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Sample records for acidic deposition gradient

  1. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  2. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63 degree to 41 degree. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm2g-1 in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm2g-1 in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm2g-1 for all species and 192 cm2g-1 for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production

  3. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  4. First year sugar maple (Acer saccharum, Marsh. ) seedling nutrition, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, physiology, and growth along an acidic deposition gradient in Michigan

    McLaughlin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of foliar amino acid and root reducing sugar accumulations to separate acidic deposition from natural (i.e., soil phosphorus, mycorrhizae, and temperature) ecosystem stressors on first-year sugar maple seedling growth in three Michigan forests. Seedling growth was greatest at the sites exposed to highest levels of acidic deposition. However, sites receiving greatest acidic deposition rates also had high available soil phosphorus contents. No significant differences occurred, suggesting increased nitrogen loadings were not reflected in seedling tissue nitrogen. Seedling root or foliar calcium, magnesium, or potassium also were not significantly different, suggesting those elements were not growth limiting. Significant differences, however, occurred for seedling arginine and glutamine concentrations in foliage and reducing sugar concentrations in roots and were negatively correlated with seedling tissue phosphorus concentrations, suggesting phosphorus was limiting seedling growth at the low acidic deposition site. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedling roots was greater at the low acidic deposition site and positively correlated with seedling amino acid and reducing sugar accumulation but negatively correlated with sucrose concentrations in seedling roots, indicating that the fungal partner may have stimulated sucrose degradation to reducing sugars. Both air and soil temperatures were positively correlated with total sugar and sucrose concentrations in seedling roots. High levels of arginine, glutamine, and reducing sugars were negatively correlated with seedling growth indicating that seedlings at the low acidic deposition site were more stressed than seedlings at the sites receiving higher levels of pollutant loads. The results suggest differences in foliar arginine and glutamine and root reducing sugars in the forests in this study are likely due to natural rather than acidic deposition stress.

  5. Effect of grass sward on the chemistry of lysimetric water on altitudinal gradient of deforested mountain area affected by acid depositions

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr; Jandák, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2008), s. 386-400. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/97/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : acid depozition * Calamagrostis villosa * altitud Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Soil N chemistry in oak forests along a nitrogen deposition gradient

    Nilsson, Lars Ola; Wallander, Håkan; Bååth, Erland; Falkengren-Grerup, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    values of grass and uppermost soil layers indicate increased nitrification rates in high N deposition sites, but no large downward movements of NO3 in these soils. Only a few sites had NO-3 concentrations exceeding 1 mg N l-¹ in soil solution at 50 cm depth, which showed that N deposition to these acid......¹³¹³dAnthropogenic N deposition may change soil conditions in forest ecosystems as demonstrated in many studies of coniferous forests, whereas results from deciduous forests are relatively scarce. Therefore the influence of N deposition on several variables was studied in situ in 45 oak......-dominated deciduous forests along a N deposition gradient in southern Sweden, where the deposition ranged from 10 to 20 kg N ha-¹ year-¹. Locally estimated NO3-deposition, as measured with ion-exchange resins (IER) on the soil surface, and grass N concentration (%) were positively correlated with earlier modelled...

  7. Deposition of Mercury in Forests along a Montane Elevation Gradient.

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition varies along elevation gradients and is influenced by both orographic and biological factors. We quantified total Hg deposition over a 2 year period at 24 forest sites at Whiteface Mountain, NY, USA, that ranged from 450 to 1450 m above sea level and covered three distinct forest types: deciduous/hardwood forest (14.1 μg/m2-yr), spruce/fir forest (33.8 μg/m2-yr), and stunted growth alpine/fir forest (44.0 μg/m2-yr). Atmospheric Hg deposition increased with elevation, with the dominant deposition pathways shifting from litterfall in low-elevation hardwoods to throughfall in midelevation spruce/fir to cloudwater in high-elevation alpine forest. Soil Hg concentrations (ranging from 69 to 416 ng/g for the Oi/Oe and 72 to 598 ng/g for the Oa horizons) were correlated with total Hg deposition, but the weakness of the correlations suggests that additional factors such as climate and tree species also contribute to soil Hg accumulation. Meteorological conditions influenced Hg deposition pathways, as cloudwater Hg diminished in 2010 (dry conditions) compared to 2009 (wet conditions). However, the dry conditions in 2010 led to increased Hg dry deposition and subsequent significant increases in throughfall Hg fluxes compared to 2009. These findings suggest that elevation, forest characteristics, and meteorological conditions are all important drivers of atmospheric Hg deposition to montane forests. PMID:25822871

  8. A Complexity View of Acid Deposition

    朱建林; 方见树

    2003-01-01

    We show that acid deposition is analogous to complex systems composed of a series of interconnected components.Frequency-size distributions of weekly hydrogen deposition (WHD) of precipitation are consistent with double power-law in two different regimes separated by a crossover WHD. The distribution of variations in acid deposition over a week interval is remarkably symmetrical, with long tail extending over eight orders of magnitude. The acid deposition fluctuations exhibit fractal Brown motion with two different temporal scaling regimes and long-range correlation exists in the series. The power-laws in the acid deposition dynamics are considered to be indicators of seff-organization of atmosphere under environmental pollution stress.

  9. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  10. Dynamics and precision in retinoic acid morphogen gradients

    SCHILLING, THOMAS F.; Nie, Qing; Lander, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) regulates many cellular behaviors during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Like other morphogens, RA forms gradients through the use of localized sources and sinks, feedback, and interactions with other signals; this has been particularly well studied in the context of hindbrain segmentation in vertebrate embryos. Yet, as a small lipophilic molecule derived from a dietary source—vitamin A—RA differs markedly from better-studied polypeptide morphogens in its mecha...

  11. Hard gradient (Ti,Al,SiN coating deposited on composite tool materials

    T. Gawarecki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents investigation of gradient coating of (Ti,Al,SiN deposited on the Al2O3+SiC(w oxide ceramics substrate deposited with the PVD process.Design/methodology/approach: Structure of substrate and coating was investigated with use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM; The X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS and Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES examinations was carried out for proving the gradient character of the (Ti,Al,SiN coating. The investigation includes also microhardness and roughness tests of the deposited coating and used substrate. Scratch test results was analysed to introduce adherence of the investigated coating.Findings: Gradient structure and main properties of the investigated materials were introduced. It has been stated, that properties of the coated with gradient (Ti,Al,SiN coating oxide tool ceramic increase in comparison with uncoated material.Practical implications: Depositing the wear resistant gradient coating onto the Al2O3+SiC(w oxide tool ceramic results in a significant increase of the surface layer microhardness, contributing most probably in this way in machining to the decrease of the wear intensity of cutting tools’ flanks made from the Al2O3+SiC(w oxide tool ceramic.Originality/value: Gradient coatings are an innovative idea. The composition, microstructure and properties of gradient materials change continuously from the surface to the interior of the material.

  12. Fabrication of Isotropic Pyrocarbon at 1400℃ by Thermal Gradient Chemical Vapor Deposition Apparatus

    GUO Lingjun; ZHANG Dongsheng; LI Kezhi; LI Hejun

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to prepare isotropic pyrocarbon by thermal gradient chemical vapor deposition apparatus.The deposition was performed under ambient atmosphere at 1400℃,with natural gas volume flow of 3.5 m~3/h for 80 h.The results show that the thickness and the bulk density of the deposit are about 1.95 g/cm~3 and 10 mm,respectively.The microstructure of the deposit was examined by polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy,which shows that the deposit is constituted of sphere isotropic pyrocarbon,pebble pyrocarbon and laminar pyrocarbon.

  13. Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing

    Douglas C. Hofmann; Scott Roberts; Richard Otis; Joanna Kolodziejska; R. Peter Dillon; Jong-ook Suh; Shapiro, Andrew A; Zi-Kui Liu; John-Paul Borgonia

    2014-01-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to a...

  14. Inferred effects of cloud deposition on forest floor nutrient cycling and microbial properties along a short elevation gradient

    Higher cloud cover significantly decreases forest floor pH, decrease exchangeable cations, modifies mineral-N speciation and increases physiological stress within microbial communities. - Cloud water deposition often increases with elevation, and it is widely accepted that this cloud water increases acid loading to upland forest ecosystems. A study was undertaken in south-eastern Quebec to determine if a 250 m elevation gradient (i.e. 420-665 m), along a uniform sugar-maple stand on the slope of Mount Orford, corresponded to a pH gradient in the forest floor and to predictable changes in soil nutrient availability and microbial properties. Precipitation data from a nearby study, and a photographic survey, provided presumptive evidence that this elevation gradient corresponded to a strong gradient in cloud water deposition. Forest floor temperature did not differ significantly across elevations. Forest floor moisture content was significantly higher, whereas pH and exchangeable Ca and Mg were significantly lower, at the higher elevations. Average seasonal net nitrification rates, determined by long-term laboratory incubations, did not differ significantly across elevations, whereas average seasonal net ammonification rates were significantly higher at higher elevations. Basal respiration rates and microbial biomass did not differ significantly across elevations, but metabolic quotient was significantly higher at higher elevations indicating possible environmental stress on forest floor microbial communities due to cloud water deposition. Anaerobic N mineralisation rates were significantly higher at higher elevations suggesting that N-limited microbial communities frequently exposed to cloud cover can be important short-term sinks for atmospheric N, thereby contributing to increase the active-N fraction of forest floors. We conclude that, where no significant changes in vegetation or temperature occur, elevation gradients can still be used to understand the spatial

  15. High Gradient Accelerator Cavities Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Parsons, Gregory [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, Philip [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oldham, Christopher [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mundy, Zach [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Dolgashev, Valery [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-12-09

    In the Phase I program, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR), in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU), fabricated copper accelerator cavities and used Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to apply thin metal coatings of tungsten and platinum. It was hypothesized that a tungsten coating would provide a robust surface more resistant to arcing and arc damage. The platinum coating was predicted to reduce processing time by inhibiting oxides that form on copper surfaces soon after machining. Two sets of cavity parts were fabricated. One was coated with 35 nm of tungsten, and the other with approximately 10 nm of platinum. Only the platinum cavity parts could be high power tested during the Phase I program due to schedule and funding constraints. The platinum coated cavity exhibit poor performance when compared with pure copper cavities. Not only did arcing occur at lower power levels, but the processing time was actually longer. There were several issues that contributed to the poor performance. First, machining of the base copper cavity parts failed to achieve the quality and cleanliness standards specified to SLAC National Accelerator Center. Secondly, the ALD facilities were not configured to provide the high levels of cleanliness required. Finally, the nanometer coating applied was likely far too thin to provide the performance required. The coating was ablated or peeled from the surface in regions of high fields. It was concluded that the current ALD process could not provide improved performance over cavities produced at national laboratories using dedicated facilities.

  16. Improvement of tool materials by deposition of gradient and multilayers coatings

    L.A. Dobrzański; K. Gołombek; J. Mikuła; D. Pakuła

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation of the functional properties of cermets, Si3N4 and Al2O3 based ceramics, coated with the PVD andCVD multilayer and gradient coatings and comparison them with the commercial uncoated and coated tool materials.Design/methodology/approach: TEM, SEM, confocal microscopy, scratch test, microhardness tests, roughnesstests, cutting tests.Findings: Employment of the hard wear resistant coatings deposited onto the sintered ceramic tool materials withthe physical deposition from ...

  17. Aeromagnetic gradient survey and elementary application in sandstone type uranium deposits prospecting

    The principle,advantage and data processing of aeromagnetic gradient survey approach is introduced in this paper, and used to identify the shallow surface faults, uranium ore-forming environment and depth of magnetic body for the prospecting of sandstone type uranium deposits. (authors)

  18. A modified micrometeorological gradient method for estimating O3 dry deposition over a forest canopy

    Z. Y. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small pollutant concentration gradients between levels above a plant canopy result in large uncertainties in estimated air–surface exchange fluxes when using existing micrometeorological gradient methods, including the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM and the modified Bowen-Ratio method (MBR. A modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM is proposed in this study for estimating O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top, taking advantage of relatively large gradients between these levels due to significant pollutant uptake at top layers of the canopy. The new method is compared with the AGM and MBR methods and is also evaluated using eddy-covariance (EC flux measurements collected at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site, Massachusetts during 1993–2000. All the three gradient methods (AGM, MBR and MGM produced similar diurnal cycles of O3 dry deposition velocity (Vd(O3 to the EC measurements, with the MGM method being the closest in magnitude to the EC measurements. The multi-year average Vd(O3 differed significantly between these methods, with the AGM, MBR and MGM method being 2.28, 1.45 and 1.18 times of that of the EC. Sensitivity experiments identified several input parameters for the MGM method as first-order parameters that affect the estimated Vd(O3. A 10% uncertainty in the wind speed attenuation coefficient or canopy displacement height can cause about 10% uncertainty in the estimated Vd(O3. An unrealistic leaf area density vertical profile can cause an uncertainty of a factor of 2.0 in the estimated Vd(O3. Other input parameters or formulas for stability functions only caused an uncertainly of a few percent. The new method provides an alternative approach in monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies.

  19. A modified micrometeorological gradient method for estimating O3 dry depositions over a forest canopy

    Wu, Z. Y.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. M.; Munger, J. W.

    2015-07-01

    Small pollutant concentration gradients between levels above a plant canopy result in large uncertainties in estimated air-surface exchange fluxes when using existing micrometeorological gradient methods, including the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) and the modified Bowen ratio method (MBR). A modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM) is proposed in this study for estimating O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top, taking advantage of relatively large gradients between these levels due to significant pollutant uptake in the top layers of the canopy. The new method is compared with the AGM and MBR methods and is also evaluated using eddy-covariance (EC) flux measurements collected at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site, Massachusetts, during 1993-2000. All three gradient methods (AGM, MBR, and MGM) produced similar diurnal cycles of O3 dry deposition velocity (Vd(O3)) to the EC measurements, with the MGM method being the closest in magnitude to the EC measurements. The multi-year average Vd(O3) differed significantly between these methods, with the AGM, MBR, and MGM method being 2.28, 1.45, and 1.18 times that of the EC, respectively. Sensitivity experiments identified several input parameters for the MGM method as first-order parameters that affect the estimated Vd(O3). A 10% uncertainty in the wind speed attenuation coefficient or canopy displacement height can cause about 10% uncertainty in the estimated Vd(O3). An unrealistic leaf area density vertical profile can cause an uncertainty of a factor of 2.0 in the estimated Vd(O3). Other input parameters or formulas for stability functions only caused an uncertainly of a few percent. The new method provides an alternative approach to monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies.

  20. Electrospray deposition of chalcogenide glass films for gradient refractive index and quantum dot incorporation

    Novak, Spencer

    -to-roll processing whereby (theoretically) 100% of starting solution can be utilized in a continuous process. The present effort has shown that electrospray offers the advantage of spatially defined, localized deposition, which enables direct 2-D and 3-D printing, though with limited (unoptimized) spatial resolution on the order of millimeters. Knowledge of processing protocols were exploited to fabricate multi-layer films from two different glass compositions to yield an effective refractive index gradient (GRIN). GRIN coatings were fabricated and refractive index variations were predicted. The advantages of electrospray deposition were also explored for the enhancement of quantum dot doping in ChG films. A hypothesis whereby electrospray would enable deposition of films based on consolidation of many, single QD doped aerosol droplets was developed and evaluated. Experimental validation of this premise in CdSe and PbS doped ChG films was shown, indicating that electrospray offers a kinetic barrier to QD movement preventing aggregation from occurring, not seen in spin-coating. Two types of organic ligands were found to enhance dispersion of QDs in amine solvents, octadecylamine and mercaptopropionic acid. Utilizing TEM characterization, evidence that electrospray may be more suitable than spin-coating for the dispersion of QDs in solution-derived ChG films was confirmed. However, the ultimate effectiveness of this approach was limited due to the ability to quantify direct loading levels of the QD and surrounding glass matrix. This work demonstrates that electrospray offers additional flexibility over spin-coating and other evaporation methods for the deposition of ChG coatings. Electrospray processing of doped and undoped ChG solutions for microphotonic applications has been shown as a viable alternative in the processing and material toolbox where spatially defined index and dopant control is required.

  1. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban–rural gradient

    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban–rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RIRDS was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RIRDS. These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban–rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. Highlights: ► Spatial pattern of metal risk level associated with road-deposited sediment (RDS) along urban–rural gradients varied. ► Risk level of metals changed significantly when grain size was considered. ► A new index integrating RDS characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed. ► Results from the new index were improved relative to those of traditional assessment methods. -- A new index integrating road-deposited sediment characteristics and potential ecological risk was developed to assess metal risk along the urban–rural gradient

  2. Isotopic Investigation of Reactive Nitrogen Deposition Along a Highway Road Gradient

    Middlecamp, K. M.; Elliott, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    It is well understood that mobile emissions on highways create “hotspots” of air pollution. For example, previous studies have indicated that nitrogen emissions from automobiles are deposited locally within 10’s to 100’s of meters from roadways in the form of particulates and aerosols in dry deposition. However, there is limited understanding of the effects of these emissions on the surrounding environment and human health. This spatial pattern of concentrated nitrogen deposition has important implications for near-road environments. For example, storm water infrastructure likely channels near-road deposition directly into surface waters. In addition, excess nitrogen can have adverse affects on near-road plant communities; studies have documented defoliation and changes in community structure due to nitrogen pollution near roadways. Because vehicle emissions constitute about half of Eastern U.S. NOx emissions, it is critical to identify the fate and impact of automobile emissions on near-road ecosystems. Furthermore, legislation controlling air pollution around highways is limited, and has recently been the focus of debate regarding the necessity of reducing highway pollution to National Ambient Air Quality Standard levels. This research addresses the spatial pattern and sources of reactive N deposition near a roadway. The study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen in plant tissue and dry nitrogen deposition to examine the extent of N deposition along a gradient perpendicular to a major highway. The gradient spans 400 meters perpendicular to a heavily trafficked section (33,000 cars and trucks per day) of I-76 in Rector, Pennsylvania. Passive samplers were deployed monthly for five months at six sites along the gradient to collect dry deposition of three reactive N species: NH3, HNO3 and NO2. The passive samplers were analyzed for concentration and isotopic composition (δ13N). Additionally, we used two types of grasses (Agrostis perennans and Panicum virgatum

  3. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha-1 yr-1) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: → N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. → Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. → Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. → Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  4. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    Stevens, Carly J., E-mail: c.j.stevens@open.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dupre, Cecilia [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, Edu [Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.058, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, Cassandre [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Gowing, David J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bleeker, Albert [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Diekmann, Martin [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alard, Didier [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bobbink, Roland [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, David [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Corcket, Emmanuel [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mountford, J. Owen [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, Vigdis [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: > N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. > Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. > Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. > Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  5. The effect of deposition parameters on the properties of gradient a-C:H/Ti layers

    D. Batory; A. Stanishevsky; W. Kaczorowski

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: During the last 20 years DLC (diamond-like carbon) layers became a very attractive material in many medical and engineering applications. While the layer’s stress and adhesion were always a concern, several adhesion improvement methods have been proposed. A majority of those methods consists of either the deposition of an adhesion promoting interlayer or the application of a gradient of chemical composition. In whatever way this reduces the internal stress and improves the adhesion o...

  6. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Persson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1995-12-31

    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  7. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    Iwao Sugimoto; Shunsaku Maeda; Yoriko Suda; Kenji Makihara; Kazuhiko Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl du...

  8. Threshold increases in soil lead and mercury from tropospheric deposition across an elevational gradient.

    Stankwitz, Clare; Kaste, James M; Friedland, Andrew J

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the primary mechanism by which remote ecosystems are contaminated, but few data sets show how fluxes change and control soil metal burdens at the landform scale. We present mercury (Hg), lead ((210)Pb and total Pb), and cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) measurements in organic (O) soil horizons at high-resolution elevation intervals of ∼60 m from 540 to 1160 m on Camels Hump in northern Vermont, USA. Across this gradient, average O horizon Hg ranges from 0.99 mg m(-2) in the low elevation deciduous forest zone to 7.6 mg m(-2) in the higher elevation coniferous forest at 1030 m. We measure two pronounced threshold increases in soil metal burdens above 801 and 934 m, corresponding to the two most common altitudes of cloud base, which coincide with changes in vegetation species. Lead-210, a unique tracer of tropospheric deposition, also increased from 3200 Bq m(-2) to 11500 Bq m(-2) in O horizons, exhibiting threshold responses at the same elevations as Hg and total Pb. Concentrations of (210)Pb and Hg in foliage double from 760 to 900 m elevation, indicating enhanced deposition across the transition from deciduous to coniferous forest. In contrast, (7)Be is constant across the entire elevational gradient because of its upper atmospheric source. This indicates that the effects of orographic precipitation have a smaller control on soil contaminant burdens than the coupled cloudwater deposition-vegetation scavenging effect in the presence of upwind sources. By measuring soil contaminants and unique tracers of atmospheric deposition, we show that tropospheric fluxes of Hg and Pb are higher by a factor of 2 in high-elevation coniferous forests than in adjacent lowlands. Total O horizon Hg and Pb burdens increase by over 4-fold with elevation because of the compounding effects of enhanced deposition and longer metal residence times at higher elevations (>50 years). PMID:22759071

  9. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  10. Improvement of tool materials by deposition of gradient and multilayers coatings

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the functional properties of cermets, Si3N4 and Al2O3 based ceramics, coated with the PVD andCVD multilayer and gradient coatings and comparison them with the commercial uncoated and coated tool materials.Design/methodology/approach: TEM, SEM, confocal microscopy, scratch test, microhardness tests, roughnesstests, cutting tests.Findings: Employment of the hard wear resistant coatings deposited onto the sintered ceramic tool materials withthe physical deposition from the gaseous phase (PVD is reckoned as one of the most important achievements inthe last years in the area of improvement of the service properties of ceramic cutting tools. Depositing the antiwearcoatings of the gradient and multi TiN+(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN types onto the investigated ceramic tool materialsmakes it possible to achieve the clear improvement of their tool life and also of the quality of the machinedsurfaces, reduction of machining costs and elimination of cutting fluids used in machining.Practical implications: The widespread use in machining of oxide and nitride ceramics, as well as of cermetswith the complex nanocrystaline coatings deposited in the PVD processes contributes to the increased interestin the contemporary „Near-Net-Shape” technology, i.e., manufacturing semi-products with the shape anddimensions as close as possible to those of the finished products.Originality/value: In the paper the research of multilayer and gradient TiN+(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN nanocrystalline coatingsdeposited in the PVD method on sintered tool materials carried out in order to improve the tool cutting properties.

  11. Impact of Seasalt Deposition on Acid Soils in Maritime Regions

    ZHANG Zhen-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of seasalt deposition and its impact on acid soils in maritime regions are reviewed. It is pointed out that studies involving the impact of seasalt deposition on acid soils have been concentrated on short-term effects on soil and water acidification. A deep consideration of long-term effects on soil acidification in maritime regions is still needed.

  12. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban-rural gradient.

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2013-03-01

    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban-rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RI(RDS) was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RI(RDS). These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban-rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. PMID:23291211

  13. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air

  14. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Baranyai, Edina [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Agilent Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Braun, Mihály [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herteleni Laboratory of Environmental Studies, 4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/C (Hungary); Cserháti, Csaba [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 2 (Hungary); Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tóthmérész, Béla [HAS-UD Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air.

  15. Structure and mechanical properties of PVD gradient coatings deposited onto tool steels and sialon tool ceramics

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents investigation results of the structure and mechanical properties of gradient coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation - physical vapour deposition (CAE-PVD techniques onto the X40CrMoV5-1 hot work tool steel, HS6-5-2 high speed steel and SiAlON tool ceramics. The Ti(C,N, (Ti,AlN and (Al,Si,Cr N coatings were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Microstructure was characterised using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The phase composition of the investigated coatings was determined by means of the X-ray diffractometer. The chemical concentration changes of the coating components, and the substrate material were evaluated in virtue of tests carried out in the GDOS spectrometer. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test method.Findings: It was found out that the structure of the PVD coatings deposited onto all substrates is composed of fine crystallites. The investigations made by use of the glow discharge optical emission spectrometer indicate to the existence of the transition zone between the substrate material and the coating. The results show that all coatings present good adhesion. The critical load LC2, which is in the range 35-90 N, depends on the coating type and substrate. Good adhesion of the coatings deposited to the substrate should be connected with the existence of the transition zone. All the coatings are demonstrated by high hardness.Research limitations/implications: Ti(C,N, (Ti,AlN and (Al,Si,Cr N gradient coatings can be applied for cutting tools and hot working tools.Originality/value: Working out and testing PVD coatings obtained by tool ceramic and tool steels is a special future of development direction in a domain of thin coatings.

  16. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  17. Acidic lakes and streams in the United States: The role of acidic deposition

    A statistically designed survey of lakes and streams in acid-sensitive areas of the United States, the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), was used to identify the role of acidic deposition, relative to other factors, in causing acidic conditions in 1,181 lakes and 4,668 streams. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of acid anions in 75% of the acidic lakes and 47% of the acidic streams. Organic anions are dominant in one-fourth of the acidic lakes and streams; acidic mine drainage is the dominant acid source in 25% of the acidic streams. Other causes of acidic conditions are relatively unimportant on a regional scale. Nearly all the deposition-dominated acidic systems were found in six well-delineated subpopulations that represent about one-fourth of the NSWS lake population and one-third of the NSWS stream population

  18. Changes in epilithic biomasses and invertebrate community structure over a deposit metal concentration gradient in upland headwater streams

    Macintosh, Katrina Ann; Griffiths, David

    2015-01-01

    Stream bed metal deposits affect the taxon richness, density and taxonomic diversity of primary and secondary producers by a variety of direct or indirect abiotic and biotic processes but little is known about the relative importance of these processes over a deposit metal concentration gradient. Inorganic matter (IM), algal and non-photosynthetic detrital (NPD) dry biomasses were estimated for 10 monthly samples, between 2007 and 2008, from eight sites differing in deposit density. Invertebr...

  19. Fabrication of gradient porous LSM cathode by optimizing deposition parameters in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Multiple-step ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was developed to produce a gradient porous lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte for use in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The effect of solvent and precursor type on the morphology and compositional homogeneity of the LSM film was first identified. The LSM film prepared from organo-metallic precursor and organic solvent showed a homogeneous crack-free microstructure before and after heat treatment as opposed to aqueous solution. With respect to the effect of processing parameters, increasing the temperature and solution flow rate in the specific range of 520-580 deg. C leads to change the microstructure from a dense to a highly porous structure. Using a dilute organic solution a nanocrystalline thin layer was first deposited at 520 deg. C and solution flow rate of 0.73 ml/min on YSZ surface; then, three gradient porous layers were sprayed from concentrated solution at higher temperatures (540-580 deg. C) and solution flow rates (1.13-1.58 ml/min) to form a gradient porous LSM cathode film with ∼30 μm thickness. The microstructure, phase crystallinity and compositional homogeneity of the fabricated films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). Results showed that the spray pyrolized gradient film fabricated in the temperature range of 520-580 deg. C is composed of highly crystalline LSM phase which can remove the need for subsequent heat treatment

  20. Concentration of α-Linoleic Acid of Perilla Oil by Gradient Cooling Urea Inclusion

    GU Hai-bo; MA Xue-yi; WU Jing-bo; ZHANG Qi; YUAN Wen-bing; CHEN Yi-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this study,production of α-linoleic acid concentrated from crude perilla oil by gradient cooling urea inclusion was optimized.The fatty acid composition was determined after ethyl esterification by gas chromatography (GC).In this process,orthogonal experiment was carried out.Under optimum conditions,the maximum amount of α-linoleic acid (91.5%) was obtained at a urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,a solvent to fatty acids ratio of 7,a reaction temperature of 348 K and a crystallization time of 690 min.A simple method of gradient cooling urea inclusion was used to purify α-Iinolenie acid by using urea to form inclusion complexes with the saturated and the less unsaturated fatty acids,which enhanced the purity of α-iinoleic acid ethyl ester by above 90%.

  1. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    Iwao Sugimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  2. Acid deposition and lake chemistry in southwest China

    A water quality survey has been performed on selected lakes and streams in southwest China. The purpose of the study was to measure the concentrations of acidic deposition and surface water chemistry in a region of severe air pollution, forest decline, and relatively sensitive geology to acidic deposition. It is shown that, although there are some high elevation lakes of low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC -1), acidification of lakes has not occurred in southwest China due to production of base cations in soil and dry deposition of dust that serves to neutralize acidic deposition. Water chemistry is buffered by high base cation concentrations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+) greater than 300 μeq L-1, and pH values are always greater than 6.5. 24 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    Haddad, H.; Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com; Talantikite, D.; Merzouk, H.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.

    2015-08-31

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h.

  4. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h

  5. Structure of multicomponent and gradient PVD coatings deposited on sintered tool materials

    J. Mikuła

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the Al2O3+TiC type oxide tool ceramics and cemented carbides with themulticomponent (Ti,AlN and gradient Ti(C,N coatings deposited with use of the cathodic arc evaporationCAE-PVD method.Design/methodology/approach: SEM, confocal microscopy, X-ray qualitative microanalysis of elements,X-ray qualitative phase analysis.Findings: It was stated that investigated materials have a dense, compact structure and their fracture surfacetopography attests their high brittleness, characteristic especially for the oxide ceramic materials. The coatingswere put down uniformly onto the investigated substrate materials. They have a columnar, fine-graded structure.Practical implications: Pro-ecological dry cutting processes without the use of the cutting fluids and in the„Near-Net-Shape” technology.Originality/value: Application of multicomponent (Ti,AlN and gradient Ti(C,N types of coatings ontosintered tool materials in order to improve cutting properties of the tools.

  6. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Liao, Bohan

    1998-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Soil Properties in Coniferous Forest Stands Along a Fly Ash Deposition Gradient in Eastern Germany

    S. KLOSE; F. MAKESCHIN

    2005-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and microbial properties of forest soils subjected to long-term fly ash depositions were analyzed in spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands of eastern Germany on three forest sites along an emission gradient of 3 (high input), 6, and 15 km (low input) downwind of a coal-fired power plant. Past emissions resulted in an atypical high mass of mineral fly ash constituents in the organic horizons at the high input site of 128 t ha-1 compared to 58 t ha-1 at the low input site. Magnetic susceptibility measurements proved that the high mineral content of the forest floor was a result of fly ash accumulation in these forest stands. Fly ash deposition in the organic horizons at Site Ⅰ versus Ⅲsignificantly increased the pH values, effective cation exchange capacity, base saturation and, with exception of the L horizon, concentrations of mobile heavy metals Cd, Cr, and Ni, while stocks of organic C generally decreased. A principal component analysis showed that organic C content and base status mainly controlled soil microbial biomass and microbial respiration rates at these sites, while pH and mobile fractions of Cd, Cr, and Ni governed enzyme activities. Additionally,it was hypothesized that long-term fly ash emissions would eventually destabilize forest ecosystems. Therefore, the results of this study could become a useful tool for risk assessment in forest ecosystems that were subjected to past emissions from coal-fired power plants.

  8. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 4. The regional acid deposition model and engineering model. Final report

    The report describes the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM), a constantly evolving system of computational models that describe the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition on a regional scale. RADM was developed by the Acid Deposition Modeling Project (ADMP), established at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in 1983 to design, develop, and implement a comprehensive modeling system suitable for assessment studies to be conducted as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The project was based at NCAR until 1987, when it moved to the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany as the focus of its work moved into model testing and application. The ADMP team developed the RADM system, performed preliminary evaluation, transferred the system to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and participated in NAPAP studies designed to test RADM and develop applications for the model

  9. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    Jirousek, Martin, E-mail: machozrut@mail.muni.c [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Hajek, Michal [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bragazza, Luca [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Site Lausanne, Station 2, Case Postale 96, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Ecological Systems - ECOS, Batiment GR, Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Biology and Evolution, University of Ferrara, Corso Ercole I d' Este 32, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m{sup -2} year{sup -1} in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. - Research highlights: Despite high atmopsheric nitrogen deposition, Sphagnum mosses still have rather low N:P ratio. Regional climate and landscape management can enhance P and K availability in bogs. Sphagnum species of the Cuspidata section were characterised by lower N:P ratio. - Regional climate and local forestry practices are expected to alter nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum mosses at high atmospheric N deposition in Central-East Europe.

  10. Cooperative Effects in Aligned and Opposed Multicomponent Charge Gradients Containing Strongly Acidic, Weakly Acidic, and Basic Functional Groups.

    Ashraf, Kayesh M; Giri, Dipak; Wynne, Kenneth J; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2016-04-26

    Bifunctionalized surface charge gradients in which the individual component gradients either align with or oppose each other have been prepared. The multicomponent gradients contain strongly acidic, weakly acidic, and basic functionalities that cooperatively interact to define surface wettability, nanoparticle binding, and surface charge. The two-step process for gradient formation begins by modifying a siloxane coated silicon wafer in a spatially dependent fashion first with an aminoalkoxysilane and then with a mercapto-functionalized alkoxysilane. Immersion in hydrogen peroxide leads to oxidation of the surface immobilized sulfhydryl groups and subsequent protonation of the surface immobilized amines. Very different surface chemistries were obtained from gradients that either align with or oppose each other. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the degree of amine group protonation depends on the local concentration of sulfonate groups, which form ion pairs with the resulting ammonium ions. Contact angle measurements show that these ion pairs greatly enhance the wettability of the gradient surface. Finally, studies of colloidal gold binding show that the presence of both amine and thiol moieties enhance colloid binding, which is also influenced by surface charge. Cooperativity is also revealed in the distribution of charges on uniform samples used as models of the gradient surfaces, as evaluated via zeta potential measurements. Most significantly, the net surface charge and how it changes with distance and solution pH strongly depend on whether the gradients in amine and thiol align or oppose each other. The aligned multicomponent gradients show the most interesting behavior in that there appears to be a point at pH ∼ 6.5 where surface charge remains constant with distance. Setting the pH above or below this transition point leads to changes in the direction of charge variation along the length of the substrate. PMID:27073019

  11. Thick plate-shaped Al2O3/ZrO2 composites with continuous gradient processed by electrophoretic deposition

    This paper concerns the processing of free standing objects with a gradient composition. The possibility to shape 5 mm thick ZrO2-Al2O3 FGM discs by means of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from suitable stable suspensions was explored. The EPD processing parameters and sintering schedules are described, and the densified FGM composites are evaluated. A mathematical model was established for the EPD process, allowing to calculate the composition gradient in plate-shaped FGM materials from the starting composition of the suspensions, the EPD operating parameters and the powder specific EPD characteristics. The model was essential to engineer the gradient profiles in the green deposits. Defect free Al2O3/ZrO2 FGM discs with a diameter of 55 mm and a thickness of 5 mm could be successfully processed. (orig.)

  12. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  13. Effects of acid deposition on microbial processes in natural waters

    Biogeochemical processes mediated by microorganisms are not adversely affected by the acidification of natural waters to the same extent as are the life cycles of higher organisms. Basic processes, e.g., primary production and organic matter decomposition, are not slowed in moderately acidified systems and do not generally decline above a pH of 5. More specifically, the individual components of the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles are, with few exceptions, also acid resistant. The influence of acid deposition on microbial processes is more often stimulation of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, often leading to alkalinity production, which mitigates the effect of strong acid deposition. Bacterial sulfate reduction and denitrification in sediments are two of the major processes that can be stimulated by sulfate and nitrate deposition, respectively, and result in ANC (acid-neutralizing capacity) generation. One of the negative effects of acid deposition is increased mobilization and bioaccumulation of some metals. Bacteria appear to play an important role, especially in mercury cycling, with acidification leading to increased bacterial methylation of mercury and subsequent bioaccumulation in higher organisms

  14. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  15. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of silica-hyaluronic acid and titania-hyaluronic acid nanocomposites

    Ma, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I., E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > The kinetics of electrodeposition of hyaluronic acid has been studied using quartz crystal microbalance. > Composite films containing silica and titania were prepared by electrophoretic deposition. > The deposition yield and deposit composition can be varied by variation of deposition time, voltage and bath composition. > We concluded that the method offers the advantages of room temperature processing for the fabrication of composite materials for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Thin films of hyaluronic acid were prepared by anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and the deposition kinetics was studied using quartz crystal microbalance. EPD method has been developed for the fabrication of new ceramic-biopolymer nanocomposites containing silica and titania nanoparticles in the matrix of hyaluronic acid. The deposit thickness was varied in the range of 0-10 {mu}m. The composition of the deposits can be varied by the variation of silica and titania concentration in the suspensions. The deposits were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The method offers the advantages of room temperature processing of nanocomposite materials for biomedical applications.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of silica-hyaluronic acid and titania-hyaluronic acid nanocomposites

    Research highlights: → The kinetics of electrodeposition of hyaluronic acid has been studied using quartz crystal microbalance. → Composite films containing silica and titania were prepared by electrophoretic deposition. → The deposition yield and deposit composition can be varied by variation of deposition time, voltage and bath composition. → We concluded that the method offers the advantages of room temperature processing for the fabrication of composite materials for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Thin films of hyaluronic acid were prepared by anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and the deposition kinetics was studied using quartz crystal microbalance. EPD method has been developed for the fabrication of new ceramic-biopolymer nanocomposites containing silica and titania nanoparticles in the matrix of hyaluronic acid. The deposit thickness was varied in the range of 0-10 μm. The composition of the deposits can be varied by the variation of silica and titania concentration in the suspensions. The deposits were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The method offers the advantages of room temperature processing of nanocomposite materials for biomedical applications.

  19. Floral gradient in flowering tobacco in relation to free amino acids

    CHENYONGNING; WENANLI

    1993-01-01

    By employing TCLs (thin cell layers) culture, the floral gradient in flowering tobacco of different developmental stages was confirmed. The TCLs from early flowering tobacco regenerated more floral buds than those from the tobacco plants in full blooming or fruiting stages. Analysis of free amino acid levels revealed the acropetal gradient of Pro in flowering tobacco stem. L-Pro. L-Trp. D,L-Met and L-Arg were respectively added into the culture medium for testing their influence on floral bud formation from tobacco pedicel segments. Only L-Trp evidently enhanced the floral bud neoformation.

  20. Composition, structure and properties of gradient thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)

    Gradient thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) along with the bond coat were produced by one and the same technological cycle using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) of an MCrAlY ingot, then of an Al-Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3) tablet (pressed multicomponent powder mixture) and finally of a ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3 ceramic ingot. At the evaporation temperature used, vapor pressures of the tablet components decrease in the direction: AlapproachesAl2O3approachesZrO2(Y2O3). The evaporation of these constituents also proceeds in the same order. As a result, a transition zone [with composition and structure gradients - transition gradient zone (TGZ)] - forms between the bond coat and outer ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3 ceramic layer during deposition. The TGZ constitution and structure are primarily determined by the aluminum, Al2O3 and ZrO2 contents of the tablet. As a consequence of liquid aluminum participation in the coating deposition process, a thin layer of β-phase (NiAl), smoothly transitions to an Al2O3 layer and then to ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Community Structure and Ecosystem Functioning of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Across an N Deposition Gradient in Temperate North America

    Lucas, R. W.; Casper, B. B.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past century, human activities have resulted in a substantial increase in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition throughout eastern North America, effectively doubling the amount of inorganic nitrogen entering terrestrial ecosystems. Increased atmospheric N deposition has the potential to alter terrestrial plant and microbial communities by increasing available NO3- and NH4+ in forest soil. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, a central member of the soil microbial community, live in association with most tree species of temperate and boreal ecosystems and are important contributors to many ecosystem functions. Previous work in boreal systems suggests that the availability of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) resources are important contributing factors structuring belowground communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi. We do not yet understand the importance or the implications of changes in the ectomycorrhizal community as measured by effects on forest ecosystems or ecosystem functions such as N cycling or carbon storage. We examined ectomycorrhizal community structure morphologically over a natural atmospheric N deposition gradient across the northeastern United States. We also measured peroxidase, phenol oxidase, and general proteolytic activity, three ecosystem functions in which ectomycorrhizal fungi are involved. Using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), we found significant differences in ectomycorrhizal communities across the gradient with the first three axes describing 48% of the observed variation. Most community differences are driven by the relative abundance of 17 morphotypes across the gradient. Peroxidase and phenol oxidase activity were both significantly lower (p = 0.0323 and 0.0342 respectively) in areas of high atmospheric N deposition. Our data support the hypothesis that with increased atmospheric N deposition ectomycorrhizal communities shift from those using more organic forms of N to those using more inorganic forms of N. Such changes in the

  2. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  3. Coexistence of colossal stress and texture gradients in sputter deposited nanocrystalline ultra-thin metal films

    This paper demonstrates experimentally that ultra-thin, nanocrystalline films can exhibit coexisting colossal stress and texture depth gradients. Their quantitative determination is possible by X-ray diffraction experiments. Whereas a uniform texture by itself is known to generally cause curvature in so-called sin2ψ plots, it is shown that the combined action of texture and stress gradients provides a separate source of curvature in sin2ψ plots (i.e., even in cases where a uniform texture does not induce such curvature). On this basis, the texture and stress depth profiles of a nanocrystalline, ultra-thin (50 nm) tungsten film could be determined

  4. Fractionating vacuum thermal deposition of polyaniline films. Effect of post-deposition acid-base treatment

    Nekrasov, A.A. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation)); Ivanov, V.F. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation)); Gribkova, O.L. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation)); Vannikov, A.V. (Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 31, Moscow 117071 (Russian Federation))

    1994-07-15

    Vacuum thermal evaporation of a single portion of chemically synthesized polyaniline (PAN) base powder was performed step-by-step within four temperature intervals in the 240-450 C range. The vapour was deposited on quartz and SnO[sub 2]-glass substrates, each fraction being deposited on a separate substrate. The samples obtained were subjected to cyclic contrast acid-base treatment, and UV-Vis spectra of the fractions after each treatment cycle were registered. The spectra of the as-deposited fractions appear to have little in common with conventional PAN spectra. The appearance of absorption bands essential for conventional PAN spectra is found to occur for some of the fractions only after the above treatment. This is apparently due to recombination of PAN oligomer radical fragments, formed in the course of the evaporation, resulting in restoration of PAN macromolecule structure. The recombination may be intensified by conformational changes during the acid-base treatment. Cyclic voltammetry curves for the most PAN-like fractions resemble the ones for conventional PAN. ((orig.))

  5. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  6. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a “step-composition gradient channel.” We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (−3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift (Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm2/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the “step-composition gradient channel” in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design

  7. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Hee Kim, So; Gu Yun, Myeong; Koun Cho, Hyung, E-mail: chohk@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a “step-composition gradient channel.” We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (−3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift (Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm{sup 2}/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the “step-composition gradient channel” in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design.

  8. ANALYSIS OF PHOSPHATE DEPOSIT “DISTURBANCES” USING THE HORIZONTAL-GRADIENT RESPONSES OF RESISTIVITY DATA (OULAD ABDOUN, MOROCCO

    Bakkali Saad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the great Oulad Abdoun Basin exploitation of a new phosphate deposit was begun after the Grand Daoui horizon was exhausted. Inclusions of sterile hardpan-so-called "disturbances" -are hard to detect and interfere with phosphate extraction. Their resistivity is above 200 Ω.m as against 80 to 150 Ω.m for the phosphate-rich mineral. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. Models of the geology were successfully obtained from the analysis of the horizontal-gradient map of "disturbances". A new field procedure was tested to estimate the depth of disturbances. Phosphate reserves were better known.

  9. Nutrient availability and phytoplankton nutrient limitation across a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Elser, J.J.; Kyle, M.; Steuer, L.; Nydick, K.R.; Baron, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to lakes and watersheds has been increasing steadily due to various anthropogenic activities. Because such anthropogenic N is widely distributed, even lakes relatively removed from direct human disturbance are potentially impacted. However, the effects of increased atmospheric N deposition on lakes are not well documented, We examined phytoplankton biomass, the absolute and relative abundance of limiting nutrients (N and phosphorus [P]), and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (USA) receiving elevated (>6 kg N??ha-1??yr-1) or low (atmospheric N deposition. Highdeposition lakes had higher NO3-N and total N concentrations and higher total N : total P ratios. Concentrations of chlorophyll and seston carbon (C) were 2-2.5 times higher in highdeposition relative to low-deposition lakes, while high-deposition lakes also had higher seston C:N and C:P (but not N:P) ratios. Short-term enrichment bioassays indicated a qualitative shift in the nature of phytoplankton nutrient limitation due to N deposition, as highdeposition lakes had an increased frequency of primary P limitation and a decreased frequency and magnitude of response to N and to combined N and P enrichment. Thus elevated atmospheric N deposition appears to have shifted nutrient supply from a relatively balanced but predominantly N-deficient regime to a more consistently P-limited regime in Colorado alpine lakes. This adds to accumulating evidence that sustained N deposition may have important effects on lake phytoplankton communities and plankton-based food webs by shifting the quantitative and qualitative nature of nutrient limitation. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition drive variation in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with native Scots pine.

    Jarvis, S; Woodward, S; Alexander, I J; Taylor, A F S

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi commonly associate with the roots of forest trees where they enhance nutrient and water uptake, promote seedling establishment and have an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Predicting the response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to environmental change is an important step to maintaining forest productivity in the future. These predictions are currently limited by an incomplete understanding of the relative significance of environmental drivers in determining the community composition of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi at large spatial scales. To identify patterns of community composition in ECM fungi along regional scale gradients of climate and nitrogen deposition in Scotland, fungal communities were analysed from 15 seminatural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests. Fungal taxa were identified by sequencing of the ITS rDNA region using fungal-specific primers. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to assess the significance of 16 climatic, pollutant and edaphic variables on community composition. Vector fitting showed that there was a strong influence of rainfall and soil moisture on community composition at the species level, and a smaller impact of temperature on the abundance of ectomycorrhizal exploration types. Nitrogen deposition was also found to be important in determining community composition, but only when the forest experiencing the highest deposition (9.8 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) was included in the analysis. This finding supports previously published critical load estimates for ectomycorrhizal fungi of 5-10 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This work demonstrates that both climate and nitrogen deposition can drive gradients of fungal community composition at a regional scale. PMID:23505218

  11. Some novel aspects of the relationship between the amino acid gradient and the sodium electrochemical gradient in mouse ascites tumour cells.

    Eddy, A A; Hopkins, P; Johnson, E

    1988-02-01

    Accumulation of 2-aminoisobutyrate by mouse ascites tumour cells was studied in circumstances where nigericin reversed the normal direction of the Na+ concentration gradient. The membrane potential (delta psi) was assayed using oxonol V as a voltage-sensitive probe. The amino acid gradient (delta mu A) that formed did not significantly exceed the likely magnitude of the Na+ electrochemical gradient when this was in the range 2-6 kJ mol-1. When delta-Na mu increased up to 11 kJ mol-1, delta mu A was almost constant at 7-8 kJ mol-1. The observations indicate that when delta psi is large changes in cellular [Na+] in the range 16-80 mM scarcely affect delta mu A. PMID:3358997

  12. Englemann spruce nitrogen dynamics across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Colorado, USA

    Rueth, H.M.; Baron, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    We asked whether nitrogen (N) deposition has altered Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii) biogeochemistry along the east side of the Colorado Front Range, USA. Twelve similar old-growth Englemann spruce stands were sampled, six with low (1-2 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and six with higher (3-5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) N deposition inputs. Species composition, elevation, aspect, parent material, site history and climate were matched as closely as possible across all sites. High N deposition sites had significantly lower organic horizon C:N and lignin:N ratios, and foliar lignin:N and C:N ratios, as well as greater %N and N:Mg ratios, and potential net mineralization rates. The relationship between organic horizon %N and potential net mineralization rates suggests a threshold of 1.2% N, above which mineralization increases linearly. Studies in the Northeastern US and Europe have found changes in forest biogeochemistry in response to nitrogen (N) deposition inputs between 3-60 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results suggest that current levels of N deposition (3-5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) along the Colorado Front Range may be altering Englemann spruce biogeochemistry. The results indicate even relatively low N inputs may cause measurable changes in forest biogeochemistry.

  13. Linking diatom deposition in a deep lake with the spring temperature gradient (Tiefer See, NE Germany)

    Kienel, Ulrike; Kirillin, Georgiy; Brademann, Brian; Plessen, Birgit; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of deep Lake Tiefer See showed a much larger deposition of diatoms following ice out and a rapid spring stratification in mid April 2013 compared to that following the gradual warming and stratification in mid April 2012. The manifold of diatom individuals in 2013 compared to 2012 amounted to calculated 2.0 compared to 0.15 g silica per square meter and day. The striking difference was the two orders of magnitude larger number of Stephanodiscus sp. in 2013, which were only a minor component in 2012. The monitored weather and lake conditions suggest the 2013-spring bloom was boosted by a quick succession of ice breakup, spring turnover, and stratification leading to nutrient recycling and rapidly improved light conditions. The comparatively longer mixing in spring 2012, calculated using the lake-temperature model FLake, caused population losses that impeded bloom development. To verify the exemplified inverse relation of diatom deposition and mixing duration in spring we use the subannually laminated, recent sediment record of Lake Tiefer See (AD 1924 - 2008), the instrumental series from the meteorological station in Schwerin, and model simulations of the spring mixing. The mixing duration was calculated as the period between water temperatures of 4°C and a mixing depth of 6 m were reached for the period 1951 - 2008. To cover the full sediment record a simple estimate of the mixing period was calculated from mean temperatures, i.e. the temperature duration from the first 5°C-day to the first of ≥5°C days. The annual diatom deposition was calculated as the annual average µXRF-counts of Si in the sediment record (AD 1924-2008), based on negligible amounts of detrital Si, low deposition of inorganic matter during winter, and a striking balance of IM deposition and Si deposition calculated from the diatom frustules deposited. We find support for the linear and inverse relation of diatom silica deposition with the duration of spring mixing using the

  14. Simulation of soil response to acidic deposition scenarios in Europe

    The chemical response of European forest soils to three emission-deposition scenarios for the year 1960-2050, i.e. official energy pathways (OEP), current reduction plans (CRP) and maximum feasible reductions (MFR), was evaluated with the SMART model (Simulation Model for Acidification's Regional Trends). Calculations were made for coniferous and deciduous forests on 80 soil types occurring on the FAO soil map of Europe, using a gradient of 1.0 degree C longitude x 0.5 degree latitude. Results indicated that the area with nitrogen saturated soils, i.e. soils with elevated NO3 concentrations (>0.02 molcm-3) will increase in the future for all scenarios, even for the MFR scenario. The area with acidified soils, with a high Al concentration (> 0.2 molcm-3) and Al/BC ratio (>1 mol-1) and a low pH (3 and Al concentrations mainly occurred in western, central and eastern Europe. Uncertainties in the initial values of C/N ratios and base saturation, and in the description of N dynamics in the SMART model had the largest impact on the temporal development of forested areas exceeding critical parameter values. Despite uncertainties involved, predicted general trends are plausible and reliable. 61 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Corrosion resistance of multilayer and gradient coatings deposited by PVD and CVD techniques

    J. Mikuła; D. Pakuła; K. Lukaszkowicz; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research was the investigation of the corrosion resistance and structure of the TiN, TiN+multiTiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN coatings deposited by PVD process and Ti(C,N)+TiN, Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN, TiC+TiN, TiC+Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN, TiN+Al2O3 coatings deposited by CVD process.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the samples in a PGP 201 Potentiostat/Galvanostat, in a thre...

  16. Acidic polyanion poly(acrylic acid) prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposition

    Kleinman, Jack G.; Alatalo, Laura J.; Beshensky, Ann M.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic macromolecules inhibit calcium oxalate nucleation, growth, aggregation and attachment to cells in vitro. To test for such an effect in vivo we used osmotic minipumps to continuously infuse several doses of the 5.1 kDa poly(acrylic acid) (pAA5.1) into rats fed a diet which causes renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Although kidneys of rats receiving the saline control contained calcium oxalate crystals, measured by polarized light microscopy, those of animals given pAA5.1 had sign...

  17. Biodegradability of poly (L-lactic acid) functionally graded materials with hardness gradient

    The aim of this study is to develop a functionally graded material (FGM) of biodegradable poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with a hardness gradient. For this purpose, the PLLA was extruded at elevated temperatures to introduce molecular orientation. Two types of extrusion, direct extrusion and equal channel angular (ECA) extrusion, were carried out. Heat treatment without extrusion was also carried out at 50degC, 60degC and 70degC. For the mechanical property characterization, the hardness distributions were investigated using a Vickers microhardness tester. Biodegradability of PLLA FGM was measured by evaluating the mass decreasing ratio after incubation in a physiological saline solution at 37degC. It was found that the PLLA FGMs with symmetric and asymmetric hardness gradients could be fabricated by direct extrusion and ECA extrusion at elevated temperature, respectively. Although in the initial state the mass of PLLA gradually increased with the softening of the FGM, it started to decrease after two weeks. (author)

  18. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability. PMID:26797956

  19. Gradient titanium and silver based carbon coatings deposited on AISI316L

    Batory, Damian; Reczulska, Malgorzata Czerniak-; Kolodziejczyk, Lukasz; Szymanski, Witold

    2013-06-01

    The constantly growing market for medical implants and devices caused mainly due to a lack of proper attention attached to the physical condition as well as extreme sports and increased elderly population creates the need of new biocompatible biomaterials with controlled bioactivity and certain useful properties. According to many literature reports, regarding the modifications of variety of different biomaterials using the surface engineering techniques and their biological and physicochemical examination results, the most promising material for great spectra of medical applications seem to be carbon layers. Another issue is the interaction between the implant material and surrounding tissue. In particular cases this interface area is directly exposed to air. Abovementioned concern occurs mainly in case of the external fixations, thus they are more vulnerable to infection. Therefore a crucial role has the inhibition of bacterial adhesion that may prevent implant-associated infections, occurrence of other numerous complications and in particular cases rejection of the implant. For this reason additional features of carbon coatings like antibacterial properties seem to be desired and justified. Silver doped diamond-like carbon coatings with different Ag concentrations were prepared by hybrid RF PACVD/MS (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition/Magnetron Sputtering) deposition technique. Physicochemical parameters like chemical composition, morphology and surface topography, hardness and adhesion were determined. Examined layers showed a uniform distribution of silver in the amorphous DLC matrix, high value of H/E ratio, good adhesion and beneficial topography which make them a perfect material for medical applications e.g. modification of implants for the external fixations.

  20. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of dominant steppe plants shift in response to a gradient of simulated nitrogen deposition

    An eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated effects of 9-year simulation of simulated nitrogen (N deposition on microbial composition and diversity in the rhizosphere of two dominant temperate grassland species: grass Stipa krylovii and forb Artemisia frigida. Microbiomes in S. krylovii and A.frigida rhizosphere differed, but changed consistently along the N gradient. These changes were correlated to N-induced shifts to plant community. Hence, as plant biomass changed, so did bacterial rhizosphere communities, a result consistent with the role that N fertilizer has been shown to play in altering plant-microbial mutualisms. A total of 23 bacterial phyla were detected in the two rhizospheric soils by pyrosequencing, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominating the sequences of all samples. Bacterioidetes and Proteobacteria tended to increase, while Acidobacteria declined with increase in N addition rates. TM7 increased >5-fold in the high N addition rates, especially in S. krylovii rhizosphere. Nitrogen addition also decreased diversity of OTUs (operational taxonomic units, Shannon and Chao1 indices of rhizospheric microbes regardless of plant species. These results suggest that there were both similar but also specific changes in microbial communities of temperate steppes due to N deposition.

  1. Effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems and their rehabilitation strategies in China

    2002-01-01

    South China has become the third largest region associated with acid deposition following Europe and North America, the area subject to damage by acid deposition increased from 1.75 million km2 in 1985 to 2.8 million km2 in 1993. Acid deposition has caused serious damage to ecosystem. Combined pollution of acid rain and SO2 showed the obvious multiple effects on crops. Vegetable was more sensitive to acid deposition than foodstuff crops. Annual economic loss of crops due to acid deposition damage in eleven provinces of south China was 4.26billion RMB Yuan. Acid deposition caused serious damage to forest. Annual economic loss of wood volume was about 1.8 billion RMB Yuan management, specifying acid-controlling region, controlling and abating the total emission amount of SO2; (2) selecting practical energy technologies of clean coal, for example, cleansing and selecting coal, sulfur-fixed-type industrial briqutting, abating sulfur from waste gas and so on; (3) developing other energy sources to replace coal, including water electricity, atomic energy and the new energy such as solar energy,wind energy and so on; (4) in acid deposition region of south China, selecting acid-resistant tvpe of crop and tree to decrease agricultural losses, planting more green fertilizer crops, using organic fertilizers and liming, in order to improve buffer capacities of soil.

  2. TiN+gradient or multi(Ti,Al,Si)N+TiN coatings deposited on cermets by CAE process: characteristic of structure and properties

    L.A. Dobrzański; K. Gołombek

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: It has been demonstrated in the paper that deposition of the multilayer and gradient coatings with the PVD method in the Cathodic Arc Evaporation CAE process on tools made from cermets.Design/methodology/approach: Structural examinations are presented of the applied coatings and their substrate made on the TEM, SEM and on the light microscope. Evaluation of the adhesion of the deposited coatings onto the cermets was made using the scratch test. Cutting properties of the investigated ...

  3. Acidic deposition and its effects in southwestern China

    The emissions of SO2 in China correspond at present to 8-10 TgSy-1. The rapid industrialization has caused a dramatic increase in the emissions in recent years and this increase is likely to continue. This paper describes studies of concentrations and effects of acidifying substances in parts of the Guizhou and the Sichuan provinces where the S-emissions are large, mainly coming from coal combustion. A small catchment about 10 km from Guiyang centre was equipped with instruments for studies of soils, soil water and streamwater chemistry. The molar ratio Al/(Ca + Mg) is > 0.8 in soil water in some places. Two small streams have median pH-values about 4.6 and 5.1. Laboratory studies with selected Chinese soils showed that the anion adsorption was low. These studies gave also important information on soil sensitivity. The studies confirm that acid deposition may affect soils in parts of south-western China, but the sensitivity varies dramatically and there is a strong need for more information. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Microbial activity in an acid resin deposit: Biodegradation potential and ecotoxicology in an extremely acidic hydrocarbon contamination

    Acid resins are residues produced in a recycling process for used oils that was in use in the forties and fifties of the last century. The resin-like material is highly contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons, extremely acidic and co-contaminated with substituted and aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. To determine the potential for microbial biodegradation the acid resin deposit and its surroundings were screened for microbial activity by soil respiration measurements. No microbial activity was found in the core deposit. However, biodegradation of hydrocarbons was possible in zones with a lower degree of contamination surrounding the deposit. An extreme acidophilic microbial community was detected close to the core deposit. With a simple ecotoxicological approach it could be shown that the pure acid resin that formed the major part of the core deposit, was toxic to the indigenous microflora due to its extremely low pH of 0-1. - Acidity is the major toxic factor of the extremely hydrophobic and acidic mixed contamination found in an acid resin deposit

  5. Calcium-acidic phospholipid-phosphate complexes in human hydroxyapatite-containing pathologic deposits.

    Boskey, A. L.; Bullough, P. G.; Vigorita, V.; Di Carlo, E

    1988-01-01

    The deposition of calcium-containing crystals in tissues is due to a combination of factors: elevation in the concentrations of precipitating ions, formation of specific nucleators, and removal of macromolecules that inhibit crystal deposition. This study tested the hypothesis that calcium acidic phospholipid phosphate complexes, which promote hydroxyapatite deposition both in vitro and in vivo, are associated only with hydroxyapatite deposits, and furthermore, that the presence of these comp...

  6. Metal oxide aerosol dry deposition in laminar pipe flow at high thermal gradients and comparison with SOPHAEROS module of ASTEC reactor accident analysis code

    Highlights: • Experiments to simulate aerosol deposition in pipes in severe accident condition. • Laminar flow conditions under high thermal gradient have been used. • Results of the experiments have been compared with SOPHAEROS module of the ASTEC code. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear reactor accident involving core melt down conditions, the deposition of fission product aerosols inside the reactor coolant system affects the final source term available to the containment and subsequently to the environment. Towards quantifying the aerosol deposition under varying flow conditions and thermal gradients, as may be encountered in the heat transport systems, experiments were performed to investigate the dry deposition behavior of metal oxide aerosols in a 3.6 m long stainless steel piping test assembly. This assembly consisted of divergent and convergent sections, horizontal and vertical sections and right angle bends. Tin oxide aerosols, generated by a plasma torch aerosol generator, were transported into the test assembly using argon carrier gas. Temperature sensors coupled to data loggers were used to record the pipe inner wall and carrier gas temperatures. The experimental deposition results were found to be within 8% of those estimated by the SOPHAEROS module of the accident analysis code ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). Code results for experimental input parameters showed that for sections at higher temperature gradients the dominant deposition mechanism was thermophoresis, while in sections for low thermal gradients, gravitational settling dominated. The micrographs obtained using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that the deposited Tin oxide particles were mostly spherical and bimodal in nature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that plasma torch generated aerosols exhibit tetragonal SnO and SnO2 phases

  7. Effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems and their rehabilitation strategies in China.

    Feng, Zong-wei; Miao, Hong; Zhang, Fu-zhu; Huang, Yi-zong

    2002-04-01

    South China has become the third largest region associated with acid deposition following Europe and North America, the area subject to damage by acid deposition increased from 1.75 million km2 in 1985 to 2.8 million km2 in 1993. Acid deposition has caused serious damage to ecosystem. Combined pollution of acid rain and SO2 showed the obvious multiple effects on crops. Vegetable was more sensitive to acid deposition than foodstuff crops. Annual economic loss of crops due to acid deposition damage in eleven provinces of south China was 4.26 billion RMB Yuan. Acid deposition caused serious damage to forest. Annual economic loss of wood volume was about 1.8 billion RMB Yuan and forest ecological benefit loss 16.2 billion in eleven provinces of south China. Acid deposition in south China was typical "sulfuric acid type". According to the thoughts of sustainable development, some strategies were brought forward as follows: (1) enhancing environmental management, specifying acid-controlling region, controlling and abating the total emission amount of SO2; (2) selecting practical energy technologies of clean coal, for example, cleansing and selecting coal, sulfur-fixed-type industrial briqutting, abating sulfur from waste gas and so on; (3) developing other energy sources to replace coal, including water electricity, atomic energy and the new energy such as solar energy, wind energy and so on; (4) in acid deposition region of south China, selecting acid-resistant type of crop and tree to decrease agricultural losses, planting more green fertilizer crops, using organic fertilizers and liming, in order to improve buffer capacities of soil. PMID:12046292

  8. Synthesis of acid-functionalized composite via surface deposition of acid-containing amorphous carbon

    Du, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Lou, Lan-Lan; Dong, Yanling; Liu, Gaixia; Liu, Shuangxi

    2012-07-01

    A synthetic procedure, including two steps: a hydrothermal treatment using H2SO4 solution and a thermal treatment with concentrated H2SO4 in Teflon-lined stainless autoclaves was developed to synthesize acid-functionalized composite. In this process, the carbonization of glucose which contributed to the formation of carbon species with acid functional groups occurred on the silica surface. The resultant composite, investigated by powder XRD, low temperature N2 sorption and TEM, possessed well-defined mesostructure. And it was determined by XPS that amorphous carbon was deposited at the silica surface of SBA-15. The presence of multi-functional groups in the composite was confirmed by FT-IR results. Furthermore, carboxylic and sulfonic groups could be incorporated into the composite material via the covalent bond. The composite was employed as the catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. It was suggested that acid sites were well dispersed, which was responsible for the good performance in the catalytic test. According to these facts, a synthesis route for mesostructured composite with acid functional groups has been proposed.

  9. Total protein quantitation using the bicinchoninic acid assay and gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis.

    Kralj, Jason G; Munson, Matthew S; Ross, David

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the ability of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis (GEMBE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) to assay total protein concentration using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reaction. We chose this format because GEMBE-C(4) D behaves as a concentration dependent detection system, unlike optical methods that also rely on pathlength (due to Beer's law). This system tolerates proteins well compared with other capillary electrophoretic methods, allowing the capillary to be reused without coatings or additional hydroxide wash steps. The typical reaction protocol was modified by reducing the pH slightly from 11.25 to 9.4, which enabled elimination of tartrate from the reagents. We estimated that copper (I) could be detected at approximately 3.0 μmol/L, which agrees with similar GEMBE and CZE systems utilizing C(4) D. Under conditions similar to the BCA "micro method" assay, we determined the LOD for three common proteins (insulin, BSA, and bovine gamma globulin) and found that they agree well with the existing spectroscopic detection methods. Further, we investigated how long reaction times impact the LOD and found that the conversion was proportional to log(time). This indicated that little sensitivity is gained by extending the reaction past 1 h. Hence, GEMBE provides an alternative platform for total protein assays while maintaining the excellent sensitivity of the optical-based methods. PMID:24648165

  10. Naphthenic acid extraction and characterization from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits revisited

    Ahmed, M.M.; Sorbie, K.S. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Crude oil with high total acid number (TAN) often results in the formation of either sodium emulsion or calcium naphthenate deposits. The formation of calcium naphthenate during production operations is creating flow assurance problems for the oil industry. Therefore, it is important to extract and characterize the different types of acids from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits. There has been much discussion in the literature about the discovery and quantification of higher molecular weight acids in naphthenate field deposits, referred to as ARN acids. Field naphthenate deposits from 2 different fields in Norway (X and HD) were used in this study for the naphthenic acid extraction using 3 different methods. The extracted naphthenic acids were characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The ESMS spectra obtained from field X extract revealed the presence of lower molecular weight acids species only, without any presence of ARN acids. However, the extract from field HD had a broad range of lower molecular weight acids and ARN acid species. APCI-MS results revealed an enhanced ARN acids species from all the spectra with some indication of multimers. This paper also discussed the acid-IER extraction technique used on the crude oils from these fields.

  11. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  12. 1.3. Sulfuric acid decomposition of borate ores of Ak-Arkhar deposit of Tajikistan

    Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid is considered in this work. Sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite is considered as well. Kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by sulfuric acid is defined. Danburite decomposition by nitric acid is studied. The flowsheet of danburite processing by acid methods is elaborated. Chemical and mineralogic composition of raw materials were determined by means of volumetric, flame photometric, and X-ray analysis. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar deposit with mineral acids, in particular, with hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite were found.

  13. TiN+gradient or multi(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN coatings deposited on cermets by CAE process: characteristic of structure and properties

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It has been demonstrated in the paper that deposition of the multilayer and gradient coatings with the PVD method in the Cathodic Arc Evaporation CAE process on tools made from cermets.Design/methodology/approach: Structural examinations are presented of the applied coatings and their substrate made on the TEM, SEM and on the light microscope. Evaluation of the adhesion of the deposited coatings onto the cermets was made using the scratch test. Cutting properties of the investigated materials were determined basing on the technological continuous cutting tests of the C45E steel. Microhardness tests of the deposited coatings were made on the ultra-micro-hardness tester. Surface roughness tests were also made before depositing the coatings and after completing the PVD process.Findings: It has been demonstrated in this work that deposition of the TiN+(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN multilayer or gradient coatings with the PVD (Cathodic Arc Evaporation process on tools made from cemented carbides, results in the increase of coatings’ hardness and improvement of their adhesion to the substrate, in comparison with the multiple-layer coatings deposited using the PVD method on the same substrate materials, deciding improvement of the working properties of cutting tools coated with the TiN+gradient or multi(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN system coatings, compared with coatings developed on the same sintered tool materials, but uncoated or coated with simple coatings.Practical implications: Gradient coatings deposited with the CAE method onto the cermet substrate qualify for the widespread industrial use on cutting tools and offering the possibility to use them in the pro-ecological dry cutting processes without the use of the cutting fluids and in the „Near-Net-Shape” technology.Originality/value: In the paper the research of newly worked out multilayer and gradient TiN+(Ti,Al,SiN+TiN nanocrystalline coatings deposited in the PVD method on cermets carried out in order to

  14. The solubility of aluminum in acidic forest soils: Long-term changes due to acid deposition

    Mulder, Jan; Stein, Alfred

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ecological and pedogenic importance of Al, its solubility control in acidic forest soils is poorly understood. Here we discuss the solubility of Al and its development with time in three acid brown forest soils in The Netherlands, which are under extreme acidification from atmospheric deposition. All soil solutions (to a 60 cm depth) were undersaturated with respect to synthetic gibbsite (Al(OH) 3; log K = 9.12 at 8°C), with the highest degree of undersaturation occurring in the surface soil. In about one third of the individual soil layers a significant positive correlation existed between the activity of Al 3+ and H +, but this relationship was far less than cubic. Kinetically constrained dissolution of Al is unlikely to explain the disequilibrium with respect to gibbsite, because undersaturation was highest through summer when water residence times were longest and temperatures greatest. Time series analysis of six year data sets for several soil layers revealed a significant annual decline in soil solution pH and Al solubility (defined as log Al + 3 pH) despite a constant concentration of strong acid anions. The annual decline of both pH and Al solubility was greatest in the surface soil and was positively correlated with the relative depletion of reactive organically bound soil Al. The results support our earlier hypothesis that in strongly acidified forest soils complexation by solid phase organics controls the solubility of Al even in mineral soil layers, relatively low in organic C. The data lend no support to the current widespread and often uncritical use of gibbsite as a model for the Al solubility in highly acidic forest soils (pH temperate zone.

  15. A calculation of spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front

    A high alkali domain spreads out due to the use of cement materials for the construction of the repository of radioactive wastes. Sudden change of pH at this alkali front produces colloidal silicic acid (polymeric silicic acid) in addition to the deposition of supersaturated monomeric silicic acid onto the fracture surface of flow-pathway. The colloidal silicic acid also deposits with relatively small rate-constant in the co-presence of solid phase. Once the flow-path surface is covered with the amorphous silica, the surface seriously degrades the sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs). Therefore, so far, the authors have examined the deposition rates of supersaturated silicic acid. This study summarized the deposition rate-constants defined by the first-order reaction equation under various conditions of co-presence of amorphous silica powder. Then, using the smallest rate-constant (1.0x10-12 m/s in the co-presence of calcium ion of 1 mM) and a simulation code, COLFRAC-MRL, the spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front was estimated. The results suggested the clogging caused by the deposition of colloidal silicic acid in flow-path. The altered spatial range in the flow-path was limited to around 30 m in fracture and to several centimeters in rock matrix. (author)

  16. A calculation of spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front

    A high alkali domain spreads out due to the use of cement materials for the construction of the repository of radioactive wastes. Sudden change of pH at this alkali front produces colloidal silicic acid (polymeric silicic acid) in addition to the deposition of supersaturated monomeric silicic acid onto the fracture surface of flow-pathway. The colloidal silicic acid also deposits with relatively small rate-constant in the co-presence of solid phase. Once the flow-path surface is covered with the amorphous silica, the surface seriously degrades the sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs). Therefore, so far, the authors have examined the deposition rates of supersaturated silicic acid. This study summarized the deposition rate-constants defined by the first-order reaction equation under various conditions of co-presence of amorphous silica powder. Then, using the smallest rate-constant (1.0×10-12 m/s in the co-presence of calcium ions of 1 mM) and a simulation code, COLFRAC-MRL, the spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front was estimated. The results suggested the clogging caused by the deposition of colloidal silicic acid in flow-path. The altered spatial range in the flow-path was limited to around 30 m in fracture and to several centimeters in rock matrix. (author)

  17. Handbook of methods for acid-deposition studies. Laboratory analyses for soil chemistry

    The handbook describes methods used to process and analyze soil samples. It is intended as a guidance document for groups involved in acid deposition monitoring activities similar to those implemented by the Aquatic Effects Research Program of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. These methods were developed for use in the Direct/Delayed Response Project, a component project of the Aquatic Effects Research Program within the Office of Ecological Processes and Effects Research. The program addresses the following issues relating to the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems: The extent and magnitude of past change; The change to be expected in the future under various deposition scenarios; The maximum rates of deposition below which further change is not expected; and The rate of change or recovery of aquatic ecosystems if deposition rates are decreased. Chemical and physical parameters were measured during the Direct/Delayed Response Project and are described in the document

  18. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  19. Microbial ecology of á-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers along a concentration gradient of dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San Bernadino Mountain Range.

    Jordan, F. L.; Fenn, M. E.; Stein, L. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of atmospherically-deposited nitrogen from industrial pollution is of major concern in the montane ecosystems bordering the South Coast California Air Basin. Nitrogen deposition rates in the more exposed regions of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) are among the highest in North America often exceeding 40 kg ha-1 year-1 in throughfall deposition of nitrate and ammonium (Fenn and Poth, 1999). Forest ecosystems with elevated N deposition generally exhibit elevated accumulation of soil nitrate, leaching and runoff, elevated emissions of nitrogenous gases, increased nitrification, and decreased litter decomposition rates. The role of nitrifying microbial populations, especially those taxonomically associated with the beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOB), will provide insight into nitrogen-cycling in these extremely N-saturated environments. Using 16S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone library construction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), we are comparing AOB community diversity at 3 different locations along a natural atmospheric N-deposition concentration gradient in the SBM: from high at Camp Paviaka (CP), medium at Strawberry Peak (SP) to low at Dogwood (DW). As observed for wet N-deposition systems on the east coast, we hypothesized a negative correlation between AOB community diversity, abundance and function with nitrogen loading in the dry N deposition system of SBM. Nitrification potentials determined for the 3 sites along the N-deposition gradient were in the order of CP less than SP less than DW. Preliminary results indicate no correlation between diversity of AOB and increased nitrogen loading. Shannon-Weiner diversity indices calculated for ammonia-oxidizer RFLP group units were 2.22, 2.66 and 1.80 for CP, SP and DW, respectively.

  20. Fatty Acid-Oxidizing Consortia along a Nutrient Gradient in the Florida Everglades†

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Ogram, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Everglades is one of the largest freshwater marshes in North America and has been subject to eutrophication for decades. A gradient in P concentrations extends for several kilometers into the interior of the northern regions of the marsh, and the structure and function of soil microbial communities vary along the gradient. In this study, stable isotope probing was employed to investigate the fate of carbon from the fermentation products propionate and butyrate in soils from three ...

  1. Interrelationships among hydrologic-budget components of a northern Wisconsin seepage lake and implications for acid-deposition modeling

    Wentz, D.A.; Rose, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Components of the hydrologic budget for a northern Wisconsin seepage lake were analyzed by applying correlation and regression techniques to monthly data. Analyses for the 1981-83 water years revealed a statistically significant, direct relationship between storage change and precipitation-evaporation balance. Ground-water outflow was negatively correlated with ground-water inflow, and this relationship was influenced by similar relationships for both hydraulic gradients and cross-sectional areas in outflow versus inflow regions of the lake. Neither ground-water outflow nor inflow was significantly related to precipitation, evaporation, storage change, or lake stage; this may reflect a lag in response time of the ground-water system compared to the lake. The results (1) emphasize the complexity of factors that influence ground-water interactions with seepage lakes and (2) suggest the importance of completing detailed hydrologic studies of these systems before mechanistic models, such as those developed to predict effects of acid deposition, are applied.

  2. Changes in conifer and deciduous forest foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area tree growth across a nitrogen (N) deposition gradient in the northeastern US

    We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999, we observed a significant correlation between mean growing season temperature and red spruce basal area growth. Red spruce and deciduous foliar %N correlated significantly with N deposition. Although N deposition has not changed significantly from 1987/1988 to 1999, net nitrification potential decreased significantly at Whiteface. This decrease in net potential nitrification is not consistent with the N saturation hypothesis and suggests that non-N deposition controls, such as climatic factors and immobilization of down dead wood, might have limited N cycling. - Data from the 1999 remeasurement of the red spruce forests suggest that N deposition, to some extent, is continuing to influence red spruce across the northeastern US as illustrated by a significant correlation between N deposition and red spruce foliar %N. Our data also suggest that the decrease in forest floor %N and net nitrification potential across sites from 1987 to 1999 may be due to factors other than N deposition, such as climatic factors and N immobilization in fine woody material (<5 cm diameter)

  3. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. PMID:27092419

  4. Kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite of Ak-Arkhar deposit

    The results of studies of kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite of Ak-Arkhar deposit by means of first-order equation is given. It is defined that reaction passes in mixed area. The activation energy of sulfuric acid decomposition of pre-baked danburite is evaluated.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  6. Effect of acids and bases on electrophoretic deposition of

    Cihlář, J.; Drdlík, D.; Cihlářová, Z.; Hadraba, Hynek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2013), s. 1885-1892. ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Electrophoretic deposition * Zirconia * Alumina * 2-Propanol * Electrosteric stabilization Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2013

  7. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils: Field monitoring and aluminium chemistry.

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtained from intensive monitoring programmes conducted at a number of sites in northwestern Europe and North-America. Specific hypotheses were tested in laboratory experiments.Atmospheric acid inputs do...

  8. Influence of indium/gallium gradients on the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} devices deposited by the co-evaporation without recrystallisation

    Drobiazg, Tomasz, E-mail: drobiazg@if.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS-UMR 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Arzel, Ludovic [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS-UMR 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Dönmez, Adem [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, 48000, Muğla (Turkey); Zabierowski, Paweł [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Barreau, Nicolas [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS-UMR 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-01

    In the laboratory scale, cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} grown by the 3-stage process reach the best performance because of high open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current (V{sub OC}-J{sub SC}) combination. One of the reasons for that could be the V-shaped gradient of Ga to In atomic ratio throughout the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layer, which results from large differences in the diffusion coefficients of In and Ga. The location of the lowest Ga-content in the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (i.e. Ga notch), also corresponds to the Cu-poor to Cu-rich transition during the 2nd stage. Since this transition is associated to a phenomenon of recrystallisation, the arising question is whether high V{sub OC}-J{sub SC} combination is effectively inherent to V-shaped gradient or to recrystallisation. In our work we attempt to eliminate the influence of recrystallisation to exclusively study the influence of Ga/In gradients. Our approach was to co-evaporate samples by the one-step process with different gradients by the continuous modification of In and Ga fluxes during the deposition and keeping constant that of Cu in a way that its ratio to group III elements was 0.9. With this method, we could obtain a set of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layers either free of gradient, with linear gradient (i.e. no notch) or V-shaped gradient with notch at a different distance from the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} surface. We observe that depending on the presence of notch in conduction band or the position of notch it is possible to modify the impact of secondary barriers on current-voltage characteristics. - Highlights: • Investigation of the indium and gallium gradients apart from the recrystallisation • Short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage benefit from the band gap gradient. • Constant band gap gradient decreases the influence of secondary barriers. • With the presence of gallium notch the secondary barriers are more pronounced.

  9. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  10. Acid deposition critical loads modeling for the simulation of sulfur exceedance and reduction in Guangdong, China

    QIU Rongliang; WANG Shizhong; QIU Hao; WANG Xuemei; LIAO Jin; ZHANG Zhentian

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the current acid deposition critical loads in Guangdong, China were calculated using the PROFILE model with a 3×3 km resolution.Calculations were carried out for critical loads of potential acidity, actual acidity, sulfur and nitrogen, with values in extents of 0-3.5, 0-14.0, 0-26.0 and 0-3.5 kmol/(hm2·year), respectively.These values were comparable to previously reported results and reflected the influences of vegetation and soil characteristics on the soil acid buffering capacity.Simulations of SO2 emission and sulfur deposition in this study showed that sulfur deposition core areas mirrored SO2 emission centers.The prediction of sulfur deposition after 20% and 40% reduction of SO2 emission suggested that the reduction of area sources contributed greatly to the decrease of sulfur deposition.Thus, abatement of area source emissions could be the primary way to mitigate sulfur deposition in Guangdong so as to meet both the provincial and national regulations of air pollution control.

  11. Self-assembly of novel amphiphilic block-gradient copolymers of styrene and acrylic acid

    Štěpánek, Petr; Černochová, Zulfiya; Borisova, O.; Billon, L.; Borisov, O.

    Český Krumlov, 2015. s. 34. [Discussion workshop on ( bio )Macromolecular Ionic Systems. 10.05.2015-14.05.2015, Český Krumlov] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14079 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolymers * gradient copolymers * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. Chronic Hyperuricemia, Uric Acid Deposit and Cardiovascular Risk

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista; Giosia, Paolo Di; Cheli, Paola; Pinto, Rita Del; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure re...

  13. Combating Acid Deposition and Climate Change: Priorities for Asia

    McDonald, A.

    1999-01-01

    The article addresses two interactions relevant to acid rain and global warming. First are interactions between sulfur and carbon emissions in producing important impacts, e.g., agricultural impacts in Asia. Second are behavioral interactions, i.e., rational responses to policies targeting one problem that make the other more difficult to solve. Initial calculations for the case of no new policies to limit sulfur or carbon emissions suggest that the cooling effect of sulfate aerosols wou...

  14. Chronic hyperuricemia, uric acid deposit and cardiovascular risk.

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista; Di Giosia, Paolo; Cheli, Paola; Del Pinto, Rita; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure reduction, increment in flow-mediated dilation, and improved cardiovascular prognosis in various patient settings. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted with either allopurinol or its active metabolite oxypurinol, i.e. two purine-like non-selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. More recently, the role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the possible protective role exerted by reduction of hyperuricemia to normal level have been evaluated by the use of febuxostat, a selective, non purine-like xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In this review, we will report current evidence on hyperuricemia in cardiovascular disease. The value of uric acid as a biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for tailored old and novel "cardiometabolic" treatments will be also discussed. PMID:23173592

  15. Studies of acid deposition and its effects in two small catchments in Hunan, China

    Xue, N.; Seip, H. M.; Liao, B; R. D. Vogt

    2002-01-01

    Acid deposition and its effects were studied by analysing the chemistry in precipitation, stream water, soil water and soils in two catchments in Hunan. One site, Linkesuo (denoted LKS), is on the outskirts of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, the other (Bailutang, denoted BLT) on the outskirts of Chenzhou in southern Hunan. Volume-weighted average pH values and sulphate concentrations in wet deposition were 4.58 (BLT) and 4....

  16. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO2-4 deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO2-4 consistent with the range of depositi...

  17. Mechanical properties of the PVD gradient coatings deposited onto the hot work tool steel X40CrMoV5-1

    K. Lukaszkowicz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is the investigation of the mechanical properties of gradient coatings deposited by PVD technique (cathodic arc evaporation method onto the substrate from the X40CrMoV5-1 hot work steel.Design/methodology/approach: The microhardness tests were made on the dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. The wear and friction tests were performed on a standard pin-on-disc device.Findings: The hard PVD gradient coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation method demonstrate the high hardness, adhesion and wear resistance. The critical load LC2, which is in the range 46-59 N, depends on the coating type. The friction coefficient for the investigated coatings is within the range of 0.30-0.90.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying these coatings in tools steel, further investigations should be concentrated on the determination of the mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings.Originality/value: It should be stressed that the mechanical properties of the PVD coatings obtained in this work are very encouraging and therefore their application for products manufactured at mass scale is possible in all cases where reliable, very hard and abrasion resistant coatings, deposited onto tools steel substrate are needed.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    Deen, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I., E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties.

  20. Comparison of the PVD gradient coatings deposited onto X40CrMoV5-1 and HS6-5-2 tool steel substrate

    K. Lukaszkowicz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this research was investigation and comparison of selected properties of gradient coatings TiCN and AlSiCrN. In this paper both coatings were deposited by cathode arc evaporation physical vapour deposition (CAE-PVD method onto high speed steel HS6-5-2 and hot work tool steel X40CrMoV5-1.Design/methodology/approach: Observations of surface and structures of the deposited coatings were carried out on cross sections in the scanning electron microscope. The phase composition of the investigated coatings was determined by means of the X-ray diffractometer. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. The microhardness tests of coatings were made with the ultra microhardness tester.Findings: The hard PVD gradient coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation method demonstrate the high hardness, adhesion and wear resistance. The critical load LC2, which is in the range 35-67 N, depends on the coating type and material substrate. The values of friction coefficient for the investigated coatings are changing within the range of 0.08-0.25.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying these surface layers in tools, further investigations should be concentrated on the determination of the thermal fatigue resistance of the coatings.Originality/value: It should be emphasized that the mechanical properties of the PVD coatings obtained in this work are very encouraging and therefore their application for products manufactured at mass scale is possible in all cases where reliable, very hard and abrasion resistant coatings, deposited onto tools steel substrate are needed.

  1. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Vertucci, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of habitat acidification to the six species of amphibians that occur in the mountains of Colorado and Wyoming. Our evaluation included extrinsic environmental factors (habitat sensitivity and amount of acidic atmospheric deposition) and species-specific intrinsic factors (sensitivity to acid conditions, habitat preferences, and timing of breeding). Only one of 57 surveyed localities had both acid neutralizing capacity μeq/L and sulfate deposition >10 kg/ha/yr, extrinsic conditions with a possible risk of acidification. Amphibian breeding habitats in the Rocky Mountains do not appear to be sufficiently acidic to kill amphibian embryos. Some species breed in high-elevation vernal pools during snowmelt, and an acidic pulse during snowmelt may pose a risk to embryos of these species. However, the acidic pulse, if present, probably occurs before open water appears and before breeding begins. Although inherent variability of amphibian population size may make detection of declines from anthropogenic effects difficult, acidic deposition is unlikely to have caused the observed declines of Bufo boreas and Rana pipiens in Colorado and Wyoming. Amphibians in the Rocky Mountains are not likely to be at risk with acidification inputs at present levels.

  2. Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy Observation on 10,12-Tricosadiynoic Acid Monolayers Deposited by Schaefer's Method

    张耿民

    2001-01-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of 10, 12-tricosadiynoic acid molecules were deposited onto the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by Schaefer's method and then observed with the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). With a view to achieving a parallel molecular arrangement on the graphite surface, the deposition was deliberately conducted at a relatively low surface pressure. As exhibited by the STM images, by this approach the 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid molecules could constitute an ordered structure with their molecular chains lying parallel to the substrate. The model of molecular dimer is put forward for the interpretation of the observed phenomena.

  3. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Influence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on the Transport and Deposition Behaviors of Bacteria in Quartz Sand.

    Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-03-01

    The significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria (Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis) in quartz sand is examined in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions at pH 5.6 by comparing both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with PFOA in solutions versus those without PFOA. All test conditions are found to be highly unfavorable for cell deposition regardless of the presence of PFOA; however, 7%-46% cell deposition is observed depending on the conditions. The cell deposition may be attributed to micro- or nanoscale roughness and/or to chemical heterogeneity of the sand surface. The results show that, under all examined conditions, PFOA in suspensions increases cell transport and decreases cell deposition in porous media regardless of cell type, presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances, ionic strength, and ion valence. We find that the additional repulsion between bacteria and quartz sand caused by both acid-base interaction and steric repulsion as well as the competition for deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces by PFOA are responsible for the enhanced transport and decreased deposition of bacteria with PFOA in solutions. PMID:26866280

  5. Actinoid sorption from nitric acid onto stainless steel. 1. Plutonium sorption and deposition

    Data are given on the sorption of plutonium from nitric acid onto 12Kh18N10T stainless steel. This is determined by the contact time, the temperature, the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations, and the element state. The uptake varies in the following sequence: Puh>> Pu(IV) > Pu(VI) > Pu(III). The plutonium deposition on reference specimens has been determined with periodic drying

  6. Acidification of Forest Soils: A Model for Analyzing Impacts of Acidic Deposition in Europe - Version II

    Kauppi, P.; Kaemaeri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Acidification is an unfavorable process in forest soils. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are sources of acidification. Acidification causes a risk of damage to plant roots and a subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In one-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as function of acid stress and the buffer mechanisms of the soil. ...

  7. Acidification of Forest Soils: Model Development and Application for Analyzing Impacts of Acidic Deposition in Europe

    P. E. Kauppi; KÀmÀri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1984-01-01

    Acidification is considered as an unfavorable process in forest soils. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are known as sources of acidification. Acidification causes the risk of damage to plant roots and subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In one-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as function of the acid stress and the buff...

  8. Assessing the recovery potential of alpine moss-sedge heath: Reciprocal transplants along a nitrogen deposition gradient

    Armitage, Heather F., E-mail: h.armitage@abdn.ac.u [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Britton, Andrea J. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Woodin, Sarah J. [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Wal, Rene van der [Aberdeen Centre for Environmental Sustainability (ACES), School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The potential of alpine moss-sedge heath to recover from elevated nitrogen (N) deposition was assessed by transplanting Racomitrium lanuginosum shoots and vegetation turfs between 10 elevated N deposition sites (8.2-32.9 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) and a low N deposition site, Ben Wyvis (7.2 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}). After two years, tissue N of Racomitrium shoots transplanted from higher N sites to Ben Wyvis only partially equilibrated to reduced N deposition whereas reciprocal transplants almost matched the tissue N of indigenous moss. Unexpectedly, moss shoot growth was stimulated at higher N deposition sites. However, moss depth and biomass increased in turfs transplanted to Ben Wyvis, apparently due to slower shoot turnover (suggested to result partly from decreased tissue C:N slowing decomposition), whilst abundance of vascular species declined. Racomitrium heath has the potential to recover from the impacts of N deposition; however, this is constrained by the persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents. - Alpine moss-sedge heath, dominated by Racomitrium lanuginosum, from across the UK has the potential to recover from the impacts of N pollution; however, this is constrained by persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents.

  9. Long-term development of acid deposition (1880–2030 in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe

    W. Schöpp

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Time series of the deposition of acidifying substances are a pre-requisite for the study of the acidification and recovery of ecosystems such as surface waters. This paper reports the derivation and calculation of deposition trends of the potentially acidifying compounds SO2, NOx and NH3 in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe studied in the EU-funded RECOVER: 2010 project. The time interval covered is 151 years: from 1880, which can be considered as the pre-industrial era in most countries, to 2030, taking into account the consequences of current emission reduction agreements in Europe. The historic and predicted emissions for European countries are used to calculate the deposition development in the study areas, using meteorologically averaged atmospheric source-receptor transfer coefficients derived from the EMEP Lagrangian acid deposition model. These time series were used as driving forces for the application of the dynamic acidification model MAGIC to study the acidification and recovery of sensitive freshwater ecosystems in Europe. Keywords: acid deposition, historic depositions, sensitive lake regions, Europe

  10. EVALUATING CHANGES IN FOREST CONDITION POTENTIALLY RELATED TO ACIDIC DEPOSITION: AN EXAMPLE USING RED SPRUCE

    As a result of concern about forest decline in Europe and the USA, research has been conducted to investigate changes in forest condition that might be associated with acidic deposition and related pollutants (principally ozone). ymptoms of tree decline observed in the field typi...

  11. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-11-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate

  13. GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION OF ACID RAIN IN THE SCENIC RESORT OF THE BAIYUN MOUNTAIN IN GUANGZHOU

    黄健; 李福娇; 江奕光; 李琼

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the samples of rainwater from January to October 1999 at three monitoring sites of Baiyun Mountain and of aerosol composition in near-surface layer in January and June 1999 at two sites. The results suggest that (1) The pH value of rainwater is between 3.13 and 7.18, and the frequency of acid rain is more than 58 %. With the ascent of the monitoring sites, the pH value of rainwater decreases, and the frequency of acid rain increases. (2) In January, the chemical aerosol compositions at different altitudes are similar, but in June the acidity of aerosol rises at the higher site because of the increase of SO42-. (3) In rainwater, the proportion is such that SO42- is the most significant anion and Ca2+ is the most important cation, but both of them decrease as the altitude ascends. The proportion of NO3- and NH4+ rise at the higher site and have more contribution to the acidity of rainwater. (4) As the impact of automobile emissions around Baiyun Mountain, the proportion of NO3-/SO42-molecular concentration reaches 0.40, and NO3- is relatively more important to the rain acidity at the higher site.

  14. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l-1 of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y (μg l-1) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods

  15. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  16. The study of composition, structure, mechanical properties and platelet adhesion of Ti-O/TiN gradient films prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    Titanium oxide and titanium nitrogen gradient films were prepared by three different processes using metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MPIII-D). The mechanical properties of the films synthesized on silicon wafers, Ti6A14V and low temperature isotropic carbon (LTIC) were evaluated by nano-indentation, pin-on-disc wear, and scratching test. The hardness of the film was measured to be 19.5 GPa. Investigation by XRD shows that the surface Ti-O layer possesses a rutile structure and analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) discloses that the surface composition of the synthesized TiN/Ti-O films is non-stoichiometric. The gradient characteristics of the films were corroborated by qualitative analysis of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The thickness of films was 510-940 nm. Platelet adhesion experiments adopted to estimate the blood compatibility of the films show that the adsorption and deformation of platelets on the synthesized TiN/Ti-O gradient films have been significantly suppressed compared to LTIC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to assess the wear and scratch tracks discloses that the films exhibit good wear resistance and high adhesion strength

  17. The study of composition, structure, mechanical properties and platelet adhesion of Ti-O/TiN gradient films prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    Wen, F.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G. J.; Chu, P. K.; Leng, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Titanium oxide and titanium nitrogen gradient films were prepared by three different processes using metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MPIII-D). The mechanical properties of the films synthesized on silicon wafers, Ti6A14V and low temperature isotropic carbon (LTIC) were evaluated by nano-indentation, pin-on-disc wear, and scratching test. The hardness of the film was measured to be 19.5 GPa. Investigation by XRD shows that the surface Ti-O layer possesses a rutile structure and analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) discloses that the surface composition of the synthesized TiN/Ti-O films is non-stoichiometric. The gradient characteristics of the films were corroborated by qualitative analysis of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The thickness of films was 510-940 nm. Platelet adhesion experiments adopted to estimate the blood compatibility of the films show that the adsorption and deformation of platelets on the synthesized TiN/Ti-O gradient films have been significantly suppressed compared to LTIC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to assess the wear and scratch tracks discloses that the films exhibit good wear resistance and high adhesion strength.

  18. Dramatic changes in ectomycorrhizal community composition, root tip abundance and mycelial production along a stand-scale nitrogen deposition gradient

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Nilsson, Lars Ola; Hansen, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    availability indices. • Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and mycelial production decreased five and 10-fold, respectively, with increasing N deposition. In addition, the ectomycorrhizal fungal community changed and the species richness decreased. The changes were correlated with the measured indices of N......• Nitrogen (N) availability is known to influence ectomycorrhizal fungal components, such as fungal community composition, biomass of root tips and production of mycelia, but effects have never been demonstrated within the same forest. • We measured concurrently the abundance of ectomycorrhizal...... status, in particular N deposition and N leaching. • The relationship between the altered ectomycorrhizal community, root tip abundance and mycelial production is discussed in the context of the N parameters. We suggest that increased N deposition to forests will cause large changes in ectomycorrhizal...

  19. Poly(aniline-co--aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl alcohol): Synthesis and characterization

    S Adhikari; P Banerji

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we have deposited poly(aniline-co--aminobenzoic acid) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ polymerization. The polymerization was effected within maleic acid (MA) cross-linked PVA hydrogel. The copolymer was obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride and -aminobenzoic acid using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. Instead of conventional solution polymerization, here synthesis was carried out on APS soaked MA cross-linked PVA (MA–PVA) film where the polymer was in situ deposited in its conducting form. The composite film was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT–IR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Surface morphology of the composite films was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The variation of conductivity of the films was studied.

  20. Contemporaneous deposition of phyllosilicates and sulfates: Using Australian acidic saline lake deposits to describe geochemical variability on Mars

    Baldridge, A.M.; Hook, S.J.; Crowley, J.K.; Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Michalski, J.L.; Thomson, B.J.; de Souza, Filho C.R.; Bridges, N.T.; Brown, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the origin of the Martian sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits have led to the hypothesis that there was a marked, global-scale change in the Mars environment from circum-neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to Hesperian. However, terrestrial studies suggest that two different geochemical systems need not be invoked to explain such geochemical variation.Western Australian acidic playa lakes have large pH differences separated vertically and laterally by only a few tens of meters, demonstrating how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. We suggest diverse and variable Martian aqueous environments where the coetaneous formation of phyllosilicates and sulfates at the Australian sites are analogs for regions where phyllosilicates and sulfates coexist on Mars. In these systems, Fe and alkali earth phyllosilicates represent deep facies associated with upwelling neutral to alkaline groundwater, whereas aluminous phyllosilicates and sulfates represent near-surface evaporitic facies formed from more acidic brines. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Declining acidic deposition begins reversal of forest-soil acidification in the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W.; Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Antidormi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO42– deposition of 5.7–76%, over intervals of 8–24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO42– deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P soils have begun to reverse.

  2. Characterization of early microbial communities on volcanic deposits along a vegetation gradient on the island of Miyake, Japan.

    Guo, Yong; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-won; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The 2000 eruption of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima) created a unique opportunity to study the early ecosystem development on newly exposed terrestrial substrates. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities on 9- and 11-year-old volcanic deposits at poorly to fully vegetation-recovered sites in Miyake-jima, Japan, were characterized by conventional culture-based methods and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Despite the differences in the vegetation cover, the upper volcanic deposit layer samples displayed low among-site variation for chemical properties (pH, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) and microbial population densities (total direct count and culturable count). Statistical analyses of pyrosequencing data revealed that the microbial communities of volcanic deposit samples were phylogenetically diverse, in spite of very low-carbon environmental conditions, and their diversity was comparable to that in the lower soil layer (buried soil) samples. Comparing with the microbial communities in buried soil, the volcanic deposit communities were characterized by the presence of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria as the main bacterial class, Deinococcus- Thermus as the minor bacterial phyla, and Ascomycota as the major fungal phyla. Multivariate analysis revealed that several bacterial families and fungal classes correlated positively or negatively with plant species. PMID:24463576

  3. The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF): A tool for the integrated assessment of acid deposition

    A major challenge that has faced policy makers concerned with acid deposition is obtaining an integrated view of the underlying science related to acid deposition. In response to this challenge, the US Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of an integrated Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) which links together the key acid deposition components of emissions, air transport, atmospheric deposition, and aquatic effects in a single modeling structure. The goal of TAF is to integrate credible models of the scientific and technical issues into an assessment framework that can directly address key policy issues, and in doing so act as a bridge between science and policy. Key objectives of TAF are to support coordination and communication among scientific researchers; to support communications with policy makers, and to provide rapid response for analyzing newly emerging policy issues; and to provide guidance for prioritizing research programs. This paper briefly describes how TAF was formulated to meet those objectives and the underlying principals which form the basis for its development

  4. Investigating freshwater periphyton community response to uranium with phospholipid fatty acid and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses

    Periphyton communities can be used as monitors of ecosystem health and as indicators of contamination in lotic systems. Measures of biomass, community structure, and genetic diversity were used to investigate impacts of uranium (U) exposure on periphyton. Laboratory exposures of periphyton in river water amended with 238U were performed for 5 days, followed by 2 days of U depuration in unamended river water. Productivity as measured by biomass was not affected by concentrations up to 100 μg 238U L-1. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns revealed no changes in community or genetic structure related to U exposure. We suggest that the periphyton community as a whole was not significantly impacted by exposures of 238U up to a concentration of 100 μg L-1. These findings have significance for the assessment and prediction of U impacts on aquatic ecosystems

  5. Studies of acid deposition and its effects in two small catchments in Hunan, China

    Xue, N.; Seip, H. M.; Liao, B; R. D. Vogt

    2003-01-01

    Acid deposition and its effects were studied by analysing the chemistry in precipitation, stream water, soil water and soils in two catchments in Hunan. One site, Linkesuo (denoted LKS), is on the outskirts of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, the other (Bailutang, denoted BLT) on the outskirts of Chenzhou in southern Hunan. Volume-weighted average pH values and sulphate concentrations in wet deposition were 4.58 (BLT) and 4.90 (LKS) and 174 μmolc L-1 and 152 μmolc L-1, ...

  6. Effect of acetic acid on electrochemical deposition of carbon-nitride thin film

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition method was employed to prepare CNx thin film from methanol-urea solution,and it was shown that adding a little acetic acid in the solution significantly affected the deposition process.After optimizing the experiment conditions,we obtained polycrystalline grains with sizes of about 3―7μm on the faces of single crystal silicon.X-ray diffraction spectrua indicate that the grains are mainly composed of cubic phase mixed with a small amount of β and α phases.

  7. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography, and ...... magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  8. Effect of acidic deposition on forested andisols in the Tama Hill region of Japan

    Baba, M.; Okazaki, M.; Hashitani, T. [University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    Acid deposition and its effect on Andisols was investigated in the forest experimental station, the Rolling Land Laboratory, the Tama Hill region, central Japan. The annual volume-weighted mean pH value of open bulk precipitation was 4.8. The acidity of stemflow from coniferous trees was attributed to dry deposition of air pollutants. The acidic stemflow affected the chemical composition of the soil solution and the pH of soils around the coniferous trees. The concentration of aluminium in the soil solution was accompanied by nitrate which was provided by nitrification in the low soil pH range. The concentration of aluminium in the soil solution, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.12 mmol{sub c} liter{sup -1} is similar to the critical levels for the roots of the trees. Andisols in the surface horizon was acidified due to the atmospheric acid deposition, even though seepage from the catchment is still neutral. 41 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Deposition kinetics and characterization of stable ionomers from hexamethyldisiloxane and methacrylic acid by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Urstöger, Georg; Resel, Roland; Koller, Georg; Coclite, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    A novel ionomer of hexamethyldisiloxane and methacrylic acid was synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The PECVD process, being solventless, allows mixing of monomers with very different solubilities, and for polymers formed at high deposition rates and with high structural stability (due to the high number of cross-links and covalent bonding to the substrate) to be obtained. A kinetic study over a large set of parameters was run with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for high stability and proton conductivity of the polymer layer. Copolymers with good stability over 6 months' time in air and water were obtained, as demonstrated by ellipsometry, X-Ray reflectivity, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Stable coatings showed also proton conductivity as high as 1.1 ± 0.1 mS cm-1. Chemical analysis showed that due to the high molecular weight of the chosen precursors, it was possible to keep the plasma energy-input-per-mass low. This allowed limited precursor fragmentation and the functional groups of both monomers to be retained during the plasma polymerization.

  10. Gradient in the degree of Crassulacean acid metabolism within leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Winter, K

    1987-09-01

    Leaves of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perr., about 3.3 mm thick, showed higher rates of net CO2 exchange through the lower than through the upper surface during day and night, although the lower surface received only a small fraction of the light which was incident on the upper surface. Nocturnal acidification was more pronounced in cells from the lower than from the upper portion of leaves. The lower activity of the exposed side of these long-lived succulent leaves may be related to the potentially adverse effects of excessive light. PMID:24225791

  11. Assessment of Acid Deposition Effects on Water Quality of the Upper Rio Grande River Section in Texas

    John L. Gossage; Kaiming Yan; Qi Fu; Badri Parajuli; Qin Qian; Thomas Ho

    2013-01-01

    Airborne pollutants such as SO42- and NO3- that cause acid rain may pollute water resources via acid deposition. However, such effects on the water quality of the upper Rio Grande River section in Texas have not been systematically studied. The objective of this study is to collect and analyze field data, and perform hydrological and water chemistry analyses to assess acid deposition effects on the river water quality. The analysis of the precipitation data indicates that the concentrations ...

  12. Inkjet deposition of itraconazole onto poly(glycolic acid) microneedle arrays.

    Boehm, Ryan D; Jaipan, Panupong; Skoog, Shelby A; Stafslien, Shane; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Narayan, Roger J

    2016-03-01

    Poly(glycolic acid) microneedle arrays were fabricated using a drawing lithography process; these arrays were modified with a drug release agent and an antifungal agent by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Coatings containing poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride), a water-soluble drug release layer, and itraconazole (an antifungal agent), were applied to the microneedles by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Microscopic evaluation of the microneedles indicated that the modified microneedles contained the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited agents and that the surface coatings were released in porcine skin. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry aided in confirmation that the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited agents were successfully applied to the desired target areas of the microneedle surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of the component materials in the piezoelectric inkjet printing-deposited material. Itraconazole-modified microneedle arrays incubated with agar plates containing Candida albicans cultures showed zones of growth inhibition. PMID:26869165

  13. Studies of acid deposition and its effects in two small catchments in Hunan, China

    N. Xue

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid deposition and its effects were studied by analysing the chemistry in precipitation, stream water, soil water and soils in two catchments in Hunan. One site, Linkesuo (denoted LKS, is on the outskirts of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, the other (Bailutang, denoted BLT on the outskirts of Chenzhou in southern Hunan. Volume-weighted average pH values and sulphate concentrations in wet deposition were 4.58 (BLT and 4.90 (LKS and 174 μmolc L-1 and 152 μmolc L-1, respectively. Wet deposition of sulphate has been estimated as 4.3 gS m-2yr-1 and 3.4 gS m-2yr-1 at BLT and LKS, respectively. Estimates of the corresponding total depositions (dry + wet are 6.1 gS m-2yr-1 and 5.3 gS m-2yr-1. In precipitation and throughfall, sulphate was the major anion and calcium the major cation. In stream and soil water, nitrate was slightly higher than sulphate on an equivalent basis and magnesium (Mg not much lower than calcium (Ca. Important soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM content, exchangeable acidic cations, exchangeable base cations, effective cation exchange capacity (CECe, base saturation (BS, and aluminium (Al and iron (Fe pools, were determined for five forest soil profiles (consisting of four horizons in each of the two catchments. The soils in BLT are generally more acid, have lower BS and higher Al and Fe pools than the LKS soils. The Al- and Fe-pools were generally higher in the topsoils (i.e. the O and A horizons than in deeper soils (i.e. E and B horizons especially at the most acidic site (BLT. There are significant correlations between Fe-pools and the corresponding Al-pools in both catchments except between the amorphous Feox and Alox. Considering the long-term high deposition of sulphate, there is a risk of future ecological damage due to acidification, especially in the BLT catchment, although vegetation damage has yet to be observed in the catchments. This condition appears to be representative of a

  14. Modeling wet deposition of acid substances over the PRD region in China

    Lu, Xingcheng; Fung, Jimmy Chi Hung; Wu, Dongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has suffered heavily from acid rain in the last 10 years due to the anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Several measurement-based studies about this issue have been conducted to analyze the chemical composition of precipitation in this area. However, no detailed, high resolution numerical simulation regarding this topic has ever been done in this region. In this study, the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was applied to simulate the wet deposition of acid substances (SO42- and NO3-) in the PRD region from 2009 to 2011 with a resolution of 3 km. The simulation output agreed well with the observation data. Our results showed that Guangzhou was the city most affected by acid rain in this region. The ratio of non-sea-salt sulfate to nitrate indicated that the acid rain in this region belonged to the sulfate-nitrate mixed type. The source apportionment result suggests that point source and super regional source are the ones that contribute the pollutants most in the rain water over PRD Region. The sulfate and nitrate input to some reservoirs via wet deposition was also estimated based on the model simulation. Our results suggest that further cross-city cooperation and emission reduction are needed to further curb acid rain in this region.

  15. Thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth (GREG) technique using photoacoustic methods

    Albor-Aguilera, M.L. [ESFM-IPN, Depto. de Fisica, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Trujillo, M.A. [ESCOM-IPN, Depto. de Ciencias Basicas, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Depto. de Fisica, Av. IPN No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tufino-Velazquez, M. [ESFM-IPN, Depto. de Fisica, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], E-mail: mtufinovel@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-02-02

    In this work we report the study of the thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth technique. CdS films were grown on pyrex glass substrates. These studies were carried out using an open photoacoustic cell made out of an electret microphone. From X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and photoluminescence measurements we observed polycrystalline CdS films with good morphology and crystalline quality. We obtained a thermal diffusivity coefficient of our samples with values ranging from 3.15 to 3.89 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/s. For comparison, we measured a value of 1.0 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/s for the thermal diffusivity coefficient of a CdS single crystal. We measured an energy gap value of 2.42 eV for our samples by using a photoacoustic spectroscopy system.

  16. Acid rain and nitrogen deposition in a sub-tropical watershed (Piracicaba): ecosystem consequences

    Poorly buffered sandy soils may result in acidification problems for forests in this basin. - High levels of wet N and acidic deposition were measured in southeast Brazil. In this study we addressed the sensitivity of water bodies and soils to acidification and N deposition in the Piracicaba River basin (12,400 km2). Average acid neutralization capacity (ANC) at 23 river sampling sites varied from 350 to 1800 μeq l-1. Therefore, rivers and streams in the Piracicaba basin are well buffered, if the lower limit of 200 μeq l-1 is assumed as an indication of poorly buffered waters. ANC is increased by untreated wastewaters discarded into rivers and streams of the region. Average NO3 concentrations varied from 20 to 70 μeq l-1. At the most polluted river sites, NO3 concentration is not highest, however, probably due to NO3 reduction and denitrification. Most of the nitrogen in streams is also provided by wastewaters and not by wet deposition. The majority of the soils in the basin, however, are acidic with a low base cation content and high aluminum concentration. Therefore, soils in this basin are poorly buffered and, in areas of forest over sandy soils, acidification may be a problem

  17. Aerosol deposition at high-temperature gradients in geometries relevant to a CANDU nuclear reactor primary cooling system

    During some postulated severe loss-of-coolant/loss-of-emergency coolant injection accidents, temperatures in a CANDU reactor fuel channel may rise high enough to cause release of vapours of core materials (UO2 fuel, Zircaloy-4 cladding and fission products such as Cs and I). The released vapour mass is expected to be carried by the coolant steam into the cooler parts of the primary cooling system in the form of aerosol particles. A fraction of the aerosol mass containing the fission products will be deposited in various component geometries, such as flow channels containing fuel rodbundles and pipes with changing cross-sectional area and bends. As part of an aerosol program, we have conducted experiments on aerosol transport in two geometries, focussing on thermophoresis and diffusion. The results obtained in these experiments and their analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Blett, T.; Clow, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.

  19. Effect of N deposition on tree amino acid concentrations in two Sphagnum species

    Karsisto, M.; Kitunen, V. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland). Vantaa Research Centre; Jauhiainen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen saturation of ecosystems occurs when the availability of nitrogen is not a growth limiting factor. This situation can be reached through fertilisation or by nitrogen deposition. Prolonged nitrogen saturation may overload the ecosystem and cause changes in the vigour and eventually in the composition of plant communities. But before this stage is reached, certain changes in nitrogen metabolism occur. These changes can be used as an early warning of nitrogen overload to ecosystems. A change in the amino acid pool of plants has been used as an indication of various kind of stress, including, temperature, nutrient imbalance, shading, drought or excess water. It has been postulated that such stresses have an effect on protein synthesis but not on the nitrogen uptake of plants. The result is an increase in the concentration of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions in plant cells, which may have toxic effects to the plant and the processes that assimilate the free NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions. One of such process is the synthesis of amino acids, especially those containing a significant proportion of nitrogen, e.g. arginine, glutamine and asparagine. This study about the quantification of amino acids in two species of Sphagnum mosses is part of a larger study, the aim of which is to clarify how a number of Sphagnum species will cope with climatic change and nitrogen deposition. Sphagna are the most important members of the peat forming communities in the boreal zone. Sphagnum communities are formed by species specialised to grow in conditions of low nutrient availability, mainly provided via deposition. The present structure and composition of mire communities may be endangered due to elevated levels of nitrogen deposition that have persisted over the last few decades. (20 refs.)

  20. Chemical and biological recovery from acid deposition within the Honnedaga Lake watershed, New York, USA.

    Josephson, Daniel C; Robinson, Jason M; Chiotti, Justin; Jirka, Kurt J; Kraft, Clifford E

    2014-07-01

    Honnedaga Lake in the Adirondack region of New York has sustained a heritage brook trout population despite decades of atmospheric acid deposition. Detrimental impacts from acid deposition were observed from 1920 to 1960 with the sequential loss of acid-sensitive fishes, leaving only brook trout extant in the lake. Open-lake trap net catches of brook trout declined for two decades into the late 1970s, when brook trout were considered extirpated from the lake but persisted in tributary refuges. Amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1990 mandated reductions in sulfate and nitrogen oxide emissions. By 2000, brook trout had re-colonized the lake coincident with reductions in surface-water sulfate, nitrate, and inorganic monomeric aluminum. No changes have been observed in surface-water acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) or calcium concentration. Observed increases in chlorophyll a and decreases in water clarity reflect an increase in phytoplankton abundance. The zooplankton community exhibits low species richness, with a scarcity of acid-sensitive Daphnia and dominance by acid-tolerant copepods. Trap net surveys indicate that relative abundance of adult brook trout population has significantly increased since the 1970s. Brook trout are absent in 65 % of tributaries that are chronically acidified with ANC of 2 μmol/L). Given the current conditions, a slow recovery of chemistry and biota is expected in Honnedaga Lake and its tributaries. We are exploring the potential to accelerate the recovery of brook trout abundance in Honnedaga Lake through lime applications to chronically and episodically acidified tributaries. PMID:24671614

  1. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Vet, Robert; Pienaar, Jacobus J.; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina; Shaw, Mike; Ro, Chul-Un; Aas, Wenche

    2014-01-01

    A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition has been carried out under the direction of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Scientific Advisory Group for Precipitation Chemistry (SAG-PC). The assessment addressed three questions: (1) what do measurements and model estimates of precipitation chemistry and wet, dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity, and phosphorus show glob...

  2. Effect of lactic acid on nucleation morphology and surface roughness of electroless Ni–P deposition in nanoscale

    A Babanejhad; M Hashemi; Y Rahmatallahpur; Sh A Nozad

    2012-08-01

    The present work aims to study effect of lactic acid concentration as complexing agent on surface roughness and nucleation morphology of electroless N–P deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study nucleation morphology and surface roughness of deposition. Deposition process started at some initial priority growing centres independently distributed on the substrate. We found that the morphology and surface roughness of deposition strongly depends on the complexing agent concentration. Morphology of initial deposited centres with no concentration of lactic acid was in coniform structure. By increasing the complexing agent concentration, the structure of initial growing centres changed from coniform to nodular shape and the surface roughness of depositions decreased.

  3. Sulfuric acid effect on the deposition of radioactive aerosol in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs

    The effect of inhalation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol on respiratory deposition of radiolabeled streptococcus aerosol was investigated in guinea pigs. A 60 minute exposure to 3020 μgm/m3 H2SO4 (1.8 μm CMD) resulted in a 60 percent greater total respiratory deposition rate than control animals and a proximal shift in the regional pattern of deposition to the nasopharynx. Dose-response experiments revealed that a concentration of 30 μgm/m3 H2SO4 (0.25 μm CMD) also induced a proximal shift in the regional pattern of particle deposition but in this instance the shift was to the trachea. The interrelationship between mass concentration of H2SO4 and its particle size to the interpretation of these results is discussed. A hypothesis concerning the relationship of these data to previously reported respiratory physiologic effects of H2SO4 inhalation and to a pathophysiologic mechanism which may underlie effects attributed to sulfur oxides by epidemiologic studies is described

  4. The effect of water uptake gradient in membrane electrode assembly on fuel cell performance

    Fujita, H., E-mail: hajime.phy@gmail.co [Research Institute for Science Engineering, Waseda University, 103, R.J.Shillman Hall, 3-14-9, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Shiraki, F.; Oshima, Y.; Tatsumi, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Sasaki, T. [Research Institute for Science Engineering, Waseda University, 103, R.J.Shillman Hall, 3-14-9, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Oshima, A. [Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Washio, M. [Research Institute for Science Engineering, Waseda University, 103, R.J.Shillman Hall, 3-14-9, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) with functionally gradient ionic sites were fabricated utilizing low energy electron beam (EB) irradiations. The low energy electron beam irradiation to polymer membranes possessed the property of gradient energy deposition in the membrane thickness direction. In the process of EB grafting of styrene onto base films, selective ranges of the gradient energy deposition were used. Micro FT-IR spectra showed that the simulated energy deposition of EB irradiation to base polymer membranes in the thickness direction corresponded to the amount of styrene grafted onto EB-irradiated films. After sulfonation, a functionally gradient ionic site PEM (gradient-PEM) was prepared, corresponding to EB depth-dose profile. The functionally gradients of ionic sites in the gradient-PEM and flat-PEM were evaluated with XPS and SEM-EDX. The results of XPS and SEM-EDX suggest that the prepared gradient-PEM had a gradient sulfonated acid groups. In addition, the polarization performance of MEA based on gradient-PEM was improved in high current density. It was thought that water uptake gradient could have a function to prevent flooding in the MEA during FC operation. Thus, the functionally gradient-PEMs could be a promising solution to manage the water behavior in MEA.

  5. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.; Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical and foliar biochemical markers indicate perturbations in biological processes in healthy red spruce trees across the northeastern USA. Previous research on the dendrochemistry of red spruce stemwood indicated that under uniform environmental conditions, stemwood concentrations of Ca and Mg decreased with increasing radial distance from the pith. For nine forest locations, frequency analysis shows that 28 and 52% of samples of red spruce stemwood formed in the 1960s are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively, relative to wood formed prior to and after the 1960s. This enrichment in trees throughout the northeastern USA may be interpretable as a signal of increased availability of essential cations in forest soils. Such a temporary increase in the availability of Ca and Mg could be caused by cation mobilization, a consequence of increased acidic deposition. During cation mobilization, essential Ca and Mg as well as potentially harmful Al become more available for interaction with binding sites in the soil and absorbing roots. As conditions which favor cation mobilization continue, Ca and Mg can be leached or displaced from the soil. A measure of the interaction between Ca and Al is the Al/Ca binding ratio (molar charge ratio of exchangeable Al to exchangeable Ca). As the Al/Ca binding ratio in the root zone increased from 0.3 to 1.9, the foliar concentration of the biochemical stress marker putrescine also increased from 45 to 145 nm g-1. The correlation of the putrescine concentration to the Al/Ca binding ratio (adj. r2 = 0.68, P < 0.027) suggests that foliar stress may be linked to soil chemistry.

  6. HCl in rocket exhaust clouds - Atmospheric dispersion, acid aerosol characteristics, and acid rain deposition

    Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Both measurements and model calculations of the temporal dispersion of peak HCl (g + aq) concentration in Titan III exhaust clouds are found to be well characterized by one-term power-law decay expressions. The respective coefficients and decay exponents, however, are found to vary widely with meteorology. The HCl (g), HCl (g + aq), dewpoint, and temperature-pressure-altitude data for Titan III exhaust clouds are consistent with accurately calculated HCl/H2O vapor-liquid compositions for a model quasi-equilibrated flat surface aqueous aerosol. Some cloud evolution characteristics are also defined. Rapid and extensive condensation of aqueous acid clearly occurs during the first three min of cloud rise. Condensation is found to be intensified by the initial entrainment of relatively moist ambient air from lower levels, that is, from levels below eventual cloud stabilization. It is pointed out that if subsequent dilution air at stabilization altitude is significantly drier, a state of maximum condensation soon occurs, followed by an aerosol evaporation phase.

  7. Cloud acidity and acidic deposition in the lower troposphere and ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere: Modeling and data analysis regarding the role of atmospheric aerosol

    This study focused on the role of atmospheric aerosols in determining the cloud acidity and acidic deposition in the lower troposphere and the ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere. For the former, a cloud chemistry model is developed to study the in-cloud chemistry and acidity in cloud droplets. The cloud chemistry model includes the absorption of trace gases, the oxidation of aqueous phase SO2, and the scavenging of atmospheric aerosols. A new scheme is developed to differentiate the acidity and chemical composition distributing in individual cloud droplets. The above cloud chemistry model is incorporated into a two-layer flow model in order to investigate the effects of mountain waves on the cloud acidity. Using the three-year database acquired at Mt. Mitchell site, the in-cloud chemistry and acidic deposition through dry, wet and cloud deposition pathways are investigated. The in-cloud scavenging of submicron aerosols such as sulfates and nitrates is parameterized as a function of cloud deposition rate. The deposition fluxes of sulfur (S) compounds are found primarily contributed by cloud capture mechanism followed by incident precipitation and dry deposition. A comparison of deposition estimates at Mt. Mitchell with those at other sites shows that the sulfate deposition at sites exceeding 1,200 m MSL in elevation in Bavaria (Germany) and eastern USA is almost identical within error limits. The features of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the ozone depletion episode of October 1987 are investigated based on the SAGE 2 (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2) data. The study focuses on (1) inferring the aerosol size spectrum using a modified randomized minimization-search-technique (RMST), and (2) investigating the vertical, zonal and columnar averages of aerosol properties, together with the ozone concentration

  8. A Martian analog in Kansas: Comparing Martian strata with Permian acid saline lake deposits

    Benison, Kathleen C.

    2006-05-01

    An important result of the Mars Exploration Rover's (MER) mission has been the images of sedimentary structures and diagenetic features in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum. Bedding, cross-bedding, ripple marks, mud cracks, displacive evaporite crystal molds, and hematite concretions are contained in these Martian strata. Together, these features are evidence of past saline groundwater and ephemeral shallow surface waters on Mars. Geochemical analyses of these Martian outcrops have established the presence of sulfates, iron oxides, and jarosite, which strongly suggests that these waters were also acidic. The same assemblage of sedimentary structures and diagenetic features is found in the salt-bearing terrestrial red sandstones and shales of the middle Permian (ca. 270 Ma) Nippewalla Group of Kansas, which were deposited in and around acid saline ephemeral lakes. These striking sedimentological and mineralogical similarities make these Permian red beds and evaporites the best-known terrestrial analog for the Martian sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  9. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.

    2012-01-01

    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ~100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden D...

  10. UV assisted photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of phthalic acid using spray deposited Al doped zinc oxide thin films

    Mahadik, M.A.; Shinde, S.S.; Hunge, Y.M.; Mohite, V.S.; Kumbhar, S.S.; Moholkar, A.V.; Rajpure, K.Y.; Bhosale, C.H., E-mail: chbhosale@gmail.com

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Nanostructured undoped and AZO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis. • Effect of Al doping on the structural, morphological and photoluminance properties. • Photocatalytic degradation of phthalic acid under UV light illumination. • Reaction kinetics and mineralization of phthalic acid. - Abstract: Undoped and Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are successfully prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at optimised substrate temperature of 400 °C onto amorphous and F:SnO{sub 2} coated glass substrates. Effect of Al doping on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO thin films is studied. Deposited films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure having (0 0 2) preferred orientation. The PEC characterization shows that, short circuit current (I{sub sc}) and open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) are (I{sub sc} = 0.38 mA and V{sub oc} = 421 mV) relatively higher at the 3 at.% Al doping. SEM images show deposited thin films are compact and uniform with seed like grains. All films exhibit average transmittance of about 82% in the visible region and a sharp absorption onset at 375 nm corresponding to 3.3 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the large surface area (64 cm{sup 2}) Al-doped ZnO photocatalyst samples were evaluated by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of phthalic acid under UV light irradiation. The results show that the 3 at.% AZO thin film photocatalyst exhibited degradation of phthalic acid up to about 45% within 3 h with significant reduction in COD and TOC values.

  11. Physical vapour deposition of alkyl phosphonic acid on mica and HOPG investigated by NC-AFM

    We investigate the growth of octadecylphosphonic acid (OPA) self-assembly molecules prepared by physical vapour deposition (PVD) on mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. On samples prepared by immersion from diluted solution on mica self-assembled monolayers are formed, whereas by PVD and subsequent annealing we observe the formation of almost perfect self-assembled bilayers slightly tilted with respect to the surface normal. On the non-polar surface of HOPG, the vapour-deposited molecules adsorb in bilayers parallel to the surface, similar to the films produced by spread coating (Fontes and Neves 2005 Langmuir 21 11113). On all samples we deduce the molecular ordering by means of noncontact atomic force microscopy; on HOPG, even submolecular resolution is obtained. A comparison of our vapour-deposited films with samples prepared by other techniques mentioned in the literature demonstrates that PVD yields excellent film quality, and in many applications might be preferred due to its clean, solution-free environment and the possibility for exact dosage, e.g. for multilayer formation with a defined thickness

  12. Sulfur stable isotopic compositions as indicators of acid deposition histories in lakes

    Atmospheric acid deposition in perturbing many aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in the northeastern US. Sulfate is one component of this deposition, and they have been studying the sulfur chemistry of lake sediments that record changes in sulfur deposition histories. They are measuring %S, S in organic and inorganic fractions, and 34S/32S isotopic compositions. Initial findings show that pyrite (FeS2) is a major component of many recent lake sediments. Pyrite is formed in the high-iron lake sediments where anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria actively produce sulfides. Sulfate levels are a key in determining the activities of these bacteria, and the recent sulfate increases are sufficient to cause widespread stimulation of sulfide production in many lake sediments. Isotopic fractionation during sulfate reduction causes sulfides to be depleted in 34S and have low δ34S values. Addition of sulfides to sediments increases total %S, amounts of inorganic sulfur species and results in shifts toward lower δ34S values. They are using these changes to estimate historical and contemporary contributions to the sulfur record in sediments

  13. nC60 deposition kinetics: the complex contribution of humic acid, ion concentration, and valence.

    McNew, Coy P; LeBoeuf, Eugene J

    2016-07-01

    The demonstrated toxicity coupled with inevitable environmental release of nC60 raise serious concerns about its environmental fate and transport, therefore it is crucial to understand how nC60 will interact with subsurface materials including attached phase soil and sediment organic matter (AP-SOM). This study investigated the attachment of nC60 onto a Harpeth humic acid (HHA) coated silica surface under various solution conditions using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The HHA coating greatly enhanced nC60 attachment at low ion concentrations while hindering attachment at high ion concentrations in the presence of both mono and divalent cations. At low ion concentrations, the HHA greatly reduced the surface potential of the silica, enhancing nC60 deposition through reduction in the electrostatic repulsion. At high ion concentrations however, the reduced surface potential became less important due to the near zero energy barrier to deposition and therefore non-DLVO forces dominated, induced by compaction of the HHA layer, and leading to hindered attachment. In this manner, observed contributions from the HHA layer were more complex than previously reported and by monitoring surface charge and calculated DLVO interaction energy alongside attachment experiments, this study advances the mechanistic understanding of the variable attachment contributions from the humic acid layer. PMID:27061365

  14. Stretchability of Silver Films on Thin Acid-Etched Rough Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates Fabricated by Electrospray Deposition

    Mehdi, S. M.; Cho, K. H.; Kang, C. N.; Choi, K. H.

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the fabrication of Ag films through the electrospray deposition (ESD) technique on sub-millimeter-thick acid-etched rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates having both low and high modulus of elasticity. The main focus of the study is on the stretchable behavior of ESD-deposited Ag nanoparticles-based thin films on these substrates when subjected to axial strains. Experimental results suggest that the as-fabricated films on thin acid-etched rough low modulus PDMS has an average stretchability of 5.6% with an average increase in the resistance that is 23 times that of the initial resistance at electrical failure (complete rupture of the films). Comparatively, the stretchability of Ag films on the high modulus PDMS was found to be 3 times higher with 4.65 times increase in the resistance at electrical failure. Also, a high positive value of the piezoresistive coefficient for these films suggests that the resistivity changes during stretching, and thus deviation from the simplified models is inevitable. Based on these results, new models are presented that quantify the changes in resistance with strain.

  15. U(VI) speciation and reduction in acid chloride fluids in hydrothermal conditions: from transport to deposition of uranium in unconformity-related deposits

    Circulations of acidic chloride brines in the earth's crust are associated with several types of uranium deposits, particularly unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits. The spectacular high grade combined with the large tonnage of these deposits is at the origin of the key questions concerning the geological processes responsible for U transport and precipitation. The aim of this work is to performed experimental studies of U(VI) speciation and its reduction to U(IV) subsequently precipitation to uraninite under hydrothermal condition. About uranium transport, the study of U(VI) speciation in acidic brines at high temperature is performed by Raman and XAS spectroscopy, showing the coexistence of several uranyl chloride complexes UO2Cln2-n (n = 0 - 5). From this study, complexation constants are proposed. The strong capability of chloride to complex uranyl is at the origin of the transport of U(VI) at high concentration in acidic chloride brines. Concerning uranium precipitation, the reactivity of four potential reductants under conditions relevant for URU deposits genesis is investigated: H2, CH4, Fe(II) and the C-graphite. The kinetics of reduction reaction is measured as a function of temperature, salinity, pH and concentration of reductant. H2, CH4, and the C-graphite are very efficient while Fe(II) is not able to reduce U(VI) in same conditions. The duration of the mineralizing event is controlled by (i) the U concentration in the ore-forming fluids and (ii) by the generation of gaseous reductants, and not by the reduction kinetics. These mobile and efficient gaseous reductant could be at the origin of the extremely focus and massive character of ore in URU deposits. Finally, first partition coefficients uraninite/fluid of trace elements are obtained. This last part opens-up new perspectives on (i) REE signatures interpretation for a given type of uranium deposit (ii) and reconstruction of mineralizing fluids composition. (author)

  16. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-09-15

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy.

  17. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  18. Whole-lake algal responses to a century of acidic industrial deposition on the Canadian Shield

    A century of cultural acidification is hypothesized to have altered algal community structure in boreal lakes. To date, this hypothesis has remained untested because of both the lack of data predating the onset of industrial pollution and incomplete estimates of whole-lake algal community structure. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of sedimentary pigments was used to quantify whole-lake algal responses to acid deposition in six boreal lakes located in Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada. Concomitant significant increases in chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, diatom-inferred lake acidity, and metal levels since 1900 suggested that algal abundances in four acidified lakes and one small, circumneutral lake were enhanced by aerial pollution. An alternate explanation is that increased acidity and underwater light availability in the acidified lakes shifted algal abundance towards phytobenthos and deepwater phytoplankton, whose pigment signatures were better preserved in the sediments. Taxonomically diagnostic pigment stratigraphies were consistent with shifts in algal community structure towards filamentous green phytobenthos and deepwater phytoflagellates in the acidified lakes. Our findings suggest that decades of aerial pollution have altered the base of foodwebs in boreal lakes, potentially rendering them less resilient to other environmental stressors. (author)

  19. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 10. Watershed and lake processes affecting surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    The acid-base chemistry of surface waters is governed by the amount and chemistry of deposition and by the biogeochemical reactions that generate acidity or acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) along the hydrologic pathways that water follows through watersheds to streams and lakes. The amount of precipitation and it chemical loading depend on the area's climate and physiography, on it proximity to natural or industrial gaseous or particulate sources, and on local or regional air movements. Vegetation interacts with the atmosphere to enhance both wet and dry deposition of chemicals to a greater or lesser extent, depending on vegetation type. Vegetation naturally acidifies the environment in humid regions through processes of excess base cation uptake and generation of organic acids associated with many biological processes. Natural acid production and atmospheric deposition of acidic materials drive the acidification process. The lake or stream NAC represents a balance between the acidity-and ANC-generating processes that occur along different flow paths in the watershed and the relative importance of each flow path

  20. Effect of acidic deposition on productivity of forest ecosystem and estimation of its economic losses in southern suburbs of Chongqing

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with principle sand methods of ecology,this paper studied the effects of acidic deposition on productivity and volume increment of masson pine and Cinnamomum campora forest which are widely distributed in southern suburbs of Chongqing. Based on the field data and measurements, a multivariable stepwise regression model was established to analyze the effects of multiple environmental factors on the productivity of the forest ecosystems. This model was used to assess the volume and economic losses of these two forest ecosystems caused by acidic deposition. The results showed that, among the environmental factors, pH value of precipitation, soil depth, soil organic contents and slope are the dominant ones influencing the growth of masson pine forest. It is also shown that the acidic deposition has no clear relation to the growth of C.Campora forest, so development of such broad-leaved forest is suitable in the area.

  1. Effect of Time and Deposition Method on Quality of Phosphonic Acid Modifier Self-Assembled Monolayers on Indium Zinc Oxide

    Sang, Lingzi; Knesting, Kristina M.; Bulusu, Anuradha; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Giordano, Anthony J.; Marder, Seth R.; Berry, Joseph J.; Graham, Samuel; Ginger, David S.; Pemberton, Jeanne E.

    2016-12-15

    Phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are utilized at critical interfaces between transparent conductive oxides (TCO) and organic active layers in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The effects of PA deposition method and time on the formation of close-packed, high-quality monolayers is investigated here for SAMs fabricated by solution deposition, micro-contact printing, and spray coating. The solution deposition isotherm for pentafluorinated benzylphosphonic acid (F5BnPA) on indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) is studied using polarization modulation-infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) at room temperature as a model PA/IZO system. Fast surface adsorption occurs within the first min; however, well-oriented high-quality SAMs are reached only after -48 h, presumably through a continual process of molecular adsorption/desorption and monolayer filling accompanied by molecular reorientation. Two other rapid, soak-free deposition techniques, micro-contact printing and spray coating, are also explored. SAM quality is compared for deposition of phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA), F13-octylphosphonic acid (F13OPA), and pentafluorinated benzyl phosphonic acid (F5BnPA) by solution deposition, micro-contact printing and spray coating using PM-IRRAS. In contrast to micro-contact printing and spray coating techniques, 48-168 h solution deposition at both room temperature and 70 degrees C result in contamination- and surface etch-free close-packed monolayers with good reproducibility. SAMs fabricated by micro-contact printing and spray coating are much less well ordered.

  2. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  3. Pattern and cause of acidic deposition in the Chongqing region, Sichuan Province, China

    The Chongqing region located in Sichuan Province of China, comprises a large city, many small towns and rural areas. The region relies heavily on high-sulfur coal for energy production. Atmospheric pollution by sulfur oxides and other compounds from coal burning has become a major issue. Acid rain is observed throughout the region; volume weighted average pH is about 4.30. Average total S deposition for the region is estimated to be about 8 g S m-2yr-1. This paper reports concentrations of major ions in rain, fog, dew and clouds, of SO2 in air and of airborne particles as well as dustfall. The emissions and interactions between important chemical species in air and water droplets are discussed. 29 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  4. Simulation of acid mine drainage generation around Küre VMS Deposits, Northern Turkey

    Demirel, Cansu; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Çelik Balci, Nurgül

    2015-04-01

    experiments with mixed acidophiles at higher temperatures. Further depleted Fe(III) values coinciding with decreasing pH may point to precipitation of secondary phases (i.e. jarosite). This study revealed that the metals (Fe, Cu, Co and Zn) released during short term leaching of the ore (34 days) are generally caused by acid produced by dissolution reactions rather than oxidation. In the long term experiments a more complex biogeochemical reactions (oxidation and dissolution) take place in conjunction. Key words: Bioleaching, AMD, heavy metal release, environment, acidophilic bacteria, Küre copper ore deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

  5. Environmental factors affecting the low temperature isomerization of homohopanes in acidic peat deposits, central China

    Huang, Xianyu; Meyers, Philip A.; Xue, Jiantao; Gong, Linfeng; Wang, Xinxin; Xie, Shucheng

    2015-04-01

    Progressively more evidence reveals the abundant occurrence of the C31 homohopane with a 17α, 21β-configuration (C31 αβ) in immature peats. This compound is commonly considered to be an indicator of thermal maturity in petroleum source rocks, but in peats it has also been interpreted to reflect the oxidation and subsequent decarboxylation reactions of bacteriohopanepolyols with microbially mediated epimerization at C-17 that is catalyzed by the acidic peat conditions. To learn more about the environmental factors that affect the low-temperature isomerization of homohopanes, we investigated the distribution patterns of homohopanes in a well-studied peat core from the Dajiuhu peatland, central China, together with data from modern surface peat samples from Dajiuhu and three other locations. From comparison with paleotemperature and paleohydrologic records in the peat core, we hypothesize that the ratio of C31 αβ hopane relative to the ββ isomer (C31 αβ/ββ) is mainly influenced on a centennial to millennial timescale by ambient temperature with a secondary effect from redox conditions that are defined by peatland water levels. The surface peat samples revealed that relatively high C31 αβ/ββ values occurred under pH < 6. These results suggest that pH is indeed an important factor in the low-temperature isomerization of C31 homohopanes, although the magnitude of the pH effect may be less than those of ambient temperature and redox conditions. In both surface peat and peat horizons from the Dajiuhu peatland, the amount of the C31 αβ compound with R configuration relative to that with S configuration (C31 R/S) varied closely with C31 αβ/ββ, suggesting that the epimerization at both C-17 and C-22 may happen synchronously and at similar rates. This study reveals that the isomerization of homohopanes has the potential to reflect paleoenvironmental changes in acidic peat deposits. In addition, acidic peat samples investigated in this and previous studies

  6. Responses of Soil Acid Phosphomonoesterase Activity to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition in Three Forests of Subtropical China

    HUANG Wen-Juan; LIU Shi-Zhong; CHU Guo-Wei; ZHANG De-Qiang; LI Yue-Lin; LU Xian-Kai; ZHANG Wei; HUANG Juan; D. OTIENO; Z. H. XU; LIU Ju-Xiu

    2012-01-01

    Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) plays a vital role in controlling phosphorus (P) cycling and reflecting the current degree of P limitation Responses of soil APA to elevating nitrogen (N) deposition are important because of their potential applications in addressing the relationship between N and P in forest ecosystems.A study of responses of soll APA to simulated N deposition was conducted in three succession forests of subtropical China.The three forests include a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (MPF)—pioneer community,a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF)—transition community and a monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF)—climax community.Four N treatments were designed for MEBF:control (without N added),low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),and medium-N (100 kg N ha-1 year-1) and high-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1),and only three N treatments (i.e.,control,low-N,mediun-N) were established for MPF and MF.Results showed that soil APA was highest in MEBF.followed by MPF and MF.Soil APAs in both MPF and MF were not influenced by low-N treatments but depressed in medium-N trcatments.However,soil APA in MEBF exhibited negative responses to high N additions,indicating that the environment of enhanced N depositions would reduce P supply for the mature forest ecosystem.Soil APA and its responses to N additions in subtropical forests were closely related to the succession stages in the forests.

  7. Uranium deposits associated to tertiary acid volcanism of the Pena Blanca Sierra (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    The uraniferous deposits located in the Sierra de Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) are the consequence of successive events that modified acid volcanic rocks. The devitrification of the Nopal Formation, vitroclastic tuffs, is esential in the cooling history because it releases uranium that becomes available. The uranium present in fluids as uranylcarbonate complexes, precipitate along the lamellea of hematite (exsolutions of the ilmenites). The presence of sulfur causes the destabilization of the ilmenites with uranium oxide (pitchblende - titanium oxide - pyrite), the pseudomorph of magnetites (pitchblende - pyrite) and the transformation of hematite into pyrite. The silice coming from the kaolinization of feldspars recristallizes as microcristalline quartz so that the rock appears compact. Fractures cause the uplifting of the lower unit of Nopal formation. It has been altered to montmorillonite. A carbonatation of this tuff has been observed and these two types of alteration occur after kaolinization. The Escuadra formation overlies the Nopal formation. The deposition takes place on an eroded basement where a soil developed. The two formations will together undergo transformations due to the saturation level and the primary ore will be only oxidized or oxidized, transported and reconcentrated. Late and localized thermal activities have been observed and may be the result of tectonic movements occurring after the supergene modification

  8. Treatment of acid drainage in uranium deposit by means of a natural wetland

    Acid drainage waters generated in the uranium deposit G-1, Western Bulgaria, were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 2.4-3.9 and contained uranium and radium radionuclides, heavy metals (copper, zinc , cadmium, iron, manganese) arsenic and sulfates in concentrations usually much higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in agriculture and/or industry. The wetland was characterized by abundant and emergent vegetation and a diverse microflora. Typha latifolia, Typha augustifolia and Potamogeton australis were the main plant species in the wetland but representatives of the genera Scirpus, Juncus, Elepchoris, Potamogeton, Carex and Poa as well as different algae were also present. The water flows through the wetland varied in the range at about 0.2-1,2 l/s reflecting water residence times in the wetland of about 10-50 hours. An efficient water cleanup took place in the wetland even during the cold winter months at ambient temperatures close to 0oC. The removal of pollutants was due to different processes but the microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the sorption of pollutants on organic matter (living and dead plant and microbial biomass) and clays present in the wetland played the main role. (author)

  9. Improved photovoltaic performances by post-deposition acidic treatments on tetrapod shaped colloidal nanocrystal solids

    The ligand exchange reaction with pyridine is the standard procedure for the integration of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) in photovoltaic devices; however, for large sized and irregularly shaped branched NCs, such as CdSe-CdTe tetrapods, this procedure can lead to a considerable waste of materials and the aggregation of NCs in the colloidal solution, therefore resulting in the formation of an inhomogeneous film and low device performances. Here, we report on alternative post-deposition treatments with carboxylic acids on films of CdSe-CdTe tetrapod shaped NCs. This approach guarantees the removal of the insulating surfactant, necessary to obtain good charge transport among NCs, while preserving the film integrity. We perform a complete characterization of the nanocrystalline films treated with different carboxylic acids and demonstrate the successful integration of such films in photovoltaic devices, showing a doubled efficiency with respect to the standard ligand exchange procedure. Our approach represents a general route towards the development of NC based devices with improved performances and minimized waste of material. (paper)

  10. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid by spray deposited nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Shinde, S.S. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Shinde, P.S. [Department of Nano-Engineering, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sapkal, R.T. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Oh, Y.W. [Department of Nano-Engineering, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Haranath, D. [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Bhosale, C.H. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail: rajpure@yahoo.com [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of substrate temperature onto the physico-chemical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical, structural, luminescent, optoelectrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetics of oxalic acid degradation with reaction mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extent of mineralization by COD and TOC. - Abstract: The high quality nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto corning glasses by spray pyrolysis technique. The influence of reaction temperature onto their photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffractometry has complemented by resistivity measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical activity shows enhancement in short circuit current (I{sub sc} = 0.357 mA) and open circuit voltage (V{sub oc} = 0.48 V). Direct band gap calculated by considering R and T values of ZnO thin films increases from 3.14-3.21 eV exhibiting a slight blue shift in band edge. Three characteristic luminescence peaks having near band-edge, blue and green emission are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in films. Photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid followed with reaction mechanism by using zinc oxide photoelectrode under solar illumination has been investigated.

  11. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid by spray deposited nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Highlights: ► Influence of substrate temperature onto the physico-chemical properties. ► Photochemical, structural, luminescent, optoelectrical and thermal properties. ► The kinetics of oxalic acid degradation with reaction mechanism. ► Extent of mineralization by COD and TOC. - Abstract: The high quality nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto corning glasses by spray pyrolysis technique. The influence of reaction temperature onto their photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffractometry has complemented by resistivity measurements and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical activity shows enhancement in short circuit current (Isc = 0.357 mA) and open circuit voltage (Voc = 0.48 V). Direct band gap calculated by considering R and T values of ZnO thin films increases from 3.14–3.21 eV exhibiting a slight blue shift in band edge. Three characteristic luminescence peaks having near band-edge, blue and green emission are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in films. Photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid followed with reaction mechanism by using zinc oxide photoelectrode under solar illumination has been investigated.

  12. Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange of anions and cations in two plantation forests under acid rain influence

    Shen, Weijun; Ren, Huili; Darrel Jenerette, G.; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition as a widely concerned environmental problem in China has been less studied in plantation forests compared to urban and secondary forests, albeit they constitute 1/3 of the total forested areas of the country. We measured the rainwater amount and chemistry outside and beneath the canopies of two widely distributed plantations (Acacia mangium and Dimocarpus longan) in the severe acid rain influenced Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China for two years. Our results showed that the frequency of acid rain was 96% on the basis of pH value 88%) and NH (10-38%). The two tree species showed distinct impacts on rainfall redistribution and rainwater chemistry due to their differences in canopy architecture and leaf/bark texture, suggesting that species-specific effects should not be overlooked while assessing the acid deposition in forested areas.

  13. 4.2. The kinetics of nitric acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit

    Present article is devoted to kinetics of nitric acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit. The dependence of nitric acid decomposition of calcined boric raw material for extraction of boron oxide on temperature (20-100 deg C) and process duration (15-60 minutes) was defined. It was defined that at temperature increasing the extraction rate of boron oxide increases from 20.8 to 78.6%.

  14. The Gane Roof Project: The Impact of Reduced N and S Deposition and Experimental Warming in an Acid Grassland

    A field-based system used to quantify the response of acid grassland to reduced atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition, and to investigate the effects of elevated soil temperature on acid grassland development is described. The system is based on 12 retractable roofs, covering undisturbed experimental plots of acid grassland and three controls. Nine roofs are used to exclude natural precipitation and three roofs used to retain emitted IR radiation at night. An irrigation system has been developed to simulate natural precipitation, allowing for the application of specific treatment regimes of ambient, reduced nitrogen and reduced nitrogen/sulphur deposition beneath the nine rain exclusion plots. Plant, soil parameters, leachate chemistry and gaseous fluxes are being monitored and initial results on soil water chemistry are described. Warming appeared to enhance nitrate concentrations in soil water but this was not sustained beyond the first year of treatment. In contrast, the deposition reduction treatments decreased soil water nitrate concentrations within a few weeks of reducing deposition. This was not observed for other solutes such as sulphate or ammonium suggesting a more direct link between deposition of nitrate and leaching losses

  15. The GANE Roof Project: The impact of reduced N and S deposition and experimental warming in an acid grassland

    A field-based system used to quantify the response of acid grassland to reduced atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition, and to investigate the effects of elevated soil temperature on acid grassland development is described. The system is based on 12 retractable roofs, covering undisturbed experimental plots of acid grassland and three controls. Nine roofs are used to exclude natural precipitation and three roofs used to retain emitted IR radiation at night. An irrigation system has been developed to simulate natural precipitation, allowing for the application of specific treatment regimes of ambient, reduced nitrogen and reduced nitrogen/sulphur deposition beneath the nine rain exclusion plots. Plant, soil parameters, leachate chemistry and gaseous fluxes are being monitored and initial results on soil water chemistry are described. Warming appeared to enhance nitrate concentrations in soil water but this was not sustained beyond the first year of treatment. In contrast, the deposition reduction treatments decreased soil water nitrate concentrations within a few weeks of reducing deposition. This was not observed for other solutes such as sulphate or ammonium suggesting a more direct link between deposition of nitrate and leaching losses

  16. QA/QC activities and ecological monitoring in the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET

    Ueda H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of Quality assurance/Quality control QA/QC activities and current features of the ecological monitoring in the frame of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia EANET. It is stressed that standardization of the methodologies applicable for new topics, such as the catchment analysis and ozone impacts, should be investigated for future monitoring.

  17. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens : separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy

    Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Stoutjesdijk, P.; Greef, de K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments of similar design were conducted with male broiler chickens over two body weight ranges, 200 to 800 g in Experiment 1 and 800 to 1,600 g in Experiment 2. The data were used to test the hypothesis that protein deposition rate increases (linearly) with increasing amino acid intake, unt

  18. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery and appears to be due to compensatory increases in concentrations of naturally occurring organic acids coincident with decreases in lake concentrations of strong acid anions, as evidenced by increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon.

  19. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  20. Field comparison of methods for the measurement of gaseous and particulate contributors to acidic dry deposition

    Sickles, J. E.; Hodson, L. L.; McClenny, W. A.; Paur, R. J.; Ellestad, T. G.; Mulik, J. D.; Anlauf, K. G.; Wiebe, H. A.; Mackay, G. I.; Schiff, H. I.; Bubacz, D. K.

    A field study was conducted to compare methods for sampling and analysis of atmospheric constituents that are important contributors to acidic dry deposition. Comparisons are made of different measurements of ambient concentrations of gaseous HNO 3, NO 2, NH 3 and SO 2 and particulate NO 3-, NH 4+ and SO 42-. Three multicomponent samplers were used: the Canadian filter pack (FP), the annular denuder system (ADS), and the transition flow reactor (TFR). A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) provided continuous reference measurements of NO 2 and HNO 3. Nitrogen dioxide was also monitored with continuous luminol-based chemiluminescence monitors and with passive sampling devices (PSDs). The study was designed to provide a database for statistical comparison of the various methods with emphasis on the multicomponent samplers under consideration for use in a national dry deposition trends monitoring network. The study was conducted at the EPA dry deposition station in Research Triangle Park, NC between 29 September and 12 October 1986. Daily averaging and/or sampling times were employed for the 13-day study; weekly samples were also collected, but results from these samples are not compared in this paper. ADS, TFR and FP results are in good agreement for measurements of the sum of particulate and gaseous NO 3- concentrations and of total particulate SO 42-. ADS, FP, and TDLAS measurements of HNO 3 are in good agreement, but TDLAS results differ with and are substantially less than those from the TFR. TDLAS measurements of NO 2 are highly correlated with those of the TFR, but show mixed comparisons with results from the two luminol-based monitors and with results from the two sets of PSDs. TFR and FP measurements of particulate NH 4+ are in good agreement, but FP results exceed those of the ADS when volatilization losses of NH 4+ in the ADS are ignored. At the low ambient NH 3 concentrations, results of ADS, TFR, and FP show considerable variability but no

  1. Effect of temperature on self-assembly of amphiphilic block-gradient copolymers of styrene and acrylic acid

    Borisova, O. V.; Billon, L.; Černochová, Zulfiya; Lapp, A.; Štěpánek, Petr; Borisov, O. V.

    Vol. 348 (1). Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2015, s. 25-32. ISSN 1022-1360. [International Symposium "Molecular Order and Mobility in Polymer Systems" /8./. St. Petersburg (RU), 02.06.2014-06.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gradient copolymer s * self-assembly * small angle neutron scattering Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  3. Eddy covariance emission and deposition flux measurements using proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS): comparison with PTR-MS measured vertical gradients and fluxes

    Park, J.-H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Timkovsky, J.; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Karlik, J.; Holzinger, R.

    2013-02-01

    During summer 2010, a proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and a quadrupole proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) were deployed simultaneously for one month in an orange orchard in the Central Valley of California to collect continuous data suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux calculations. The high time resolution (5 Hz) and high mass resolution (up to 5000 m/Δm) data from the PTR-TOF-MS provided the basis for calculating the concentration and flux for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Throughout the campaign, 664 mass peaks were detected in mass-to-charge ratios between 10 and 1278. Here we present PTR-TOF-MS EC fluxes of the 27 ion species for which the vertical gradient was simultaneously measured by PTR-MS. These EC flux data were validated through spectral analysis (i.e., co-spectrum, normalized co-spectrum, and ogive). Based on inter-comparison of the two PTR instruments, no significant instrumental biases were found in either mixing ratios or fluxes, and the data showed agreement within 5% on average for methanol and acetone. For the measured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), the EC fluxes from PTR-TOF-MS were in agreement with the qualitatively inferred flux directions from vertical gradient measurements by PTR-MS. For the 27 selected ion species reported here, the PTR-TOF-MS measured total (24 h) mean net flux of 299 μg C m-2 h-1. The dominant BVOC emissions from this site were monoterpenes (m/z 81.070 + m/z 137.131 + m/z 95.086, 34%, 102 μg C m-2 h-1) and methanol (m/z 33.032, 18%, 72 μg C m-2 h-1). The next largest fluxes were detected at the following masses (attribution in parenthesis): m/z 59.048 (mostly acetone, 12.2%, 36.5 μg C m-2 h-1), m/z 61.027 (mostly acetic acid, 11.9%, 35.7 μg C m-2 h-1), m/z 93.069 (para-cymene + toluene, 4.1%, 12.2 μg C m-2 h-1), m/z 45.033 (acetaldehyde, 3.8%, 11.5 μg C m-2 h-1), m/z 71.048 (methylvinylketone + methacrolein, 2.4%, 7

  4. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  5. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4 (2-) to NO3 (-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4 (2-) and NO3 (-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects

  6. 3.4. Sulfuric acid decomposition of borosilicate ores (concentrate) of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan

    Present article is devoted to sulfuric acid decomposition of borosilicate ores (concentrate) of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan. The reaction of borosilicate ores decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied at 20-120 deg C temperature ranges at concentration of H2SO4 from 45 to 50 mass %. It was defined that at temperature increasing the extraction rate of oxides increases: B2O3 - 30.02% and Fe2O3 - 50.58%. The dependence of extraction rate of components from borosilicate ores (concentrate) at sulfuric acid decomposition on temperature, process duration, sulfuric acid concentration was studied as well. The optimal conditions of sulfuric acid decomposition of borosilicate ores (concentrate) were proposed.

  7. How two gravity-gradient inversion methods can be used to reveal different geologic features of ore deposit - A case study from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil)

    Carlos, Dionísio U.; Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Airborne gravity gradiometry data have been recently used in mining surveys to map the 3D geometry of ore deposits. This task can be achieved by different gravity-gradient inversion methods, many of which use a voxel-based discretization of the Earth's subsurface. To produce a unique and stable solution, an inversion method introduces particular constraints. One constraining inversion introduces a depth-weighting function in the first-order Tikhonov regularization imposing a smoothing on the density-contrast distributions that are not restricted to near-surface regions. Another gravity-gradient inversion, the method of planting anomalous densities, imposes compactness and sharp boundaries on the density-contrast distributions. We used these two inversion methods to invert the airborne gravity-gradient data over the iron-ore deposit at the southern flank of the Gandarela syncline in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil). Because these methods differ from each other in the particular constraint used, the estimated 3D density-contrast distributions reveal different geologic features of ore deposit. The depth-weighting smoothing inversion reveals variable dip directions along the strike of the retrieved iron-ore body. The planting anomalous density inversion estimates a compact iron-ore mass with a single density contrast, which reveals a variable volume of the iron ore along its strike increasing towards the hinge zone of the Gandarela syncline which is the zone of maximum compression. The combination of the geologic features inferred from each estimate leads to a synergistic effect, revealing that the iron-ore deposit is strongly controlled by the Gandarela syncline.

  8. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  9. Molecule modification andmass deposition induced bythe implantation of lowenergy Fe+ ion beamsinto amino acids

    2002-01-01

    Fe+ ion beams with the energy of 110 keV were implanted into films of L(+)-cysteine (HSCH2CH(NH2)COOH). One of the single crystals grown in hydrochloric acid solution with the implanted samples through slow evaporation was structurally characterized by the X-ray crystallography. The crystal is monoclinic, space group C2, with a = 1.8534(4) nm, b = 0.5234(1) nm, c = 0.7212(1) nm, β= 103.72°, V = 0.67965(3) nm3, Z = 4, F(000) = 144.0, Dclac = 1.763 g@cm-3, μ(MoKα) = 1.06 mm-1, T = 293(2) K. R = 0.0379, wR = 0.0835 for 660 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The structural formula of the crystal compound is (CH2CH(NH2)NO2)ClFe (Mr = 180.38 u). Products of heavy ion beam irradiation were purified and it was directly confirmed that the implanted Fe+ ions had been deposited in the novel molecules. The same doses of Fe+ ion beams of the same energy were implanted into films of L(+)-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate. FTIR spectroscopy of the implanted samples proved that some of the original molecules were seriously damaged and significant modifications were induced.

  10. The effects of acid deposition on sulfate reduction and methane production in peatlands

    Murray, Georgia L.; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Peatlands, as fens and bods, make up a large percentage of northern latitude terrestrial environments. They are organic rich and support an active community of anaerobic bacteria, such as methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The end products of these microbial activities, methane and hydrogen sulfide, are important components in the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur. Since these two bacterial groups compete for nutritional substrates, increases in sulfate deposition due to acid rain potentially can disrupt the balance between these processes leading to a decrease in methane production and emission. This is significant because methane is a potent greenhouse gas that effects the global heat balance. A section of Mire 239 in the Experimental Lakes Area, in Northwestern Ontario, was artificially acidified and rates of sulfate reduction and methane production were measured with depth. Preliminary results suggested that methane production was not affected immediately after acidification. However, concentrations of dissolved methane decreased and dissolved sulfide increased greatly after acidification and both took several days to recover. The exact mechanism for the decrease in methane was not determined. Analyses are under way which will be used to determine rates of sulfate reduction. These results will be available by Spring and will be discussed.

  11. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Tavakoli, M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aashuri, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown.

  12. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown

  13. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: Comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009–2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9 ng·L−1). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble > vertical dry deposition soluble > horizontal deposition soluble > vertical wet deposition insoluble > vertical wet deposition soluble > horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia. -- Highlights: ► We measured Be concentrations in rime and snow in the Czech Republic. ► Soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher than in snow. ► 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be. ► Dry-deposited fluxes dominated Be inputs. ► Soluble Be concentrations only rarely exceeded 30 ng·L−1.

  14. In situ detection of denitrifying bacteria by mRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes and catalyzed reporter deposition

    Kofoed, Michael Vedel; Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Schramm, Andreas

    In situ detection of denitrifying bacteria by mRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes and catalyzed reporter deposition   Michael V.W. Kofoed, Peter Stief, Morten Poulsen, and Andreas Schramm Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark Denitrification, the sequential...... and catalyzed fluorescent reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). The general feasibility of the approach was first tested with pure cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and various denitrifying and nitrate-reducing isolates. Detailed studies of probe specificity and hybridization conditions using Clone-FISH of...

  15. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY STUDIES OF COPPER (II) AND TELLURIUM (IV) IONS IN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS FOR THIN FILM DEPOSITION

    SARAVANAN NAGALINGAM; GEOK BEE TEH

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry studies of copper (II) and tellurium (IV) ions in acidic aqueous solutions were carried out to determine the optimum condition for copper telluride thin film deposition. The voltammetry studies include reversible scans at different solution pH. Based on the voltammogram, suitable deposition conditions was determined to be in the range of -0.35 V to -0.45 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH values between 2.0 to 2.2 under non diffusion-limited conditions.

  16. Enhanced formic acid oxidation on polycrystalline platinum modified by spontaneous deposition of gold. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies

    Cappellari, Paula S.; García, Gonzalo; Florez-Montaño, Jonathan; Barbero, Cesar A.; Pastor, Elena; Planes, Gabriel A.

    2015-11-01

    Formic acid and adsorbed carbon monoxide electrooxidation on polycrystalline Pt and Au-modified Pt surfaces were studied by cyclic voltammetry, lineal sweep voltammetry and in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. With this purpose, a polycrystalline Pt electrode was modified by spontaneous deposition of gold atoms, achieving a gold surface coverage (θ) in the range of 0 ≤ θ ≤ 0.47. Results indicate the existence of two main pathways during the formic acid oxidation reaction, i.e. dehydration and dehydrogenation routes. At higher potentials than 0.5 V the dehydrogenation pathway appears to be the operative at both Pt and Au electrodes. Meanwhile, the dehydration reaction is the main pathway for Pt at lower potentials than 0.5 V. It was found that reaction routes are easily tuned by Au deposition on the Pt sites responsible for the formic acid dehydration reaction, and hence for the catalytic formation of adsorbed carbon monoxide. Gold deposition on these Pt open sites produces an enhanced activity toward the HCOOH oxidation reaction. In general terms, the surface inhibition of the reaction by adsorbed intermediates (indirect pathway) is almost absent at gold-modified Pt electrodes, and therefore the direct pathway appears as the main route during the formic acid electrooxidation reaction.

  17. Effects of acid deposition on watershed ecosystems of national parks in the great lakes basin.

    Stottlemyer, R; Rutkowski, D; Toczydlowski, D

    1989-04-01

    nutrients generally precedes maximum spring stream runoff. Water chemistry in both sensitive and non-sensitive lakes appears to be primarily reflecting how the conterminous terrestrial system is retaining atmospheric inputs more than the quality of direct lake atmospheric input. This is especially evident for H(+), NO 3 (sup-) and SO 4 (sup2-) .The second component is the assessment of watershed acidification, SO 4 (sup2-) output and soil retention across an input gradient. An anthropic deposition gradient provides the opportunity for intersite time-trend analyses as to the effects of inputs. Our study objective was to see if the decreasing west to east input/output values for SO 4 (sup2-) , noted in small first-order watersheds in national parks from Minnesota to Ohio, might be related to present atmospheric inputs, potential and total soil SO 4 (sup2-) adsorption, or soil SO 4 (sup2-) desorption from earlier higher inputs. Precipitation pH ranged from 5.05 at Fernberg, Minnesota to 4.24 at Wooster, Ohio. Minimum and maximum concentrations of NH 4 (+) , NO 3 (sup-) , SO 4 (sup2-) and Cl(-) were also found at these stations. Stream water concentrations of NO 3 (sup-) and SO 4 (sup2-) increase in a similar but sharper gradient. Streams are well buffered. Cation, HCO 3 (sup-) , NO 3 (sup-) and especially SO 4 (sup2-) output increase west to east, but H(+) output decreases. At the eastern site stream SO 4 (sup2-) concentration and output exceed HCO 3 (sup-) . Potential soil SO 4 (sup2-) adsorption capacity increases eastward, but this capacity is filled. Crystalline Fe hydrous oxides appear more effective than amorphous Fe hydrous oxides at adsorbing SO 4 (sup2-) . High anthropic anion inputs, inability of forest soil to adsorb additional inputs and perhaps SO 4 (sup2-) desorption appear responsible for the replacement of HCO 3 (sup-) by SO 4 (sup2-) in stream water. The major cation accompanying SO 4 (sup2-) is Ca(2+). PMID:24249065

  18. Regional differences in the annual deposition of acid rain in open fields and old fir forest stands in West Germany

    Comparative evaluation of the measured results of the individual federal states, mostly for several years in the period 1982-1988 for H Cl, SO4-S, NO3-N, and NH4-N. At least to a certain extent it can be seen that the acid depositions in particular in older spruce stands of Rheinland-Pfalz, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also Bavaria, are generally lower than in the other federal states. It was tested to what extent linear correlation and regression relations between the summed-up yearly precipitation and the precipitation deposition of acidifying agents could be used; in this way, the results of deposition measurements distributed irregularly over the investigation areas are extrapolated for entire forest areas with the aid of available, regionally differentiated precipitation measurement results. However, such interdependences could be proved to be significant only for the open land of some federal states, not for the spruce forest. (orig./EF)

  19. Electrodeposition of ruthenium, rhodium and palladium from nitric acid and ionic liquid media: Recovery and surface morphology of the deposits

    Research highlights: → Platinum group metals are man-made noble metals. → Electrochemical recovery of fission platinoids. → Recovery from nitric acid medium. → Recovery from ionic liquid medium. → Platinoids with exotic surface morphologies. - Abstract: Electrodeposition is a promising technique for the recovery of platinum group metals with unique surface morphologies. The electrodeposition of palladium, ruthenium and rhodium from aqueous nitric acid, and non-aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid medium was studied at stainless steel electrode. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the resultant deposit were probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. Deposits with diverse surface morphologies and metal compositions were obtained by varying the composition of the electrolytic medium and applied potential. The results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the morphologies of PGMs by controlling the composition and potential needed for electrodeposition.

  20. Advanced Electrodes for Solid Acid Fuel Cells by Platinum Deposition on CsH_(2)PO_4

    Papandrew, Alexander B.; Chisholm, Calum R. I.; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Özer, Mustafa M.; Zecevic, Strahinja K.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate cathodes for solid acid fuel cells fabricated by vapor deposition of platinum from the metalorganic precursor Pt(acac)_2 on the solid acid CsH_(2)PO_4 at 210 °C. A network of platinum nanoparticles with diameters of 2−4 nm serves as both the oxygen reduction catalyst and the electronic conductor in the electrode. Electrodes with a platinum content of 1.75 mg/cm^2 are more active for oxygen reduction than previously reported electrodes with a platinum content of 7.5 mg/cm^2....

  1. Graphene decorated microelectrodes for simultaneous detection of ascorbic, dopamine, and folic acids by means of chemical vapor deposition

    Namdar, N.; Hassanpour Amiri, M.; Dehghan Nayeri, F.; Gholizadeh, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, high quality and large area graphene layers were synthesized using thermal chemical vapour deposition on copper foil substrates. We use graphene incorporated electrodes to measure simultaneously ascorbic acid, dopamine and folic acid. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry methods were used to evaluate electrochemical behaviour of the grown graphene layers. The graphene-modified electrode shows large electrochemical potential difference compared to bare gold electrodes with higher current responses. Also our fabricated electrodes configuration can be used easily for microfluidic analysis.

  2. Graphene decorated microelectrodes for simultaneous detection of ascorbic, dopamine, and folic acids by means of chemical vapor deposition

    In this paper, high quality and large area graphene layers were synthesized using thermal chemical vapour deposition on copper foil substrates. We use graphene incorporated electrodes to measure simultaneously ascorbic acid, dopamine and folic acid. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry methods were used to evaluate electrochemical behaviour of the grown graphene layers. The graphene-modified electrode shows large electrochemical potential difference compared to bare gold electrodes with higher current responses. Also our fabricated electrodes configuration can be used easily for microfluidic analysis. (paper)

  3. The effect of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of acid grasslands in Denmark: A comparison with a study performed on a European scale

    The effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the species richness of acid grasslands was investigated by combining data from a large Danish monitoring program with a large European data set, where a significant non-linear negative effect of nitrogen deposition had been demonstrated (). The nitrogen deposition range in Denmark is relatively small and when only considering the Danish data a non-significant decrease in the species richness with nitrogen deposition was observed. However, when both data sets were combined, then the conclusion of the European survey was further corroborated by the results of the Danish monitoring. Furthermore, by combining the two data sets a more comprehensive picture of the threats to the biodiversity of acid grasslands emerge; i.e., species richness in remnant patches of acid grassland in intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes is under influence not only from nitrogen deposition, but also from current and historical land use. - Highlights: → Decreasing trend in species richness with nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands. → Historical land use affects species richness in acid grasslands. → Comparison of different studies of the effect of nitrogen deposition. - Both nitrogen deposition as well as current and historical land use affect the species richness in remnant patches of acid grassland in intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes.

  4. Soil heavy metal contamination and acid deposition: experimental approach on two forest soils in Hunan, Southern China

    Bo-han, Liao; Zhaohui, Guo; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    In 1985, a tailing dam collapsed in Hunan province (southern China) leading to soil contamination by heavy metals from the tailings waste. Moreover, acid deposition becomes more and more serious in this area. In this context, two forest soils (a red soil and a yellow red soil, typically and commonly found in southern China) were collected from Hunan. The objectives are (i) to determine releases and changes in speciation fractions of heavy metals (especially Cd, Cu, and Zn) when the soils are ...

  5. 3D-nanoarchitectured Pd/Ni catalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition for the electrooxidation of formic acid

    Loïc Assaud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensionally (3D nanoarchitectured palladium/nickel (Pd/Ni catalysts, which were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD on high-aspect-ratio nanoporous alumina templates are investigated with regard to the electrooxidation of formic acid in an acidic medium (0.5 M H2SO4. Both deposition processes, Ni and Pd, with various mass content ratios have been continuously monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology of the Pd/Ni systems has been studied by electron microscopy and shows a homogeneous deposition of granularly structured Pd onto the Ni substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on Ni and NiO substrates revealed an amorphous structure, while the Pd coating crystallized into a fcc lattice with a preferential orientation along the [220]-direction. Surface chemistry analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed both metallic and oxide contributions for the Ni and Pd deposits. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pd/Ni nanocatalysts revealed that the electrooxidation of HCOOH proceeds through the direct dehydrogenation mechanism with the formation of active intermediates. High catalytic activities are measured for low masses of Pd coatings that were generated by a low number of ALD cycles, probably because of the cluster size effect, electronic interactions between Pd and Ni, or diffusion effects.

  6. Quantifying the influence of humic acid adsorption on colloidal microsphere deposition onto iron-oxide-coated sand

    This article describes an approach for quantifying microsphere deposition onto iron-oxide-coated sand under the influence of adsorbed Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA). The experimental technique involved a triple pulse injection of model latex microspheres (microspheres) in pulses of (1) microspheres, followed by (2) SRHA, and then (3) microspheres, into a column filled with iron-coated quartz sand as a water-saturated porous medium. A random sequential adsorption model (RSA) simulated the gradual rise in the first (microsphere) breakthrough curve (BTC). Using the same model calibration parameters a dramatic increase in concentration at the start of the second particle BTC, generated after SRHA injection, could be simulated by matching microsphere concentrations to extrapolated RSA output. RSA results and microsphere/SRHA recoveries showed that 1 μg of SRHA could block 5.90 ± 0.14 x 109 microsphere deposition sites. This figure was consistent between experiments injecting different SRHA masses, despite contrasting microsphere deposition/release regimes generating the second microsphere BTC. - This paper describes a method to quantify the influence of humic acid adsorption on particulate colloid deposition in saturated porous media.

  7. Long term response of acid-sensitive Vermont Lakes to sulfate deposition

    Atmospheric deposition of sulfur can negatively affect the health of lakes and streams, particularly in poorly buffered catchments. In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments, wet deposition of sulfate decreased more than 35% in Vermont between 1990 and 2008. However, most of ...

  8. Metallothioneins (MTs) and {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAd) as biomarkers of metal pollution in great tits (Parus major) along a pollution gradient

    Vanparys, Caroline [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: caroline.vanparys@ua.ac.be; Dauwe, Tom [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Campenhout, Karen van [Environment and Health, Flemish Government, Department of Environment, Nature and Energy, Koning Albert II-laan 20, bus 8, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven; Coen, Wim de; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-08-15

    Biomonitoring allows an integrated evaluation of different aspects of exposure, accumulation and effects to environmental pollution, simultaneously accounting for the natural variety between individuals in an ecosystem. In this study, the effects of increased metal accumulation were evaluated at the biochemical level in terms of two biomarker responses in the great tit (Parus major), a small insectivorous songbird, along an established metal pollution gradient. Metal concentrations in internal tissues (liver and kidney) and blood indicated that lead and cadmium were the most important metals in the pollution gradient under study. At the biochemical level, induction of metal binding protein metallothionein (MT) in liver and kidney reflected cadmium concentrations in these tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.42 and R{sup 2} = 0.94 respectively, n = 19), although in kidney, MT induction was not sufficient to complex all cadmium present. Secondly, the activity of the enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAd) in blood decreased exponentially in response to increased lead accumulation (R{sup 2} = 0.70, n = 18) and represents therefore a specific effect marker for lead exposure. In the highest polluted area, an ALAd inhibition of 85% was reported. Since a higher metal exposure resulted in an increased metal accumulation and subsequent biomarker responses in a dose-dependent way, this study indicates the applicability of ALAd and MT levels in great tits for biomonitoring responses to heavy metal pollution.

  9. Metallothioneins (MTs) and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAd) as biomarkers of metal pollution in great tits (Parus major) along a pollution gradient

    Biomonitoring allows an integrated evaluation of different aspects of exposure, accumulation and effects to environmental pollution, simultaneously accounting for the natural variety between individuals in an ecosystem. In this study, the effects of increased metal accumulation were evaluated at the biochemical level in terms of two biomarker responses in the great tit (Parus major), a small insectivorous songbird, along an established metal pollution gradient. Metal concentrations in internal tissues (liver and kidney) and blood indicated that lead and cadmium were the most important metals in the pollution gradient under study. At the biochemical level, induction of metal binding protein metallothionein (MT) in liver and kidney reflected cadmium concentrations in these tissues (R2 = 0.42 and R2 = 0.94 respectively, n = 19), although in kidney, MT induction was not sufficient to complex all cadmium present. Secondly, the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAd) in blood decreased exponentially in response to increased lead accumulation (R2 = 0.70, n = 18) and represents therefore a specific effect marker for lead exposure. In the highest polluted area, an ALAd inhibition of 85% was reported. Since a higher metal exposure resulted in an increased metal accumulation and subsequent biomarker responses in a dose-dependent way, this study indicates the applicability of ALAd and MT levels in great tits for biomonitoring responses to heavy metal pollution

  10. Chapter 4. Uranium extraction technology from wastes of uranium industry. 4.1. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of residues from anthropogenic deposit Map 1-9

    Present article is devoted to sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of residues from anthropogenic deposit Map 1-9. Since residues from anthropogenic deposit Map 1-9 basically contain quartz (69%), it went through acid leaching. Results of laboratory investigations on the opening degree and uranium conversion to solution were summarized. The influence of sulfuric acid consumption on uranium extraction during leaching (U = 0,018%, t =20 deg C, t = 10 hours) was considered. The kinetic and energetic parameters of residues leaching of anthropogenic deposit Map 1-9 was discussed. The basic process flow diagram of uranium industry wastes reprocessing was proposed.

  11. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  12. Corrosion behavior of copper thin films deposited by EB-PVD technique on thermally grown silicon dioxide and glass in hydrochloric acid media

    Copper thin films were deposited on oxidized single crystal silicon and glass surfaces, at 70 deg. C and 150 deg. C substrate temperature using Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposition technique. The morphology and crystal orientation of the deposited film were investigated by SEM and XRD, respectively. Corrosion behavior of these films in hydrochloric acid was studied by potentiodynamic polarization method. Results showed that the corrosion resistance of CG 70 (deposit on glass at 70 deg. C substrate temperature) was higher than all deposits and than copper sheet because of its higher ability to form passive layer.

  13. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain; Mapas de Deposito Acido en Espana

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Annual and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To de this, updated database with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5 x 5 km``2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedance over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs.

  14. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain; Mapas de Deposito Acido en Espana

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-07-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km{sup 2} grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs.

  15. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage.

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations. PMID:26603631

  16. Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Fowler, David

    2002-01-01

    The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in acid rain-impacted regions of the world. CH4 fluxes were measured at regular intervals using a static chamber/gas chromatographic flame ionization detector method. Total emissions of CH4 were reduced by between 21 and 42% relative to controls, although no significant differences were observed between treatments. Estimated total annual fluxes during the second year of the experiment were 16.6 g m-2 from the controls and (in order of increasing SO42- dose size) 10.7, 13.2, and 9.8 g m-2 from the three SO42- treatments, respectively. The relative extent of CH4 flux suppression varied with changes in both peat temperature and peat water table with the largest suppression during cool periods and episodes of falling water table. Our findings suggest that low doses of SO42- at deposition rates commonly experienced in areas impacted by acid rain, may significantly affect CH4 emissions from wetlands in affected areas. We propose that SO42- from acid rain can stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria into a population capable of outcompeting methanogens for substrates. We further propose that this microbially mediated interaction may have a significant current and future effect on the contribution of northern peatlands to the global methane budget.

  17. Regulation of Auxin Homeostasis and Gradients in Arabidopsis Roots through the Formation of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid Catabolite 2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid

    Pěnčík, A.; Simonovik, B.; Petersson, S.V.; Hényková, Eva; Simon, Sibu; Greenham, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kowalczyk, M.; Estelle, M.; Zažímalová, Eva; Novák, Ondřej; Sandberg, G.; Ljung, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 10 (2013), s. 3858-3870. ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BOX PROTEIN TIR1 * PLANT DEVELOPMENT * OXINDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  18. Long-term development of acid deposition (1880?2030) in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe

    Schöpp, W.; Posch, M.; Mylona, S.; M. Johansson

    2003-01-01

    International audience Time series of the deposition of acidifying substances are a pre-requisite for the study of the acidification and recovery of ecosystems such as surface waters. This paper reports the derivation and calculation of deposition trends of the potentially acidifying compounds SO2, NOx and NH3 in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe studied in the EU-funded RECOVER: 2010 project. The time interval covered is 151 years: from 1880, which can be considered as the pre-indust...

  19. Long-term development of acid deposition (1880–2030) in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe

    Schöpp, W.; Posch, M.; Mylona, S.; M. Johansson

    2002-01-01

    Time series of the deposition of acidifying substances are a pre-requisite for the study of the acidification and recovery of ecosystems such as surface waters. This paper reports the derivation and calculation of deposition trends of the potentially acidifying compounds SO2, NOx and NH3 in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe studied in the EU-funded RECOVER: 2010 project. The time interval covered is 151 years: from 1880, which c...

  20. Lactic acid aided electrochemical deposition of c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide thin films: Structural and morphological features

    Compact and homogeneous c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide (ZnO) films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass have been prepared electrochemically at -1.2 V vs. Ag|AgCl in a weak acidic condition from 0.06 M Zn(NO3)2 with 3 mM lactic acid (LA) added. LA was found having strong influence on the electrodeposition of c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide films. Other experimental variables such as deposition temperature, potential, and precursor concentration were also conducted in this article. Among these variables, it was found that precursor concentration of zinc nitrate influenced significantly on growth direction and crystal diameter of zinc oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to observe the electrochemistry of the deposition. Crystallinities of the films were examined by X-ray diffractometer. The morphologies of zinc oxide films were observed with a field emitting scanning electron microscope. Optical characteristics of zinc oxide layers were measured with UV-vis spectrophotometer. The band gap of the deposited zinc oxide thin films was evaluated from the Tauc relationship of (αhν)2 vs. hν, which was found to be 3.31 eV.

  1. Lactic acid aided electrochemical deposition of c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide thin films: Structural and morphological features

    Whang, Thou-Jen, E-mail: twhang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Tsai, Jia-Ming [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyan-Jer [Department of Chemical Biology, National Pingtung University of Education, No. 4-18 Ming Shen Road, Pingtung 90003, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Compact and homogeneous c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide (ZnO) films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass have been prepared electrochemically at -1.2 V vs. Ag|AgCl in a weak acidic condition from 0.06 M Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} with 3 mM lactic acid (LA) added. LA was found having strong influence on the electrodeposition of c-axis preferred orientation of zinc oxide films. Other experimental variables such as deposition temperature, potential, and precursor concentration were also conducted in this article. Among these variables, it was found that precursor concentration of zinc nitrate influenced significantly on growth direction and crystal diameter of zinc oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to observe the electrochemistry of the deposition. Crystallinities of the films were examined by X-ray diffractometer. The morphologies of zinc oxide films were observed with a field emitting scanning electron microscope. Optical characteristics of zinc oxide layers were measured with UV-vis spectrophotometer. The band gap of the deposited zinc oxide thin films was evaluated from the Tauc relationship of ({alpha}h{nu}){sup 2} vs. h{nu}, which was found to be 3.31 eV.

  2. Multiple fluid sources/pathways and severe thermal gradients during formation of the Jílové orogenic gold deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    Zachariáš, J.; Žák, Karel; Pudilová, M.; Snee, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, October (2013), s. 81-109. ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Orogenic gold deposits * Carbon isotopes * Oxygen isotopes * Bismuth * Age * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2013

  3. Critical loads for deposition of acid and nitrogen - do we know enough to make the concept useful?

    Critical loads for acid deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds are useful concepts related to the rate of weathering of primary minerals or to the rate of changes in secondary minerals, as these processes are the most important counteracting processes in a long-term perspective. As nitrogen saturation seldom occurs over large areas in nature, the dominant producers in forest ecosystems, the trees, as well as most of their associated organisms, are not evolutionarily adapted to nitrogen saturation. Large environmental changes will be the consequence of present nitrogen enrichment in regions with high nitrogen deposition. It is a real challenge for the scientific community to define critical loads for different sites, and to inform the public on the consequences of present environmental policies in different countries. (orig./VT)

  4. Isotope and fatty acid trends along continental shelf depth gradients: Inshore versus offshore hydrological influences on benthic trophic functioning

    Chouvelon, T.; Schaal, G.; Grall, J.; Pernet, F.; Perdriau, M.; A-Pernet, E. J.; Le Bris, H.

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities and land-based inputs into the sea may influence the trophic structure and functioning of coastal and continental shelf ecosystems, despite the numerous opportunities and services the latter offer to humans and wildlife. In addition, hydrological structures and physical dynamics potentially influence the sources of organic matter (e.g., terrestrial versus marine, or fresh material versus detrital material) entering marine food webs. Understanding the significance of the processes that influence marine food webs and ecosystems (e.g., terrestrial inputs, physical dynamics) is crucially important because trophic dynamics are a vital part of ecosystem integrity. This can be achieved by identifying organic matter sources that enter food webs along inshore-offshore transects. We hypothesised that regional hydrological structures over wide continental shelves directly control the benthic trophic functioning across the shelf. We investigated this issue along two transects in the northern ecosystem of the Bay of Biscay (north-eastern Atlantic). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA) and fatty acid analysis (FAA) were conducted on different complementary ecosystem compartments that include suspended particulate organic matter (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM), and benthic consumers such as bivalves, large crustaceans and demersal fish. Samples were collected from inshore shallow waters (at ∼1 m in depth) to more than 200 m in depth on the offshore shelf break. Results indicated strong discrepancies in stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) compositions in the sampled compartments between inshore and offshore areas, although nitrogen SI (δ15N) and FA trends were similar along both transects. Offshore the influence of a permanently stratified area (described previously as a "cold pool") was evident in both transects. The influence of this hydrological structure on benthic trophic functioning (i.e., on the food sources available for

  5. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid in the presence of folic acid at electro-deposited NiO/graphene composite film modified electrode

    This paper demonstrated an electrochemical sensor based on NiO nanoparticles-graphene composite film (NiO/GR) modified glassy carbon electrode for detecting ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of folic acid using differential pulse voltammetry. The obtained NiO/GR nanocomposite was fabricated by electro-deposition technology. The morphologies and interface properties of NiO/GR composite film were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The modified electrode exhibits excellent sensing performance for detecting AA with linear range from 0.05 to 1100 μM and a detection limit of 0.0167 μM (S/N = 3). Under optimal conditions, the sensor displays excellent stability and satisfactory results in real samples analysis

  6. Critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen for freshwaters in Great Britain and assessment of deposition reduction requirements with the First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model

    C. Curtis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical loads approach is widely used within Europe to assess the impacts of acid deposition on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Recent work in Great Britain has focused on the national application of the First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model to a freshwaters dataset of 1470 lake and stream water chemistry samples from sites across Britain which were selected to represent the most sensitive water bodies in their corresponding 10 km grid square. A ``Critical Load Function' generated for each site is compared with the deposition load of S and N at the time of water chemistry sampling. The model predicts that when catchment processes reach steady-state with these deposition levels, increases in nitrate leaching will depress acid neutralizing capacity (ANC below the critical threshold of 0 μeql-1 at more than a quarter of the sites sampled, i.e. the critical load of acid deposition is exceeded at these sites. The critical load exceedances are generally found in upland regions of high deposition where acidification has been previously recognised, but critical loads in large areas of western Scotland are also exceeded where little biological evidence of acidification has yet been found. There is a regional variation in the deposition reduction requirements for protection of the sampled sites. The FAB model indicates that in Scotland, most of the sampled sites could be protected by sufficiently large reductions in S deposition alone. In the English and Welsh uplands, both S and N deposition must be reduced to protect the sites. Current international commitments to reduce S deposition throughout Europe will therefore be insufficient to protect the most sensitive freshwaters in England and Wales. Keywords: critical loads; acidification; nitrate; FAB model; acid deposition

  7. Long-term development of acid deposition (1880–2030) in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe

    Schöpp, W.; Posch, M.; Mylona, S.; M. Johansson

    2003-01-01

    Time series of the deposition of acidifying substances are a pre-requisite for the study of the acidification and recovery of ecosystems such as surface waters. This paper reports the derivation and calculation of deposition trends of the potentially acidifying compounds SO2, NOx and NH3 in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe studied in the EU-funded RECOVER: 2010 project. The time interval covered is 151 years: from 1880, which can be considered as the pre-industrial era in mo...

  8. Structural basis for unique hierarchical cylindrites induced by ultrahigh shear gradient in single natural fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) green composites.

    Xu, Huan; Xie, Lan; Jiang, Xin; Hakkarainen, Minna; Chen, Jing-Bin; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2014-05-12

    A local shear flow field was feasibly generated by pulling the ramie fiber in single fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites. This was featured by an ultrahigh shear gradient with a maximum shear rate up to 1500 s(-1), a level comparable to that frequently occurring during the practical polymer processing. To distinguish shear-induced self-nucleation and ramie fiber-induced heterogeneous nucleation, the shear history was classified by pulling the fiber for 5 s (pulled sample) and pulling out the fiber during 10 s (pulled-out sample), while the static fiber-induced crystallization was carried out as the counterpart. As a result of the ultrahigh shear gradient, the combination of primary shear-induced nucleation in the central region and secondary nucleation in the outer layer assembled the unique hierarchical superstructures. By comparing the architectural configurations of interphases formed in the static, pulled, and pulled-out samples, it was shown that the hierarchical cylindrites underwent the process of self-nucleation driven by the applied shear flow, very different from the formation of fiber-induced transcrystallinity (TC) triggered by the heterogeneous nucleating sites at the static fiber surface. The twisting of transcrystallized lamellae may take place due to the spatial hindrance induced by the incredibly dense nuclei under the intense shearing flow, as observed in the synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns. The influence of chain characteristics on the crystalline morphology was further explored by adding a small amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance the molecular mobility of PLA. It was of interest to find that the existence of PEG not only facilitated the growth rates of TC and cylindrites but also improved the preferential orientation of PLA chains and thus expanded the ordered regions. We unearthed lamellar units that were composed of rich fibrillar extended chain crystals (diameter of 50-80 nm). These results are of

  9. Reaction of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine fine roots along a deposition gradient of air pollutants in eastern Germany

    Based on an ecosystematic approach within the comprehensive SANA (regeneration of the atmosphere above the new federal states) project the influence of industrial air pollutants (SO2, NOx) (alkaline fly ashes) on the vitality of mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal frequency, and on parameters of root growth such as root biomass and necromass and distribution of different root classes in the soil horizons was investigated. The studies were conducted in three comparable Scots pine ecosystems in eastern Germany which were exposed to different deposition loads of air pollutants during the time of the former German Democratic Republic. Site specific differences were obtained for all parameters investigated. The reference plot Neuglobsow (background deposition) revealed the highest number of vital mycorrhizal, highest mycorrhizal frequency, and largest biomass of finest roots in the humus layer. At the impact-site Roesa and Taura (heavy and moderate deposition) located near Halle/Bitterfeld and Leipzig, the number of vital mycorrhizae was reduced and the life-span of mycorrhizae of reduced vitality was elongated. Finest root biomass and necromass of the humus layer were also lower at these plots as compared to Neuglobsow. At Neuglobsow a higher turnover of mycorrhizae and finest roots of the humus layer is assumed. The reduced growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal finest roots at the two pollution impacted sites Roesa and Taura is seen as an adaptation mechanism of the root system to high nutrient inputs. 14 refs., 4 figs

  10. Deposition and rainwater concentrations of trifluoroacetic acid in the United States from the use of HFO-1234yf

    Kazil, J.; McKeen, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) is the most common refrigerant in automobile air conditioners. This high global warming potential substance (100 year GWP of 1370) will likely be phased out and replaced with HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) that has a 100 year GWP of 4. HFO-1234yf will be oxidized to produce trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in clouds. TFA, a mildly toxic substance with detrimental effects on some aquatic organisms at high concentrations (≥100μgL-1), would be transported by rain to the surface and enter bodies of water. We investigated the dry and wet deposition of TFA from HFO-1234yf over the contiguous USA using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model (ARW) with interactive chemical, aerosol, and cloud processes (WRF/Chem) model. Special focus was placed on emissions from three continental USA regions with different meteorological characteristics. WRF/Chem simulated meteorology, cloud processes, gas and aqueous phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition between May and September 2006. The model reproduced well the multimonth total sulfate wet deposition (4% bias) and its spatial variability (r = 0.86) observed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. HFO-1234yf emissions were obtained by assuming the number of automobile air conditioners to remain unchanged, and substituting HFO-1234yf, mole-per-mole for HFC-134a. Our estimates of current HFC-134a emissions were in agreement with field data. Average TFA rainwater concentration was 0.89μgL-1, with peak values of 7.8μgL-1, for the May-September 2006 period over the contiguous USA. TFA rainwater concentrations over the dry western USA were often significantly higher, but wet-deposited TFA amounts remained relatively low at such locations.