the interpretation of the observations in terms of the source attribution and transport of O3 and HNO3 into the Arctic. The MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well (within 15 %, but some discrepancies in the model are identified and discussed. The observed correlation of O3 with HNO3 is exploited to evaluate the MOZART-4 model performance for different air mass types (fresh plumes, free troposphere and stratospheric-contaminated air masses.

    Based on model simulations of O3 and HNO3 tagged by source type and region, we find that the anthropogenic pollution from the Northern Hemisphere is the dominant source of O3 and HNO3 in the Arctic at pressure greater than 400 hPa, and that the stratospheric influence is the principal contribution at pressures less 400 hPa. During the summer, intense Russian fire emissions contribute some amount to the tropospheric columns of both gases over the American sector of the Arctic. North American fire emissions (California and Canada also show an important impact on tropospheric ozone in the Arctic boundary layer.

    Additional analysis of tropospheric O3 measurements from ground-based FTIR and from the IASI satellite sounder made at the Eureka

  2. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    his research and we spent an entire week talking physics and having fun from breakfast in the morning until late at night. A symbolic award was instituted for the best presentation at the workshop, dedicated to the memory of Klaus Kinder-Geiger, a sharp and brilliant young theorist who perished in the crash of Swissair Flight 111 on 2 September 1998 off the coast of Nova Scotia. It went to Denesh Molnar from Ohio State University for his outstanding talk on parton coalescence. The organizers wish to extend their gratitude to all participants for the high quality presentations making Hot Quarks 2004 a notable event. We are also very grateful for the superb hospitality of the staff of the Snakedance Inn, in particular Mitch Daniels who worked sheer miracles. Given the success of the first Hot Quarks workshop we decided to organize a second one, possibly even turning Hot Quarks into a series. The next meeting will be held in the late spring of 2006, probably in Italy. We hope it will be as memorable as the first one! Last but not least, we wish to thank all the generous sponsors of the conference: Brookhaven National Laboratory, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fA~ 1/4 r Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute of Physics Publishing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Science Foundation, and Vanderbilt University. We are grateful for their support and are particularly happy that this support came from institutions both in the US and in Europe and from all the main experimental facilities that pursue a prominent heavy-ion program. Their support was essential for the success of a workshop targeting young scientists.

  3. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  4. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  5. Learning Spring application development

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  6. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  7. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888. ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  8. Effect of Film Mulching on Fruit Quality and Components of Sugars and Organic Acids of Luxing Nectarine and Spring Snow Peach%覆膜对鲁星油桃和春雪桃果实品质和糖酸组分的影响

    王海波; 杨建明; 李慧峰; 刘伟; 李林光

    2013-01-01

    以鲁星油桃和春雪桃为试材,采用果园覆膜处理研究其对果实品质和糖酸组分的影响.结果表明:覆膜处理鲁星的果实单果重、纵径、横径、侧径、可滴定酸和维生素C含量较对照均显著升高,可溶性固形物和可溶性糖含量显著降低;覆膜处理对春雪果实的影响趋势与鲁星类似,但程度较小,各项指标均未达到显著水平.在鲁星和春雪果实中分别检测到4种糖组分:葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖和山梨醇;3种有机酸组分:苹果酸、柠檬酸和琥珀酸.2个品种糖酸组分均以蔗糖和苹果酸含量最高.苹果酸和柠檬酸含量较高是造成鲁星果实酸含量显著高于春雪果实的主要原因.覆膜鲁星和春雪果实蔗糖含量均显著低于对照,苹果酸含量均显著高于对照.%The effects of film mulching on fruit quality, components of sugars and organic acids were analyzed with Luxing nectarine and Spring Snow peach as materials. The results showed that film mulching could significantly increase the single fruit weight, longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter, side diameter, titrat-able acid and vitamin C contents of Luxing nectarine, but significantly decrease the contents of soluble solid and soluble sugar. The influence of film mulching on Spring Snow peach was similar to Luxing, but the level was not significant. Four soluble sugars and three organic acids in fruit flesh of Luxing and Spring Snow were detected as sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol and malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid. In which, sucrose and malic acid were the dominant constituents. The higher malic and citric acid was the main factor caused the acid content of Luxing higher than Spring Snow significantly. Film mulching resulted in lower sucrose but higher malic acid of Luxing and Spring Snow compared to the control.

  9. Radon concentrations in hot spring waters in northern Venezuela

    Concentrations of 222Rn were determined in selected thermal water samples of the northern region of Venezuela. Concentrations in the range of 1-560 Bq/l were found. Soil radon concentrations and air radon concentrations related to the high values of radon concentration in water were investigated in El Castano and at a spa in Las Trincheras. An outstandingly high radon efflux was found in Las Trincheras with an average soil radon concentration of 122 kBq/m3, and an air radon concentration of 54 kBq/m3 in inhalation treatment pipes. Dose calculations revealed that regular consumption of the measured water samples presents an extra dose of radiation that may range up to 4 mSv/y

  10. Mongolian development of a hot spring; Mongoru no onsen kaihatsu

    Iwata, Akio

    1999-04-01

    An international cooperation business group and a metal mining business group are grappling with the help business such as development of subterranean water and mineral resources investigation actively after the democratization. Much physics investigation has been done of that in such cases as the electromagnetic investigation (in such cases as the development of subterranean water and soil layer investigation which it tries recently) and the radioactive investigation (like of the uranium ore floor zone, in such cases as the investigation). (NEDO)

  11. Hot Springs National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  13. Walking with springs

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  14. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin. PMID:26733417

  15. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  16. Spring of women?

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  17. SpringInside

    Norman, David

    2009-01-01

    This Master Thesis is a product development project that has been carried out in cooperation with a Swedish company called Cleaver Ways. The purpose of the project has been to develop one of Cleaver Ways patents on a new kind of bag-in-box packaging, called SpringInside. The new with SpringInside is that the tap is located in the top of the box, which for example makes it possible to fill up a glass of wine even when the bag-in-box has been placed in the middle of a table. In the bottom of th...

  18. Instant Spring security starter

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  19. Pro Spring security

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  20. Talking on Current Situation and Selection of Strategies of Tourist Scenic Spot's Channel Managenent-Taking Mingyueshan&Hot Spring Scenic Spot as an Exanple%浅析旅游景区渠道管理的现状及策略选择——以明月山温泉风景名胜区为例

    彭礴; 舒莉芬

    2011-01-01

    It's necessary to build sales channel that can make target customers knowing and buying the products of tourist scenic spot. However, the project of the channel management of the scenic spot was just carded out in many places, and it is in the exploratory stage, So, it's important for scenic spot marketing that how to build a scientific and effective sales channel. Intangibility of tourism products inevitably makes the difference of tourism products circulation fi'om physical products circulation, for the reason that we can't simply copy the theory and experience of physical products distribution. This paper will probe current situation and strategies of channel management of the scenic spot by learning the experience of Mingyueshan&Hot Spring Scenic spot's channel managements.%旅游景区产品要被目标顾客所接受和购买,渠道建设是必不可少的。然而,在许多地方景区渠道建设工作还刚刚起步,处在摸索阶段,如何构建一条科学有效的销售渠道,成为景区营销工作的一个重要内容。旅游产品的无形性,必然使得旅游产品流通与实体产品流通不同,在构建渠道过程中,这一特性应该体现出来,因而,简单照搬实体产品分销的理论和经验是不够的。借助对明月山温泉风景名胜区渠道工作的经验,本文探讨景区渠道管理的现状及策略的选择。

  1. Spring batch essentials

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  2. Spring Festival Cauplets

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times,Chnese peoplecustomarily hung peach wood to warnagmnst evil on their gates on lunar NewYear’s Eve—a pair of rectangular peachwood tablets inscribed with statues ofgods,and later on with a poetic couplet.and that was the beginning of SpringFestival couplets(also called

  3. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  4. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of an Amazonian geothermal spring in Peru.

    Paul, Sujay; Cortez, Yolanda; Vera, Nadia; Villena, Gretty K; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Aguas Calientes (AC) is an isolated geothermal spring located deep into the Amazon rainforest (7°21'12″ S, 75°00'54″ W) of Peru. This geothermal spring is slightly acidic (pH 5.0-7.0) in nature, with temperatures varying from 45 to 90 °C and continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). Pooled water sample was analyzed at 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable region by amplicon metagenome sequencing on Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 2,976,534 paired ends reads were generated which were assigned into 5434 numbers of OTUs. All the resulting 16S rRNA fragments were then classified into 58 bacterial phyla and 2 archaeal phyla. Proteobacteria (88.06%) was found to be the highest represented phyla followed by Thermi (6.43%), Firmicutes (3.41%) and Aquificae (1.10%), respectively. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the only 2 archaeal phyla detected in this study with low abundance. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX1809286. Functional categorization of the assigned OTUs was performed using PICRUSt tool. In COG analysis "Amino acid transport and metabolism" (8.5%) was found to be the highest represented category whereas among predicted KEGG pathways "Metabolism" (50.6%) was the most abundant. This is the first report of a high resolution microbial phylogenetic profile of an Amazonian hot spring. PMID:27408814

  6. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  7. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  8. Investigation of origin, subsurface processes and reservoir temperature of geothermal springs around Koh-i-Sultan volcano, Chagai, Pakistan

    In Chagai area, seven springs with maximum surface temperature of 32.2 deg. C located in the vicinity of Miri Crater of Koh-i-Sultan Volcano were investigated using isotope and chemical techniques. Two springs of Padagi Kaur are MgSO/sub 4/ type, while all the other springs at Batal Kaur, Miri Kaur and Chigin Dik are Na-Cl type. Alteration of water to SO/sub 4/ type takes place by absorption of magmatic H/sub 2/S and the acidic solution is further responsible to dissolve rock salt and carbonate minerals. EC increases from Padagi springs (4940 and 8170 S/cm) to Chigin Dik springs (45600 S/cm). Chagai thermal manifestations receive recharge from meteoric waters in the vicinity of Padagi Kaur (east side of Miri Crater), which is heated by the hot magma chamber of Koh-i-Sultan most probably through deep circulation. Movement of the thermal water is from Miri Crater towards Chigin Dik area. Residence time is more than 60 years. The thermal waters do not have any contribution of shallow young groundwater and they have high 1/sup 8/O-shift (6 to 8%) due to rock-water interaction. Reservoir temperatures estimated by different chemical geo thermometers like Na-K, Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg 1/2 (triangular plot) are quite high (200-300 deg. C), while the silica and (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometers give relatively low temperature ranges (107-144 deg. C and 112-206 deg. C respectively). (author)

  9. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  10. 印尼3个地区热泉中可培养细菌的分子鉴定与系统发育分析%Molecular Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Cultivable Bacteria From Three Hot Springs in Indonesia

    王帅; 林学政; 黄晓航; ZILDA Dewi Seswita; CHASANAH Ekowati

    2011-01-01

    采用MSM寡营养培养基从印度尼西亚Pantai cermin,Kalianda和Banyu wedang地区的热泉水样、泥样以及沉积物中根据菌落的形态学特征共分离获得69株细菌,通过菌株的16S rDNA的限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)分析、序列比对和生理生化分析,对其进行鉴定并构建系统发育树.结果表明,分离获得的69株细菌菌株分别属于8种基因型(Ⅰ~Ⅷ),其中1类(基因型Ⅰ)属于短芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacillus),约占20.28%;1类(基因型Ⅷ)属于地芽孢杆菌属(Geobacillus),约占14.49%;其余6类(基因型Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ)均属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus),约占总菌株数量的65.22%,为优势菌群.分离获得的8类细菌均为革兰氏阳性兼性好氧菌,接触酶、氧化酶反应均呈阳性,吲哚反应都呈阴性.产酶实验表明,分离到的菌株在中性pH值,37~70℃范围内能够分泌多种耐热的水解酶类,4种基因型(Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ)的菌株分泌蛋白酶,5种基因型(Ⅳ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ,Ⅷ)的菌株分泌水解脂肪酶,1种基因型(Ⅳ)的菌株分泌淀粉酶,并且发现其中1种基因型(Ⅳ)的芽孢杆菌可同时产生3种水解酶类.利用限制性内切酶AluI对16S rDNA进行的RFLP技术分析结果表明,利用该技术能够对嗜热细菌的16SrDNA多样性进行有效的分析,经凝胶电泳图谱将菌种鉴定到属的水平,揭示了印尼热泉生态系统中蕴藏着丰富的嗜热菌菌种资源.%Based on the biological morphological features of the bacterial communities, totally 69 strains of thermophilic bacteria are isolated from water, soil or sediment samples of three hot springs respectively in Pantai cermin, Kalianda and Banyu wedang of Indonesia. By means of the bacterial 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis, the 16S rDNA sequence comparison among the bacteria, and the physiological and biochemical a-nalysis, the bacteria are identified and their phylogenetic tree is set up. It is shown in the study results that the 69

  11. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  12. Studying springs in series using a single spring

    Serna, Juan D

    2010-01-01

    Springs are used for any imaginable purpose and all sort of things in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of its most common uses is to study the real nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify the Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only a single spring is presented. The easy setup and accurate results makes this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

  13. The Beijing Spring 1989

    Calhoun, Craig

    1989-01-01

    The climax of China's spring 1989 student protest movement is well known, at least outside of China. Troops acting to clear Tiananmen Square of protesters and enforce martial law succeeded in their charge, firing automatic assault weapons on unarmed citizens and sometimes wildly into neighboring buildings. People were crushed under the tracks of armored personnel carriers as they moved in to smash the statue of the "Goddess of Democracy" that had come almost overnight to symbolize the movemen...

  14. Magnetic Spring Device

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  15. Change in attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pork skin and muscle after hot water and lactic acid decontamination

    Morild, Rikke K.; Olsen, John E.; Aabo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The attachment of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pig skin and muscle tissue decontaminated with 80°C water or 55°C, 1% lactic acid for 5 and 15s was investigated. Attachment properties differed between skin and muscl...

  16. Theory and Practice of Oxide Inclusion Composition and Morphology Control in Spring Steel Production

    2003-01-01

    In order to control the composition, morphology and size distribution of oxide inclusions in spring steel, the relationship between the content or activity of aluminum and calcium in molten steel and compositions of oxide inclusion precipitated at different temperatures was determined based on thermodynamic equilibrium for spring steel 60Si2MnA, and has been verified by practice. The size distribution of non-metallic inclusions electrolytically extracted from specimens of hot rolled spring steel was determined by image analyzer. The results show that there are a great deal of large inclusions in spring steel produced by the conventional process, and the quantity and the size of large inclusions in spring steel produced by new process are largely reduced. As a result, the fatigue properties of the spring steel produced by new process are highly improved, and the ratio of σ-1/σb is raised from 0.451 to 0.468.

  17. 镀锌灰的热酸浸出和除铁试验研究%Research on Leaching of Zinc Using Hot Acid From Zinc Ash and Removal of Iron From Leaching Solution by Jarosite Process

    何小凤; 李运刚; 陈金

    2014-01-01

    By single factor experiments ,leaching of zinc using hot acid from zinc ash and removal of iron from the leaching solution by jarosite process were researched .The results show that the optimum conditions for leaching zinc are determined as follow s initial acid concentration of 150 g/L ,leaching temperature of 90 ℃ ,ratio between liquid volume and solid mass of 6∶1 .At the optimum conditions , the leaching rate of zinc is more than 97% .Removal of iron is over 98% under the conditions of temperature of 90 ℃ ,reaction time of 3 h .%采用单因素试验法研究了从镀锌灰中热酸浸出锌及黄钾铁矾法除铁。试验结果表明:在硫酸初始质量浓度为150 g/L、浸出温度90℃、浸出时间3 h、液固体积质量比6∶1条件下,锌浸出率在97%以上;用黄钾铁矾法除铁,在温度90℃、反应时间3 h条件下,铁去除率在98%以上。

  18. Experiment at SPring-8

    Nakano, T; Ejiri, H; Fujiwara, M; Hotta, T; Matsuoka, N; Matsumura, T; Mibe, T; Nomachi, M; Toki, H; Wang, C W; Wang, S C; Kawai, H; Ooba, T; Iwata, T; Miyachi, Y; Toyama, T; Wakai, A; Hicks, K; Akimune, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, Y; Daté, S; Kumagai, N; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Imai, K; Yosoi, M; Ichikawa, A; Kishimoto, T; Sakaguchi, A; Sumihama, M; Makino, S; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    The GeV photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon will be above 3 GeV, and the beam intensity will be 10 sup 7 photons/sec. Polarization of the photon beam will be 100 % at the maximum energy with fully polarized laser photons. We report the outline of the quark nuclear physics project with this high-quality high-intensity beam.

  19. Fun with Automobile Springs

    Fritsch, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    Simple measurements on car suspension systems and their analysis can raise student interest in the elementary discussion of the behavior of springs in oscillating systems. To understand these complicated oscillating systems and to interpret measurements properly, models may be used. Students find out how to make approximations and extract useful information from marginal data using common sense, basic physics, and simple software tools. Basic experiments on a physical model of a car suspension and on a passenger car, as well as the analysis of the data, will be presented. In particular, a value of the bounce mode frequency of a car was obtained using several approaches.

  20. Magnetic Spring Device

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  1. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  2. 热酸蚀刻对氧化锆陶瓷初期粘结强度的影响%Effect of hot acid etching on initial bond strength of zirconia to resin

    许少平; 印厚才; 谢海峰

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察两种酸液在加热条件下蚀刻处理对氧化锆陶瓷与树脂初期粘结强度的影响.方法:制作32个氧化锆陶瓷片,分为4组分别进行表面处理.A组:喷砂;B组:喷砂+H2SO4和(NH4)2SO4混合液煮沸下处理30 min+Clearfil Ceramic Primer涂底剂;C组:喷砂+HF和HNO3混合液煮沸下处理30 min+Clearfil Ceramic Primer涂底剂;D组:喷砂+Clearfil Ceramic Primer涂底剂.制备复合树脂柱,以树脂水门汀将其粘固于处理过的氧化锆陶瓷表面.粘结试件水储24 h后,测试剪切粘结强度.扫描电镜观察各处理组的陶瓷表面.结果:A组的粘结强度值最低,D组其次,B、C组的粘结强度值较高且无显著性差异.扫描电镜观察发现两种酸蚀刻后形成了与喷砂不同的粗化表面形态.结论:两种酸液在加热条件下能够对氧化锆陶瓷进行蚀刻粗化,同时可对其初期粘结强度起到增强作用.%Objective:To investigate the initial bond strength of zirconia etched with two kinds of hot acid mixtures to resin. Methods: Total 32 zirconia ceramic blocks were manufactured and divided into 4 groups received different surface treatments. Group A, sandblasting; group B, sandblasting combined with hot H2SO4 and (NH)2SC4 mixture etching 30 min, and applying Clearfil Ceramic Primer; group C, sandblasting combined with HF and HNO3 mixture etching 30 min, and applying Clearfil Ceramic Primer; group D, sandblasting and applying Clearfil Ceramic Primer. Thirty-two composite resin columns were prepared and cemented on the pre-treated zirconia blocks with composite resin cement. Shear bond strength (SBS) test were executed after water storage for 24 hours. The zirconia surfaces treated with different treatments were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The SBS values were lowest in group A, and higher in group B and group C, among 4 groups, and had no significant difference between group B and group C. There were differences in surface

  3. 热酸浸出锌浸渣中镓锗的研究%Extracting Gallium and Germanium from Zinc-leaching Residues by Hot-acid Leaching Process

    马喜红; 覃文庆; 吴雪兰; 任浏祎

    2012-01-01

    研究了锌浸渣热酸浸出过程的工艺条件,分析了浸出热力学和动力学机理,并用于指导回收稀有金属镓和锗.实验结果表明,锌浸渣中镓和锗浸出的最佳工艺条件为:硫酸初始质量浓度为188 g/L,反应温度为95℃,反应时间为3h,液固比为5∶1,搅拌速度为300 r/min,该条件下多组综合实验的酸浸出液中Ga和Ge的浸出率均高于86%和62%.锌浸渣中金属镓锗的浸出过程在动力学上属于“未反应核减缩”模型,浸出过程主要受反应温度、始酸浓度、反应时间的影响,反应由界面化学反应控制.%Extraction of gallium and germanium from zinc leaching residue was carried out by hot-acid leaching. The effects of leaching agent ( sulfuric acid) , leaching temperature, leaching time, L/S ratio and agitation speed on the leaching rate of Ga and Ge were examined, while the thermodynamics and dynamic mechanism for the leaching were, also analyzed. Results showed that the optimal leaching conditions were as follows: the initial mass concentration of sulfuric acid was 188 g/L, leaching temperature was 95 ℃ , leaching time was 3 h, L/S ratio was 5:1, and agitation speed was 300 r/min. Under these conditions, the leaching rates of Ga and Ge in acid leaching solution from multi-group comprehensive tests were averagely above 86% and 62% , respectively. Furthermore, the leaching process of Ga and Ge follows the kinetic law of "shrinking of unreacted core" , mainly influenced by leaching temperature, concentration of sulfuric acid and leaching time, also being controlled by interface chemical reaction.

  4. Hot-state experiment on double-pipe heat exchanger under coupled effect of fouling and acid%积灰与酸耦合作用下套管换热器传热特性热态实验

    李飞; 孙奉仲; 史月涛

    2014-01-01

    Flue gas dew point is the key indicator of low temperature corrosion, and restricts deep utilization of boiler flue gas heat. Fouling of heat exchanger surface is a major factor in deterioration of heat transfer. When fluid flows across heat exchange tubes, fouling and acid condensation influence heat transfer of heat exchanger. In the flue gas environment with dust and acid, a hot-state test was conducted to analyze heat transfer characteristics at different outer wall temperatures, and the dew point of flue gas for engineering application was obtained with a higher use value. The influence of the tubes’ heat transfer characteristics with varying fouling and acid condensation was determined. Ash deposition with different amounts of acid condensation was investigated through analyzing the ash samples at different outer wall temperatures. The value of applied dew point for engineering was given as 72℃, which was at least 35℃ lower than the acid dew point in thermodynamics.%烟气露点是低温腐蚀的关键指标,制约着锅炉尾部排烟余热的深度利用。换热器表面积灰是传热特性恶化的主要原因,电站锅炉尾部烟气环境中,积灰与酸凝结共同作用影响换热器的传热特性。在含尘、含酸的烟气环境下对换热器传热特性进行热态实验研究,以套管换热器为基础,得到具有更高使用价值的烟气工程应用露点,结合传热特性随外壁温的变化情况,得到换热管传热特性随积灰及酸耦合的变化规律;并通过对不同外壁温下灰样的分析,得到不同酸凝结状况下积灰规律,得到实验环境下的工程应用酸露点温度为72℃,较传统热力学酸露点低35℃以上。

  5. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic survey of Efteni hot and mineralized waters

    Isotope techniques are widely used to explain hydrodynamic structures of geothermal systems together with geologic, geophysics and geochemical studies. Especially, because isotope exchange reactions are sensitive to temperature changes, water-rock interactions and other physicochemical processes such as mixing and steam separation, isotope techniques have become indispensable tool in geothermal investigations. In this study, hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of Efteni and Derdin hot and mineralized springs located about 10 km southeast of city of Duezce have been carried out in terms of isotope techniques in geothermal researches. Surface manifestations of relatively low-temperature springs emerge on Duezce fault, a normal component dominated fault segment in the North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS). As a result of geochemical studies it has been determined that each of the springs are feeding from different reservoirs of distinct lithologies. Reservoir temperature of Efteni spring (113-135 degree) has been estimated higher than reservoir temperature of Derdin spring (80-104 degree) based on chalcedony geothermometers. Nevertheless, 18O shift which has been interpreted as a result of isotopic exchange at high temperatures between the water and the rock minerals is observed only in Derdin spring. In addition, it has been determined that tritium content of Derdin spring is about ∼2 TU units which in an evidence of recent recharge, whereas it is approximately ∼0 TU in Efteni spring. In the scope of this study, thermal reservoirs and physical processes that affect both springs are distinguished and hydrothermal structures of the springs are determined by chemical and isotopic analyses. Geothermometer equations which are used to estimate reservoir temperatures have been correlated via isotope techniques and especially dilution processes such as surface water mixing has been differentiated in Derdin Spring water

  6. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safeload of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

  7. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  8. Radiation education using local environment. Educational experiment using Misasa spring water

    Hoping that use of natural radioactivity as teaching materials helps learners to understand the existence of radiation in nature, the authors developed several kinds of safe and inexpensive experiments for elementary and junior high school education using hot spring water taken from Misasa, situated in Tottori prefecture, Japan. Here, they report the details of experimental procedure to observe the radioactive equilibrium between Rn 222 released from the hot spring water and its daughters as well as the decay after isolation from Rn 222. The experiment needs no hazardous chemicals nor Bunsen burners, and can be carried out in normal classrooms without any special apparatus. (S. Ohno)

  9. Assessment of Legionella pneumophila in recreational spring water with quantitative PCR (Taqman) assay

    Shen, Shu-Min; Chou, Ming-Yuan; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Tsai, Hsiu-Feng; Huang, Yu-Li; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Kao, Po-Min; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. are common in various natural and man-made aquatic environments. Recreational hot spring is frequently reported as an infection hotspot because of various factors such as temperature and humidity. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had been used for detecting Legionella, several inhibitors such as humic substances, calcium, and melanin in the recreational spring water may interfere with the reaction thus resulting in risk underestimation. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiencies of conventional and Taqman quantitative PCR (qPCR) on detecting Legionella pneumophila in spring facilities and in receiving water. In the results, Taqman PCR had much better efficiency on specifying the pathogen in both river and spring samples. L. pneumophila was detected in all of the 27 river water samples and 45 of the 48 hot spring water samples. The estimated L. pneumophela concentrations ranged between 1.0 × 102 and 3.3 × 105 cells/l in river water and 72.1–5.7 × 106 cells/l in hot spring water. Total coliforms and turbidity were significantly correlated with concentrations of L. pneumophila in positive water samples. Significant difference was also found in water temperature between the presence/absence of L. pneumophila. Our results suggest that conventional PCR may be not enough for detecting L. pneumophila particularly in the aquatic environments full of reaction inhibitors. PMID:26184706

  10. Responses of serum electrolytes of goats to twelve hours of road transportation during the hot-dry season in Nigeria, and the effect of pretreatment with ascorbic acid

    J.O. Ayo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty goats which served as the experimental group were administered ascorbic acid (AA per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body mass, while 20 others served as controls and were given 10 mt each of sterile water. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. Handling and loading of the experimental and control groups of goats decreased (P < 0.05 the potassium and sodium serum concentrations. The concentration of serum chloride, sodium and calcium increased significantly (P< 0.05 immediately post-transportation, while potassium and magnesium decreased (P < 0.05 in the control goats. In AA-treated goats sodium and magnesium concentrations decreased abruptly (P< 0.05, while calcium increased significantly (P< 0.05 after transportation. Handling, loading and transportation adversely affected the electrolyte balance of the goats which suggested respiratory alkalosis, dehydration and muscular damage in the transported goats, and the administration of AA alleviated the adverse effects of road transportation stress on serum electrolytes.

  11. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  12. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  13. Spring comes for ATLAS

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  14. A bountiful spring harvest

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  15. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  16. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  17. Aqueous Chemistry of Typical Geothermal Springs with Deep Faults in Xinyi and Fengshun in Guangdong Province, China

    Guoping Lu; Runfang Liu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated aqueous chemistry for two geothermal spring groups responsive and sensitive to flow fluctuations induced by earthquakes. Quake monitorings are favored for their be-ing in residential areas with well-preserved natural flow systems in Xinyi City’s Xijiang Hot Springs and Fengshun County’s Shihu Hot Spring. The hot springs are typical in temperatures and flow rates in southern China’s Guangdong Province. Physical and chemical conditions deep down in the heat sources are important constraints on earthquake, fluid flow, reactive solute transport and heat transfer, but re-main challenging to address via field observations and numerical experiments. In this paper, we made daily and annual observations on flow rates, temperature, and/or aqueous chemistry. We employed strontium isotopes as tracers for the water sources, equilibrium phase diagram for K-feldspar and albite stability, and Na-K-Mg diagram for heat reservoir temperatures. The abundant sulfite content in Xi-jiang Hot Springs is discussed. Our main finding are that the deep fault springs are characterized by low reduction-oxidation potential at around-200–-150 mV and relatively large daily flow variations. The re-sults provide scientific background features on the field sites regarding earthquake monitoring and pre-dictions and geothermal reservoir.

  18. Fast heating and cooling in nanoimprint using a spring-loaded adapter in a preheated press

    Schift, Helmut; Bellini, Sandro; Gobrecht, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    By using a spring-loaded adapter, instant heating and cooling of wafer-type substrates was implemented in standard hot embossing equipment. This was possible by using the well-known concept of a clamped stack of stamp and substrate, pre-assembled in an alignment fixture. A number of thermoplastic...

  19. The source of anomalous radioactivity in the springs bordering the Sea of Galilee, Israel

    Situated within the Jordan Rift Valley, along the shores of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) which serves as the national water reservoir of Israel, are saline hot springs that are notable for their enrichment in radon and radium. Though the anomalous radioactivity has been known for almost half a century, the source of the radioactive anomalies has been a subject of conjecture. Radiometric analysis of a rock core drilled through Mt. Arbel, situated to the west of the lake, reveals that the oil shale sequence of the Senonian En Zetim and Ghareb formations is strikingly deficient in radium. Mt. Arbel has been cut by Rift Valley related faults that serve as conduits for ascending brines. The organic matter enriched sequence is encountered in the subsurface at elevations lower than the water level of the nearby radioactive enriched hot springs. It is thus concluded that hot ascending brines underlying the lake flush through the organic matter enriched sequence and remove a substantial percentage of 226Ra from the uranium enriched organic material, before draining to the outlets of the springs. Saline springs that are in contact with organic matter enriched sequence show excess of radium and radon, while fresh water springs in the same stratigraphic position show only excess of radon

  20. 某难处理金矿热压预氧化-氰化工艺研究%Research on Acid Hot-pressure Preoxidation-Cyanidate Process for Refractory Gold Ore

    许晓阳; 蔡创开; 丁文涛

    2014-01-01

    The samples used is a typical refractory gold ore,which containing 14.80 ×10-6 Au and 0.47%organic carbon,and over 95% gold is of sulfide-inclusion type,and traditional cyanidation leaching rate of gold is only 21.89%.With acid hot-pressure oxidation pretreatment,the influence of pulp density,time,temperature,oxygen partial pressure,rotational speed on cyanidation extraction rate of Au was researched.The results showed that sulfur oxidation rate was more than 98%and the leaching rate of gold was more than 97%.%国内某难处理金矿金品位为14.80×10-6,含有0.47%的有机碳,95%以上的金为金属硫化物包裹金,常规氰化浸出率仅有21.89%。采用酸性热压-氰化工艺,研究矿浆浓度、时间、温度、氧分压和转速条件等因素对金氰化浸出率的影响。结果表明:采用热压预氧化处理金矿石能有效打开金包裹,硫氧化率>98%,预处理后金的氰化浸出率>97%。

  1. Water treatment of spring Jama

    Stopar, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Spring Jama is one of the three springs that provides sufficient amount of potable water for consumers in water system Kostanjevica na Krki. Main problem with water is its permanent microbiological contamination and periodicaly high turbidity. This graduation thesis – university studies presents several methods to cope mentioned problems. It focuses on two methods, conventional – pressure filters and alternative – ultrafiltration. Both methods are designed for flow of 30 m3 /h. Before water e...

  2. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  3. Detection of ''hot particles''

    Activities for this project include systematic analysis of the specialized literature and screening of the various subject-specific reports of studies performed in the CIS; identification of open questions, particularly relating to the ''hot particle'' measuring methods. Investigation of unresolved questions in connection with the measuring techniques and uncertainties resulting from inhomogenous radioactivity distributions due to the ''hot particles''; testing of the major measuring methods for assessment of error potentials due to ''hot particles'' in the material; cost/benefit analysis with respect to the relation of technical efforts/expense and results obtained with the various measuring techniques. (orig./CB)

  4. The Hot—Spring Genesis of the Shimen Realgar Deposit,Northwest Hunan

    张景荣; 王蔚; 等

    1993-01-01

    The Shimen realgar deposit is characterized by the pipi-shaped orebody and the development of silica sinter and hydrothermal explosive breccia which are typical of hot spring activity.Very similar trace-element associations are noticed between the silica cap and the breccia and modern hot spring waters in the area.The chemistr of ore-forming solutions is also well comparable with that of modern hot spring.,The spring system that gave rise to the mineralization was charged by ground waters heated through thermal conducting systems in the deep crust and,to a lesser extent,by geothermal gradient.ΔD,δ18O,δ13CCH4andδ13CH4andδ13CCO2values and 40Ar/36Ar and 3He/4He ratios indicate that the spring system is of crustal derivation.The ore-forming metals were supplied by surrounding strata,particularly those underlying the ore deposits.The mechanim of ore deposition is thought to be hydrothermal explosion and accompanying boiling and abrupt changes in pH and Eh.Located in northwest Hunan,the Shimen realgar deposit is the leading arsenic producer in the country,However,regardless of its long mining history,the genesis of this deposit has long been a puzzle.It was considered to be postmagmatic epithermal in the leading arsenic producer in the puzzle.It Was considered to be postmagmatic epithermal in origin,but this is trongly challenged by filling(metasomatism)in karst environment proposed later by Zhou Zhiquan(1986)also encounters a number of difficulties.For example,why can the pipi-shaped orebody vertically extend up to several hundreds meters without any compatible development in the lateral dimension? A hot spring genesis is suggested in the present paper based on geological observations and laboratory studies conducted by the authors in recent years.

  5. Reactor hot spot analysis

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. In hot water, again

    Basden, Alastair; Watkins, Sheila

    2009-10-01

    Regarding Norman Willcox's letter about the problems of using solar panels for domestic heating (August p21), I also have thermal solar panels installed. However, contrary to his disappointing experience, I have found that they provide my family with a useful amount of hot water. In our system, the solar energy is used to heat a store of water, which has no other source of heat. Mains-pressure cold water passes through this store via a heat exchanger, removing heat from it and warming up. If the water becomes warm enough, an unpowered thermostatic valve allows it to go straight to the hot taps (mixing it with cold if it is too hot). However, if it is not hot enough, then the water is directed first through our previously installed gaspowered combination boiler and then to the taps.

  7. Hot Air Engines

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  8. Localisation of 'hot particles'

    This report intends to advance procedures for decision whether environmental samples are contaminated with hot particles and to quantify the resulting measurement uncertainty. For that purpose the knowledge about various aspects of hot particles is summarised and made available in a classified bibliography. Two important areas of technical measuring problems are examined in detail by stochastic simulation and experiments. First, the methods of sample splitting and repeated mixing are tested for their suitability to proof the presence of hot particles in environmental samples. For both methods procedures are given according to which it is possible to quantify the probability that hot particles are included in the sample. Finally, the measuring uncertainty is determined for several measuring geometries which occur when hot particles are included in a sample. E.g., the potential error in radiocesium concentration range from 3.5 times overestimation to 3 times underestimation if the soil measured in the 1 liter Marinelli-beaker is contaminated by a single hot particle instead of a homogeneous activity. (orig.)

  9. Factors Controlling the Distribution of Archaeal Tetraethers in Terrestrial Hot Springs▿

    Pearson, Ann; Pi, Yundan; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Wenjun; Li, Yiliang; Inskeep, William; Perevalova, Anna; Romanek, Christopher; Li, Shuguang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) found in hot springs reflect the abundance and community structure of Archaea in these extreme environments. The relationships between GDGTs, archaeal communities, and physical or geochemical variables are underexamined to date and when reported often result in conflicting interpretations. Here, we examined profiles of GDGTs from pure cultures of Crenarchaeota and from terrestrial geothermal springs representing a wide distribution of locations, i...

  10. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  11. Be Spring to All Things

    WANGKEPING

    2003-01-01

    ONE old saying that is particularly rooted in the Chinese consciousness is“Spring is the most meaningful season.” It has particular significance in rural regions,where spring is the time for plowing, and for planning the work for the coming year. In urban areas,peach and plum blossom and the fresh green shoots that clothe winter-denuded trees signify the time for outings and enjoyment of the warmer weather. One aspect of this season that adds greatly to the overall aesthetic is the sight of young girls, having finally put aside their warm winter wear,dressed in light colorful fabrics that display their maidenly charms to full effect. All in all, from the Chinese point of view, spring is a time of color, charm and cheer.

  12. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  13. Instant Spring for Android starter

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  14. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  15. 低分子有机酸喷施对辣椒生长、养分吸收、产量及果实品质的影响%Effects of Low-molecular Organic Acids Spray on Growth, Nutrient Uptake, Yield and Fruit Quality of Hot Pepper

    于丹; 徐福利; 王渭玲; 王国兴

    2013-01-01

    Six low-molecular organic acids and one organic potassium were sprayed on foliage of pepper plants in pot experiment,and their effects on plant growth,nutrient uptake,yield and fruit quality of hot pepper were investigated.The results showed that organic acids spray increased plant height and stem diameter,reduced root dry mass,promoting the growth of aboveground plants.But organic acids spray had no significant impacts on the uptake of N,P,K in soil,and decreased the distribution rates of N,P in fruits.Formic acid,levulinic acid and potassium levulinate treatments significantly enhanced pepper yield,and potassium levulinate treatment got the highest yield (99.5 g/plant),followed by levulinic acid (98.2 g/plant).The impacts of organic acids spray on total fruit number,red fruit number,single fruit mass,single fruit dry mass and fruit shape index were insignificant.Acetic acid,propionic acid and citric acid treatments significantly increased edible part of hot peppers.Oxalic acid treatment significantly increased soluble sugar content and reduced crude fiber content in pepper fruits.Levulinic acid and potassium levulinate treatments significantly increased the contents of starch and vitamin C in pepper fruits,and the color value unite of hot pepper.Comprehensive analysis indicates that potassium levulinate spray had the best effects on improving yield and quality of hot pepper.%采用盆栽试验,研究叶面喷施6种低分子有机酸和1种有机酸钾对辣椒生长、养分吸收、产量及果实品质的影响.结果表明,喷施有机酸增大辣椒株高和茎粗,减少根系干质量,促进植株地上部分的生长.但是有机酸喷施对土壤N、P、K元素的吸收无显著影响,并且减少N、P在果实中的分配率.甲酸、乙酰丙酸和乙酰丙酸钾处理显著提高辣椒产量,而且乙酰丙酸钾处理获得最高产量(99.5 g/株),乙酰丙酸次之(98.2 g/株).有机酸喷施对总果数、红果数、单果质量、单果干质量

  16. Hot Air Engines

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  17. IR Hot Wave

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  18. Spring for It: First Novels

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  19. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  20. A Laboratory of Spring. Introduction

    Witold Wachowski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to a special issue published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the premiere of 'The Rite of Spring' by Igor Stravinsky. The articles cover the field of musicology as well as history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, ethnography and cognitive science of music.

  1. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  2. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    ÖNGEN, Gaye; Sargin, Sayit; Tetik, Derya; Köse, Timur

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety) by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity). Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiologica...

  3. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  4. Microbial Diversity and Biochemical Potential Encoded by Thermal Spring Metagenomes Derived from the Kamchatka Peninsula

    Bernd Wemheuer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic regions contain a variety of environments suitable for extremophiles. This study was focused on assessing and exploiting the prokaryotic diversity of two microbial communities derived from different Kamchatkian thermal springs by metagenomic approaches. Samples were taken from a thermoacidophilic spring near the Mutnovsky Volcano and from a thermophilic spring in the Uzon Caldera. Environmental DNA for metagenomic analysis was isolated from collected sediment samples by direct cell lysis. The prokaryotic community composition was examined by analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total number of 1235 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and used for taxonomic classification. Most abundant in the samples were members of Thaumarchaeota, Thermotogae, and Proteobacteria. The Mutnovsky hot spring was dominated by the Terrestrial Hot Spring Group, Kosmotoga, and Acidithiobacillus. The Uzon Caldera was dominated by uncultured members of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group and Enterobacteriaceae. The remaining 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the Aquificae, Dictyoglomi, Euryarchaeota, Korarchaeota, Thermodesulfobacteria, Firmicutes, and some potential new phyla. In addition, the recovered DNA was used for generation of metagenomic libraries, which were subsequently mined for genes encoding lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Three novel genes conferring lipolytic and one gene conferring proteolytic activity were identified.

  5. Swarm prevention and spring treatment against Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera)

    Cornelissen, B.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 experiments were carried out to test the efficacy and efficiency of Varroa control combined with swarm prevention methods in spring. Honey bee colonies were split in an artificial swarm and a brood carrier. Hereafter the swarms were treated with oxalic acid and the brood carriers either with formic acid (2004) or Thymovar (2005). Both the oxalic acid and the formic acid were very effective, resulting in an average efficacy of 97% and 96%, respectively. There was some worker b...

  6. Fending Off Hot Money

    2010-01-01

    Amid uncertainties about the amount of hot money,the government strives to curb the harmful capital The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index was plagued by dips, climbs and dives as the stock market slumped from 3,186 to 2,838 points

  7. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  8. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  9. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  10. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would...

  11. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  12. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    ... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This ... small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of the hair follicle ...

  13. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  14. AAAI 2006 Spring Symposium Reports

    Abecker, Andreas; Alami, Rachid; Baral, Chitta; Bickmore, Tim; Durfee, Ed; Fong, Terry; Goker, Mehmet H.; Green, Nancy; Liberman, Mark; Lebiere, Christian; Martin, James H.; Mentzas, Gregoris; Musliner, Dave; Nicolov, Nicolas; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2006-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Computer Science Department, was pleased to present its 2006 Spring Symposium Series held March 27-29, 2006, at Stanford University, California. The titles of the eight symposia were (1) Argumentation for Consumers of Health Care (chaired by Nancy Green); (2) Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Cognitive Science Principles Meet AI Hard Problems (chaired by Christian Lebiere); (3) Computation...

  15. Injector linac of SPring-8

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  16. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  17. ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT)

    Biney–Amissah, Araba

    2013-01-01

    Project Title: ARAB SPRING (COPTIC IN EGYPT) Abstract: The Copts have been discriminated - under Mubarak’s regime and now under Mursi’s - without any certain law to assure them of their basic rights and freedom of speech. The Muslims have the dominant privilege in Egypt (and in Middle Eastern countries in general), however, Christians should also have rights in a democratic Egypt. There is no common understanding of divisions between the legal structure of societies and the differ...

  18. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    McManus, R.W. [SOUND Environmental Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Grajczak, P. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wilcoxson, J.C. [ARCO, Plano, TX (United States); Webster, S.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  19. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Tian Wei; Menghui Li; Chensheng Wu; Xiao-Yong Yan; Ying Fan; Zengru Di; Jinshan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries,...

  20. Effect of chemicals, hot water and hulling on breaking corm dormancy in summer-flowering gladiolus

    Three percent CaCN2, 1% KCN, 100% N2 promoted sprouting from dormant corms in summer flowering 'Traveler' gladiolus. One percent C2H4 also promoted sprouting from corms with 30 day cold storage. Hot water and hulling treatments also promoted sprouting. The effect of any treatment was not as great as that shown in corms of spring flowering gladiolus

  1. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  2. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  3. Force of an actin spring

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  4. Evaporation of hot jupiters and hot neptunes

    Ehrenreich D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the nearly five hundred extra-solar planets known, almost 30% orbit closer than 0.1 AU from their parent star. We will review the observations and the corresponding models of the evaporation of these ‘hot jupiters’. The observations started with the discovery made with HST that the planet orbiting HD 209458 has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent observations obtained with HST/STIS and HST/ACS confirm the escape of the gas. Even more, oxygen and carbon have been shown to be present at very high altitude in the upper atmosphere. Observations of other targets like HD 189733 and WASP-12 show that evaporation is a general phenomenon which could contribute to the evolution of planets orbiting close to their parent stars. To interpret these observations, we developed models to quantify the escape rate from the measured occultation depths. Numerous models have also been published to investigate mechanisms which can lead to the estimated escape rate. In general, the high temperature of the upper atmosphere heated by the far and extreme UV combined with the tidal forces allow a very efficient evaporation of the upper atmosphere. We will review the different models and their implications.

  5. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  6. Hot chocolate effect

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  7. THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1980-12-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  8. The hot Hagedorn Universe

    Rafelski, Johann

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM) and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.

  9. Reheating Austenitizing Temperature of Spring Steel 60Si2MnA for Railway

    CUI Juan; LIU Ya-zheng; PAN Hui; GAO Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    The microsturctural transformation of austenite grain,pearlite interlamellar spacing,and lamellar cementite thickness of spring steel 60Si2MnA for railway were studied in the hot-rolled and reheated states.Furthermore,the effect of microstructural characterization on its final mechanical properties was discussed.The results showed that as far as 60Si2MnA,the pearlite interlamellar spacing determined the hardness,whereas,the austenite grain determined the toughness.Compared with microstructure and mechanical properties in the hot-rolled state,after reheating treatment at 950℃,its average grain sizes are apparently fine and the pearlite interlamellar spacing and lamellar cementite thickness coarsen to some extent,but both hardness and impact toughness increase to HRC 48 and 8.5 J.respectively.In the course of making spring,the optimum reheating austenitizing temperature for the 60Si2MnA steel is 950℃.

  10. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  11. Hot fusion, cold fusion

    The publication of observations of nuclear fusion reactions in electrolysis experiments has led to hope that an easy way to domesticate this major source of energy had been found. In this article are recalled the classical solutions which are studied for hot fusion, the state of the art the difficulties and the perspectives, followed by the present situation concerning the experiments related to what has been called, perhaps a little too quickly, cold fusion

  12. Treatment of kidney diseases in the thermal springs of Pithecusa during the XVIII Century.

    Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The island of Pithecusa (Ischia) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north end of the Gulf of Naples at about 30 kilometers from the same city. Pithecusa is very popular for its hot springs which even the ancients used. This report aims to analyze the renal therapeutic benefits of the Pithacusa thermal mineral spring through a review of two different manuscripts: i) "Di Napoli il seno cratero"(The gulf of Naples) of Domenico Antonio Parrino (1642-1708) and ii) "De' rimedi naturali che sono nell'isola di Pithecusa oggi detta Ischia"(On the natural cures of the island of Pithecusa known today as Ischia)of Giulio Iasolino (1583-1622). These two manuscripts published during the 18th century and both manuscripts highlight the thermal virtues of the thermal springs of Pithecusa. In the past natural remedies were important in the treatment of different diseases including that of thermal springs dating back to ancient Rome. Thermal springs were used to treat spasms, skin diseases, hair loss and various renal ailments. Both manuscripts describe the thermal springs in Ischia and their therapeutic benefits in medical diseases. PMID:26913894

  13. Effect of segregations on mechanical properties and crack propagation in spring steel

    B. Žužek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made over the last decades to improve performance of spring steels, which would increase the service time of springs and also allow vehicles weight reduction. There are different possibilities of improving properties of spring steels, from modifying the chemical composition of steels to optimizing the deformation process and changing the heat treatment parameters. Another way of improving steel properties is through refining the microstructure and reducing amount of inclusions. Therefore, the focus of the current investigation was to determine the effect of more uniform and cleaner microstructure obtained through electro-slag remelting (ESR of steel on the mechanical and dynamic properties of spring steel, with special focus on the resistance to fatigue crack propagation. Effect of the microstructure refinement was evaluated in terms of tensile strength, elongation, fracture and impact toughness, and fatigue resistance under bending and tensile loading. After the mechanical tests the fracture surfaces of samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the influence of microstructure properties on the crack propagation and crack propagation resistance was studied. Investigation was performed on hot rolled, soft annealed and vacuum heat treated 51CrV4 spring steel produced by conventional continuous casting and compared with steel additional refined through ESR. Results shows that elimination of segregations and microstructure refinement using additional ESR process gives some improvement in terms of better repeatability and reduced scattering, but on the other hand it has negative effect on crack propagation resistance and fatigue properties of the spring steel.

  14. Hot interstellar medium

    In view of that the diffuse component of soft X-rays is emitted mainly by extended supernova remnants and the hot interstellar medium produced thereby, the following three points are discussed. (1.) In the early stage of supernova remnants expanding in low density media, neither the equipartition of energy between electrons and ions nor the ionization equilibrium holds. The shock structure is modified by the pressure of hot plasma. X-ray features of the North Polar Spur are interpreted by taking these points into account. (2.) Several compilations of X-ray line emission are compared. Those by Kato and by Raymond and Smith are different in the equilibrium ion abundances and the collisional excitation rates for some important lines. The origins of differences are shown for some examples. It is demonstrated how the difference affects astrophysical interpretations. (3.) The solar system is surrounded by a hot, tenuous interstellar medium extended in the direction of 1 -- 1500 in the northern hemisphere. In other directions X-rays emitted farther than absorbing clouds are appreciable. (author)

  15. Hot subluminous stars

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...

  16. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  17. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    B.Arun*1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7 with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application. hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application.

  18. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  19. Composition, structure and properties of sediment thermal springs of Kamchatka

    Shanina, Violetta; Smolyakov, Pavel; Parfenov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the physical and mechanical properties sediment thermal fields Mutnovsky, Lower Koshelevo and Bannyh (Kamchatka). This multi-component soils, mineral and chemical composition of which depends on the formation factors (pH, temperature, salinity of water, composition and structure of the host volcanic rocks). Samples Lower Koshelevo sediment thermal sources differ in the following composition: smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite mixed-mineral. Samples of sediment thermal springs Mutnovsky volcano in accordance with the X-ray analysis has the following composition: volcanic glass, crystalline sulfur, plagioclase, smectite, illite-smectite mixed, illite, chlorite, quartz, cristobalite, pyrite, melanterite, kaolinite. Natural moisture content samples of sediment thermal springs from 45 to 121%, hygroscopic moisture content of 1.3 to 3.7%. A large amount of native sulfur (up to 92%) and the presence of amorphous material gives low values of density of solid particles (up to 2.1 g/cm3) samples Mutnovskii thermal field. The values of the density of solids sediment Koshelevo and Bannyh hot springs close to those of the main components of mineral densities (up to 2.6-3.0 g/cm3). The results of the particle size distribution and microaggregate analysis of sediment thermal springs Lower Koshelevo field shows that the predominance observed of particles with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, the coefficient of soil heterogeneity heterogeneous. In the bottom sediments of the thermal springs of the volcano Mutnovsky poorly traced predominance of one faction. Most prevalent fraction with particle size 0.01 - 0.05 mm. When analyzing the content in the soil microaggregates their content is shifted towards particles with a diameter of 0.25 mm. The contents of a large number of large (1-10 mm), porous rock fragments, due to the deposition of pyroclastic material from the eruptions of the last century. Present in large amounts rounded crystals of native sulfur

  20. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.