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Sample records for acid-challenged rat stomach

  1. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  2. Stomach

    ... Quiz Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Stomach The stomach, which receives food from the esophagus, ... in the small intestine begins the intestinal phase. Stomach Emptying Relaxation of the pyloric sphincter allows chyme ...

  3. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Ho Jau-Der; Chang Chia-Chieh; Huang Kai-Han; Lu Ruey-Hwa; Tsai Li Hsueh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used...

  4. Localization of ANP-synthesizing cells in rat stomach

    Chun-Hui Li; Li-Hui Pan; Chun-Yu Li; Chang-Lin Zhu; Wen-Xie Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphological positive expression of antrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-synthesizing cells and ultrastructural localization and the relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in the stomach of rats and to analyze the distribution of the three histologically distinct regions of ANP-synthesizing cells.METHODS: Using immunohistochemical techniques, we studied positive expression of ANP-synthesizing cells in rat stomach. A postembedding immunogold microscopy technique was used for ultrastructural localization of ANP-synthesizing cells. Microvessel density in the rat stomach was estimated using tannic acid-ferric chloride (TAFC) method staining. Distribution of ANP-synthesizing cells were studied in different regions of rat stomach histochemically.RESULTS: Positive expression of ANP-synthesizing cells were localized in the gastric mucosa of rats. Localization of ANP-synthesizing cells identified them to be enterochrochromaffin cells (EC) by using a postembedding immunogold electron microscopy technique. EC cells were in the basal third of the cardiac mucosa region.ANP-synthesizing cells existed in different regions of rat stomach and its density was largest in the gastric cardiac region, and the distribution order of ANP-synthesizing cells in density was cardiac region, pyloric region and fundic region in mucosa layer. We have also found a close relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in gastric mucosa of rats using TAFC staining.CONCLUSION: ANP-synthesizing cells are expressed in the gastric mucosa. EC synthesize ANP. There is a close relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in gastric mucosa of rats.The distribution density of ANP-synthesizing cells is largest in the gastric cardiac region.

  5. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  6. Formation and prevention of destructive changes in mucous membranes of stomach of irradiated rats

    In experiments on rats prophylactic effect of medicinal preparations with different mechanism of action, e. g. tranquilizers, antihistaminic means and radioprotectors is studied and compared. It is stated that some medicinal preparations usually used in treating stomach peptic ulcer may also have prophylactic effect preventing development of stomach destructive changes caused by stress. Cymetidine is the most effective for this purpose. Gammaphos didn't have radioprotective effect on stomach

  7. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  8. Vascular perfusion of the isolated rat stomach with a fluorocarbon emulsion.

    Van Huis, G A; Kramer, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    A constant-pressure system using a fluorocarbon (FC-75) containing artificial medium was used for vascular perfusion of the isolated rat stomach. A 10% emulsion of FC-75 in a modified Tyrode solution, containing 3.5% bovine serum albumin, amino acids, nucleosides, and beta-hydroxybutyrate appeared to allow an adequate perfusion for at least seven hours. The following criteria were used to estimate for functional state of the perfused stomach: (1) venous flow, (2) oxygen consumption, (3) leaka...

  9. Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis

    A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach

  10. Distribution of nitric oxide synthase in stomach myenteric plexus of rats

    Xi Peng; Jin-Bin Feng; Hong Yon; Yun Zhao; Shi-Liang Wang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat stomach myenteric plexus. METHODS: The distribution of NOS in gastric wall was studied in quantity and location by the NADPH-diaphorase (NDP) histochemical staining method and whole mount preparation technique. RESULTS: NOS was distributed in whole stomach wall, most of them were located in myenteric plexus, and distributed in submucosal plexus. The shape of NOS positive neurons was basically similar, most of them being round and oval in shape. But their density, size and staining intensity varied greatly in the different parts of stomach. The density was 62 -± 38 cells/mm2(antrum), 43 ± 32 cells/mm2(body), and 32 ± 28 cells/mm2 (fundus), respectively. The size and staining intensity of NOS positive neurons in the fundus were basically the same, the neurons being large and dark stained, while they were obviously different in antrum. In the body of the stomach, the NOS positive neurons were in an intermediate state from fundus to antrum. There were some beadlike structures which were strung together by NOS positive varicosities in nerve fibers, some were closely adherent to the outer walls of blood vessels. CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide might he involved in the modulation of motility, secretion and blood ciroulation of the stomach, and the significant difference of NOS positive neurons in different parts of stomach myenteric plexus may be related to the physiologic function of stomach.

  11. Indomethacin and paracetamol : Interaction with prostaglandin synthesis in the rat stomach

    Kolfschoten, A.A. van; Hagelen, F.; Noordwijk, J. van

    1982-01-01

    Using ex vivo incubation of mucosal strips the production of prostaglandins (I2- and E-like PGs) in the rat stomach was demonstrated by bioassay. Indomethacin inhibited this PG synthesis 1 and 4 h after oral drug administration. Paracetamol stimulated the production of PGs when given by itself but c

  12. Neurochemical mechanism of the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex in rats with acute inflammatory stomach ache

    Xiaoli Xu; Qin Li; Lv Zhou; Liqiang Ru

    2012-01-01

    The normal gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex cycle was interrupted, and paroxysmal contraction appeared after formaldehyde-induced stomach ache. Activities of nitric oxide synthase, acetylcholinesterase and vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons were significantly reduced, whereas activities of calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons were significantly increased in the pyloric sphincter muscular layer, myenteric nerve plexus and submucous nerve plexus. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) suppressed paroxysmal contraction in rats with formaldehyde-induced stomach ache, and neurons in the enteric nervous system were normal. These results indicated that nitrergic neurons, cholinergic neurons, vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons and calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons in the enteric nervous system may be involved in changes to the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex following stomach ache, and that electroacupuncture can regulate this process.

  13. Effects of L-NAME on morphometric parameters of stomach parietal cells in pregnant rats

    Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori Mugahi

    2014-05-01

    Results: Results of this study after analysis showed the significant changes in parietal cells count (mean 61.3±4.32 and its diameters (mean 16.12±1.18 µm in L-NAME group in comparison to control and the sham groups in pregnant rats (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed L-NAME with effects on NO synthesis can reduce the count of parietal cells and increase its diameter in pregnant rats and has destructive effects on structure of stomach parietal cells in pregnancy rats.

  14. Cannabinoid HU210 protects isolated rat stomach against impairment caused by serum of rats with experimental acute pancreatitis.

    Cao, Ming-hua; Li, Yong-yu; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ya-jing; Lin, Xu-hong; Li, Kun; Han, Tong; Chen, Chang-jie

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis often causes extra-pancreatic complications, such as acute gastrointestinal mucosal lesion (AGML) which is accompanied by a considerably high mortality, yet the pathogenesis of AP-induced AGML is still not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the alterations of serum components and gastric endocrine and exocrine functions in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis, and studied the possible contributions of these alterations in the pathogenesis of AGML. In addition, we explored the intervention effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 and antagonist AM251 on isolated and serum-perfused rat stomach. Our results showed that the AGML occurred after 5 h of AP replication, and the body homeostasis was disturbed in AP rat, with increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammtory cytokines and chemokines in the blood, and an imbalance of the gastric secretion function. Perfusing the isolated rat stomach with the AP rat serum caused morphological changes in the stomach, accompanied with a significant increment of pepsin and [H+] release, and increased gastrin and decreased somatostatin secretion. HU210 reversed the AP-serum-induced rat pathological alterations, including the reversal of transformation of the gastric morphology to certain degree. The results from this study prove that the inflammatory responses and the imbalance of the gastric secretion during the development of AP are responsible for the pathogenesis of AGML, and suggest the therapeutic potential of HU210 for AGML associated with acute pancreatitis. PMID:23285225

  15. Cytoprotective effects of disodium cromoglycate on rat stomach mucosa.

    Goossens, J.; Van Reempts, J.; Van Wauwe, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of the anti-asthmatic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on gastric mucosal necrosis induced by ethanol in rats were studied. Subcutaneous, but not oral, DSCG prevented the formation of gastric lesions and this effect was dose-dependent between 1.25 and 40 mg kg-1, with an ED50 value of 6.8 mg kg-1. Maximal cytoprotection occurred 15-30 min after DSCG treatment. Histological examination revealed that DSCG effectively protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-ind...

  16. [Effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on stomach regenerative processes in rats].

    Chernukha, I M; Bogatyrev, A N; Dydykin, A S; Aslanova, M A; Fedulova, L V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of polypeptides isolated from cattle abomasum on regenerative processes of rat stomach upon simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin was studied. Experimental research was carried out on male Wistar rats with initial body weight of 230±20 g. The duration of the experiment was 22 days. The rats were divided into 4 equal groups (n=11). The first (control) group-consisted of the intact animals; animals from experimental groups 2-4 were intragastrically administered acetylsalicylic acid from the 1st to the 7th day for simulating stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin (300 mg/100 g body weight). From day 8 to day 22, the animals were intragastrically adminitered the tested samples in the quantity of 2 ml per animal according tothe scheme: the 2nd group - distilled water, the 3d group - native abomasum extract; the 4 th group - thermally treated abomasum extract. Abomasum extract was obtained by extraction with 0,87% aqueous sodium chloride crushed abomasum and represented a liquid of cream color with protein mass content of 1,3 g/100 g of the product with high content of glutamic acid (15,5 g/100 g protein) and B-group vitamins. Electrophoretic analysis of the extract revealed several high molecular weight fractions in the range of 72 to 55 kDa. The bands with molecular masses 52, 43, 40, 37, 34, 26, 17 kDa were most pronounced; the intensive bands in the area 12 kDa and in the range lower than 10 kDa were revealed. The results of the conducted study show that the abomasum extracts both in the native and thermally treated form exert therapeutic action on animal with stomach mucosal damage caused by aspirin, have good antiulcer and gastroprotective activities upon stomach mucosa exposure to chemical damaging agents. The analysis of the hematological indices of the animals from the 3rd and 4th groups, which received the test samples after simulation, revealed the normalization of leukocyte, lymphocyte, granulocyte and monocyte content. This

  17. Sensitizing effects of lafutidine on CGRP-containing afferent nerves in the rat stomach

    Nishihara, Katsushi; Nozawa, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Motoko; Ajioka, Hirofusa; Matsuura, Naosuke

    2002-01-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves play an important role in gastric mucosal defensive mechanisms. Capsaicin stimulates afferent nerves and enhances the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which seems to be the predominant neurotransmitter of spinal afferents in the rat stomach, exerting many pharmacological effects by a direct mechanism or indirectly through second messengers such as nitric oxide (NO).Lafutidine is a new type of anti-ulcer drug, possessing both an antisecreto...

  18. Immunocytochemical and autoradiographic studies of the endocrine cells interacting with GABA in the rat stomach.

    Gilon, Patrick; Mallefet, Jérôme; De Vriendt, C; Pauwels, S.; Geffard, M.; Campistron, G.; Remacle, Claude

    1990-01-01

    There are now increasing evidences suggesting that GABA is able of direct interaction with certain endocrine cells. In the present study, highly specific anti-GABA-glutaraldehyde antibodies and 3H-GABA uptake were used at the light and electron microscope levels to investigate the occurrence of cells containing endogenous GABA or taking up exogenous GABA in the mucosal antrum and corpus of the rat stomach. Only certain endocrine cell types of both regions were immunostained or grain-labelled....

  19. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats.

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Kurt-Sirin, Ozlem; Tunali, Sevim; Akev, Nuriye; Can, Ayse; Yanardag, Refiye

    2014-05-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system in the stomach tissue of diabetic rats. Male Swiss albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control; control+vanadyl sulfate; diabetic; diabetic+vanadyl sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg body weight). Vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg body weight) was given daily by gavage for 60 days. At the last day of the experiment, stomach tissues were taken and homogenized to make a 10% (w/v) homogenate. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), myeloperoxidase (MPO), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined in the stomach tissue. CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, GST, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. Vanadium treatment significantly reduced the elevated activities of GR, GPx, GST compared with the diabetic group whereas the decreases in CAT, SOD, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were insignificant. No significant change was seen for MPO activity between the groups. It was concluded that vanadium could be used for its ameliorative effect against oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:24856383

  20. Effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenase I and II in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-06-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a drug of antiinflammatory antipyretic and analgesic activity that produces minor digestive side-effects. This fact induced us to think that LC is possibly a weak COX-1 inhibitor. In order to investigate our hypothesis we inhibited cyclooxygenase activity with LC or indomethacin (INDO) in rat lung and stomach obtained from rats treated with lipopolysacharide (LPS) and control rats. Rat lung preparations incubated with 14C-arachidonic acid synthesise mainly PGE2. LC at 2.5 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M does not modify the basal production of PGE2 (probably COX-1) but at 6.8 x 10(-5) M significantly inhibited PGE2 production (approximately 48.5% inhibition, P<0.001). On the other hand, INDO at 10(-6) inhibited the basal production of PGE2 by around 73%. In LPS-treated rats, the production of PGE2 was significantly higher than in the lungs of control rats, probably due to the induction of COX-2. The addition of LC at 2.7 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M recovered the control values of PGE2 inhibiting, probably only from COX-2 activity. LC at higher concentrations (6.8 x 10(-5) M) and INDO 10(-6) M inhibited PGE2 formed by COX-2 and also partly by COX-1 activity. PMID:10189073

  1. Gastric antisecretory role and immunohistochemical localization of cannabinoid receptors in the rat stomach

    Adami, Maristella; Frati, Paolo; Bertini, Simone; Kulkarni-Narla, Anjali; Brown, David R; Caro, Giuseppe de; Coruzzi, Gabriella; Soldani, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    The role of cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the regulation of gastric acid secretion was investigated in the rat by means of functional experiments and by immunohistochemistry.In anaesthetized rats with lumen-perfused stomach, the non selective CB-receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (0.30 – 4.00 μmol kg−1, i.v.) and the selective CB1-receptor agonist HU-210 (0.03 – 1.50 μmol kg−1, i.v.), dose-dependently decreased the acid secretion induced by both pentagastrin (30 nmol kg−1 h−1) and 2-deoxy-D-glucos...

  2. Ex vivo effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenases in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Franchi, A M; Girolamo, G D; De los Santos, A R; Marti, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1999-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is an anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic drug with minor digestive side effects, which might suggest a weak COX-1 inhibitor. The aim of this study focused on ex vivo effects of LC 40 mg/kg ip and indomethacin (INDO) 10 mg/kg ip in lung and stomach preparations of control rats and LPS-treated rats (5 mg/kg ip). The non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs were administered concomitantly, following three hours and before one, two or three hours of LPS treatment. Tissues were weighed and incubated in 2 ml of Kress Ringer Bicarbonate buffer containing glucose (11 mM) under an atmosphere of 95% oxygen and 5% CO(2). Approximately 200 mg of tissue were used for each determination; 0.25 microCi of (14)C-arachidonic acid was added to each tube and the tissues were incubated for 60 min. Prostanoids were extracted from the incubation medium and separated by TLC. Results were expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity of the plates (% of cpm on plate/100 mg ww). It was found that LC animals that were not given LPS did not modify the synthesis of PGE(2); in lung and stomach tissues showing that did not inhibit COX-1 activity. However, LC inhibited clearly the synthesis of PGE(2) in both preparations obtained from LPS-treated animals. The inhibition was shown when the rats were treated concomitantly, 3 h after or 1 or 2 h before the injection of LPS. PMID:17657442

  3. Stomach Cancer

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  4. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  5. Determination of metronidazole in a rat stomach by HPLC for obtaining basic data of the eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori

    Mai Kubodera; Tadakazu Tokumura; Yoshiharu Machida

    2012-01-01

    In the eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori changes of antibiotics as these concentrations or amount in the stomach after oral administration were not clear. A simple and accurate method for determining the concentration of metronidazole (MTZ) in homogenate of rat stomach was developed in order to obtain basic data to design a pharmaceutical preparation having targeting ability to the surface of gastric-mucosa. This method included a deproteinization process by methanol, separation with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and detection with an ultraviolet wavelength of 370 nm. Regression analysis showed that the method was linear over a standard curve nmge from 5 ug/mL to 2000 g/mL. The inter-day precision and accuracy values between thc ranges were 5.0% or better and -7.5 to 5.2%, respectively. The newly developed method was applied to an analysis of gastric samples after oral administration of MTZ at a dose of 5 mg/kg. It was found that the residual MTZ in the stomach was determined within 5 h after dosing. This method is useful for monitoring MTZ in stomach after its oral administration to rats.

  6. Effects of San Qi on Gastric Secretion and Protective Factors of Gastric Mucosa in the Rat with Precancerous Lesion of Stomach

    石雪迎; 赵凤志; 戴欣; 董秀云; 方杰; 杨会敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ In the model rat with precancerous lesion of stomach induced by the combined method of insertion of a spring into the pylorus and high salt hot paste, effects of San Qi (三七 Radix Notoginseng) on gastric secretion and protective factors of stomach were investigated.

  7. MORPHOMETRIC EFFECTS OF COLA NITIDA EXTRACT ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

    Ojo Gideon B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nut was investigated for possible harmful effect on the morphology of the stomach, considering its wide consumption and documented antioxidant properties.Twenty-five Adult male Wistar rats with average weight of 167.6 g and randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each containing five animals. Care of the animal according to the Rules and Guidelines of the Animal Right Committee of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was adopted. The rats in group A (control were given distilled water while animals in experimental groups B, C, D and E were each given 600 mg/kg body weight of crude extract of Cola nitida by oral intubation for consecutive three, five, seven and nine days respectively and sacrificed. The stomach was excised, quickly fixed in 10% formal saline and processed histologically, using routine haematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain. The stained sections were subjected to morphometrics analysis at a magnification of sign 40 using the eye piece micrometer procedure.The result revealed a significant reduction in the epithelia thickness of the experimental animals, (Groups A=218.40 µm ± 144.61 vs. B=117.00 µm ± 34.88, C=124.80 µm ± 87.01, D=96.60 µm ± 60.04 and E=108.57 µm ± 122.16 (t=3.04, 2.48, 3.57 and 2.58 respectively, p 0.05 and (A=148.20 µm ± 50.56 vs. B=109.20 µm ± 22.27, C=117.00 µm ± 11.07, D=124.80 µm ± 71.67, E=162.86 µm ± 112.35 (t=1.58, 1.35, 0.60, and 0.46 respectively, p<0.05.The thickness of the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa were significantly increased by the extract, (Groups A=140.40 µm ± 95.84 vs. B=358.80 µm ± 323.07, C=260.00 µm ± 32.89, D=306.80 µm ± 148.90, E=374.83 µm ± 175.44 (t=7.16, 6.36, 3.83, and 2.89 respectively, p<0.05 and (140.4 µm ± 47.94 vs. B=358.80 µm ±161.53, C=260.00 µm ± 16.44, D=306.80 µm ± 74.44, E=374.83 µm ± 87.72 (t=2.90, 5.22, 4.20, and 5.22 respectively, p<0.05.It is therefore evident that the consumption of cola nut

  8. Validation of Shape Context Based Image Registration Method Using Digital Image Correlation Measurement on a Rat Stomach

    Liao, Donghua; Wang, P; Zhao, Jingbo;

    2014-01-01

    needs to be further verified by using a feature tracking measurement. Hence, the aim of this study was to verify the SC method-based calculation by using digital image correlation (DIC) measurement on a rat stomach. The rat stomach exposed to distension pressures 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 kPa were studied...... using both 3D DIC system and SC-based image registration calculation. Three different surface sample counts between the reference and the target surfaces were usedto gauge the effect of the surface sample counts on the calculation. Each pair of the surface points between the DIC measured target surface...... quantitative agreement on the surfaces with small dissimilarity and small sample count difference between the reference surface and the target surface. In conclusion, this is the first study to validate the 3D SC-based image registration method by using unique tracking features measurement. The developed...

  9. 5-Hydroxytryptamino-induced calcium sparks in cultured rat stomach fundus smooth muscle cells

    张小玲; 阎宏涛; 闫炀

    2003-01-01

    With a new fluorescence probe of Ca2+, STDIn-AM, 5-hydroxytryptamino (5-HT)-induced spontaneous calcium release events (calcium sparks) in cultured rat stomach fundus smooth muscle cells (SFSMC) are investigated by laser scanning confocal microscope. The mechanisms of initiation of Ca2+ sparks, propagating Ca2+ waves and their relation to E-C coupling are discussed. After the extracellular [Ca2+] is increased to 10 mmol/L, addition of 5-HT causes hot spots throughout the cytoplasm, which is brighter near the plasmalemma. The amplitude of the event is at least two times greater than the standard deviation of fluorescence intensity fluctuations measured in the neighboring region and the duration of the Ca2+ signal is over 100 ms. The results suggest that 5-HT acts by the way of 5-HT2 receptors on SFSMC, then through 5-HT2 receptors couples IP3/Ca2+ and DG/PKC double signal transduction pathways to cause Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores and followed Ca2+ influx possibly through calcium release-activated calcium influx. The acceptor of activated 5-HT2 can also cause membrane depolarization, which then stimulates the L-type Ca2+ channels leading to Ca2+ influx. Thenthe local Ca2+ entry mentioned above activates ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ releasechannels (RyR) on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to cause local Ca2+ release events (Ca2+ sparks) through calcium-induced calcium release (CICR).

  10. Types of oligosaccharide sulphation, depending on mucus glycoprotein source, corpus or antral, in rat stomach.

    Goso, Y; Hotta, K

    1989-01-01

    Radiolabelled mucus glycoprotein was obtained from tissue and a culture medium each of the corpus and antrum of rat stomach incubated with [35S]sulphate in vitro. Gel-filtration analysis of oligosaccharides liberated by alkaline-borohydride treatment from glycoproteins indicated that 35S-labelled oligosaccharides from the corpus vary considerably with respect to chain length whereas those from antral mucus glycoprotein are composed of small oligosaccharides. Examination of the reduced radiolabelled products obtained by HNO2 cleavage of the hydrazine-treated oligosaccharides indicated sulphate esters of N-acetylglucosamine to be present at three locations on a carbohydrate unit: [35S]sulphated monosaccharide (2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate), [35S]sulphated disaccharide [galactosyl(beta 1-4)-2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate] and [35S]sulphated trisaccharide [fucosyl(alpha 1-2)-galactosyl(beta 1-4)-2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate]. Sulphated disaccharide and trisaccharide, possibly originating from the N-acetyl-lactosamine and fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine sequences respectively, were detected in the corpus, especially as large oligosaccharides, but were present in the antrum in only very small amounts. The sulphated monosaccharide, however, most probably originating from 6-sulphated N-acetylglucosamine residues at non-reducing termini, was present in all oligosaccharide fractions in both the corpus and antrum. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2695066

  11. Stomach cancer

    ... infection of the stomach by a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori Had a polyp larger than 2 centimeters in your stomach Have inflammation and swelling of the stomach for a long time (chronic atrophic gastritis ) Have pernicious anemia Smoke

  12. Effects of Banxiaxiexin Decoction on the SCF Gene Expression in the Stomach Wall of Rat Model of Electrogastric Dysrhythmias

    Li Yuhang; Wang Qingguo; Chen meng; Wang Dan; Li Lina; Zhang Dongmei

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of Banxiaxiexin Decoction (BD) on rats with electrogastric dysrhythmias by divided design and discuss the mechanism of BD. Methods:To establish the rat model of electrogastric dysrhythmias and examine effects of BD on the SCF mRNA by reverse transcriptive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results:BD and all the divided groups can reduce the mRNA expression of SCF, and show significant difference with model group (P0.05).Conclusion:The BD treatment of epigastric fullness (to regulate the movement of stomach and intestine) is in connection with adjustment of the mRNA expression of SCF.

  13. Effects of reserpine on ECL-cell ultrastructure and histamine compartmentalization in the rat stomach.

    Zhao, C M; Chen, D; Lintunen, M; Panula, P; Håkanson, R

    1999-01-01

    The histamine-storing ECL cells in the stomach play a key role in the control of acid secretion. They contain granules, secretory vesicles and microvesicles, and sustained gastrin stimulation results in the additional formation of vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies. The cells are rich in the vesicle monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT-2), which can be inhibited by reserpine. The present study examines the effect of reserpine on ECL-cell ultrastructure and histamine compartmentalization. Rats received reserpine and/or gastrin. Reserpine was given twice by the intraperitoneal route (25 mg/kg once daily). Gastrin-17 was given by subcutaneous infusion (5 nmol/kg/h), starting at the time of the first reserpine injection and continuing for 4 days when the rats were killed. At this stage, histamine in the oxyntic mucosa was unaffected by reserpine but elevated by gastrin. Immunocytochemical analysis (confocal microscopy) showed ECL-cell histamine in control and gastrin-treated rats to be localized in cytoplasmic organelles (e.g., secretory vesicles). After treatment with reserpine alone or reserpine+gastrin, ECL-cell histamine occurred mainly in the cytosol. Planimetric analysis (electron microscopy) of ECL cells showed reserpine to increase the number, size and volume density of the granules and to reduce the size and volume density of the secretory vesicles. Gastrin reduced the number and volume density of granules and secretory vesicles, increased the number and volume density of microvesicles and caused vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies to appear. Reserpine+gastrin increased the number, volume density and size of the granules. Reserpine prevented the effects of gastrin on secretory vesicles, vacuoles and microvesicles, but did not prevent the development of lipofuscin. Our findings are in line with the views: (1) that preformed cytosolic histamine is taken up by granules/secretory vesicles via VMAT-2, that histamine is instrumental in the transformation of granules into

  14. Antiulcerogenic effect of gallic acid in rats and its effect on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in stomach tissue

    S Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate the antiulcerogenic effect of gallic acid against aspirin plus pyrolus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were treated with gallic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg and famotidine (20 mg/kg for 1 week, followed by induction of gastric ulcer using the aspirin plus pyrolus ligation model. At the end of 4 h after ligation, the rats were sacrificed and ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH and other biochemical parameter of gastric juice were evaluated. Stomachs of rats were evaluated biochemically to determine oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Pretreatment with gallic acid significantly decreased ulcer index, gastric juice volume, free and total acidity, total protein, DNA content and increased pH and carbohydrates concentration. Gallic acid at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg exerted 69.7 and 78.9% ulcer inhibition, respectively. The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidise, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased while reduction in myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxidation were observed in the stomach tissues of the drug treated rats. The histopathological studies further confirmed the antiulcer activity of gallic acid. We conclude that the gallic acid possesses antiulcer effect and that these occur by a mechanism that involves attenuation of offensive factors, improvement of mucosal defensive with activation of antioxidant parameters and inhibition of some toxic oxidant parameters.

  15. Secretory organelles in ECL cells of the rat stomach: an immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic study.

    Zhao, C M; Chen, D; Lintunen, M; Panula, P; Håkanson, R

    1999-12-01

    ECL cells are numerous in the rat stomach. They produce and store histamine and chromogranin-A (CGA)-derived peptides such as pancreastatin and respond to gastrin with secretion of these products. Numerous electron-lucent vesicles of varying size and a few small, dense-cored granules are found in the cytoplasm. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we examined these organelles and their metamorphosis as they underwent intracellular transport from the Golgi area to the cell periphery. ECL-cell histamine was found to occur in both cytosol and secretory vesicles. Histidine decarboxylase, the histamine-forming enzyme, was in the cytosol, while pancreastatin (and possibly other peptide products) was confined to the dense cores of granules and secretory vesicles. Dense-cored granules and small, clear microvesicles were more numerous in the Golgi area than in the docking zone, i.e. close to the plasma membrane. Secretory vesicles were numerous in both Golgi area and docking zone, where they were sometimes seen to be attached to the plasma membrane. Upon acute gastrin stimulation, histamine was mobilized and the compartment size (volume density) of secretory vesicles in the docking zone was decreased, while the compartment size of microvesicles was increased. Based on these findings, we propose the following life cycle of secretory organelles in ECL cells: small, electron-lucent microvesicles (pro-granules) bud off the trans Golgi network, carrying proteins and secretory peptide precursors (such as CGA and an anticipated prohormone). They are transformed into dense-cored granules (approximate profile diameter 100 nm) while still in the trans Golgi area. Pro-granules and granules accumulate histamine, which leads to their metamorphosis into dense-cored secretory vesicles. In the Golgi area the secretory vesicles have an approximate profile diameter of 150 nm. By the time they reach their destination in the docking zone, their profile diameter is between 200 and 500 nm

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of ganglia in the rat stomach serosa, containing neurons immunoreactive for gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Ganglia, not previously described, were identified in the rat stomach serosa along the minor curvature. The ganglia consisted of varying number of cell bodies lying in clusters along or within nerve bundles. The ganglia were shown to contain GRP and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies...... and also some NPY immunoreactive fibers, whereas they were devoid of somatostatin immunoreactivity. Nerve ligation experiments indicated that the ganglia are intrinsic to the stomach....

  17. Stomach (image)

    The stomach is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for breaking down food. The lower esophageal sphincter at the top of the stomach regulates food passing from the esophagus into the ...

  18. Stomach ulcer

    The stomach is the organ of the digestive system in which food travels from the esophagus and is further ... into simple substances. The inside wall of the stomach is protected from the acid and enzymes by ...

  19. Artificial perforations of the stomach in pigs and rats and their covering by the abdominal wall

    Fortýn, Karel; Hruban, V.; Horák, Vratislav; Tichý, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2001), s. 75-77. ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5045113; GA AV ČR KSK5011112 Keywords : pig * stomach -artificial perforation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.348, year: 2001

  20. "Stomach Flu"

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en ... El virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  1. Analysis of Electromyographic Signals from Rats’ Stomaches for Detection and Classification of Motility

    Emma Gloria Ramos Ramírez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the electromyographic signals from rat stomaches to identify and classify contractions. The results were validated with both visual identification and an ultrasonic system to guarantee the reference. Some parameters were defined and associated to the energy of the signal in frequency domain and grouped in a P vector. The parameters were statistically analyzed and according to the results, an artificial neuronal network was designed to use the P vectors as inputs to classify the electrical signals related to the contraction conditions. A first approach classification was performed with and without contraction classes (CR and NCR, then the same database were subdivided in four classes: with induced contraction (ICR, spontaneous contraction (SCR, without contraction due a post mortem condition (PMR or under physiological conditions (PNCR. In a two-class classifier, performance was 86%, 93% and 91% of detections for each electrogastromyografic (EGMG signal from each of three pairs of electrodes considered. Because in the four-class classifier, enough data was not collected for the first pair, then a three-class classifier with 82% of performance was used. For the other two EGMG signals electrode pairs, performance was of 76% and 86% respectively. Based in the results, the analysis of P vectors could be used as a contraction detector in motility studies due to different stimuli in a rat model.

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  3. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin and adrenaline mobilizes ECL-cell histamine in rat stomach, and causes mucosal damage: a microdialysis study

    Bernsand, M; Ericsson, P; Björkqvist, M; Zhao, C -M; Håkanson, R; Norlén, P

    2003-01-01

    Rat stomach ECL cells release histamine in response to gastrin. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin or adrenaline, known to cause vasoconstriction and gastric lesions, mobilized striking amounts of histamine. While the histamine response to gastrin is sustainable for hours, that to endothelin and adrenaline was characteristically short-lasting (1–2 h).The aims of this study were to identify the cellular source of histamine mobilized by endothelin and adrenaline, and examine the differences...

  4. Gastric secretagogue action of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta in the perfused stomach of anesthetized rats

    Ajayi A.F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta has been reported to have antimalarial and antidiabetic effects. Aim: The gastric secretagogue action of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta stem was studied in rat model to evaluate its possible role in gastric acid secretion. Food intake and weight gain were also observed. Materials and Methods: The animals used were divided into four groups. The control received 2 ml of distilled water, while treated groups received 50, 150, and 250 mg/kgbw of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract per oral respectively daily for 21 days. Results: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta caused dose-dependent increase in gastric acid secretion. This secretagogue effect was augmented by histamine. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta also significantly increased food intake, body weight gain, and the sizes and number of gastric parietal cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta is ulcerogenic, and the gastric secretagogue action is histamine-mediated. This effect could be attributed to the presence of cryptolepine, the major bioactive agent, and other alkaloids present in the botanical.

  5. Cannabinoid HU210 Protects Isolated Rat Stomach against Impairment Caused by Serum of Rats with Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Cao, Ming-hua; Li, Yong-yu; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ya-jing; Lin, Xu-hong; Li, Kun; HAN Tong; Chen, Chang-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis often causes extra-pancreatic complications, such as acute gastrointestinal mucosal lesion (AGML) which is accompanied by a considerably high mortality, yet the pathogenesis of AP-induced AGML is still not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the alterations of serum components and gastric endocrine and exocrine functions in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis, and studied the possible contributions of these alte...

  6. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    ... the key statistics about stomach cancer? What is stomach cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  7. Electroacupuncture at ST36 ameliorates gastric emptying and rescues networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach of diabetic rats.

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is certified in the stomach of diabetic patients. Though electroacupuncture (EA at ST36 is an effective therapy to regulate gastric motility, the mechanisms of EA at ST36 on gastric emptying and networks of ICC remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of EA on gastric emptying and on the alterations of ICC networks. Rats were randomized into the control, diabetic rats (DM, diabetic rats with sham EA (DM+SEA, diabetic rats with low frequency EA (DM+LEA and diabetic rats with high frequency EA groups (DM+HEA. The expression of c-kit in each layer of gastric wall was assessed by western blotting. The proliferation of ICC was identified by immunolabeling of c-kit and Ki67 as the apoptosis of ICC was examined by TUNEL staining. The results were as follows: (1 Gastric emptying was severely delayed in the DM group, but accelerated in the LEA and HEA group, especially in the LEA group. (2 The expression of c-kit in each layer was reduced apparently in the DM group, but also up-regulated in the LEA and HEA group. (3 Plentiful proliferated ICC (c-kit+/Ki67+ forming bushy networks with c-kit+ cells were observed in the LEA and HEA group, while the apoptotic cells (c-kit+/TUNEL+ were hardly captured in the LEA and HEA group. Collectively, low and high frequency EA at ST36 rescue the damaged networks of ICC by inhibiting the apoptosis and enhancing the proliferation in the stomach of diabetic rats, resulting in an improved gastric emptying.

  8. Electroacupuncture at ST36 ameliorates gastric emptying and rescues networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach of diabetic rats.

    Chen, Yan; Xu, Juan Juan; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiao Hua

    2013-01-01

    Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is certified in the stomach of diabetic patients. Though electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 is an effective therapy to regulate gastric motility, the mechanisms of EA at ST36 on gastric emptying and networks of ICC remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of EA on gastric emptying and on the alterations of ICC networks. Rats were randomized into the control, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats with sham EA (DM+SEA), diabetic rats with low frequency EA (DM+LEA) and diabetic rats with high frequency EA groups (DM+HEA). The expression of c-kit in each layer of gastric wall was assessed by western blotting. The proliferation of ICC was identified by immunolabeling of c-kit and Ki67 as the apoptosis of ICC was examined by TUNEL staining. The results were as follows: (1) Gastric emptying was severely delayed in the DM group, but accelerated in the LEA and HEA group, especially in the LEA group. (2) The expression of c-kit in each layer was reduced apparently in the DM group, but also up-regulated in the LEA and HEA group. (3) Plentiful proliferated ICC (c-kit+/Ki67+) forming bushy networks with c-kit+ cells were observed in the LEA and HEA group, while the apoptotic cells (c-kit+/TUNEL+) were hardly captured in the LEA and HEA group. Collectively, low and high frequency EA at ST36 rescue the damaged networks of ICC by inhibiting the apoptosis and enhancing the proliferation in the stomach of diabetic rats, resulting in an improved gastric emptying. PMID:24391842

  9. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    ... and Discovery Stories of Discovery A Snapshot of Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality Stomach (gastric) cancer is ... at the SEER Web site. NCI’s Investment in Stomach Cancer Research To learn more about the research ...

  10. Glyprolines exert protective and repair-promoting effects in the rat stomach: potential role of the cytokine GRO/CINC-1.

    Bakaeva, Z V; Sangadzhieva, A D; Tani, S; Myasoedov, N F; Andreeva, L A; Torshin, V I; Wallace, J L; Tanaka, T

    2016-04-01

    Glyprolines have been reported to exert protective effects in the stomach. In this study, we examined the potential effects of intranasal administration of Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and N-acetyl-Pro-Gly-Pro (AcPGP) on experimental gastric ulcer formation and healing. We also studied gastric release of the cytokine GRO/CINC-1, and its potential role in ulcer development and healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by applying acetic acid to the serosa of the stomach. PGP and AcPGP were then administered at a dose of 3.7 μmol/kg once daily on either days 1 - 3 (ulcer formation) or days 4 - 6 (ulcer healing). Measurement of ulcer area and histological examination of gastric tissue were carried out on days 4 and 7 after application of acetic acid. In vitro studies involved addition of the glyprolines to cultured rat gastric epithelial cells with or without lipopolysaccharide. Reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR and ELISA were used for cytokine analysis. PGP and AcPGP significantly reduced ulcer areas on the 4(th) day and accelerated the healing on the 7(th) day compared with the control. After acetic acid-induced ulceration, the expression of GRO/CINC-1 mRNA in gastric tissue was increased 9-fold versus the sham-operated group. Treatment with PGP or AcPGP both significantly suppressed the expression of GRO/CINC-1 mRNA in gastric tissue. However, the glyprolines did not alter LPS-induced mRNA expression or release of GRO/CINC-1 from cultured rat gastric epithelial cells, even though those cells were harvested from rats subjected to the ulcer-induction procedure. The results of this study show that intranasal administration of PGP and AcPGP significantly increased resistance against acetic acid-induced ulceration and accelerated healing in the rats. These effects may be due, at least in part, to their ability to reduce the acetic acid-induced GRO/CINC-1 expression and production in gastric tissue. PMID:27226185

  11. 糖基化终末产物及其受体在糖尿病大鼠胃组织中的分布 (Distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the stomach of diabetic rats)

    Tian, Jia Xing; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Min;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To observe the distribution of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the stomach of diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and control (CON) rats were reared for eight weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated serum protein (GSP) and gastric layer...... CON group (P < 0.05). The expression of AGEs and RAGE in the mucosa (5.66 ± 1.90 vs 2.25 ± 0.52, 2.79 ± 0.54 vs 1.70 ± 0.30) and muscle (37.37 ± 7.38 vs 24.32 ± 4.02, 4.26 ± 0.80 vs 3.59 ± 0.37) layers of the stomach was significantly higher in the DM group than in the CON group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION......: The expression of AGEs and RAGE is up-regulated in the stomach of diabetic rats. The increased levels of AGE and RAGE in gastric tissue may contribute to diabetic gastrointestinal dysfunction. © 2015 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Key Words: Diabetes mellitus; Stomach; Advanced...

  12. Effect of pretreatment with Ethanol or Ammonium Hydroxide on Helicobacter Pylori colonization in the stomach of rats

    Fahimi F

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for H.pylori infection have been developed to clarify the pathogenesis, testing new therapies and developing vaccines against human H.pylori infection. Although rats have been used extensively for gastric ulceration and acid secretion studies, the animal is not normally infected with H.pylori.Several chemicals such as ethanol and ammonium hydroxide can induce gastric erosion and interact with gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori with the gastroinvasive agents on colonization of H. pylori in not germ-free rats in order to overcome the resistance against H. pylori in rats. After 24 h fasting, the rats were divided into three major groups. Animals in the first group were not pretreated with any chemicals. The two other groups were pretreated with ethanol (60% or ammonium hydroxide (1% before inoculation of 1 mL H. pylori suspension (3×108 cfu/ml. The results showed that H. pylori could not colonize in rats, even with ethanol or ammonium hydroxide pretreatment. An understanding of the mechanism of this resistance can help researchers to develop new therapeutic or preventive drugs against H. pylori and it is recommended to perform more investigation to clarify the reason of this resistance

  13. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  14. Effect of pretreatment with Ethanol or Ammonium Hydroxide on Helicobacter Pylori colonization in the stomach of rats

    Fahimi F; Siavoshi F; Ala S

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for H.pylori infection have been developed to clarify the pathogenesis, testing new therapies and developing vaccines against human H.pylori infection. Although rats have been used extensively for gastric ulceration and acid secretion studies, the animal is not normally infected with H.pylori.Several chemicals such as ethanol and ammonium hydroxide can induce gastric erosion and interact with gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the...

  15. Effects of endotoxin and dexamethasone on group I and II phospholipase A2 in rat ileum and stomach.

    Lilja, I; Dimberg, J; Sjödahl, R; Tagesson, C.; Gustafson-Svärd, C

    1994-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme in inflammation and is thought to play an important part in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the nature and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa, the distribution of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for group II phospholipase A2 in various parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract was studied, as well as the influence of endotoxin or dexamethasone, or both, on the group I and II p...

  16. Gastric submucosal microdialysis in the detection of rat stomach ischemia—a comparison of the 3H2O efflux technique with metabolic monitoring

    Microdialysis has been utilized for nutritive blood flow measurements, but both the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches have not been evaluated in parallel in the stomach yet. Our aim was to compare the 3H2O efflux technique with biochemical monitoring during temporary celiac artery occlusion in anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the gastric submucosa and perfused with 3H2O; samples were analyzed for β-activity, glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. Gastric mucosa and plasma were subjected to morphometry and analysis of myeloperoxidase, total thiols and lactatdehydrogenase. The most dramatic responses to ischemia were observed in lactate/pyruvate and lactate/glucose (%) ratios (6.1–9.3×, p 3H2O efflux and glycerol were less pronounced (1.1–1.7×, p 3H2O efflux correlated best with the lactate/glucose ratio and glucose alone (r = 0.693 and −0.681, respectively, p −1, p −1, p 3H2O efflux technique. The results question the efficacy of the utilized model to produce standardized major gastric damage

  17. Urocortins and CRF type 2 receptor isoforms expression in the rat stomach are regulated by endotoxin: role in the modulation of delayed gastric emptying.

    Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wu, S Vincent; Taché, Yvette

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF(2)) by urocortin 1, 2, or 3 (Ucns) exerts powerful effects on gastric function; however, little is known about their expression and regulation in the stomach. We investigated the expression of Ucns and CRF(2) isoforms by RT-PCR in the gastric corpus (GC) mucosa and submucosa plus muscle (S+M) or laser captured layers in naive rats, their regulations by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg ip) over 24 h, and the effect of the CRF(2) antagonist astresssin(2)-B (100 μg/kg sc) on LPS-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) 2-h postinjection. Transcripts of Ucns and CRF(2b,) the most common wild-type CRF(2) isoform in the periphery, were expressed in all layers, including myenteric neurons. LPS increased Ucn mRNA levels significantly in both mucosa and S+M, reaching a maximal response at 6 h postinjection and returning to basal levels at 24 h except for Ucn 1 in S+M. By contrast, CRF(2b) mRNA level was significantly decreased in the mucosa and M+S with a nadir at 6 h. In addition, CRF(2a), reportedly only found in the brain, and the novel splice variant CRF(2a-3) were also detected in the GC, antrum, and pylorus. LPS reciprocally regulated these variants with a decrease of CRF(2a) and an increase of CRF(2a-3) in the GC 6 h postinjection. Astressin(2)-B exacerbated LPS-delayed GE (42-73%, P gastric motor alterations to endotoxemia. PMID:22517775

  18. Choriocarcinoma of the Stomach

    Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hee [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Choriocarcinoma is considered to be a malignant tumor of the trophoblast originating within the uterus. But it may be rarely encountered in the stomach. We have experienced a case of extragonadal choriocarcinoma arising from the stomach and present its ultrasonographic findings

  19. The development of multiple probe microdialysis sampling in the stomach

    Woo, Kristin L.; Lunte, Craig E.

    2008-01-01

    A multiple probe approach of implanting microdialysis probes into each separate tissue layer would better represent sampling from the stomach. Presently, microdialysis sampling experiments are performed with only a single probe in the submucosa to represent sampling from the stomach tissue. The focus of this research was to develop a four-probe microdialysis sampling design to simultaneously monitor the stomach lumen, mucosa, submucosa and in the blood of the rat. Due to the small outer diame...

  20. Stomach acid test

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  1. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    ... prevents symptoms but it is not expected to cure the cancer. The type of operation usually depends on what ... in the stomach, even if it does not cure the cancer. Because the goal of this surgery is not ...

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) which coats the esophagus and stomach as it ... to remove tissue , which is checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Enlarge Upper endoscopy. A ...

  3. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency distribu......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... evacuation. The average rate of food consumption and the functional response are derived from simple renewal theory and from obtaining the average of the gastric evacuation rates. Effects of meal size biased stomach sampling are introduced. As a primer on modelling the stomach content of piscivorous fish...... and direction for further developments of fish stomach theory are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. A new gastric ulcer model induced by ischemia-reperfusion in the rat: role of leukocytes on ulceration in rat stomach.

    Wada, K; Kamisaki, Y; Kitano, M; Kishimoto, Y; Nakamoto, K; Itoh, T

    1996-01-01

    A new model of gastric ulcer involving damage to the muscularis mucosae was developed by clamping the celiac artery in rat to induce ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Although erosions with falling off of the gastric mucosa were observed immediately, 24 and 36 hours after the I-R, gastric ulcers involving the injury of muscularis mucosae were observed in the area of gastric glands at 48 and 72 hours after initiation of injury. Administration of omeprazol, a proton pump inhibitor, or pentoxifylline, an anti-leukocyte drug, just after the initiation of injury significantly decreased the total area of ulcers at 72 hours. A combination of omeprazol and pentoxifylline was more effective than either drug alone. An anti-leukocyte adhesion molecule (anti-CD18 antibody) also showed significant inhibitory effect on the development of ulcers at 72 hours and the infiltration of leukocytes into both submucosa and mucosa. These results indicate that in our model, gastric acid together with leukocytes contribute to the development of ulcers following erosions. This model may be used to investigate the mechanisms of the development of gastric ulcer and evaluate antiulcer drugs in a preclinical setting. PMID:8913334

  5. CT of the Stomach

    Mohammad Khajavi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available CT of the stomach could be performed with different"nCT modalities and also four-detector CT scan. Stomach"nCT should be used adjunct to barium studies and"nendoscopy. Stomach CT would be used for different"nporposes; primary pathologic conditions, extention"nof the disease and staging. Pathologies studied by CT"ninclude lymphom, leiomyoma, Menetrier's disease,"nHelicobacter pylori Gastritis and esosinophlic Ulrices"nvarices. The stomach is involved by a spectrum of"npatholgic processes ranging from inflammation,"ninfection, benign and malignant diseases. CT is aquired"nto better demonstrate a pathologic process seen or to"nfollow a known lesion. Differential diagnosis is given"nand various criteria are discussed. Distention of the"nstomach by water or 3 percent of contrast as used"nin abdominal and pelvic CT scan is the technique of"ngastric CT. The amount of the contrast would be 1000"ncc of the contrast given in 15-30 min. The last 250 cc is"ngiven immediately before the patient is placed in the"ngantry. You can also use an effervescent given as 4-5"ngm in 3-4 ml of water immediately before scanning."npitfalls. If the stomach is not distended well, the"ngastric wall appears thickened. So a second dose of oral"ncontrast should be given. The normal thickness of the"nwall of the stomach is 7-10 mm. The IV contrast 100-"n110 cc 2-3 mil/sec.

  6. Parastomal Hernia Containing Stomach

    Barber-Millet, Sebastian; Pous, Salvador; Navarro, Vicente; Iserte, Jose; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is the most common late stomal complication. Its appearance is usually asymptomatic. We report a parastomal hernia containing stomach. A 69-year-old patient with end colostomy arrived at the emergency room presenting with abdominal pain associated with vomiting and functioning stoma. She had a distended and painful abdomen without signs of peritoneal irritation and pericolostomic eventration in the left iliac fossa. X-ray visualized gastric fornix dilatation without dilated ...

  7. 平胃散水煎液对湿困脾胃证大鼠疲劳状态的改善作用%Antifatigue Effect of Pingwai San on Rats of the Spleen and Stomach being Stranded by Dampness

    刘瑶; 刘伟; 焦豪妍; 沈小钟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨平胃散对湿困脾胃证大鼠疲劳状态的改善作用及其机制.方法:将大鼠随机分为空白对照组,模型组,平胃散高、中、低剂量组.造模第8天平胃散各剂量组分别灌胃平胃散水提液1.5,3,6 g·kg-1.空白对照组、模型组灌胃等量生理盐水,给药7d后观测大鼠力竭游泳时间;检测血浆乳酸(LA)、血清乳酸脱氢酶(SLDH)、血清尿素氮(SUN)、肝糖原含量、血红蛋白(Hb)的含量.结果:平胃散高、中、低剂量组均能不同程度地改善模型大鼠的行为学表现,提高大鼠力竭游泳时间.与模型组比较,高剂量组肝糖原含量显著增高(P<0.01),高、中剂量组SUN含量显著降低(P<0.05).各组大鼠Hb,LA,SLDH水平未见明显差异.结论:平胃散改善湿困脾胃证疲劳状态的作用可能与减少在运动负荷下的蛋白质与氨基酸的分解,提高肝糖原的含量有关.%Objective: To study the antifatigue effect of Pingwei San (PWS) on rats of the spleen and stomach being stranded by dampness. Method; Rat models of the spleen and stomach being stranded by dampness was made. The rats were divided randomly into five groups; the control group, the model group and three groups administered with high, mediate and low dose of respectively, at the eighth day after modeling, the control group and the model group were administrated with physiological saline solution, the others three groups were administered with 1. 5, 3, 6 g -kg PRFS respectively. After final administrating, the behavioral changes of rats were observed and the exhaustive swimming time of rats was recorded. At the end of the experiment, the levels of blood plasma lactic acid ( LA ) , serum lactate dehydrogenass ( SLDH ) , serum urea nitrogen ( SUN ) , hepatic glycogen, and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined. Result; The rat behaviors in the three groups with PWS were remarkably improved. The last exhaustive swimming time increased significantly, hepatic glycogen level of

  8. Chronic giardiasis of the stomach.

    Quincey, C.; James, P.D.; Steele, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of chronic giardiasis of the stomach diagnosed from gastric mucosal biopsy specimens are reported. The first case was associated with an acute-on-chronic gastritis and Helicobacter-like organisms, and the second with an adenocarcinoma of the stomach. In both cases the trophozoites had been missed in earlier biopsy specimens. As far as is known this is the first report of giardiasis of the stomach.

  9. The effects of sodium chloride, miso or ethanol on development of intestinal metaplasia after X-irradiation of the rat glandular stomach

    The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl), miso (Japanese soybean paste) and ethanol on development of intestinal metaplasia was examined. Five-week-old male CD (SD): Crj rats were treated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3-day interval (total 20 Gy). After irradiation, the rats received supplementation with NaCl (1% or 10% in diet), miso (10% in diet) or ethanol (10% in drinking water) for 12 months. The number of alkaline phosphatase-positive foci of intestinal metaplasia in rats given 1% NaCl diet (Group 3) after X-rays was significantly elevated as compared to that in rats given X-rays alone (Group 1) (p<0.01) or X-rays with 10% NaCl (Group 2) (p<0.01). In the pyloric gland mucosae, the total numbers of metaplastic foci in rats of Group 3 were much higher than in Group 2, or after miso diet (Group 4) or ethanol supplementation (Group 5) (p<0.01), but no difference was found between Group 2, 4 or 5 and Group 1. Atypical hyperplasia only appeared at incidences of less than 6% in Groups 1-3 and no promoting effects on gastric tumorigenesis was evident in Group 2. The present results thus showed that the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation can be significantly increased by administration of 1% NaCl and decreased by 10% NaCl and ethanol, but this is not associated with any influence on gastric neoplasia. (author)

  10. Parastomal hernia containing stomach.

    Barber-Millet, Sebastian; Pous, Salvador; Navarro, Vicente; Iserte, Jose; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is the most common late stomal complication. Its appearance is usually asymptomatic. We report a parastomal hernia containing stomach. A 69-year-old patient with end colostomy arrived at the emergency room presenting with abdominal pain associated with vomiting and functioning stoma. She had a distended and painful abdomen without signs of peritoneal irritation and pericolostomic eventration in the left iliac fossa. X-ray visualized gastric fornix dilatation without dilated intestine bowels, and computed tomography showed parastomal incarcerated gastric herniation. Gastrografin (Bayer Australia Limited, New South Wales, Australia) was administered, showing no passage to duodenum. She underwent surgery, with stomal transposition and placement of onlay polypropylene mesh around the new stoma. Parastomal hernias are a frequent late complication of colostomy. Only four gastric parastomal hernia cases are reported in the literature. Three of these four cases required surgery. The placement of prosthetic mesh in the moment of stoma elaboration should be considered as a potential preventive measure. PMID:25058773

  11. The postoperative stomach

    Woodfield, Courtney A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Levine, Marc S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu

    2005-03-01

    Gastric surgery may be performed for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Radiographic studies with water-soluble contrast agents often are obtained to rule out leaks, obstruction, or other acute complications during the early postoperative period. Barium studies may also be obtained to evaluate for anastomotic strictures or ulcers, bile reflux gastritis, recurrent tumor, or other chronic complications during the late postoperative period. Cross-sectional imaging studies such as CT are also helpful for detecting abscesses or other postoperative collections, recurrent or metastatic tumor, or less common complications such as afferent loop syndrome or gastrojejunal intussusception. It is important for radiologists to be familiar not only with the radiographic findings associated with these various abnormalities but also with the normal appearances of the postoperative stomach on radiographic examinations, so that such appearances are not mistaken for pseudoleaks or other postoperative complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the normal postsurgical anatomy after the most commonly performed operations (including partial gastrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and gastric pull-through, and total gastrectomy and esophagojejunostomy) and to review the acute and chronic complications, normal postoperative findings, and major abnormalities detected on radiographic examinations in these patients.

  12. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  13. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... stomachs. Stomachs or portions of the stomachs of ruminants or swine, other than those imported for...

  14. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    We report here a 72-year-old man with severe, persistent, iron deficiency anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed red stripes radiating to the pylorus, characteristic of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia). The patient was found to have scleroderma with calcinosis, scl...

  15. Functional disorders of the stomach

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  16. Leptin secretion and leptin receptor in the human stomach

    Sobhani, I; Bado, A.; Vissuzaine, C; Buyse, M.; Kermorgant, S; Laigneau, J; Attoub, S; Lehy, T; Henin, D; Mignon, M; lewin, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM—The circulating peptide leptin produced by fat cells acts on central receptors to control food intake and body weight homeostasis. Contrary to initial reports, leptin expression has also been detected in the human placenta, muscles, and recently, in rat gastric chief cells. Here we investigate the possible presence of leptin and leptin receptor in the human stomach.
METHODS—Leptin and leptin receptor expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-po...

  17. Do We Know What Causes Stomach Cancer?

    ... Next Topic Can stomach cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes stomach cancer? There are many ... genes — the instructions for how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5- ...

  19. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Stomach

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Stomach Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Stomach Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  20. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer

  1. Schwannoma of the stomach: a case report

    We report a case of exogastric schwannoma of the stomach in 41-years-old male patient with papable mass in left upper abdomen. Upper Gl series revealed extrinsic compression on the greater curvature of the stomach. CT scan showed a low density mass attached to greater curvature of the stomach with inhomogeneous contrast enhancement in the mass lesion. The mass was removed by surgery, and confirmed pathologically as schwannoma arising from the stomach

  2. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  3. Neurogenic tumors of the stomach

    The general and radiologic features of neurogenic tumors of the stomach are reviewed in connection with 18 cases (16 benign and 2 maglignant tumors). Such neurogenic tumors are rare in the stomach, representing less than 0.5% of all tumors. Solitary neurogenic tumors must be differentiated from those encountered during von Recklinghausen's disease. Radiological or endoscopic examination can generally determine the benign or malignant nature of solitary neurogenic tumors, which are essentially represented by schwannomas. Since these tumors are submucosal, a deep biopsy is imperative; furthermore, since such tumors are subject to hemorrhage, prior investigation by CT appears advisable to detect possible hypervascularization after injection of contrast material. For patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, a neurofibroma is usually diagnosed when faced with a digestive hemorrhage. Radiological exploration of the entire digestive tract appears essential to confirm the solitary nature of the gastric lesion and to be sure it is responsible for the clinical symptoms. (orig.)

  4. Radiography of the equine stomach

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  5. 胃切除大鼠小肠黏膜上皮内和固有层T淋巴细胞表达研究%Intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes T cells in small intestinal mucosa of rats with stomach excision

    帅剑锋; 于庆生; 袁以洋; 潘晋方; 张琦; 刘举达

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of stomach excision on Intraepithelial lymphocytes( IELs )and lamina propria lymphocytes ( LPLs )in small intestinal mucosa of rats. Methods Forty rats were averagely randomized into sham operation control group, model group with stomach excision. The rats in the sham operation group underwent an operation of abdominal midline incision and suture with the stomach retaining. After the operation, the rats were allowed to have a free access to water and foods. The rats in the model group under went an operation of stomach excision, then were given nutrition, an intacted protein enteral nutrition powder. One week after the operation , the rats were executed, and their intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes in small intestinal mucosa were isolated. The T-cells subsets including αβT cell antigen receptor( αβTTCR )-cluster of differentiation 3 positive( CD3 + ), cluster of differentiation 4 positive( CD4 + )and cluster of differentiation 8 positive( CD8 + )were detected by using flow cytometry. Results The proportions of αβTTCR-CD3 + ,CD4+ ,CD8 + T of IELs in the model group decreased in different degree compared with those in the sham operation group, P < 0. 01 or 0.05, while the proportion of CD4 + T showed no significant changes in both group. The proportions of αβTTCR-CD3 + , CD4+ ,CD8 + T of LPLs in the model group decreased in different degree compared with those in the sham operation group,P <0. 01. Conclusion T cell of IELs and LPLs significantly reduced after the stress of stomach excision, which may lead to functional changes of intestinal mucosal immune barrier.%目的 探讨胃切除对大鼠小肠黏膜上皮内T淋巴细胞(Intraepithelial Lymphocytes,IELs)和固有层T淋巴细胞(Lamina Propria Lymphocytes,LPLs)的影响.方法 40只大鼠随机分为假手术对照组、胃切除模型组,每组20只.对照组大鼠仅给予腹部正中切开后缝合,不行胃切除,手术后自由饮水进

  6. Motor activity of stomach and duodenum while blocking NO-ergic system

    O. O. Galyns’ky; A. S. Trushenko; V. O. Galyns’ky; O. V. Severynovs’ka; A. I. Rudenko

    2010-01-01

    The features of ultradian rhythms of the stomach and duodenum of rats under different time spans of blocking NO-synthase and the associated disturbance of regulatory mechanisms have been investigated. The functional relationship between changes in the МEA of stomach and duodenum, as well as the morphological status of the mucous membrane under disturbance of the nitric monoxide synthesis have been established. Each time blocking NO-ergic system caused an increase in motor performance index of...

  7. Transposed intrathoracic stomach: Functional evaluation

    Vishesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the functional aspects of the transposed stomach in the thoracic cavity and its effects on other organ systems. Patients and Methods: Children who had undergone gastric transposition more than 5 years ago were evaluated for symptoms, anthropometry, anaemia, duodenogastric reflux, pulmonary function, gastric emptying, gastric pH, gastroesophageal reflux and stricture, gastric motility, and gastritis and atrophy on histological examination of gastric mucosa. Results: Ten children were evaluated at a median follow-up of 90.5 months. On evaluation of symptoms, nine children were satisfied with the overall outcome. All patients had their weight and 7 patients had height less than 3 rd percentile for their respective age. Anaemia was present in 7/10 children. On evaluation with hepatobiliary scintigraphy, duodenogastric reflux was present in only 1 patient. Mass contractions of the transposed stomach were present in two thirds of the children. The mean gastric emptying t1/2 was 39.1 minutes. Pulmonary function tests were suggestive of restrictive lung disease in all the patients. Forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 were worse in children who underwent transposition or diversion following oesophageal anastomotic leak. Acid secretion was preserved in most patients with episodes of high gastric pH during sleep in nearly half. Mild gastritis was present in all patients where as mild atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed in only 1child. Helicobacter pylori were positive in 3/ 8 children. Barium swallow demonstrated reflux in 2 children. Conclusions: Most children with transposed stomach remain asymptomatic on follow up. However, subclinical abnormalities are detected on investigations, which need close observation as they can manifest later in life.

  8. GANGRENE OF THE FUNDUS OF STOMACH

    Sribatsa Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : The stomach is well known for its rich vascular network which generally protects it from ischemia. So gangrene of the fundus of stomach is a rare event, Its cause has been attributed to gastric volvules, intrathoracic herniation of stomach through the diaphragm, psychogenic polyphagia resulting in massive gastric dilation, ingestion of corrosive materials, embolization of atherosclerotic plague, thrombosis of major arterial supply occlusion of gastric vessels by therapeutically injected foreign bodies and necrotizing gastritis caused by organisms. We report a case of gangrene of funds of stomach that appears to be caused by intake of bhanga. (cannabis sativa

  9. Study of Cajal Interstitial Cells in Stomach and Small Intestine of Rats with Crude, Honey-stir-baked Radix Polyalae and its Saponins%生远志及其总皂苷与蜜远志对胃肠Cajal间质细胞的影响

    杨伟峰; 王建; 刘丽娜; 肖武

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in stomach and small intestine of rats with honeystir-baked Radix Polygalae ,crude Radix Polygalae and its saponins, so as to study mechanism of crude Radix Polygalae reducing the motility disorder in gastrointestinal tract. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the distribution of c-kit positive ICC in stomach and small intestine. Results: Compared with control group, the c-kit positive ICC in stomach and small intestine of crude Radix Polygalae and its saponins groups were both markedly decreased in model group( both P < 0. 01 ), while honey-stir-baked Radix Polygalae group can not(P >0. 05 ). Conclusion:The motility disorder in gastrointestinal tract caused by crude Radix Polygalae and its saponins may be associated with the changes of ICC number in stomach and small intestine. honey-stir-baked Radix Polygalae can protect ICC in some extent.%目的:考察生远志及其总皂苷与蜜远志对大鼠胃肠Cajal间质细胞(ICC)的影响,探讨蜜炙降低生远志胃肠动力障碍的相关机制.方法:采用免疫组织化学染色法对比观察各组大鼠胃、小肠c-kit阳性ICC的变化.结果:生远志组和总皂苷组能显著降低胃、小肠肌问神经丛c-kit阳性ICC细胞的含量(P0.05).结论:生远志与总皂苷导致胃肠动力障碍的机制,可能与减少胃肠ICC相关;远志总皂苷是引起胃动力异常的主要物质基础;远志经蜂蜜炮制后从某种程度上保护胃肠ICC.

  10. The stomach in health and disease.

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2015-10-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. PMID:26342014

  11. KUNJARA – THE YOGIC STOMACH WASH

    Yogeshwar, Giridhar

    1992-01-01

    KUNJARA or KUNJALA is a yogic technique by which large volume of water is vomited out in jets just as an elephant does through its trunk. The technique of performing this beneficial stomach wash is described.

  12. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  13. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  14. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) which coats the esophagus and stomach as it ... to remove tissue , which is checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Enlarge Upper endoscopy. A ...

  15. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  16. Effects of myenteric denervation on extracellular matrix fibers and mast cell distribution in normal stomach and gastric lesions

    Estofolete Cássia F; Botelho-Machado Carla; Taboga Sebastião R; Zucoloto Sérgio; Polli-Lopes Ana; Gil Cristiane D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study the effect of myenteric denervation induced by benzalconium chloride (BAC) on distribution of fibrillar components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammatory cells was investigated in gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Rats were divided in four experimental groups: non-denervated (I) and denervated stomach (II) without MNNG treatment; non-denervated (III) and denervated stomachs (IV) treated with MNNG. For histo...

  17. Roles of oxidative stress in stomach disorders

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Mogami, Sachiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    The stomach is a sensitive digestive organ that is susceptible and exposed to exogenous pathogens from the diet. In response to such pathogens, the stomach induces oxidative stress, which might be related to the development of gastric organic disorders such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer, as well as functional disorders such as functional dyspepsia. In particular, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in eliciting and confronting oxidative stress in the stomac...

  18. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. - Highlights: • We outline a new in vivo model for hexavalent chromium reduction in the stomach. • We examine in vivo reduction for mice, rats, and humans under varying conditions. • Species differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility. • We show that a simplified stomach reduction model is adequate for extrapolation. • Internal dose uncertainties still exist

  19. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach

    Sasso, A.F., E-mail: sasso.alan@epa.gov; Schlosser, P.M., E-mail: schlosser.paul@epa.gov

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. - Highlights: • We outline a new in vivo model for hexavalent chromium reduction in the stomach. • We examine in vivo reduction for mice, rats, and humans under varying conditions. • Species differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility. • We show that a simplified stomach reduction model is adequate for extrapolation. • Internal dose uncertainties still exist.

  20. Аctivity of stomach secretory glands and the nitrergic mechanisms of their regulatiоn under the condition of the adrenalin ulcer simulation

    O. V. Razuvaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Participating of nitrergic link in the regulation of secretory activity in the stomach was investigated in the intact rats under the condition of ulcerous damage in the gastro-duodenal area. It was found that in the intact rats NO decreases the acid gastric secretion. On the early stages of the ulcer development the nitrergic mechanisms of regulation execute the protective adaptation-compensative function of the mucous coat of stomach, but in remote terms these mechanisms lose such ability.

  1. Intervention of Acupuncture at Stomach Meridian Acupoints for DIO Rat Insulin Resistant and Hypothalamus IRS1 and Tyrosine Phosphorylation Expression%针刺干预大鼠胰岛素抵抗及下丘脑胰岛素受体后IRS1及其酪氨酸磷酸化的研究

    何军锋; 严洁; 黄惠勇; 王超; 李江山; 谢梦洲; 屈娅婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of acupuncture at Stomach Meridian acupoints including Sibai, Tianshu, Zusanli and Neiting on Diet Induced Obesity (DIO) rats'insulin resistant and hypothalamus insulin receptor substrate - 1 (IRS1) and tyrosine phosphorylation expression. Methods: 30 DIO rats were divided into three groups, each with 10 rats, including DIO model group (DIO group) , DIO model with acupuncture at acupoints of Stomach Meridian group (ST group), DIO model with acupuncture at non - acupoints group (NA group) , while 10 normal rats were fed with chow as blank contrast group( BC group). The intervention lasted for four weeks. Results; (1 )The rats in ST group had few increasing in body weight,compared with NA group (P ST group > NA group > DIO group, and there were not sig-nificant differences among them (P >0. 05), while for the IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation expression, it was higher in ST group and BC group than that in NA group and DIO group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture at ST Meridian acupoints can inhibit the increase of DIO rats body weight and improve the insulin resistant, involving the increasing hypothalamus IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation expression.%目的:观察针刺足阳明经四白、天枢、足三里、内庭等穴对高脂饮食诱导的肥胖大鼠胰岛素抵抗及下丘脑胰岛素受体后IRS1及其酪氨酸磷酸化的影响.方法:予高脂饮食诱导的30只肥胖大鼠随机分为肥胖模型组,针刺足阳明经穴组,针刺非经穴组,并以普饲喂养的10只大鼠做空白对照,连续干预4周.结果:1)针刺足阳明经穴组能显著抑制高脂模型大鼠体质量,与非经穴组比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).2)与空白组比较,肥胖模型组及非经穴组空腹血糖(FPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、HOMA-指数( HOMA - INDEX)均显著升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).针刺组大鼠FPG、FINS、HOMA - INDEX均显著下降,与模型组及非经穴组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).3)

  2. Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach

    Kanthan R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy. The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung, or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder. These latter sites may also involve the stomach via lymphatic or haematogenous spread. We present three cases of secondary gastric malignancy. Methods/Results The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004. Metastatic malignancy was demonstrated in the stomach after partial gastrectomy was performed to control gastric hemorrhage. The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps". The third is an 85-year-old man with no known history of malignancy who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia by endoscopy in February 2006. Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach. Conclusion While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management.

  3. Examinations in stomach shape of Turkish foreign workers by stomach X-rays

    A clear increase in morbidity of sickness of the stomach-intestinal-tract is to be found among in Germany living foreign workers, especially Turks, compared with native population. We inquired, whether anatomical stomach-shape, found at Turkish foreign workers, played a role in rising gastric complaints. Because of morphometrical evaluation of 188 stomach-X-rays taken from Turkish patients it was possible to show, that an unusual high percentage of Turks had a gastric-curvatur-angle under 110 grade, meanwhile the gastric-curvatur-angle of native population, used in comparison, as a rule was more than 130 grade. The found cascade-stomach of examinated Turks seems to be a constant stomach-shape of this population-group and possibly favours, apart from other factors, the development of gastric affections. (orig.)

  4. Water intake after stomach loads of NaCl in Mongolian gerbils.

    Kozub, F J; Hodges, J; Yutzy, S

    1980-10-01

    Sixty mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), 30 male and 30 female, were stomach loaded (2% b.w.) with either water or .9, 2, 6, 10, or 12% NaCl (wt x vol.). Unlike male rats, male gerbils did not lose weight. Female gerbils, like female rats, did not lose weight. However, female gerbils did not increase their water intake at any concentration, whereas males increased their water intake only at the 10 and 12% levels. These data are very much unlike those for the rat (male and female) which show an increase in water intake in response to NaCl solutions above isotonicity. PMID:7441220

  5. Pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs

    Trailović Saša M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach diseases have an important place in the clinical pathology of dogs. Etiological factors can be nutritive, chemical, or infective, but treatment implies certain common general principles and a certain number of therapy protocols which are most often used. On the other hand, a part of the medicines used in the pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs are taken from the palette of medicines intended for human use, so that a regular dosage and regime of implementation are the main precondition for the success of the applied therapy. Drugs used in the treatment of stomach diseases include antiemetics, prokinetics, antacids, mucoprotectives, anticholinergics, H2-antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, semisynthetic derivatives of prostaglandin E1, and others. The therapy of stomach diseases implies the simultaneous application of several drugs from different pharmacodynamic groups (for instance, an antiemetic, a prokinetic, an antacid, and an Hg antagonist or a proton pump inhibitor when it is necessary to establish a correct regime of implementation because of possible interaction, which will also be discussed in this work.

  6. Ontogenetic stomach development in catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Odete Goncalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT of vertebrates develops from a simple undifferentiated tube into highly differentiated regions for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Each region has a different histological structure and gene expression profile that enables the performance of their different functions. The stomach is the most highly derived GIT region and gastric glands are responsible for the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen that enables acid-peptic digestion, representing a functional innovation found exclusively in jawed vertebrates. The mechanisms of GIT organ specification are well studied in some vertebrates including mouse, Xenopus, chicken and some teleost fishes. General embryonic development has been studied in chondrichthyans but not GIT development. In this study we characterize the development of the stomach in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, an elasmobranch with a ~5 month development spanning 34 developmental stages. As a representative of basal jawed vertebrate for which genomic information is currently available, the catshark is a suitable model system to characterize the ancient expression and function developmental of physiologically relevant genes. Therefore, during this study we used embryos from a brood stock held in our fish facility to conduct gene expression, protein detection and histological analyses. Our aim was to characterize, at molecular and morphological levels, stomach development and the differentiation of its characteristic secreting glands. The differentiation of the stomach starts around stage 24. However, immunohistochemistry for the gastric proton pump indicates a delayed development of gastric gland that are only visible before hatching at stage 33-34. Supported by NSERC to JMW

  7. Effect of 16.16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2, N-acetyl-cysteine and the proton pump inhibitor BY 831-78 on hydrogen peroxide-induced mucosal damage in the rat stomach.

    Schürer-Maly, C C; Haussner, V; Halter, F

    1990-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are noxious to gastrointestinal mucosa and contribute to a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. We examined whether 16.16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (PG) is protective against the oxidizing action of 6% H2O2 causing gross hemorrhagic lesions in rat gastric mucosa. Male Wistar rats were treated with PG, 0.005-5 micrograms/kg, either intragastrically (i.g.) or subcutaneously, 30 min prior to i.g. administration of 6% H2O2, 0.5 ml/100 g. Further animals received 25 mg of the mucus dissolvent N-acetyl-cystein (NAC) following oral PG treatment or 30 mumol/kg of the H+K(+)-ATPase inhibitor BY 831-78 (BY), 4 h before onset of the experiments. Volume, pH and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and lactate dehydrogenase as parameters of cell damage were determined in the gastric juice. i.g. PG treatment achieved 60 and 55% reduction of the mucosal lesions in doses between 5 and 0.05 micrograms/kg, respectively. i.p. PG administration was effective in all doses tested. Gastric juice volume was only slightly and enzymes were not significantly affected by PG treatment. NAC did not diminish PG efficacy or aggravate mucosal lesions. Gastric acid suppression did not increase PG-induced protection but was strongly protective by itself, reducing damage by 75%. Low-dose PG treatment achieves an effective protection against oxidative damage in gastric mucosa, which is not the result of dilution or enhanced mucus production. PMID:2147665

  8. Research Status and Perspective on Correlation between Stomach Meridian Points and Stomach

    张英进; 严洁

    2008-01-01

    This article expounds the action mechanism on correlation between stomach meridians points and stomach as well as its perspective from myriad ancient and modern literature.%就足阳明经穴与胃相关性的作用机理,查阅了大量文献资料,从古代文献研究、现代文献研究、展望进行了阐述.

  9. Expression of leptin and leptin receptor isoforms in the human stomach

    Mix, H; Widjaja, A.; Jandl, O.; Cornberg, M.; Kaul, A.; GOKE, M; Beil, W.; Kuske, M; Brabant, G.; Manns, M; Wagner, S.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Leptin is an important regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. Initially it was thought to be expressed exclusively in and secreted by adipocytes. Recently, leptin expression was also noted in other tissues, including rat gastric mucosa. Information on leptin and leptin receptor expression in the human stomach is lacking.
AIM—To investigate expression of leptin and its corresponding receptors in human gastric epithelial cells.
METHODS—Fundic and antral gastric mucosal biop...

  10. Design and application of multifunctional stomach clamp

    Yun Fu Lu; Pi Wu Li; Xir Xin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM Pylorus and pyloric vagus preserving gastrectomy (PPVPG) is an efficient operation mode for treatinggastric and duodenal ulcers. For its better application and popularization, we have designed andmanufactured a special multifunctional stomach clamp.METHODS The clamp has been designed carefully in view of the different sizes of the patients' stomachsand the different starting points of Latarjer nerves so as to facilitate the execution of the present operationmode, which requires the preservation of the vagus innervated pyloric region so as to make the remnantstomach maintain its normal physiological function and the vagus branches clinging antral seromuscular flapkept in proper size so that avoiding too much remaining antral mucosa is removed to cause greater difficultyin operation. With this in view, we observed and measured the distance between the Latarjer nerves distribution and the pyloric rings of 42 patients' stomachs in the course of operations. We bent an aluminumstring 3 mm thick for each stomach according to the size of antral seromuecular flap and chose an optimalcurvature from the 42 sizes for manufacturing the clamp. The clamp is made of 3 Cr13 stainless steel,consisting of three parts, the curved head, the fastening ring and the handle. The curved head is shapedalmost exactly like the remained antral seromuscular flap. The ring at its tip when in place fastens the twosides of the clamp so that the tissue of the stomach between will be clutched by an even force. On one sideare three cuts for moving the ring upwards, each cut representing 1 mm for fastening and adjustments can bemade in view of the thickness or thinness of the tissue. The handles bend backward for fighting shy of thecuts so as to facilitate the operation.RESULTS With the stomach disassociated in the light of PPVPG procedures, the clamp may easily beapplied from the upper part of the Latarjer nerves. The following merits can be noted. ① The curving line ofthe flap can be precisely

  11. Upset Stomach (Functional Dyspepsia) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Upset stomach (functional dyspepsia) in adults (Beyond the Basics) Author ... term for a condition that causes an upset stomach or pain or discomfort in the upper belly, ...

  12. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  13. Gut Feelings About Gastritis: When Your Stomach's Sick

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Your stomach lining has an important job. It makes acid ... pain or an uncomfortable feeling in their upper stomach. But many other conditions can cause these symptoms. ...

  14. Dietary habits and stomach cancer in Mizoram, India.

    Phukan, Rup Kumar; Narain, Konwar; Zomawia, Eric; Hazarika, Nakul Chandra; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers. Dietary item or component studied: sa-um; smoked dried salted meat and fish; soda (alkali)Outcome studied: stomach cancerStudy type: humans Study design: case-control study. Study size:329 cases with stomach cancer and 658 matched controls. Tissue/biological material/sample size: Blood; endoscopic biopsy sample from stomach cancer. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): An elevated risk of stomach cancer was o...

  15. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  16. Benign nerve sheath tumor of stomach

    Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors are a group of tumors, which originate from the mesenchymal stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric schwannoma is a very rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor, which represents only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 4% of all benign gastric neoplasms. We report a 55 years old lady who suffered from pain epigastrium, vomiting, occasionally with blood, loss of appetite and weight loss. Endoscopic examination showed a round submucosal tumor with a central ulceration along the greater curvature of the stomach. The pathological examination revealed a picture of spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemical stain was strongly positive for S-100 protein stain, and non-reactive for CD34, CD117, consistent with benign nerve sheath tumor of stomach i.e. gastric schwannoma. (author)

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach of a case

    A case of leiomyosarcoma of the stomach developed in 15 year old child reports with a review of the literature. The old child visited to Hospital on 15th. Sept. 1972. with epigastric discomfort, dizziness and headache, indigestion of 6 month prior. The upper G-I series showed a enlargement of polypoid mass in the posterior wall of the greater curvature of the gastric body and ulcerative lesion in the central part of the its mass. Ulcerative margin was irregular. Mucosal patterns of the stomach were preserved save for polypoid region seems to be some widen of mucosae. Numerous nodular calcifications were demonstrated in the extralumen of the greater curvature of the gastric body

  18. Effect of melittin on mice stomach

    Abu-Zinadah, Osama; Rahmy, Tarek; Alahmari, Abeer; Abdu, Faiza

    2013-01-01

    Melittin, the main bee venom component, has many positive biological effects and a relatively low toxicity in various cell types. However, there is no evidence of the effect of melittin on gastrointestinal cells. In the present study, we investigated the histological and immuonohistochemical effects of melittin on mice stomach. Adult male mice (Albino Swiss) were randomly divided into two groups (7 mice for each group): control group and melittin only treated group (10 and 40 μg/kg). These mi...

  19. Characteristic features of ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract and the regulation of stomach ghrelin expression and production

    Zheng Zhao; Takafumi Sakai

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin was isolated as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor from the rat stomach. Although physiological effects of ghrelin have been revealed by numerous studies, the regulation of stomach ghrelin remains obscure, and the factor that directly regulates ghrelin expression and production has not been identified. Here, we show some data regarding the characteristic features of ghrelin cells and the regulation of stomach ghrelin. In the gastrointestinal tract, ghrelin cells were identified as opened- and closed-type cells, and it was found that the number of ghrelin cells decreased from the stomach to the colon. The postnatal change in number of ghrelin cells in the stomach showed a sexually dimorphic pattern, indicating a role of estrogen in the regulation of stomach ghrelin. In vitro studies revealed that estrogen stimulated both ghrelin expression and production and that treatment with formestane, an aromatase (estrogen synthetase) inhibitor, decreased ghrelin expression level. On the other hand, leptin was found to inhibit both basal and estrogen-stimulated ghrelin expression. Moreover, both aromatase mRNA-expressing cells and leptin cells were found to be located close to ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, we found an inverse relationship between gastric ghrelin and leptin levels in a fasting state, and we revealed relative changes in expression of gastric ghrelin, estrogen and leptin in the postnatal rats. We propose that gastric estrogen and leptin directly regulate stomach ghrelin and that the balance control through gastric estrogen and leptin contributes to the altered ghrelin expression level in some physiological states.

  20. Comparison of stomach contents of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) from the 1981 and 1991 North Sea International Stomach Sampling Projects

    Adlerstein, S.A.; Temming, A.; Mergardt, N.

    2002-01-01

    This study analyses data from over 20 000 haddock stomachs collected during the 1981 and 1991 Stomach Sampling Projects of the North Sea. Sampling was within the framework of the Multispecies Virtual Population Analysis (MSVPA) for fisheries stock assessment. In 1981 stomachs were collected to calculate input feeding parameters from main predators. During 1991 the sampling exercise was repeated to test stability of the parameters in the region. We investigate stability of haddock stomach content weight between years accounting for ontogenic, spatial and temporal variations within the scope of the survey resolution. Analysis using generalized linear and additive models is performed for weight of the stomach content including and excluding empty stomachs and also for proportion of stomachs without food. Results indicate that haddock stomach contents varied significantly between years, quarters and North Sea roundfish areas. Content weights were overall higher in 1981 than in 1991. In 1981 levels were high from spring to fall and in 1991 mostly in spring. During both years levels were lowest in the central North Sea and in winter. Most of the deviance in modelling the stomach weight is explained by the length of the predator. Stomachs sampled in 1981 were most frequently empty in spring and those sampled in 1991 in winter. In both years, proportions decreased with fish length except in winter when levels increased. Proportion of empty stomachs was highest in the central region of the North Sea. Most of the proportion variation is explained by quarterly fluctuation. Variation of content weight can be related to prey composition found in the stomachs. High stomach contents are generally associated with high contribution of fish prey to the total stomach content, mainly sandeels. We propose that sandeels were more vulnerable to predation in 1981 than in 1991 due to colder temperatures. ?? 2002 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier

  1. Siphonophores eat fish larger than their stomachs

    Pagès, Francesc; Madin, Laurence P.

    2010-12-01

    We report a collection of the siphonophore Halistemma cupulifera, collected at 20 meters depth during a night SCUBA dive in the Sargasso Sea. One of its stomachs (gastrozooids) contained a leptocephalus larva of the eel Ariosoma sp. folded in thirds to fit, but 8.3 cm in length fully extended. This finding shows that in situ observations can reveal previously unknown trophic interactions that may be significant in a changing world ocean where gelatinous organisms seem to increase at the expense of fish.

  2. Choriocarcinoma: a rare case of stomach metastasis

    Raju Agarwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Choriocarcinoma is a rare form of cancer which commonly occurs in women of reproductive age, rarely in post-menopausal women and in women under 20 years of age. We report a rare case of uterine choriocarcinoma with stomach metastasis in a 29 year-old woman who presented with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The presented case report emphasizes the need for innovative treatment approach and appropriate diagnostic technology to enable early diagnosis and correct treatment. Furthermore the case highlights the need for healthcare workers to consider rare causes of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 787-789

  3. Definition of early carcinoma of the stomach

    At the annual meeting of JAPAN GASTROENTEROLOGICAL ENDOSCOPY SOCIETY in 1962 and of JAPANESE RESEARCH SOCIETY for GASTRIC CANCER in 1963, the early gastric carcinoma was defined as carcinoma of the stomach of which invasion was limited to the mucosa and submucosa. In applying this classification, the histogenesis of carcinomas should not be considered. The difference between type IIc and type III is that the depression of the latter is limited beyond the submucosa. When a carcinoma shows diverse morphological patterns, 2 or more types are desribed together, e. g. type III + IIc or IIc + III. The first Roman numeral indicated the predominant pattern

  4. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

  5. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  6. [Regulation factors of stomach emptying in dogs].

    Krejs, G J; Hegglin, J; Säuberli, H; Largiadér, F; Schmid, P; Blum, A L

    1976-03-01

    Gastric emptying of organic acids was studied in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. After chronic esophagostomies were performed according to the method of Komarov, a total of 340 test meals were instilled. Each test meal consisted of 300 ml of 6 different organic acids with decreasing molecular weight and different concentrations. After the experiments were achieved, each dog underwent a proximal gastric vagotomy according to the method of Amdrup, and experiments with citric acid were repeated. The results may be summarized as follows: multiple stepwise regression analysis of the data is consistent with a model in which gastric emptying of organic acids is regulated by 3 receptors. The receptors respond to concentration of the organic acid, the actual volume, and the type of acid. The volume receptor is located in the corpus of the stomach because the effect of volume accelerates the emptying rate after proximal gastric vagotomy while the effects of concentration and type of acid remain unchanged. PMID:1270294

  7. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for stomach neoplasms

    Mitsuhiro Fujishiro

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques of therapeutic endoscopy for stomach neoplasms are rapidly achieved. One of the major topics in this field is endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). ESD is a new endoscopic technique using cutting devices to remove the tumor by thefollowing three steps: injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the tumor from the muscle layer, pre-cutting the surrounding mucosa of the tumor, and dissecting the connective tissue of the submucosa beneath the tumor. So the tumors are resectable in an en bloc fashion, regardless of the size, shape, coexisting ulcer,and location. Indication for ESD is strictly confined by two aspects: the possibility of nodal metastases and technical difficulty, which depends on the operators. Although long-term outcome data are still lacking, short-term outcomes of ESD are extremely favourable and laparotomy with gastrectomy is replaced with ESD in some parts of therapeutic strategy for early gastric cancer.

  8. Clinical Application of the Spleen-stomach Theory

    ZHAO Hai-feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The spleen-stomach theory is a very valuablecomposition of the TCM. It is originated from Neijing (), initiated in Jin-Yuan periods and the idea "spleen and stomach is the postnatal base of life" in Piweilun () written by LI Dong-yuan established its theoretical basis. Directed by this theory, the author cured several cases, and it is now reported below.

  9. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    ... People with PJS have an increased risk of cancers of the breast, colon, pancreas , stomach, and several other organs. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene STK1 . A family history of stomach cancer People with first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or ...

  11. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of Stomach

    Ahmed Abu-Zaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is an extremely uncommon, highly aggressive, and malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of undetermined histogenesis. Less than 200 case reports have been documented in literature so far. Herein, we report a 26-year-old otherwise healthy female patient who presented with a 1-month history of epigastric pain. On physical examination, a palpable, slightly mobile, and tender epigastric mass was detected. All laboratory tests were normal. A chest, abdominal, and pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans showed a 3.8 × 7.2 × 8.7 cm ill-defined mass, involving gastric fundus and extending into gastric cardia and lower gastroesophageal junction. It was associated with multiple enlarged gastrohepatic lymph nodes; the largest measured 1.2 cm. There was no evidence of ascites or retroperitoneal or mesenteric lymphatic metastases. Patient underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, splenectomy, and antecolic Roux-en-Y esophagojejunal anastomosis. Histopathological examination revealed coexpression of mesenchymal, epithelial, and neural markers. The characteristic chromosomal translocation (t(11; 22(p13; q12 was demonstrated on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique. Diagnosis of DSRCT of stomach was confirmed. Patient received no postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. A postoperative 3-month followup failed to show any recurrence. In addition, a literature review on DSRCT is included.

  12. Occupation and stomach cancer in a cohort of Swedish men.

    Chow, W H; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, H S; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Stone, B J; Blot, W J

    1994-10-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links the 1960 census information on employment with cancer incidence data from 1961-1979, we conducted a systematic, population-based assessment of stomach cancer incidence by industry and occupation for men in Sweden. Nearly 17,000 stomach cancer cases were diagnosed during the 19 years of follow-up. Stomach cancer incidence was elevated among miners and quarrymen, farmers and fishermen, and craftsmen and production workers. Men who held white collar jobs, including professional and technical, administrative and management, clerical, and sales jobs, had a reduction in stomach cancer incidence. Examination of specific jobs revealed generally elevated rates of stomach cancer among men who may be exposed to dusty work environments, such as quarry workers, stone cutters, circular and plane operators, construction workers, crane operators, heavy laborers, and shop and construction metal workers. These occupational associations mostly were observed for stomach cancers of noncardia origin, and no significant associations were found with cardia cancers. We had no information on dietary or other potential confounding factors and cannot make inferences about the role of occupation per se, but the current findings support those of earlier investigations and add to the evidence of a small but significant occupational role in stomach carcinogenesis. PMID:7810549

  13. How Does the Stomach Pump?---A Fluid Dynamics Discovery

    Pal, Anupam; Abrahamsson, Bertil

    2005-11-01

    The stomach is a pump that empties viscous liquid from a flexible bag (fundus) through a valve (pylorus) by slow squeeze of fundic muscle. In addition, peristaltic contraction waves (CW) travel periodically towards the pylorus in the lower stomach to grind/mix content. As each CW approaches the pylorus, it deepens and the pylorus momentarily closes. Since liquid empties from the pyloric region, one expects content at the farthest reaches of the stomach to empty last. To study the patterns of gastric emptying we applied the lattice Boltzmann method with moving boundary conditions coupled with a stomach geometry model parameterized using MRI. By marking fluid particles leaving the stomach over a 10 min period, we discovered that the CWs create a narrow path of emptying, or ``Magenstrasse'' (stomach road) that directs content from the farthest reaches of the stomach to the pylorus with relatively little mixing. Thus, while drug released off the Magenstrasse (MS) can take an hour or more to empty at low concentration, when released on the MS the drug empties within 10 minutes at high concentration---a discovery with potential implications to other pumping systems.

  14. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, (3)

    Mass examinations of the stomach were performed on 13,412 a-bomb survivors from Oct. 1975 to Mar. 1979. The necessity rate for detailed examinations was 13.6% on the average, and it was a little lower than the average in Japan. That in women was higher than that in men. The performance rate of detailed examinations was very high (91.8%), which might be influenced by active appeals to have detailed examinations. The estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer was 0.27% on the average, and it was higher than that in mass examinations of Chugoku and Shikoku districts. A relationship between the estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer and exposure conditions was not clarified. The discovery rate of stomach cancer was supposed to be influenced strongly by aging of a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  16. Identification and characteristic of melatonin receptor in human stomach

    To determine whether melatonin receptors (MR) exist in human stomach, specific binding of melatonin receptor i human stomach was measured by radioligand binding assay. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of MR was 0.48 +- 0.11 fmol/mg protein. Equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of MR was 51 +- 17 pmol/L. Standard criteria of binding sites-saturability, reversibility, specificity and high affinity were observed in this assay to determine melatonin binding sites. The following was the subcellular distribution of MR in human stomach in an descending order: nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosol. Specific binding of MR could be inhibited by GTPrS. Conclusion: MRs are present in the human stomach and the above findings suggested that MR may be coupled with Gi protein system

  17. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol, processed meats -- such as hot dogs, ham and ...

  18. Double contrast investigation of the stomach in hypotonia

    After two years experience of routine investigation of the stomach in double contrast and hypotonia the advantages of this method and its main field of application are described pertaining to selected cases. (orig.)

  19. Rare Synchronous Gastrointestinal Plasmacytomas of Colon and Stomach

    Sethi, Supreet; Dang, Shyam; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) plasmacytomas, though relatively uncommon, can occur with or without multiple myeloma. The small intestine is the most commonly involved GI site, followed by stomach, colon, and esophagus. Synchronous plasmacytomas involving 2 anatomically distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract have never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a multiple myeloma patient who had acute-onset hematochezia and was found to have synchronous plasmacytomas of the colon and stomach. PMID:26203446

  20. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  1. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated for...... 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend<0.001), with an OR of 20.5 (3.7-114.3) for ⩾50.0 Gy compared with <10 Gy. Radiation-related risks remained elevated ⩾20...

  2. Description of the technique of upper gastrointestinal series radiological examination for the evaluation of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum of Wistar female rats Descrição de técnica radiológica contrastada de esôfago, estômago e duodeno em ratas Wistar

    João Vicente Machado Grossi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the anatomy of female Wistar rats and the workability of contrast radiography as a technique to investigate the gastrointestinal series. METHODS: Eight adult female Wistar rats were undergone to the contrast radiography as anteroposterior incidence and as posterior incidence in profile. The radiological examination was conducted at a 45° angle to the radiological table. Film-focus distance (FFD was 100 cm, film-object distance (FOD was 0 cm, and object-focus distance (OFD was 100 cm. An orogastric probe was used to inject barium contrast at 5-min intervals, for a total of four applications. After the radiological examination, animals were necropsy for confirmation of the radiological findings, and the radiographs were the absence of the normal anatomy variations inspected and described by an experienced radiologist. RESULTS: All the radiographs produced achieved satisfactory results in terms of position, exposure, location and quality. The upper esophageal sphincter (UES was identified in the esophagus at the nerve C2, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES was identified between spinal cord segments L1 and L2, the thoracic-abdominal junction was observed at T10, the esophageal-gastric junction (EGJ at T13-L1, with the abdominal portion in the epigastric region. The stomach was observed mostly in the epigastric region, left hypochondrium, left and mesogastric flank. The duodenum findings presented higher variation, with most findings identified in the epigastric region, right hypochondrium, right flank and mesogastric ileal fossa at T13-L5. CONCLUSION: Contrast radiology is useful and may be employed to assess the anatomy of the animal being studied. The experimental model described afforded to fully identify all organs investigated, as well as other occasional relevant findings. No anatomical anomalies in the subsequent necropsy, confirming the radiographic findings.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a anatomia normal de ratas Wistar e a

  3. Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action

    S Bhattacharya; D Banerjee; AK Bauri; S Chattopadhyau; SK Bandyopadhyay

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective activity of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major antioxidant constituent of Piper betel,against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in the rat model and correlates with its antioxidative and mucin protecting properties.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Normal control rats (group Ⅰ ) were given the vehicle oral dose of gum acacia in distilled water (1 mL per rat); ulcerated control and treated rats (groups Ⅱ-Ⅴ) were given a single dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body wt.); group Ⅱ rats were sacrificed 4 h after indomethacin administration; groups Ⅲ-Ⅴ rats were given the vehicle (1 mL per rat) or APC (2 mg/kg body wt.) or misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt.) once daily by oral intubation for 7 d starting from 4 h after the indomethacin administration. After 7 d, the stomach tissues were excised for histological examination and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: Treatment with APC (2 mg/kg body wt per day) and misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt per day) for 7 d could effectively heal the stomach ulceration as revealed from the ulcer index and histopathological studies. Compared to the zero day ulcerated group,treatment with APC and misoprostol reduced the ulcer index by 93.4% and 85.4% respectively (P<0.05). Both APC and misoprostol accelerated ulcer healing observed in natural recovery (P<0.05), their respective healing capacities not being significantly different. The healing capacities of APC and misoprostol could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to enhance the mucin content of the gastric tissues. Compared to the ulcerated untreated rats, those treated with APC and misoprostol showed near normal MDA levels, while the protein levels were 86% and 78% of the normal value respectively (P<0.05). Likewise, both APC and misoprostol increased the SOD, catalase, and mucin levels significantly (P<0.05), the effect of APC being better.CONCLUSION: APC can protect

  4. Exceptionally rare cause of a total stomach resection

    Jadwiga Snarska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever case of a 54-year-old woman who overdosed on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an attempt at suicide. Before that incident, she had not been treated for coexisting diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or depression. At the time of admission to the General Surgery Department, the patient reported pains in the epigastric region with accompanying nausea and vomiting with mucous content as well as the inability to ingest food orally. Despite parenteral and enteral feeding, the patient exhibited a drop in body mass. The histopathologic examination of a sample taken from the stomach during gastroscopy showed some non-specific necrotic and inflammatory masses with granulation. Intraoperatively, a very small, infiltrated stomach with an initial section of duodenum was identified. A total stomach resection together with the reconstruction of digestive tract continuity was performed using the Roux-Y method. Histopathologic examination of the stomach revealed a deep, chronic and exacerbated inflammatory condition with an extensive ulceration over the entire length of the stomach, reaching up to the pylorus. Additionally, numerous lymphatic glands with inflammatory reaction changes were observed.

  5. Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Stomach Presenting as Dysphagia during Pregnancy

    Anuradha Sekaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma also known as extramedullary myeloid sarcoma or chloroma is an uncommon manifestation of leukemia and presents as a deposit of leukemic cells outside the bone marrow. We report a case of a twenty-five-year-old pregnant woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and recurrent postprandial vomiting. Upper GI endoscopy had shown large flat laterally spread nodular lesions in the cardia and proximal body of stomach. Biopsies from the gastric lesion showed granulocytic sarcoma of the stomach. Concurrent peripheral and bone marrow picture was suggestive of acute myeloid leukemia (AML–M4. There is limited reported literature on granulocytic sarcoma of the stomach. Concurrent gastric granulocytic sarcoma involving cardia and AML in pregnancy has not been reported till date.

  6. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po2 blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po2 blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po2. These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach

  7. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min [Severance Hospital/Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach.

  8. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach

  9. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  10. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  11. X-ray of the stomach after vertical gastroplasty in the treatment of obesity

    The operation vertical gastroplasty is used to treat the socalled morbid obesity. It ends with the formation of a small stomach, Some experience gained with X-ray of the stomach is analyzed in 17 patients undergone vertical gastroplasty. X-ray evaluated the status of the small stomach arranged as a tube in the upper portions in the vicinity of the lesser curvature of the stomach. The shape, sizes, outlet of the small stomach, as well as emptying rates and the state of an internal vertical suture of the stomach are to be studies. 8 refs., 4 figs

  12. Corrosive acid strictures of the stomach (a case report.

    Mehendale V

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients presented with history of suicidal acid ingestion. Both the patients developed strictures exclusively in the stomach without involvement of the oesophagus, after a period of 12 weeks. The mechanism of this involvement is presented. The literature on this subject is briefly reviewed.

  13. Primary choriocarcinoma of the stomach and pancreas: CT findings

    Coskun, M.; Agildere, A.M.; Boyvat, F.; Tarhan, C.; Niron, E.A. [Department of Radiology, Baskent Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-10-01

    In this report we present the CT findings of two non-gestational,extragonadal choriocarcinomas, one arising within the stomach and one in the pancreas. These are rare tumours and a pancreatic primary site has not been previously described. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 10 refs.

  14. Primary Burkitt’s lymphoma of the stomach

    Čolović Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burkitt’s lymphoma belongs to the group of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas with B immunophenotypic features of lymphoma cells. It has tendency for extranodal localization primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and retroperitoneum. Primary Burkitt’s lymphoma of the stomach is very rare. Stomach is most frequently involved secondarily, growing from intrabdominal tumorous mass into the stomach. Case Outline. The authors present a 30-year-old male in whom after 6 months duration of temporarily melaenas the diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma was established by endoscopic examination and biopsy of ulceroinfiltrative lesion on the antral part of the stomach. The patient was in clinical stage IIE. After one cycle of chemotherapy according to protocol R-HyperCVAD, a subtotal distal gastrectomy and additional three cycles of the same chemotherapeutic protocol a complete remission was achieved. Conclusion. Burkitt’s lymphoma is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma often present in extranodal sites. It should be treated with systemic intensive chemotherapy and surgical removal of tumorous mass when possible. Long-term survival using the combination therapy is possible to achieve in 40-80% of patients.

  15. A Rare Cause of Stomach Gangrene: Necrotizing Gastritis

    Hicham El Bouhaddouti; Tarik Souiki; Khalid Mazine; Abdelmalek Ousadden; Khalid Mazaz; Khalid Ait Taleb

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis of the stomach is rare. It occurs when there is vascular anomalies, gastric volvulus or her-niation and in infectious gastritis. We report a case in which infectious gastritis leads to a necrotiz-ing gastritis that is treated with urgent gastrectomy.

  16. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  17. Identification, localization and morphology of APUD cells in gastroenteropancreatic system of stomach-containing teleosts

    Pan, Qian Sheng; Fang, Zhi Ping; Huang, Feng Jie

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify the type localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system of stomach-containing teleosts, and study APUD endocrine system in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of fish species.

  18. Potentialities of the X-ray endoscopic diagnosis of stomach syphilis

    The possibilities of roentgenoendoscopic diagnostics of stomach syphilis are demonstrated by disease cases. Three forms of the stomach syphilis: tumor-like, infiltration and ulcerous ones are identified both roentgenological and endoscopic. Any infiltration process in the stomach of a young patient determined roentgenological should be reasoned as a sign of alterness relative to the syphilis. To perform endoscopic diagnosis of the stomach syphilis is easier than roentgenological one. The final syphilis diagnosis is impossible without blood test

  19. The decline in stomach cancer mortality : exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  20. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    M. Amiri; F. Janssen; A.E. Kunst

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  1. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 w

  2. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    Song, Min Jeong; An, Soyeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Jihun

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a highly aggressive small round cell tumor that mainly occurs in the bone or soft tissue of children or young adults but is extremely rare in the stomach. A 55-year-old man presented with melena and anemia. On endoscopy, an ulcerofungating mass was observed in the high body and total gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, the mass consisted of small round cells with scanty cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. They often formed perivascular pseudorosettes and multinucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The tumor cells strongly expressed CD99, FLI1, and chromogranin and weakly expressed synaptophysin and CD56. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ES/PNET is frequently misdiagnosed because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma. Although gastric ES/PNET is very rare, it should be included in differential diagnoses of small round cell tumor in the stomach. PMID:27006299

  3. [Problems of functional study of the stomach in contemporary gastrology].

    Gorshkov, V A

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of the functional state of the stomach the interest to its secretory functioning has remained constant and in the center of attention of physiologists and clinicians during the past century. That is understandable. After all, the level of secretion of gastric juice enriched with the acid and pepsins defines numerous aspects in the functioning of this organ and its peptic, bactericidal and even evacuation functions. Moreover, under certain conditions active gastric juice can turn from a mediator in the normal peptic process into a solely pathogenetic factor and promote the development of a number of so-called acid-dependent diseases that have conventionally included stomach ulcer, reflux-esophagitis, postgastrectomy ulcers of the anastomosis and other more infrequent pathological states. A distinct positive reaction to the application of anti-acid preparations is common for all these diseases. At the same time, the role of HCI in their development remains comprehensible only in some aspects. PMID:12619569

  4. Simultaneous large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    Tadashi Terada; Hirotoshi Maruo

    2011-01-01

    A large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the stomach is very rare. A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of epigastralgia and nausea. Endoscopy revealed 2 large tumors in the stomach. He did not have multiple endocrine neoplasia type Ⅰ or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Imaging modali-ties, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, revealed no other tumors. Gas-trectomy, cholecystectomy, and lymph node dissection were performed. The resected stomach had 2 tumors: one was an antral ulcerated type 3 tumor measuring 5 cm x 5 cm, and the other was a polypoid type 1 tumor measuring 6 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm in the fundus. Micro-scopically, the antral ulcerated tumor was a well differ-entiated adenocarcinoma with deep invasion. The fun-dus polypoid tumor was a LCNEC, being composed of malignant large cells arranged in trabecular and nested patterns. The tumor cells were large and the nuclei were vesicular. Nucleoli were frequently present, and there were many mitotic figures, apoptotic bodies, and necrotic areas. Much lymphovascular permeation was seen. Seven out of 29 dissected lymph nodes showed metastatic foci; 6 were from the LCNEC and 1 from the adenocarcinoma. Many intravascular tumor emboli of LCNEC were seen in the peritoneum around the lymph nodes. Mucins were present in the adenocarcinoma but not in the LCNEC. Immunohistochemically, the LCNEC tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins, synaptophysin (50% positive), chromogranin A (10% positive), Ki-67 (90% labeled), and platelet-derived growth factor-α (80% positive). They were negative for KIT, p53, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase. The non-cancerous stomach showed a normal number of endocrine cells. The patient is now treated with adju-vant chemotherapy.

  5. Rare Synchronous Gastrointestinal Plasmacytomas of Colon and Stomach

    Syal, Gaurav; Sethi, Supreet; Dang, Shyam; Aduli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) plasmacytomas, though relatively uncommon, can occur with or without multiple myeloma. The small intestine is the most commonly involved GI site, followed by stomach, colon, and esophagus. Synchronous plasmacytomas involving 2 anatomically distinct regions of gastrointestinal tract have never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a multiple myeloma patient who had acute-onset hematochezia and was found to have synchronous plasmacytomas of the colon and sto...

  6. Watermelon stomach in end-stage renal disease patient

    Lata, S; Gupta, V.; Nandwani, A.; Sharma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also called watermelon stomach, is a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. GAVE is associated with a number of conditions, including portal hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and collagen vascular diseases, especially scleroderma. Limited reports of GAVE are present in CKD patients. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective therapy for GAVE. We describe the case of a CKD, stage V patient, who presented with recurrent blood loss in ...

  7. A Needle Penetrating the Stomach Cavity after Acupuncture

    Lee, Sin Won; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Won Jung; Kim, Eun Jin; Bae, Seung-Hyeon; Choi, Yun Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Although acupuncture is known as a safe procedure that is widely used in many countries, complications including infection, hemorrhage, hematoma, pneumothorax, nerve damage, and cardiac tamponade have been reported. A needle penetrating the stomach after acupuncture, however, is very rare. Here, we report the case of 47-year-old woman who experienced abdominal pain 2 days after receiving acupuncture. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy identified an approximately 2.5-cm long needle in the poster...

  8. Symbiotic Bacteria Associated with Stomach Discs of Human Lice▿ †

    Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko ; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Kasai, Shinji; Mihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    The symbiotic bacteria associated with the stomach disc, a large aggregate of bacteriocytes on the ventral side of the midgut, of human body and head lice were characterized. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the symbionts formed a distinct and well-defined clade in the Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution. In situ hybridization revealed that in nymphs and adult males, the symbion...

  9. Symbiotic bacteria associated with stomach discs of human lice

    Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Kasai, Shinji; Mihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Tomita, Takashi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    The symbiotic bacteria associated with the stomach disc, a large aggregate of bacteriocytes on the ventral side of the midgut, of human body and head lice were characterized. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the symbionts formed a distinct and well-defined clade in the Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution. In situ hybridization revealed that in nymphs and adult males, the symbion...

  10. The role of dietary nutrition in stomach cancer

    Stojcev, Zoran; Matysiak, Konrad; Duszewski, Michal; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Stomach cancer mortality still represents a significant proportion of all cancer deaths. The majority of patients with advanced cancer experience cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome with weight loss, reduced appetite, fatigue, and weakness. Neoplastic cachexia is a very common clinical manifestation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer and is generally assumed to be secondary to the mechanical effects of the tumor on the upper digestive tract. The main reasons are obstruction to swallowi...

  11. Organo-Axial Volvulus of the Stomach with Diaphragmatic Eventration

    Lee, June Sung; Park, Jae Wan; Sohn, Jang Won; Kim, Kyung Chul; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Park, Pil Won; Rim, Kyu Sung; Kim, Hee Jin

    2000-01-01

    Gastric volvulus occurs when the stomach rotates about its longitudinal axis (organo-axial volvulus), or about an axis joining the lesser and greater curvatures (mesentero-axial volvulus). Primary gastric volvulus, making up one third of cases, occurs when the stabilizing ligaments are too lax as a result of congenital or acquired causes. Secondary gastric volvulus, making up the remainder of cases, occurs in association with a paraesophageal hernia or other congenital or acquired diaphragmat...

  12. [The upside-down stomach. Laparoscopic treatment is possible].

    Hohmann, U; Jähnichen, A; Schramm, H

    2000-01-01

    An upside-down-stomach, usually occurring in eldery patients describes an extreme case of paraesophageal hernia. Due to the possibility of life threatening complications there is an urgent need for surgical intervention. In 1998 three patients suffering from complete upside-down-stomach were treated by laparoscopic surgery at our hospital. Two of them received a hiatoplastic with fundo- and corpophrenicopexy. In one case we did a 360 degrees-floppy Nissen's-fundoplication. Perioperatively, one patient developed a left sided pneumothorax Long-term follow-up 6 months postoperatively in our out-patient department revealed unconspicuous clinical and gastroscopical findings and high patient satisfaction with postoperative outcome. Our case reports show the possibility of adequate operating on upside-down-stomach by means of laparoscopic surgery. Minimal invasive methods provide a good overlock on the operating field and are poor in complications when done by an experienced surgeon, so that patients may profit from comfort of laparoscopic surgery. PMID:10829322

  13. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. PMID:25223554

  14. Gelucire Based In Situ Gelling Emulsions: A Potential Carrier for Sustained Stomach Specific Delivery of Gastric Irritant Drugs

    Ashwin Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications to the geriatric patients for the treatment of arthritis and other painful disorders. The major side effects of NSAIDs are related to their effects on the stomach and bowels. The present study concerns assessment of the potential of liquid in situ gelling emulsion formulations (emulgels as patient compliant stomach specific sustained release carrier for the delivery of highly gastric irritant drug, Piroxicam. Emulgels were prepared, without using any emulgent, by mixing different concentrations of molten Gelucire 39/01 with low viscosity sodium alginate solution prepared in deionized water at 50°C. CaCO3 was used as buoyancy imparting as well as crosslinking agent. Emulgels so prepared were homogenous, physically stable, and rapidly formed into buoyant gelled mass when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2. Drug release studies carried out in SGF revealed significant retardation (P<0.05 of Piroxicam release from emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations prepared without Gelucire 39/01. Pharmacodynamic studies carried out in albino rats revealed significantly increased analgesic/anti-inflammatory response from in situ emulgels compared to conventional in situ gelling formulations. Further, in vivo toxicity studies carried out in albino rats revealed no signs of gastric ulceration upon prolonged dosing.

  15. Primary lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma of the stomach: A case report

    Miao-Xia He; Ming-Hua Zhu; Wei-Qiang Liu; Li-Li Wu; Xiong-Zeng Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Primary stomach lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma (B-LBL) is a rare tumor. We describe a primary stomach B-LBL in a 38 years old female who presented with nonspecific complaints of fatigue and vomiting for 2 mo.Gastrofiberscopy revealed a large gastric ulcer, which was successfully resected. Pathology showed a lymphoblastic cell lymphoma arising from the stomach, and there was no evidence of disease at any extrastomach site.Immunohistochemical staining and gene rearrangement studies supported that the stomach tumor was a clonal B-cell lymphoma. Therefore, the diagnosis of B-LBL was made based on the stomach specimen.

  16. Intervention effect of pinelliae decoction for purging stomach-fire on malignant transformation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the gastric cancer microenvironment

    Liu, Xi-Ping; Ming, Hai-Xia; Li, Pei-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to simulate the microenvironment of gastric cancer to promote the malignant transformation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and further evaluate the effect of Pinelliae Decoction for Purging Stomach-Fire and its disassembled prescriptions on BMSCs. Methods: Transwell co-culture was performed on the human gastric cancer cell strains BGC-823 and BMSCs to simulate the microenvironment of gastric cancer. The drug-containing serum prepared by Pinelliae Decoction for Purging Stomach-Fire and its disassembled prescriptions was used, and its influence on BMSCs with malignant transformation was observed. Results: BMSCs were harvested successfully from the rat bone marrow, and flow cytometer identification indicated that CD44+/CD34- cells accounted for 70.64%. The co-culture of BGC-823 cells can induce malignant transformation of BMSCs. And the drug-containing serum can induce G2 phase arrest, inhibit cell proliferation, simultaneously inhibit TERT and c-myc expression, lower the cellular ability of chemotactic migration, inhibit the tumor-forming ability of BGC-823 in nude rats and promote the tumor apoptosis. Conclusion: The effective components of Pinelliae Decoction for Purging Stomach-Fire in gastric cancer treatment are pinelliae and dried ginger, and the main acting mechanism is to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and chemotactic migration and promote apoptosis. PMID:27508014

  17. Stomach carcinoma in the Indian subcontinent: A 16-year trend

    Cherian Jijo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric malignancy is one of the most common causes for cancer-related deaths. Reports from the west have shown a paradigm shift in the site of occurrence with malignancies of the gastric cardium increasing in frequency, reports which are contrary to information from the Middle East and South Asia. Aim: To determine trend changes in distribution of gastric malignancy between 1989 and 2004 in the southern state of Tamil Nadu in India. Materials and Methods: The study period was divided into four cohorts of four years each (1989-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2000 and 2001-2004 for the analysis of the changes in trend for subsite specificity, age and gender predilection. Results: Clinically, there were no significant differences in the presenting symptoms or physical signs in the four cohorts. The antrum was the most common site of predilection, no site-specific change was noted and males continued to be more commonly affected of the two sexes. Gastric cancer was significantly higher above the age of 40 years in all the four subsites and cohorts. A decrease in the mean age was observed for men with cancers of the esophagogastric junction (OGJ ( P < 0.0001 and the proximal stomach ( P < 0.0001, while junctional malignancy ( P < 0.0001, cancers of the proximal stomach ( P < 0.0001 and the antrum ( P = 0.03 tended to occur progressively later among women. Conclusion: No change in site specificity or gender predilection for gastric adenocarcinoma has been noted in the past 16 years. However, a gender-dependent paradigm shift in the mean age of presentation is discernible for cancers involving the OGJ, proximal stomach and antrum.

  18. Foregut duplication cysts of the stomach with respiratory epithelium

    Theodosios Theodosopoulos; Athanasios Marinis; Konstantinos Karapanos; Georgios Vassilikostas; Nikolaos Dafnios; Lazaros Samanides; Eleni Carvounis

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal duplication is a congenital rare disease entity. Gastric duplication cysts seem to appear even more rarely. Herein, two duplications cysts of the stomach in a 46 year-old female patient are presented.Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic lesion attached to the posterior aspect of the gastric fundus, while upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was negative. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-communicating cyst and a smaller similar cyst embedded in the gastrosplenic ligament. Excision of both cysts along with the spleen was performed and pathology reported two smooth muscle coated cysts with a pseudostratified ciliated epithelial lining (respiratory type).

  19. Does stomach have mesentery? Learning from gastric cancer surgery

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study will first confirm the existence of mesogastrium (gastric mesentery) and then examine its architecture and suggest improvements in the surgical methods for excision of gastric cancer.Methods:By employing video laparoscopy, a number of proximal segments of dorsal mesogastrium were found being extensively scattered around the pancreas. In this study, these segments were histologically analyzed and studied.Results:The structure of the mesogastrium was identiifed intraoperatively and then conifrmed both grossly and histologically atfer the operation. Conclusion:This study suggests for the first time a “Table Model” to describe the relationship between the stomach and gastric mesenteries.

  20. Boerhaave’s syndrome in a patient with an upside down stomach: A case report

    Saito, Shin; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Kurashina, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Shiro; Kanamaru, Rihito; Ui, Takashi; Haruta, Hidenori; Kitayama, Joji; Lefor, Alan K.; Sata, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous esophageal perforation, or Boerhaave’s syndrome, is a life-threating condition which usually requires emergent surgery. An upside down stomach is defined as a gastric volvulus in a huge supradiaphragmatic sac. In general, this condition can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach. This is the first report of a patient with Boerhaave’s syndrome and an upside down stomach. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden epigastric pain following hematemesis. Evaluation of the patient showed both an esophageal perforation and an upside down stomach. Surgical drainage and irrigation of the mediastinum and pleural cavities were undertaken emergently. Due to the concurrent gastric volvulus, a gastrostomy was placed to fix and decompress the stomach. The patient had an uneventful hospital course and was discharged. Discussion and conclusion Boerhaave’s syndrome is a rare but severe complication caused by excessive vomiting, due to a sudden elevation in intraluminal esophageal pressure resulting in esophageal perforation. Acute gastric volvulus can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach, but has not previously been reported with esophageal perforation. The most likely mechanism associating an upside down stomach with Boerhaave’s syndrome is acute gastric outlet obstruction resulting in vomiting, and subsequent esophageal perforation. Perforation of the esophagus as well as perforation of the stomach must be considered in patients with an upside down stomach although both upside down stomach and Boerhaave’s syndrome are rare clinical entities. PMID:26710329

  1. Wavelet-based analysis of gastric microcirculation in rats with ulcer bleedings

    Pavlov, A. N.; Rodionov, M. A.; Pavlova, O. N.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Berdnikova, V. A.; Kuznetsova, Ya. V.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskij, I. A.

    2012-03-01

    Studying of nitric oxide (NO) dependent mechanisms of regulation of microcirculation in a stomach can provide important diagnostic markers of the development of stress-induced ulcer bleedings. In this work we use a multiscale analysis based on the discrete wavelet-transform to characterize a latent stage of illness formation in rats. A higher sensitivity of stomach vessels to the NO-level in ill rats is discussed.

  2. N-acetyl-cysteine and prostaglandin. Comparable protection against experimental ethanol injury in the stomach independent of mucus thickness.

    Henagan, J M; Smith, G S; Schmidt, K L; Miller, T A

    1986-12-01

    The role of barrier mucus in mediating the protective effects of 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dm PGE2) against ethanol-induced gastric injury, with and without concomitant treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a potent mucolytic agent, was evaluated. Fasted rats were orally administered either saline, 10 micrograms/kg dm PGE2, 20% NAC, or 10 micrograms/kg dm PGE2 plus 20% NAC. In the first study, the rats were killed 15 minutes later and their stomachs were removed and assayed for barrier mucus adherent to the gastric wall using the Alcian blue technique. In the second study, the rats were orally given 2 mL of absolute ethanol (EtOH) after receiving one of these pretreatment regimens, and 5 minutes later they were killed and their stomachs were evaluated histologically by light microscopy for the magnitude of EtOH injury. Although NAC significantly reduced the thickness of barrier mucus by 76% when compared with control animals, it did not adversely affect the ability of dm PGE2 to spare the deep epithelium from injury by EtOH. In fact, NAC was as effective a protective agent as dm PGE2. Neither agent prevented damage to the surface epithelium by EtOH, verifying previous studies regarding the protective effects of prostaglandins. These results indicate that both dm PGE2 and NAC prevent EtOH-induced damage to the deeper layers of the gastric mucosa independent of mucus gel layer thickness, suggesting that other mechanisms than mucus are involved in mediating this protection. PMID:3789839

  3. A middle age addicted man with caustic stomach

    Gholamreza Nouri Broujerdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term caustic generally refers to alkaline and the term corrosive generally refers to acidic agents' injury; however, in medical literature caustic is frequently a term applied to both substances. Ingested alkali typically damage the esophagus more than stomach or duodenum, whereas acids usually cause more severe gastric injury. Since esophagus has a slightly alkaline pH, its epithelium is more resistant to acids, so that only 6 to 20% of those who ingest these substances present lesions in this organ. Case : A middle-aged addicted man who drunk hydrochloric acid accidentally had extensive necrosis of the stomach with remarkable sparing of the esophagus on second look exploration. A total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophago-jejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy was performed. Conclusion : In caustic GI injury, patients who are operated on and found to have no evidence of extensive esophago-gastric necrosis, a biopsy of the posterior gastric wall should be performed to exclude occult injury. If histologically there is a question of viability, a second look operation should be performed within 36 hours.

  4. Liposarcoma of the stomach: A rare case report

    Konstantinos Tepetes; Gregory Christodoulidis; Michael E Spyridakis; Maria Nakou; George Koukoulis; Konstantinos Hatzitheofilou

    2007-01-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma and accounts for 15%-20% of all mesenchymal malignancies. The tumor occurs most frequently in the limbs, retroperitoneum and rarely has a visceral location.We report a case of a gastric liposarcoma in a male patient. A 68 years old male patient was admitted to hospital for abdominal discomfort and fullness lasting for a month. He reported rare episodes of vomiting.The CT examination revealed a large epigastric mass(8 cm × 4 cm) involving the lesser curvature of the stomach, in contact with the pancreas and gallbladder.Fatty areas within the mass were evident. A total gastrectomy together with cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a well differentiated liposarcoma. The patient did not undergo any adjuvant treatment, he is under close follow up and two years later he is disease free. We report this case due to the rarity of this tumor in the stomach (nine cases reported in the literature).

  5. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) In The Stomach.

    Zińczuk, Justyna; Bandurski, Roman; Pryczynicz, Anna; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm. In this report, we described a case of 28-years old woman who presented recurrent epigastric pain. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor on the border of the body and antrum of the back wall of great curvature of the stomach. The histopathological examination after surgery showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Ectopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions. PMID:26172167

  6. Stomach-interposed cholecystogastrojejunostomy: A palliative approach for periampullary carcinoma

    Chun-Yi Hao; Xiang-Qian Su; Jia-Fu Ji; Xin-Fu Huang; Bao-Cai Xing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: For patients of periampullary carcinoma found to be unresectable at the time of laparotomy, surgical palliation is the primary choice of treatment. Satisfactory palliation to maximize the quality of life with low morbidity and mortality is the gold standard for a good procedure.Our aim is to explore such a procedure as an alternative to the traditional ones.METHODS: A modified double-bypass procedure is performed by, in addition to the usual gastrojejunostomy,implanting a mushroom catheter from the gall bladder into the jejunum through the interposed stomach as an internal drainage. A retrospective review was performed including 22 patients with incurable periampullary carcinomas who underwent this surgery.RESULTS: Both jaundice and impaired liver function improved significantly after surgery. No postoperative deaths, cholangitis, gastrojejunal, biliary anastomotic leaks, recurrent jaundice or late gastric outlet obstruction occurred. Delayed gastric emptying occurred in two patients. The total surgical time was 150±26 min. The estimated blood loss was 160±25 mL. The mean length of hospital stay after surgery was 22±6 d. The mean survival was 8 mo (range 1.5-18 mo).CONCLUSION: In patients of unresectable periampullary malignancies, stomach-interposed cholecystogastrojejunostomy is a safe, simple and efficient technique for palliation.

  7. Effects of ligustrazin on the gastrointestinal tract after severe scald in rats

    HeLi-ya; WangQiu-gui; WangMei-juan; YangHai-jiang

    2004-01-01

    To observe the effects of ligustrazin on the contents of ATPase, GSH-Px, MDA in stomach and intestine of severely burned rats. *Divide the rats randomly into three groups. Tissue of stomach and intestine were gathered and homogenized respectively, and contents of MDA, LDH, GSH-Px, SOD and ATPase were assayed. The contents of GSH-Px, SOD and ATPase in stomach and intestine were progressively decreased while MDA and LDH obviously enhanced in comparison with that of normal group. After the treatment with ligustrazin, the contents of GSH- Px, SOD and ATPase were significantly higher but MDA and LDH lower than that of non - treated burned group. So ligustrazin have protective effects on stomach and intestine in burned rots. It reduces free radical and has antioxidant effect on stomach and intestine.

  8. Bias in estimating food consumption of fish from stomach-content analysis

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the bias introduced by using simplified methods to calculate food intake of fish from stomach contents. Three sources of bias were considered: (1) the effect of estimating consumption based on a limited number of stomach samples, (2) the effect of using average...... contents derived from pooled stomach samples rather than individual stomachs, and (3) the effect of ignoring biological factors that affect the evacuation of prey. Estimating consumption from only two stomach samples yielded results close to the actual intake rate in a simulation study. In contrast to this......, a serious positive bias was introduced by estimating food intake from the contents of pooled stomach samples. An expression is given that can be used to correct analytically for this bias. A new method, which takes into account the distribution and evacuation of individual prey types as well as the...

  9. Effect of food matrix microstructure on stomach emptying rate and apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility of almond lipids.

    Gallier, Sophie; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-10-01

    Almond lipids can be consumed in different forms such as nuts, oil-in-water emulsions or oil. The stomach emptying rate (SER) of almond lipids (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) as a function of the food matrix was studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy based on the stomach emptying of a marker (AlCl3-6H2O) in the growing rat. Chyme and digesta samples were collected following serial gavaging (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) to study microstructural changes and determine the apparent ileal digestibility of almond fatty acids as a function of the native food matrix. The T(1/2) for the stomach emptying of crushed whole almonds and almond cream (194 ± 17 min and 185 ± 19 min, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) from that of a gastric-stable Tween-oil emulsion (197 ± 19 min). The T(1/2) values for a sodium caseinate (NaCas)-oil emulsion (145 ± 11 min) and a gastric-unstable Span-oil emulsion (135 ± 7 min) were different (P almonds, almond cream and Tween-oil emulsion, while almond milk and oil emptied at an intermediate rate (157 ± 9 min and 172 ± 11 min, respectively). Extensively coalesced emulsions under gastric conditions (almond oil, almond cream and Span-oil) had lower (P almonds, almond milk, NaCas-oil and Tween-oil emulsions (91.0%, 92.2%, 92.1% and 88.7%, respectively). The original food matrix and structural changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract had an impact on SER and ileal fatty acid digestibility of the almond preparations. PMID:25066699

  10. The Results of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Repeated Bleeding in Patients with Stomach Ulcer

    Horvat, Darko; Včev, Aleksandar; Soldo˛, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Mišević, Tonči; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljika, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The p...

  11. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk: Epidemiological and biological evidence

    Xiao-Qin Wang, Paul D Terry, Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods ...

  12. Histochemistry and cytology of the mucosa of small stomach in Alligator sinensis

    ZHANG Sheng-Zhou; PAN Hong-Zhen; CHEN Hong-Hong; WU Xiao-Bing; WANG Chao-Lin; ZHU Hong-Xing

    2008-01-01

    The small stomach of Alligator sinensis is a small cavity at the juncture of the stomachus pyloricus and duodenum enclosed by pyloric and duodenal circular sphincter. Its physiological function is still unclear. The histochemical components, ultrastructure and cell types of the small stomach were studied with histochemical, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques. The epithelium in all parts of small stomach showed a strongly positive PAS-reaction and weakly AB staining, secre...

  13. Examination of human stomach biopsies, saliva, and dental plaque for Campylobacter pylori.

    Krajden, S; Fuksa, M; Anderson, J; Kempston, J; A. Boccia; PETREA, C.; Babida, C; Karmali, M; Penner, J L

    1989-01-01

    To examine possible sources of Campylobacter pylori and to determine the routes by which it is transmitted to the human stomach, samples of dental plaque and saliva from 71 patients undergoing endoscopy in addition to stomach biopsies were collected and cultured on selective noninhibitory Skirrow medium. A total of 29 (40.8%) of the stomach biopsies yielded C. pylori. None of the saliva samples and only one of the dental plaque samples was found positive for C. pylori, and thus neither saliva...

  14. On the gastrocecal inhibitory reflex in the rat.

    Lee,Zai-Liu; Nakayama,Sosogu

    1981-01-01

    In rats anesthetized with urethane, the effects of distention of the stomach upon cecal motility and neural mechanisms which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited when the pars glandularis of the stomach was distended by pressure ranging from 25 to 30 cm H2O. This inhibitory reflex was not affected by bilateral cervical vagotomy, but completely abolished following bilateral severance of the greater...

  15. The effect of stomach fullness on food intake of whiting in the North Sea

    Rindorf, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The probability of a North Sea whiting Merlangius merlangus stomach containing fresh food was depressed when partially digested food was already present in the stomach. The lowered probability was detected even at levels where the fish was physiologically able to ingest an average meal. The feeding...... probability of c. 15% of the fish caught was predicted to be severely decreased at the level of partially digested food found in the stomachs. No effect of stomach fullness on meal size was found. indicating that the saturation is affecting search activity rather than prey or meal size selection. The diurnal...

  16. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons.

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun; Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE2 induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE2 effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE2 itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE2-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type 4 (EP4) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type 1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE2 effects. PGE2 induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE2 potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors by selectively targeting EP4 receptor/PKA pathway without interrupt prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:25446121

  17. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  18. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Jorge Arrieta

    Full Text Available Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  19. Ectopic Pancreas Imitating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST In The Stomach

    Zińczuk Justyna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital disorder defined as pancreatic tissue lacking vascular or anatomic communication with the normal body of the pancreas. Most cases of ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic, but it may become clinically evident depending on the size, location and the pathological changes similar to those observed in case of the normal pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be located at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common locations are: the stomach, duodenum or the proximal part of small intestine. The risk of malignancy, bleeding and occlusion are the most serious complications. Despite the development in diagnostics, it still remains a challenge for the clinician to differentiate it from neoplasm.

  20. Having the stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?

    Buck, Laura T.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the central position of diet in determining ecology and behaviour, much research has been devoted to uncovering Neanderthal subsistence strategies. This has included indirect studies inferring diet from habitat reconstruction, ethnographic analogy, or faunal assemblages, and direct methods, such as dental wear and isotope analyses. Recently, studies of dental calculus have provided another rich source of dietary evidence, with much potential. One of the most interesting results to come out of calculus analyses so far is the suggestion that Neanderthals may have been eating non-nutritionally valuable plants for medicinal reasons. Here we offer an alternative hypothesis for the occurrence of non-food plants in Neanderthal calculus based on the modern human ethnographic literature: the consumption of herbivore stomach contents.

  1. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) dynamics in stomach cancer patients receiving cryotherapy

    Radioimmunologic assays of blood serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level were conducted at major stages of treatment of gastric cancer by subtotal stomach resection and gastrectomy with preliminary cryotreatment and thawing of tumor. A short-term rise in CEA level occurred in 53.9 % of cases 3-4 days after combined therapy. A decrease in CEA concentration at discharge from hospital as compared with preoperative level and that registered 3-4 days after operation was observed in 50 and 75 % of cases of combined therapy, respectively, and 47.5 and 37.5 % of controls (surgery without cryotreatment). There was nocorrelation between cryotreatment and changes in CEA level in gastric ulcer patients

  2. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using 3H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined

  3. Symptomatic Primary (AL Amyloidosis of the Stomach and Duodenum

    Reidar Fossmark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary (AL amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare, and symptomatic amyloidosis of the stomach is even more seldom. We present the case of a patient who was referred to upper endoscopy because of weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Large areas of intramucosal hemorrhages were seen, and biopsies resulted in profuse bleeding stopped with endoscopic clips. The biopsies showed amyloid depositions and further workup revealed that the patient also had cardiac and neuropathic involvements. The patient started treatment with dexamethasone, melphalan and bortezomib. After treatment was started the nausea and epigastric discomfort improved, and a reduction in the biochemical markers troponin T, NT-proBNP, and M-component was observed. Gastric amyloidosis is rarely seen at upper endoscopy in patients without a previously established diagnosis, but the unusual endoscopic findings and bleeding tendency after biopsy should be kept in mind by gastroenterologists.

  4. The Results of Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Stomach Cancer

    Choi, Ji Hoon; Kang, Min Kyu; Kim, Myung Se; Kim, Sung Kyu; Yun, Sang Mo; Kim, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We retrospectively analyzed the long-term results of radical surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with stomach cancer. From 1988 to 1994, 51 patients were treated with curative surgery and IORT. Postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was administered to 30 patients, while adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 35 patients. A dose of 15 Gy was irradiated with a 9 MeV electron beam as the IORT and a median dose of EBRT was 43.2 Gy (range, 7.2 to 45 Gy). The follow-up period ranged from 1-254 months, with a median follow-up period of 64 months. The median age of all the patients was 58 years (range, 30 to 71 years). The distribution of pathologic stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] 2002 tumor-note-metastasis [TNM]) was as follows: 13 stage I (25.5%), 10 stage II (19.6%), 25 stage III (49.0%), and 3 stage IV (5.9%). Distant metastases occurred in 11 patients (10 in the peritoneum and 1 in bone), including one patient with concurrent local recurrence (anastomosis site). The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival and overall survival rates were 94.7%, 66.5%, and 51.7%, respectively. For the multivariate analysis, age, TNM stage, and EBRT were significant prognostic factors for overall survival, and only TNM stage for disease free survival. We could have achieved a high loco-regional control rate in patients with locally advanced stomach cancer by adding IORT to radical surgery. However, the benefit of IORT on survival remains to be elucidated.

  5. The Results of Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Stomach Cancer

    We retrospectively analyzed the long-term results of radical surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with stomach cancer. From 1988 to 1994, 51 patients were treated with curative surgery and IORT. Postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was administered to 30 patients, while adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 35 patients. A dose of 15 Gy was irradiated with a 9 MeV electron beam as the IORT and a median dose of EBRT was 43.2 Gy (range, 7.2 to 45 Gy). The follow-up period ranged from 1-254 months, with a median follow-up period of 64 months. The median age of all the patients was 58 years (range, 30 to 71 years). The distribution of pathologic stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] 2002 tumor-note-metastasis [TNM]) was as follows: 13 stage I (25.5%), 10 stage II (19.6%), 25 stage III (49.0%), and 3 stage IV (5.9%). Distant metastases occurred in 11 patients (10 in the peritoneum and 1 in bone), including one patient with concurrent local recurrence (anastomosis site). The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival and overall survival rates were 94.7%, 66.5%, and 51.7%, respectively. For the multivariate analysis, age, TNM stage, and EBRT were significant prognostic factors for overall survival, and only TNM stage for disease free survival. We could have achieved a high loco-regional control rate in patients with locally advanced stomach cancer by adding IORT to radical surgery. However, the benefit of IORT on survival remains to be elucidated.

  6. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  7. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  8. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an

  9. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E., III

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  10. Combined endoscopic and laparoscopic approach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma of the stomach

    Pritchard SA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic tumours of the stomach present a clinical dilemma for the surgeon. Palliative surgical resection can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival in selected patients. However, previous studies have used open methods of surgical resection with potentially high morbidity and mortality. We describe the use of laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma to highlight the benefits of this technique. Case presentation A 58 year old male was investigated for iron deficiency anaemia while under treatment for pulmonary metastatic malignant melanoma. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 5 cm diameter ulcer on the anterior wall of the stomach, biopsies from the ulcer confirmed metastatic melanoma. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach lesion was performed without complication. Conclusion Laparoscopic approach has many benefits and is useful for the palliative resection of rare tumours of the stomach in order to preserve the quality of life. Its use should be considered in selected patients.

  11. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of pancreatic and gastric lipases leading to decreased absorption of fat. In the present study, we measured the effect of orlistat on lymphatic fat transport in rats following intake of oils very different in FA composition and TAG structure, and compared this with...... the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish...

  12. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea and ...

    ... Radiation Therapy Side Effects What To Do About Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea ... you eat it. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea ...

  13. The gastrointestinal microbiome - functional interference between stomach and intestine.

    Lopetuso, Loris R; Scaldaferri, Franco; Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex and dynamic network with interplay between various gut mucosal cells and their defence molecules, the immune system, food particles, and the resident microbiota. This ecosystem acts as a functional unit organized as a semipermeable multi-layer system that allows the absorption of nutrients and macromolecules required for human metabolic processes and, on the other hand, protects the individual from potentially invasive microorganisms. Commensal microbiota and the host are a unique entity in a continuum along the GI tract, every change in one of these players is able to modify the whole homeostasis. In the stomach, Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. In this scenario, H. pylori infection is associated with changes in the gastric microenvironment, which in turn affects the gastric microbiota composition, but also might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes. It is able to influence all the vital pathways of human system and also to influence microbiota composition along the GI tract. This can cause a change in the normal functions exerted by intestinal commensal microorganisms leading to a new gastrointestinal physiological balance. This review focuses and speculates on the possible interactions between gastric microorganisms and intestinal microbiota and on the consequences of this interplay in modulating gut health. PMID:25439066

  14. [Stomach electrostimulation--new possibility for treating gastroparesis].

    Sobocki, J; Thor, P J; Popiela, T; Wasowicz, P; Herman, R M

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a large range of methods of human gastric pacing. Based on our own experience and literature authors discuss a variety of pacing models, current parameters and place of stimulation. We described a new method of intragastric stimulation as a method of treatment of postoperative, pharmacotherapy resistant gastroparesis. Five patients were included in to the study (3 male and 2 female). The current parameters were as follow: square profile, amplitude 2V (2mA), frequency 6 ips.p.m., duration 3 hours. Two electrodes located on nasogastric catheter (external diameter 1.5 mm) were placed in antral region of the stomach and connected to the computer preprogrammed stimulator. Electrostimulation was accompanied by the continuous cutaneous EGG monitoring (Synectics Sweden). Excellent results were obtained in 3 patients (60%) with disappearance of symptoms, rumbling, normalization in gastric myoelectric rhythm (2-4 cpm > 85%) and with increase in amplitude (average 250%). In one patient with the gastrectasia, symptoms returned next day and stimulation had to be repeated for several days. In another one results were not satisfying. Authors conclude that gastric pacing has made tremendous progress fast developing method in last decade and in most patient is efficient for treatment postoperative gastroparesis. PMID:10909475

  15. [Late deficiency states in patients with a surgically treated stomach].

    Popova, D; Daskalov, M; Kostadinova, I

    1988-01-01

    37 patients with partial stomach resection because of peptic ulcer, performed 5 to 28 years before, were studied. In 29 patients the serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. In 19 patients several hematologic indices--hemoglobin, serum iron, erythrocyte morphology, proteinogram--were determined, too. The mean serum vit. B12 level was significantly lower than that of the control group of healthy persons. In 1/3 of these patients the low serum vit. B12 level was accompanied by manifested neurologic complications-myelopathy and polyneuropathy. The mean folic acid level was also low but statistically insignificantly and in patients the value was subnormal. In half of the patients a low degree hypochromic anemia was found. The role of vit. B12 deficiency in the pathogenesis of the neurologic manifestations is discussed and the determination of vit. B12 and folic acid levels is recommended in patients who had undergone gastric resection, especially after 5 years following the resection. PMID:3414095

  16. Spicy food and the stomach. Evaluation by videoendoscopy.

    Graham, D Y; Smith, J L; Opekun, A R

    1988-12-16

    We used videoendoscopy to investigate the effect of eating spicy foods on the gastric mucosa. We employed four meals: a bland meal of unpeppered steak and french fries (negative control), a bland meal with 1950 mg of aspirin (positive control), a spicy Mexican meal (30 g of jalapeño peppers), and a pepperoni pizza. Twelve subjects (eight men and four women, aged 24 to 43 years) were studied in a randomized, crossover trial with the test meal given at the noon and evening meals; each subject received all four test meals. Each study consisted of a baseline endoscopy, which was repeated approximately 12 hours after the last test meal. Gastric and duodenal damage was scored using a modification of the Lanza scale. Eleven of 12 individuals taking the bland meal plus aspirin developed multiple gastric erosions (median score, C; which equates with "severe" injury). In contrast, the median endoscopic score for the other three meals was 0. Single cases of a single erosion were present after the Mexican meals and after the pizza meals. Another experiment was done to examine the effect of spices directly on the gastric mucosa; approximately 30 g of fresh jalapeño peppers was ground in a food processor and then placed directly into the stomach. Endoscopy after 24 hours revealed no visible mucosal damage. The ingestion of highly spiced meals by normal individuals is not associated with endoscopically demonstrable gastroduodenal mucosal damage. PMID:3210286

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genotypes, Dietary Habits and Susceptibility to Stomach Cancer

    ChangmingGao; TakezakiToshiro; JianzhongWu; JianhuoDing; YantingLiu; SupingLi; PingSu; XuHu; TianliongXu; HamajimaNobuyuki; TajimaKazuo

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relation among methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotypes, dietary habits and the risk of stomach cancer (SC).METHODS A case-control study was conducted with 107 cases of SC and 200 population-based controls in Chuzhou district, Huaian, Jiangsu province, China. The epidemiological data were collected, and DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was obtained from all of the subjects..MTHFR genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS (1) The prevalence of the MTHFR C/T or T/T genotypes was found to be significantly different between controls (68.5%) and SC cases (79.4%,P=0.0416), the increased risk had an adjusted OR of 1.79 (95%C1:1.01-3.19). (2) Among subjects who had a low intake of garlic or Chinese onion, MTHFR C/T or T/T genotypes significantly increased the risk of developing SC. Among non-tea drinkers or among subjects who had a frequent intakeof meat, the carriers of the MTHFR C/T or T/T genotypes had a higher risk of SC than individuals with the C/C type MTHFR. CONCLUSION The polymorphism of MTHFR C677T was associated with increased risk of developing SC, and that individuals with differing genotypes may have different susceptibilities to SC, based on their exposure level to environmental factors.

  18. Rare solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach: A case report

    Bošković Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Solitary fibrous tumors are rare soft tissue tumors of submesothelial origin and variable malignant potential. The most common localization is pleural, whereas only 0.6% are of extrapleural localization. Solitary fibrous tumor of the peritoneum, especially of gastric serosa is an extremely rare form of this tumor. Case report. We presented a 65- year-old female patient with solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach. Histopathological analysis of removed tissue showed the presence of tumor tissue built of spindle cells, elongated nuclei with moderately abundant cytoplasm. Cells were in a noncohesive arrangement, in smaller areas distributed in the form of palisade. There were amounts of hipocellular connective tissue, hyalinised, with small foci of dystrophic calcification. Mitoses were rare (less than 3/10 HPF. Blood vessels surrounded the connective tissue. Reviewed material did not contain elements of the parent organ. Immunohistochemically there were positivity on CD34 and vimentin, and negativity to S100, SMA, CD117, dezmin, and Ki-67 is < 2%. The change was diagnosed as a solitary fibrous tumor. Conclusion. Considering that benign solitary fibrous tumors of extrathoracic localizations are extremely rare neoplasms with unpredictable biological behavior and the possibility of recurrence, a long-term clinical and endoscopic follow-up on yearly basis of patients with this disease is recommended.

  19. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  20. Prevalence of stomach cancer in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, cancer of stomach is still the fourth common cancer and the second cause of mortality among all cancers affecting annually 870,000 subjects. This study aims to determine the frequency and the characteristics of gastric cancer in southern Iran. Materials and Methods: 10,800 of all cancers registered in Fars Hospital-based Cancer Registry were surveyed among which 574 cases were gastric cancer in both genders and all age groups. From January 2002 to December 2007, all hospital-based data were recorded according to International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICD-O and registered cases included all invasive cancers in ICD-10 categories of C-00 to C-80 and all duplicate cases were eliminated. Results: Among all registered cancers, there were 574 cases of gastric cancer including 69.3% males. The mean age of patients was 58.1 ± 14.8 years, 25.4% with a history of in their first relatives and most of them were smokers (50.9% and from low socioeconomic class (45.5%. Metastasis was visible in 182 patients and majority of them underwent surgery (64.3%. The majority of gastric cancer patients were older than 50 years, smokers, low socioeconomic class, and female in favor of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Our results showed that in our area, treatment programs and health plans should focus on men, patients older than 50 years and with adenocarcinoma, smokers, and those in a low income level.

  1. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  2. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach: A report of three cases

    Min-Feng Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS is a rare form of gastric cancer that has unique clinicopathological features and an extremely poor prognosis. Here, we report on three patients with suspected gastric cancer who were referred to our hospital. Gastrointestinal fiberscopy on the three patients revealed two lesions in the antrum and a third lesion in the gastroesophageal junction. The alpha fetoprotein (AFP serum levels were markedly elevated in all cases. At the time of diagnosis, two cases were advanced stages with lymph nodes and/or liver metastases. Two patients underwent exploratory laparotomy. A total gastrectomy was performed on the operable lesion, and an expanded gastrectomy was completed in the case with hepatic metastases. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumors displayed two pathological changes: hepatoid-like foci and adenocarcinomatous. Furthermore, the tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for AFP, alpha-1 antitrypsin, and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin. All three patients received chemotherapy. The follow-up duration ranged from 8-36 mo. Our experience and previous published studies have suggested that HAS is an aggressive type of adenocarcinoma. However, radical surgery and chemotherapy may positively impact clinical outcomes.

  3. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years. PMID:27170299

  4. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems

  5. Alteration of cadherin isoform expression and inhibition of gap junctions in stomach carcinoma cells

    2001-01-01

    To explore cell malignant phenotype correlated changes of cell surface adhesion molecules and cell-cell communication in carcinogenesis, human stomach transformed and cancer cell lines were investigated. Expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, ?-catenin, ?-catenin as well as gap junction (GJ) protein Cx32 were studied by utilization of immunoblotting, immunocytochemical and fluorescent dye transfer methods. Mammalian normal stomach mucosal cells expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. E-cadherin immunofluorescence was detected at cell membranous adherens junctions (AJ) where colocalization with immunofluorescent staining of inner surface adhesion plaque proteins ?- and ?-catenins was observed. The existence of E-cadherin/ catenin (?-, ?-) protein complexes as AJ was suggested. In transformed and stomach cancer cells E-cadherin was inhibited, instead, N-cadherin was expressed and localized at membranous AJ where co-staining with ?- and ?-catenin fluorescence was observed. Formation of N-cadherin/catenin (?-, ?-) protein complex at AJs of transformed and cancer cells was suggested. The above observations were further supported by immunoblotting results. Normal stomach muscosal and transformed cells expressed Cx32 at membranous GJ and were competent of gap junction communication (GJIC). In stomach cancer cells, Cx32 was inhibited and GJIC was defective. The results suggested that changes of signal pathways mediated by both cell adhesion and cell communication systems are associated intracellular events of stomach carcinogenesis. The alteration of cadherin isoform from E- to N-cadherin in transformed and stomach cancer cells is the first report.

  6. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  7. [THE INFLUENCE OF LEU-ENKEPHALIN AND MEDICAL PLANTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY OF STOMACH IN DOGS].

    Vymjatnina, Z K; Prosekina, E Y; Tomova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the real research was a study influence of leu-enkephalin and extracts from the leaves of goose-grass large, of burdock of felted and root of chicory on the motor function of stomach for dogs. The study was carried out on 6 outbred dogs-males, by mass 14-17 kg, with the fistula of stomach by Basov. A leu-enkephalin ("Vector", Russia) was entered intravenously in a dose 7 mcg/kg. The corresponding plant-based preparations entered perorally during 10-14 days to beginning of experiments, on an empty stomach, in a volume a no more than 20 ml. Experiments put in a morning clock, in 16-18 hours after eating, after the careful washing of stomach. For 30 mines to the record of motive activity of stomach an animal was enter a peptide or gave a corresponding extract as water or spirit infusion. At the choice of doses of vegetable preparations came from the before obtained data about the antiulcerous action of the used plants. The conduct of peptide rendered considerable stimulant influence on motor activity of stomach, that was expressed in the increase of period of work and increase of force of reductions especially tonic. All used plants preparations rendered modulating influence on motive activity of stomach. Changes consisted in strengthening of tonic and oppressing of phase component. The most considerable decline of amount of phase reductions caused application of extract of goose-grass. Not only an amount but also force of phase reductions diminished thus. An extract from the root of chicory less considerably reduced the arnount of Phase reJuctions, but here substantially increased their force. All used herbal medicines stimulated tonic activity. Thus, peptide and all studied herbal medicines stimulated motion activity of the stomach that could cause acceleration of evacuation of food to duodenum. Such effect should be considered while choosing the medicine for correction of stomach functional activity. PMID:26931013

  8. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, Ptrend=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (Ptrend=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (Ptrend=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

  9. CT and MR imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach: a pictorial review.

    Gong, Jingshan; Kang, Wenyan; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Jianmin

    2012-12-01

    This pictorial review illustrates CT and MR imaging appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach and other lesions with similar imaging appearance. GIST of the stomach appears as well-defined enhanced masses with characteristics of subeppthial neoplasms. Majority are exophytic growth, but can also be of intra-luminal growth. GIST can growth into a large mass without gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Necrosis is often seen in GIST and results in heterogeneous enhancement and communication with gastrointestinal tract. CT and MRI features of several other neoplasms mimicking GISTs in the stomach are also described in this review. PMID:23289087

  10. Roentgenological characteristics of motor-evacuatory stomach function after selective proximal vagotomy (SPV)

    An x-ray picture of motor-evacuatory stomach function was studied in patients with pyloroduodenal ulcers after SPV with and without drainage (435 patients aged 16 to 80). Methods of investigation included polyprojectional radioscopy and panoramic and spot films at various time intervals after barium suspension intake. Stomach investigation was performed before operation as well as 2-3 weeks, 3-6 mos, 1-2 yrs, 3-5 yrs, and 7-10 yrs after it. Motor-evacuatory stomach function was studied over time. The least changes in motor-evacuatory fucntion were observed after SPV without drainage as a result of preserving pyloric contractility

  11. Synchronous Ectopic Pancreases in the Cardia and Antrum of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Yie, Mi yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, In Jae; Yang, Dae Hyun; Jun, Sun Young; Min, Kwang seon [Hallym University Medical Center, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Ectopic pancreas is most commonly found in the antrum of the stomach, duodenum, or proximal jejunum. Rarely ectopic pancreas in the proximal stomach has been reported. Moreover, the coexistence of two ectopic pancreases at gastric cardia and antrum in a patient has not been reported. Ectopic pancreas usually appears as a submucosal mass, and it is difficult to differentiate between ectopic pancreas and other common submucosal tumors, such as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) or leiomyoma. Here, we present a case of the coexistence of two ectopic pancreases at cardia and antrum of the stomach in a 60-year-old man, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as GIST

  12. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as...... Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been...

  13. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  14. Diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent early delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy

    Chao Sun; Weiping Shi; Yusheng Shu; Hongcan Shi; Shichun Lu; Kang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical ef icacy of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after esophagectomy through the cervico-tho-racoabdominal approach. Methods A total of 980 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy through the cer-vico-thoracoabdominal approach were retrospectively included in this study and divided into two groups. Al patients underwent tubular stomach creation (group A; n = 530) or a diaphragmatic suture and tubular stomach creation (group B; n = 450). The incidence of early DGE was observed. Results The incidence of early DGE in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P Conclusion This observation study suggests that the use of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach through the cervico-thoracoabdominal approach can decrease the incidence of early DGE after esopha-gectomy.

  15. Efficacy of cimetidin in the prevention of ulcer formation in the stomach during immobilization stress

    Dorofeyev, G. I.; Litovskiy, I. A.; Gavrovskaya, L. K.; Ivashkin, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of stress on the formation of ulcers in the mucous membrane of the stomach, the increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in the gastric tissues, and parietal cell structure alteration. Use of cimetidin prevents these effects

  16. Analysis of Mortality of Stomach Cancer in China from 1990-1992

    XiudiSun; YaliZhang; LiandiLi; YoulinQiao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of stom'ach cancer on the Chinese population by epidemiological analysis of its distributional mortality.METHODS Data from 1990-1992 on stomach cancer mortality collected by a sampling survey involved one tenth of the total Chinese population.RESULTS The crude mortality rate of stomach cancer in China was 25.2per 105 (32.8 per 105for males and 17.0 per 105 for females), which comprised23.2% of the total cancer deaths from 1990 to 1992, making stomach cancerthe leading cause of cancer death. The stomach cancer mortality rate ofmales was 1.9 times of that of females. The Chinese mortality rates ofstomach cancer adjusted by the world standard population were 40.8 per105 and 18.6 per 105 for males and females, which were 4.2-7.9 (for males)and 3.8-8.0 (for females) times of those in developed countries. Age-adjusted mortality rates of stomach cancer in China have distinctgeographical differences: form the lowest of 2.5 per 105 to the highest of153.0 per 105 in the 263 selected sites, and 15.3 per 105 in urban areas and24.4 per 105 in rural areas, a difference of 1.6 times.CONCW$10N The prevention and treatment of stomach cancer in L;n~na,especially in the countryside and the under-developed areas in thenorthwest, should be a long-term focus in preventing of cancers of thedigestive system. Urgent measures for prevention and early detection of stomach cancer should be taken.

  17. Plexiform Schwannoma of the Stomach in Neurofibromatosis Type 2: A Case Report

    Plexiform schwannoma is a relatively rare benign subepithelial tumor arising from the peripheral nerve sheath, and associated with Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). There are a few reports of plexiform schwannomas arising from the gastrointestinal tract, and to our knowledge, there is no report of it arising from the stomach in a patient with NF2. Here we present the first case of a plexiform schwannoma of the stomach in an NF2 patient a submucosal tumor on radiologic finding.

  18. Collision of Adenocarcinoma and Schwannoma of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Go, Jai Hyang

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of an adenocarcinoma and schwannoma is extremely rare in the stomach, and only one such case has been previously reported, which presented as two separate masses. Indeed, the collision of these tumors has never been reported. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with the synchronous development of a schwannoma and advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach, in which the carcinoma cells focally invaded the schwannoma.

  19. CT and MR imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach: a pictorial review

    Gong, Jingshan; Kang, Wenyan; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This pictorial review illustrates CT and MR imaging appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach and other lesions with similar imaging appearance. GIST of the stomach appears as well-defined enhanced masses with characteristics of subeppthial neoplasms. Majority are exophytic growth, but can also be of intra-luminal growth. GIST can growth into a large mass without gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Necrosis is often seen in GIST and results in heterogeneous enhancemen...

  20. Plexiform Schwannoma of the Stomach in Neurofibromatosis Type 2: A Case Report

    Kim, Hyun Jung [Dept. of Pathology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sun; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Plexiform schwannoma is a relatively rare benign subepithelial tumor arising from the peripheral nerve sheath, and associated with Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). There are a few reports of plexiform schwannomas arising from the gastrointestinal tract, and to our knowledge, there is no report of it arising from the stomach in a patient with NF2. Here we present the first case of a plexiform schwannoma of the stomach in an NF2 patient a submucosal tumor on radiologic finding.

  1. Investigating the Role of Sox2 in Stomach Tissue Homeostasis and Cancer.

    Sarkar, Abby Joya

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 is essential for the establishment and maintenance of multiple stem cell populations and its coding region is amplified in certain carcinomas. However, Sox2’s role in stomach homeostasis and cancer is poorly understood. In this thesis, I used mouse genetics to investigate the expression pattern and function of Sox2 in the adult stomach during normal tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Using a genetic lineage tracing system, I found that Sox2 expression marks a ...

  2. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach manifesting as umbilicated polypoid lesions: Report of two cases

    Two cases of benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach manifested by 'multiple, small, umbilicated polypoid lesions' were reported. The difference in radiologic manifestation of this condition in the stomach from doudenum, colon and rectum was shortly commented with stress on the possible role of gastric acidity. Presenting symptoms were sour erutation, indigestion, anorexia, weight loss and probably bleeding. The lesions did not respond to conventional ulcer regimen

  3. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding. PMID:16117312

  4. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk:Epidemiological and biological evidence

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Paul D Terry; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most casecontrol studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  5. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines

    Cui Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1–11 have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  6. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome.

    DeAnna E Beasley

    Full Text Available Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species.

  7. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Kurt-Sirin, Ozlem; Tunali, Sevim; Akev, Nuriye; Can, Ayse; Yanardag, Refiye

    2014-01-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system i...

  8. Effect of orlistat on fat absorption in rats: A comparison of normal rats and rats with diverted bile and pancreatic juice

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    the transport in normal rats and rats with fat malabsorption. Rats were subjected to cannulation of the main mesenteric lymph duct, and a feeding catheter was inserted into the stomach. In addition, malabsorbing rats were cannulated in the common bile and pancreatic duct. Emulsified safflower, fish......, and randomized oils were administered, and lymph was collected for 24 h and analyzed for FA composition. Administration of 25 mg orlistat together with the dietary oils resulted in very small changes from baseline lymphatic transport, indicating that inhibition of the fat absorption was almost...

  9. Clinicopathological and prognostic features of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    ZHANG Jian-feng; SHI Su-sheng; SHAO Yong-fu; ZHANG Hai-zeng

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare type of gastric carcinoma, which has its unique clinicopathological features and poorer prognosis than that of the ordinary gastric adenocarcinoma. At present, there is still a lack of understanding about this disease. The current study aimed to summarize and discuss the clinical,pathological, immunohistochemical, and prognostic features of this disease.Methods A total of 20 patients of HAS were retrospectively studied. All the patients were treated in Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between March 1998 and October 2009. Statistical analysis, including the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox model, were performed by the SPSS 15.0 software.Results Seventeen patients (85%) had at least 1 lymph node metastases; 17 patients (85%) received postoperative immunohistochemical examinations, with an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) positive rate of 94.1% (16/17); 14 patients had distant metastases (including 12 liver metastases, 1 lung metastasis, and 1 celiac widespread metastases), and one simultaneously had anastomotic recurrence and liver metastases. The overall survival time was 2-99 months (median:12.0 months). The 3-year survival rate of the 20 patients was 17.2%. The 3-year survival rate of patients with complete hepatocyte-like regions and those with both hepatocellular carcinoma and adenocarcinoma regions was 20.0% and 17.5%, respectively (P=0.361). The survival difference among the radical surgery group, palliative surgery group and no surgery group was statistically significant (P=0.022). The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test showed that surgery,pTNM stages, and adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with prognosis (P <0.05). The Cox model only confirmed that the pTNM stages and adjuvant chemotherapy had statistical significance for the prognosis of HAS (P<0.05) due to the limited cases.Conclusions HAS is a special type of gastric carcinoma and has a poor prognosis. The p

  10. Activity and immunohistochemical localization of porphobilinogen deaminase in rat tissues

    Jørgensen, P E; Erlandsen, E J; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2000-01-01

    the activity and the immunohistochemical localization of PBGD in the following tissues of wistar female rats: brain, heart, submandibular gland, liver, kidney, pancreas, ovary, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and musculature. The PBGD activity varied considerably among the tissues. It was highest...... in the intestine. Especially, the immunohistochemical reaction in nerve cells is notable considering the nervous dysfunction in AIP....

  11. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  12. The formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization induced by acrolein

    Guan-Feng Wang; Xiu-Lan Zou; Dong-Hao Li; Chen Wang; Wen-Li Li; Rong-Biao Pi

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization(CNV)induced by acrolein. METHODS:Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Acrolein 200μL(2.5 mg/kg/d)was poured into the rats' stomach for 4wk as acrolein 4wk and for 8wk as acrolein 8wk group. The same volume of fresh water was also done to the rats as the control group. Remove all eye balls and embed into paraffin with HE staining.RESLUTS:The RPE-Bruch membrane was intact with no obvious abnorm...

  13. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    Aparna Singh; Nathaniel Hodgson; Ming Yan; Jungsoo Joo; Lei Gu; Hong Sang; Emmalena Gregory-Bryson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host.METHODS:In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes.We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector,pIVET8,which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors,pIVET11 and pIVET12.Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H.pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase.Additionally,each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene.We used a mouse macrophage cell line,RAW 264.7 and mice,as selective media to identify specific genes that H.pylori expresses in vivo.Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H.pylori.This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes.RESULTS:In this study,we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens.These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families,including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs.Virulence factors,vacA and cagA,were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H.pylori infection,colonization and pathogenesis.Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems.Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H.pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H.pylori RNA isolated from H.pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages.We compared the expression profile of H.pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H.pylori only

  14. Effect of cysteamine on gastroduodenal mucosal histamine in rat.

    Boesby, S; Man, W K; Mendez-Diaz, R; Spencer, J

    1983-01-01

    Cysteamine administration to rats is followed by a high incidence of peptic ulceration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cysteamine on gastric and duodenal mucosal histamine and gastric mucosal histamine formation capacity. After a four hour fast, cysteamine in doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg bodyweight was injected subcutaneously to male Wistar rats; saline injection was used as control. After 24 hours the animals were killed; the stomach and duode...

  15. Distribution of trace metal concentrations in paired cancerous and non-cancerous human stomach tissues

    Mehmet Yaman; Gokce Kaya; Hayrettin Yekeler

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether trace metal concentrations (which influence metabolism as both essential and non-essential elements) are increased or decreased in cancerous tissues and to understand the precise role of these metals in carcinogenesis.METHODS: Concentrations of trace metals including Cd,Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Ca in both cancerous and noncancerous stomach tissue samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Tissue samples were digested using microwave energy. Slotted tube atom trap was used to improve the sensitivity of copper and cadmium in flame AAS determinations.RESULTS: From the obtained data in this study,the concentrations of nickel, copper and iron in the cancerous human stomach were found to be significantly higher than those in the non-cancerous tissues, by using t-test for the paired samples. Furthermore, the average calcium concentrations in the cancerous stomach tissue samples were found to be significantly lower than those in the non-cancerous stomach tissue samples by using t-test. Exceedingly high Zn concentrations (207-826 mg/kg) were found in two paired stomach tissue samples from both cancerous and non-cancerous parts.CONCLUSION: In contrast to the literature data for Cu and Fe, the concentrations of copper, iron and nickel in cancerous tissue samples are higher than those in the non-cancerous samples. Furthermore, the Ca levels are lower in cancerous tissue samples than in non-cancerous tissue samples.

  16. Acute Volvulus of Stomach in Children%小儿急性胃扭转

    邹大卫; 郑毓珊; 任德胜

    1984-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of acute volvulus of stomach in children caused by congenital abnormality of the diaphragm.A boy of 3 with diaphragmatic eventration complicated with acute omento-axial volvulus of stomach was misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis and acute gastric dilatation due to lack of obvious respiratory distress on admission.Only at laparotomy was the necrotic part of the volvular stomach found and resected and the peritoneal cavity drained.Plication of the affected hemidiaphragm and gastropexy were done 2 months later.Another boy of 4 with histus hernia complicated with acute mixed volvulus of stomach was correctly diagnosed before operation.The stomach was reduced from the thorax;followed by hiatal ring repair as well as gastropexy.Both operations were satisfactory.%@@ 小儿急性胃扭转比较少见,国内文献报告不多,我院在1982年收治伴有膈肌发育障碍的急性胃扭转2例.

  17. A method for generating unfolded views of the stomach based on volumetric image deformation

    Mori, Kensaku; Oka, Hiroki; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a method for virtually generating unfolded views of the stomach using volumetric image deformation. When we observe an organ with a large cavity in it, such as the stomach or the colon, by using a virtual endoscopy system, many changes of viewpoint and view direction are required. If virtually unfolded views of a target organ could be generated, doctors could easily diagnose the organ's inner walls only by one or a several views. In the proposed method, we extract a stomach wall region from a 3-D abdominal CT images and the obtained region is shrunken. For every voxel of the shrunken image, we allocate a hexahedron. In the deformation process, nodes and springs are allocated on the vertices, edges, and diagonals of each hexahedron. Neighboring hexahedrons share nodes and springs, except for the hexahedrons on the cutting line that a user specifies. The hexahedrons are deformed by adding forces that direct the nodes to the stretching plane to the nodes existing on the cutting line. The hexahedrons are deformed using iterative deformation calculation. By using the geometrical relations between hexahedrons before and after deformation, a volumetric image in which the stomach region is unfolded. Finally, the unfolded views are obtained by visualizing the reconstructed volume can be constructed. We applied the proposed method to eleven cases of 3-D abdominal CT images. The results show that the proposed method can accurately reproduce folds and lesions on the stomach.

  18. Serum ferritin and stomach cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    Using stored serum samples collected from 1970-72 and/or from 1977-79, serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin levels were immunologically determined for 233 stomach cancer and 84 lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1973-83 and for 385 matched controls from a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Elevated stomach cancer risk was associated with low serum ferritin levels, with more than a threefold excess among those in the lowest quintile as compared to the highest ferritin quintile. The average serum ferritin concentration was 8% lower in the stomach cancer cases than in the controls. Risk did not vary with the time between blood collection and stomach cancer onset, remaining high among those with low ferritin levels five or more years before cancer diagnosis. Low ferritin combined with achlorhydria, diagnosed about 10 years before the blood collection and up to 25 years before cancer diagnosis, was an exceptionally strong marker of increased stomach cancer risk. No effect of transferrin or ceruloplasmin independent of ferritin was observed on gastric cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was not related to these three serum proteins. (author)

  19. Stomach of Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): a histochemical, ultrastructural, and cytochemical study.

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Batista-Pinto, Carla

    2003-06-01

    We report the results of a morphological, histochemical, and cytochemical characterization of the Aplysia depilans stomach, an organ little studied in opisthobranchs. Very thin ciliated cells with microvilli on their apical surfaces are predominant in the epithelium lining the lumen of the stomach. Many lysosomes with a strong arylsulphatase activity were present in the apical regions of these cells that could also contain some lipid droplets and glycogen. Small peroxisomes were observed, usually around lipid droplets or mitochondria. Bottle-shaped secretory cells are very common in this epithelium and produce a secretion rich in proteins and acidic mucopolysaccharides. Most of the cytoplasm of these mucus-producing cells was filled with a very high number of granules and the nucleus is dislocated to the basal region. Cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum were abundant around the nucleus and several Golgi stacks were also present in this area. In spite of the variation in the electron density of the granules, only one type of secretory cell seems to be present in the stomach epithelium, since granules with very different electron densities were frequently found in the same cell. A few neurons were also found in the stomach epithelium of this species. Fibrocytes, muscle cells, nerves, and amebocytes were observed in the connective tissue of the stomach wall. PMID:12655617

  20. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  1. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  2. Effect of Hypoxic Preconditioning on Stress Reaction in Rats.

    Naryzhnaya, N V; Maslov, L N; Vychuzhanova, E A; Sementsov, A S; Podoksyonov, Yu K; Portnichenko, A G; Lishmanov, Yu B

    2015-08-01

    In rats, immobilization stress (24 h) induced involution of the thymus and spleen, adrenal hypertrophy, and pronounced elevation (by 67%) of serum cortisol in comparison with intact animals; the mean number of stomach ulcers in rats subjected to stress was 6.9. Hypoxic preconditioning consisting of 6 sessions of 10-min hypoxia (8% O2) followed by 10-min reoxygenation with atmospheric air induced adrenal hypertrophy and spleen involution, but did not change blood cortisol level; no stomach ulcers were found in preconditioned rats. In rats subjected to both hypoxic preconditioning and immobilization, the weights of the thymus, adrenal glands, and spleen, as well as cortisol level did not differ from the corresponding parameters in rats subjected to immobilization stress alone. The number of stomach ulcers in experimental rats was 1.5-fold lower than in the stress-control ones. Thus, hypoxic preconditioning exerts a pronounced preventive anti-ulcer effect during immobilization, but it does not affect other indices of the stress reaction. PMID:26385407

  3. Stable isotopes on jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) beaks to esitmate its trophic positon: comparison between stomach contents and stable isotopes

    Ruiz Cooley, R.I.; Markaida, U.; Gendron, Diane; Aguíñiga García, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Stomach contents and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis were used to evaluate trophic relationships of jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas. Buccal masses, beaks and stomach contents of large and medium maturing-sized jumbo squid and muscle from its main prey, the myctophid Benthosema panamense, were collected in the Gulf of California, Mexico during 1996, 1997 and 1999. Both the quantified C and N-isotope ratios in muscle, and stomach content analysis revealed that larger-sized matu...

  4. Purification of rat and human ghrelins.

    Kojima, Masayasu; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Small synthetic molecules called growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary. They act through the GHS-R, a G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary. Using an orphan receptor strategy with a stable cell line expressing GHS-R, we purified endogenous ligands for GHS-R from rat and human stomach and named it "ghrelin," after a word root (ghre) in Proto-Indo-European languages meaning "grow." Ghrelin is a peptide hormone in which the third amino acid, usually a serine but in some species a threonine, is modified by a fatty acid; this modification is essential for ghrelin's activity. The main active form of rat ghrelin is 28-amino acid peptides with n-octanoyl modification. In rat stomach, a second type of ghrelin peptide was purified, identified as des-Gln14-ghrelin. With the exception of the deletion of Gln14, des-Gln14-ghrelin is identical to ghrelin, retaining the n-octanoic acid modification. Des-Gln14-ghrelin is encoded by an mRNA created by alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene. As in the rat, the major active form of human ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide with an n-octanoylated Ser3. However, in human stomach, several minor forms of human ghrelin peptides have been isolated. These can be classified into four groups by the type of acylation observed at Ser3 and into two groups by the amino acids in length. The discovery of ghrelin indicates that the release of GH from the pituitary and appetite stimulation might be regulated by ghrelin derived from the stomach. PMID:22975045

  5. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  6. Anatomical stomach description of dog fish, Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841, (Teleostei: Cynodontidae

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolycus armatus (dog fish is a Teleostei of Cynodontidae Family that forms a distinct group of Neotropical Characiformes. This species is a predator, pelagic, freshwater and carnivorous and ichthyophagic feeding habits. Biological studies on fish are important in fishery, already that they are used as parameters to keep the exploitation to sustainable levels. This study aimed to describe the stomach anatomy of H. armatus, in order to generate basic information of this body of this vertebrate. We used ten (10 specimens of H. armatus, from the Teles Pires, city of Carlinda-MT, being this dissected and analyzed. The stomach of saccular format presented the regions cardial, pyloric and fundic, last being this last larger than the others. The anatomical features presented by the liver and stomach of H. armatus confirmed the relationship between the anatomy of these organs and their feeding habits being these, therefore, characteristics of predatory species, carnivorous and preferably ichthyophagics.

  7. The Study on the Attenuation of X-ray and Imaging Quality by Contents in Stomach

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Ji, Youn Sang; Kim, Chang Bok; Choi, Seong Kwan; Moon, Sang In [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dieter, Kevin [Dept. of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study examined the change in the attenuation of X-rays with the ROI (Region of Interest) in DR (Digital Radiography) according to the stomach contents by manufacturing a tissue equivalent material phantom to simulate real stomach tissue based on the assumption that there is some attenuation of X-rays and a difference in imaging quality according to the stomach contents. The transit dosage by the attenuation of X-rays decreased with increasing protein thickness, which altered the average ROI values in the film and DR images. A comparison of the change in average ROI values of the film and DR image showed that the image in film caused larger density changes with varying thickness of protein than the image by DR. The results indicate that NPO (nothing by mouth) is more important in film system than in DR system.

  8. Evaluation of non-surgical therapy for the malignant lymphomas located mainly in stomach and duodenum

    We evaluated the effects of the conservative treatment to 29 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas located mainly in stomach and duodenum. We could induce complete remission in all the cases of stage I, II, and III including MALT lymphomas by the combination therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, chemotherapy, and radiation, and the complete remission persisted in all except for the three cases who died of other causes. Even in stage IV lymphomas mainly located in stomach and duodenum, we could induce complete remission in 50% of them. Considering the quality of life of patients with lymphomas located mainly in stomach and duodenum, the conservative treatment may be of benefit more than the surgical approach. (author)

  9. Evaluation of non-surgical therapy for the malignant lymphomas located mainly in stomach and duodenum

    Tari, Akira; Asaoku, Hideki; Tani, Hiroshi; Kashiwado, Kouzou; Kurihara, Kanji; Fujihara, Megumu [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Yoshino, Tadashi

    2001-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of the conservative treatment to 29 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas located mainly in stomach and duodenum. We could induce complete remission in all the cases of stage I, II, and III including MALT lymphomas by the combination therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, chemotherapy, and radiation, and the complete remission persisted in all except for the three cases who died of other causes. Even in stage IV lymphomas mainly located in stomach and duodenum, we could induce complete remission in 50% of them. Considering the quality of life of patients with lymphomas located mainly in stomach and duodenum, the conservative treatment may be of benefit more than the surgical approach. (author)

  10. The Study on the Attenuation of X-ray and Imaging Quality by Contents in Stomach

    This study examined the change in the attenuation of X-rays with the ROI (Region of Interest) in DR (Digital Radiography) according to the stomach contents by manufacturing a tissue equivalent material phantom to simulate real stomach tissue based on the assumption that there is some attenuation of X-rays and a difference in imaging quality according to the stomach contents. The transit dosage by the attenuation of X-rays decreased with increasing protein thickness, which altered the average ROI values in the film and DR images. A comparison of the change in average ROI values of the film and DR image showed that the image in film caused larger density changes with varying thickness of protein than the image by DR. The results indicate that NPO (nothing by mouth) is more important in film system than in DR system.

  11. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya, E-mail: sathiyapandi@gmail.com; Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-α signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  12. Presence of helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients with endoscopically normal stomach

    To find out the presence of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients with endoscopically normal stomach. In this observational study all patients above the age of 15 years with dyspepsia of more than one month duration were included in the study. Patients taking antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors were excluded. Upper Gastro intestinal (GI) endoscopy was done in all patients and specimens from the antrum of stomach were taken for rapid urease test and histology. Patients were divided into group A (who had no abnormal finding of stomach on endoscopy) and group B (patients who had abnormal finding of stomach on endoscopy). There were 100 patients in the study, 50 in group A and 50 in group B. Mean age in group A was (30.2 years) with 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females, while in group B it was 36.4 years with 32 (64%) males and 18 (36%) females. Most common complaint of epigastric pain was present in 40 (80%) patients in group A and 42 (84%) in group B followed by heart burn 6(12%) in group A and 22 (44%) in group B. On endoscopy oesophagits was seen in 7 (14%) patients in group A and 18 (36%) patients in group B. All patients in group A had normal stomach on endoscopy while in group B 15 (30%) patients showed antral erythema and 35 (70%) showed pangastic erythema.Duodenum was normal in all Group- A patients while four patients in Group-B had duodenal erosions. Histologically 34 (68%) patients were positive for H. pylori in Group-A, compared to 39 (78%) in Group- B. H. pylori is present in a significant number of dyspeptic patients with endoscopically normal stomach. Normal looking gastric mucosa in these patients could be either due to milder infection or endoscopy done early during the course of infection. H. Pylori eradication has the potential to reduce the risk of gastric cancer development whose incidence varies geographically. (author)

  13. Survival of patients with stomach cancer in Changle city of China

    Jun Tian; Xiao-Dong Wang; Zhen-Chun Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The survival rate of patients with stomach cancer is used to evaluate the effects of treatments. The short- and mid-term survival of patients on the present level of treatments can be described by calculating 1- to 5-year survival rates.The aims of this study were to document patterns of survival after treatments for stomach cancer in Changle city and analyze whether the stage of cancer and the way of treatment impacted on survival of patients or not.METHODS: A total number of 745 patients with stomach cancer reported in the Changle Cancer Registry from 1993to 1998 were investigated with respect to the disease condition, the way of treatment and survival time. 1- to 5-year survival rates were estimated by using life-table method.RESULTS: The 1- to 5-year survival rates in the patients with stomach cancer in Changle city were 54.23%, 41.77%,37.95%, 33.98% and 30.47%, respectively. The 1- to 5-year survival rates in stageIor Ⅱ group were 3, 6.1, 7.4, 8.9and 9.8 times as high as those in stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ group,respectively. The 1- to 5-year survival rates in operation group were 3.5, 8.7, 11.2, 11.7 and 19 times as high as those in no operation group, respectively. For the patients with stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ stomach cancer the 1-year survival rate in operation group was 3 times as high as that in no operation group and 2-year survival rate in operation group was 11.9 times as high as that in no operation group. For the patients with stage Ⅲ or Ⅳstomach cancer, the differences of the survival rates average survival times between total gastrectomy and partial gastrectomy were not significant and the median survival times in these 2 groups were 8 mo and 9 mo, respectively.CONCLUSION: Mid-term survival rates of patients with stomach cancer in Changle city are low. Stage of cancer is an important factor influencing survival of patients with stomach cancer. Surgery is an effective treatment for the patients with stage Ⅳ cancer and can raise short- and mid

  14. [症例報告]Heterotopic Pancreatic Tissue of The Stomach : A Report of Two Cases

    Muazzam, Faisal A; Muto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Mamoru; Kawasaki, Yasuhiko; Nakama, Benjamin; Toda, Takayohshi; Departments of Surgery I and Clinical Laboratory; Ryukyu University School of Medicine

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach are reported herein. Case 1 was a 59 year-old woman with a complain of mild upper abdominal pain. Upper GI series and endoscopic study revealed a submucosal tumor which was located at the posterior wall of the body of the stomach. Postoperatively, the tumor was 3xl.5xO.5 cm in size and patholohgically reported to be a heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Case2 was a 62 year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for a simple cholecystect...

  15. Radiographic images of common lesions of the stomach and the intestine

    The radiographic aspect of some gastric and intestinal lesions is described. Radiographic examination of the stomach without preparation allows radio-opaque foreign bodies, twisting of the stomach and sometimes parietal abnormalities to be detected. When a gastrographic examination is performed it is possible to observe radio-transparent foreign bodies, inflammatory or tumorous parietal lesions and sometimes ulcers. The principal radiographic characteristics of these lesions are described. The normal radiographic appearance of morphological lesions of the intestine is described using examples obtained with or without the use of a contrast product. These lesions include : foreign bodies, tumours, invaginations, enteritis and intestinal perforations

  16. Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    William Perez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

  17. X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in patients with ulcer disease after vagotomy

    A roentgenological and endoscopical study is presented of the stomach and duodenum in 66 patients during remission and in 22 patients during exacerbation of ulcer disease from 6 months up to 5 years after organsaving operations using vagotomy. In the majority of patients the stomach was characterized by a large gas bubble, cascade-like torsion, deformation of the antral portion and duodenal bulb. In some patients thickenings of the gastric antral mucosa were noted. An endoscopically confirmed ulcer was revealed roentgenologically only in 50% of patients

  18. 胃溃疡合并胃癌的危险因素分析%The risk factor analysis for stomach ulcers and stomach cancer

    刘锐

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索胃溃疡合并胃癌的危险因素,为采取有效的预防措施提供科学依据。方法选取我院2011年1月~2013年12月收治胃溃疡合并胃癌患者270例,以及同期我院健康体检的志愿者100名,采用Logistic回归分析,确定相应的危险因素。结果经Logistic回归分析结果显示慢性胃炎、吸烟、不按时吃饭、吃油炸食品、睡眠差等为危险因素,饮茶为保护因素。结论不合理的饮食,如吃油炸,辛辣食品,不按时就餐,吸烟喝酒等能增加胃癌的发生,多吃蔬菜水果,适度饮茶能起到保护作用。%Objective To explore the risk factors for the stomach ulcers and stomach cancer, and provide scientific basis for effective prevention measures. Methods 270 patients with stomach ulcers and stomach cancer who were admitted to our hospital from January 2011 to December 2013 were selected,100 volunteers for the physical examination were selected at the same time , using logistic regression analysis, determine the corresponding risk factors. Results The logistic regression analysis results showed that chronic gastritis, smoking, irregular eating, fried food, poor sleep were the risk factors, drinking tea is the protect factor. Conclusion The unreasonable diet, such as eating fried and spicy food, not eating regular, smoking and drinking can increase the occurrence of stomach cancer, eating more fruits and vegetables, moderate drinking tea can protect.

  19. The effect of age on 7BeF2 distribution in rats at inhalational intake

    Accumulation, distribution and excretion of beryllium at its aerogenic intake are affected by the animal's age. 15 min after inhalation exposure 26.3-33.5% of the inhaled metal was found in the body of adult rats and 2-4-week-old rats, and 12.5% in the body of 1-week-old rats. The organ and tissue content varied on animals of different age. Beryllium clearance from the nasal passages, oral cavity and trachea in 1-week-old rats was slower than in adult animals. 7Be retention period in the stomach, small and large intestine of 1-week--- old rats was longer

  20. Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

    1983-05-01

    A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

  1. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  2. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2001-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  3. A brief analysis of patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers in Almaty hospital №1

    Aryzbekova Aliya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

  4. Effect of stomaching on numbers of bacteria recovered from chicken skin

    Compared to rinsing, stomaching releases only a few more bacteria from a skin sample, but successive rinses continue to remove almost as many bacteria as the first rinse. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that relatively violent treatment of skin generates smaller pieces of skin thus in...

  5. A NEW FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF STOMACH CANCER AND ITS PATHOBIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    辛彦; 赵风凯; 宫伟; 王艳萍; 张荫昌; 闫瑞方

    1994-01-01

    The functional differentiations of stomach cancer specimens from 121patients were investigated by enzyme-,mucin-,affinity-and immunohistochemical methods,and the stomach cancers were divided into five functionally differentiated types:1)Absorptive Function Differentiation Type (AFDT),19.8%;2)Mucin Secreting Func-tion Differentiation Type (MSFDT),24.0%;3)Absorptive and Mucin-Producing Function Differentiation Type (AMPFDT),47.1%;4)Special Function Differentiation Type (SFDT),0.8%;and 5)Non-Function Differ-entiation Type(NFDT),8.3%.The results indicate that stomach cancer tissues of the same histological type of -ten display differing functional differentiation,and these functionally differentiated types have different invasive and metastatic characteristics.In addition,the functionally differentiated types have particular organic affinities of metastasis and different clinical prognoses.This study suggests that this new functional classification may supple-ment histological classification.The mechanisms of liver and ovary metastases of stomach cancer are also dis-cussed.

  6. Salt intake, cured meat consumption, refrigerator use and stomach cancer incidence: A prospective cohort study (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Many case-control studies have reported that salt and cured meat intake are positively, and refrigerator use is inversely, associated with stomach cancer risk. In the current prospective study these associations were evaluated. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study consisted of 120,852 me

  7. Functional morphology of the honey stomach wall of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    The honey bee crop, or honey stomach, is designed with cords of muscles that are numerous enough in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to fully enclose and confine the underlying, cuticle-lines epithelium. Although appressed against the inner wall of this enclosure by the crop's contents,...

  8. ESOPHAGUS-STOMACH-ABDOMINAL WALL DRAINAGE FOR DELAYED INTRATHORACIC ESOHPAGEAL PERFORATIONLI

    李国庆; 单根法; 张辅贤; 钟竑

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a technique of esophagus stomach abdominal wall drainage for the delayed intrathoracic esophageal perforation and to improve the therapeutic results.MethodsFour patients were treated by this simplified technique. There were 1 case of lower intrathoracic esophageal perforation to the left thorax, 1 high and 2 middle perforation to the right. This technique used two plastic tubes (chest tube) in a diameter about 1.2cm. One tube served as an intercostal drainage tube to drain purulent effusion, the other was inserted abdominally through stomach to the esophagus about 10cm above the esophageal perforation.ResultsThe four patients were treated successfully by the esophagus stomach abdominal wall drainage. There was no mortality or severe morbidity or complication. Hospitalizations were shortened. ConclusionThis technique is simple, safe and effective. It may provide a more promising alternative method of treatment for delayed esophageal perforation, especially in the critically ill patients. The procedure can also be extended to deal with esophagus stomach anastomotic leak.

  9. Effect of Lanthanum on Acid Secretion from Isolated Mouse Stomach in Vitro

    徐项桂; 夏洪涛; 芮光; 胡翠英; 袁福根

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect and the mechanism of La3+ on gastric acid secretion (GAS) of isolated mouse stomach with perfused lumen, 12 cm H2O column intragastric pressure-provided, whole stomach preparations from mice were incubated in buffer at 37 ℃ in vitro, and perfusate was measured for pH with a pHS-3 type pH meter. The results show that La3+ (0.41~820×10-6 mol*L-1) significantly promotes GAS in a concentration-dependant manner. Proglutamine, a blocker of gastrin receptor, potently inhibits GAS, and it may block the promotive effect of La3+ on GAS, and this effect increases with the increase of proglutamin concentration. Cimetidine, a blocker of histamine H2 receptor, also potently inhibits GAS, and blocks the promotive effect of La3+ on GAS in the same manner with proglutamine. These results suggest that La3+ promotes GAS in isolated stomach possibly by stimulating the releases of gastrin from G cell and Histamine from ECL cell or by activating the gastrin receptors and Histamine H2 receptors on the parietal cell, thereby accelerating the acid secretion of parietal cells in stomach.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic gastrobiopsy in carcinoma of the stomach. A histopathological review of 101 cases

    Vyberg, Mogens; Hougen, H P; Tønnesen

    1983-01-01

    101 gastrobioptic series from 93 consecutive patients with a final diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach were reviewed. 20 false negative cases were found. Of these, ten cases were missed because of erroneous histopathological interpretation, two because of too few sections, and eight because...

  11. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  12. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  13. Diet of harbor porpoises along the Dutch coast: A combined stable isotope and stomach contents approach

    Jansen, O.E.; Michel, L.; Lepoint, G.; Das, K.; Couperus, A.S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    High stranding frequency of porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, along the Dutch coast since 2006 has led to increased interest in the ecology of porpoises in the North Sea. Stranded porpoises were collected along the Dutch coast (2006–2008) and their diet was assessed through stomach content and stable is

  14. ROLES OF RADIATION DOSE AND CHEMOTHERAPY IN THE ETIOLOGY OF STOMACH CANCER AS A SECOND MALIGNANCY

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Besseling, Gijs; de Bruin, Marie L.; Hauptmann, Michael; van 't Veer, Mars B.; de Wit, Ronald; Ribot, Jacques G.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Kerst, J. Martijn; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated

  15. Effects of coffees before and after special treatment procedure on cell membrane potentials in stomach cells.

    Fiebich, B L; Valente, P; Ferrer-Montiel, A; Candelario-Jalil, E; Menthe, J; Luecker, P

    2006-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most excessively used beverages worldwide, commences the risk of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which may lead to gastric ulcers and increase the risk of gastric cancer. Many attempts have been made by the coffee industry to diminish the irritating effect on mucosa by means of altering the extraction methods concerning gerbic acids and the roasting processes. This paper describes the effect of differently produced coffees involving two brands of Darboven and two brands of other coffee roasters. The aim of this study was to prove the results of gastric potential measurements we found in literature by using human AGS gastric epithelial cells (human adenocarcinoma). All four coffee extracts tested differentially affected the membrane resting potential of AGS cells. Coffees no. 1 and no. 2 depolarized the cells, presumably by increasing the cation entry into the cytosol. In marked contrast, coffee no. 4 hyperpolarizes the cells, possibly by H(+) extrusion and/or Cl(-) influx, suggesting that this coffee might increase acidity in the stomach, which might negatively affect the stomach, especially in people with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Overall, our data suggest that different roasting methods of coffees affect the membrane potentials of AGS stomach cells, resulting in increased influx of H+ possibly resulting in decreased stomach acidity and thus reducing GER. These results are in good accordance with clinical pharmacological results from potential difference measurements in healthy volunteers we found in the literature. PMID:16894406

  16. NANETS treatment guidelines: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and pancreas

    M. Kulke (Matthew); L.B. Anthony (Lowell); D.L. Bushnell (David); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S.J. Goldsmith (Stanley); D.S. Klimstra (David); S.J. Marx (Stephen); J.L. Pasieka (Janice); R.F. Pommier (Rodney); J.C. Yao (James); R.T. Jensen (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWell-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach and pancreas represent 2 major subtypes of gastrointestinal NETs. Historically, there has been little consensus on the classification and management of patients with these tumor subtypes. We provide an overview of well-diffe

  17. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Remnant Stomach after Subtotal Gastrectomy.

    Chang, Yeon Soo; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Dong Hee; Park, Seulkee; You, Ji Young; Han, Joon Kil; Kim, Seong Hwan; Lee, Ho Jung

    2016-06-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the stomach is a very rare disease. However, the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of gastric SCC are controversial and remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report a case of primary gastric SCC of the remnant stomach after subtotal gastrectomy. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to epigastric discomfort and dizziness. He had undergone subtotal gastrectomy 40 years previously for gastric ulcer perforation. Endoscopy revealed a normal esophagus and a large mass in the remnant stomach. Abdominal computed tomography revealed enhanced wall thickening of the anastomotic site and suspected metachronous gastric cancer. Endoscopic biopsy revealed SCC. Total gastrectomy was performed with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. A 10-cm tumor was located at the remnant stomach just proximal to the previous area of anastomosis. Pathologic examination showed well-differentiated SCC extended into the subserosa without lymph node involvement (T3N0M0). The patient received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with 6 cycles of 5-FU and cisplatin regimen, and he is still alive at the 54-month follow-up. According to the treatment principles of gastric cancer, early detection and radical surgical resection can improve the prognosis. PMID:27433399

  18. Computer simulation of the impact of different dimensions of the stomach on the validity of electrogastrograms.

    Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the dimensions of the stomach on cutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity (GEA) has not been adequately studied. The stomach was represented as a truncated conoid in a spherical coordinate system. The gastric electric field was modelled using a previously described methodology. Electrical potentials were calculated from sets of points simulating standard cutaneous recordings. The frequency of the signals was maintained at 3 cycles min-1 (period of repetition: 20 s), while the velocity of propagation of the depolarisation waves was reduced relative to the reduction in gastric dimensions. The signals were digitally contaminated with a random artificial artefact with a constant amplitude range of 0.2 mV, while the dimensions of the conoid (the circumferential radii and the length of the central axis) were decreased by factors of 1.5, two, four, six and eight. Simulated EGG signals were evaluated quantitatively. Simulated EGG records contaminated with random signals recorded from stomachs with decreasing dimensions exhibited non-linearly increasing standard deviations (p < 0.001). Randomly contaminated EGGs calculated from stomachs with dimensions reduced four, six and eight times were abnormal according to previously established quantitative criteria. Computer modelling indicated that gastric dimensions can significantly influence the validity of EGGs. These findings could be particularly important in a paediatric electrogastrography. PMID:9614741

  19. Survival of non-Western first generations immigrants with stomach cancer in North East Netherlands

    Siemerink, E. J. M.; van der Aa, M. A.; Siesling, S.; Hospers, G. A. P.; Mulder, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isolated groups, such as first generation non-Western immigrants, are at risk for suboptimal utilisation of the health care system resulting in a worse outcome. METHODS: From 1989 to 2007, all patients with stomach cancer were selected from the Comprehensive Cancer Centre North-East canc

  20. Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy.

    Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Eppe, Gauthier; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic particles (MP) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. However, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate MP from bulk samples. Visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. However, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. We present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of MP from the membrane by sonication. The protocol is especially well adapted to a subsequent analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The method avoids fluorescence problems, allowing better identification of anthropogenic particles (AP) from stomach contents of fish by Raman spectroscopy. It was developed with commercial samples of microplastics and cotton along with stomach contents from three different Clupeiformes fishes: Clupea harengus, Sardina pilchardus, and Engraulis encrasicolus. The optimized digestion and isolation protocol showed no visible impact on microplastics and cotton particles while the Raman spectroscopic spectrum allowed the precise identification of microplastics and textile fibers. Thirty-five particles were isolated from nine fish stomach contents. Raman analysis has confirmed 11 microplastics and 13 fibers mainly made of cellulose or lignin. Some particles were not completely identified but contained artificial dyes. The novel approach developed in this manuscript should help to assess the presence, quantity, and composition of AP in planktivorous fish stomachs. PMID:26289815

  1. Roles of radiation dose and chemotherapy in the etiology of stomach cancer as a second malignancy

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Aleman, Berthe M P; Besseling, Gijs;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treat...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of serum pepsinogen 1 in chronic gastritis and stomach cancer

    Blood serum in stomach cancer and chronic gastritis has been compared. A sharp decrease in pepsinogen 1 level both in cancer and gastritis patients was found as compared with healthy subjects. Pepsinogen 1 level in poorly-differentiated tumor (37.4 ng/ml) was lower than in well-differentiated one (58.2 ng/ml)

  3. Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids of the stomach and intestines - early diagnosis and minimally invasive endoscopic procedures

    Kuryk O.G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and intestines are rare diseases. Increasing incidence and complexity of diagnosis of these diseases cause acuteness of the problem. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of morphological examination of endoscopic biopsy material for diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors and for evaluation of completeness of minimally invasive endoscopic surgical interventions (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection at neuroendocrine tumors. Methods. On the basis of Medical center "Oberig" in 2009 - 2013 in eight cases neuroendocrine tumors were diagnosed: 2 (25 % in the stomach, 2 (25% – in the duodenum, 2 (25% - in the small intestine, 1 (12.5 % - in the ascending colon, 1 (12.5% - in the rectum. Neuroendocrine tumors of stomach and ileum were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection, duodenal bulb and rectum neuroendocrine tumors – by endoscopic submucosal dissection, papillary duodenum, colon and jejunum neuroendocrine tumors – by surgical resection. Results. It was shown, that morphological evaluation of endoscopic mucosal biopsies is effective way to diagnose the neuroendocrine tumors. Conclusion. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection allows to get advanced material for morphological diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors and an adequate method of their removing Citation: Kuryk OG, Yakovenko VO, Bazdyrev VV, Bodnar LV. [Neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids of the stomach and intestines - early diagnosis and minimally invasive endoscopic procedures]. Morphologia. 2014;8(1:58-64. Ukrainian.

  4. Screening and Identification Differentially Displayed Genes in Fore Stomach Carcinoma of Mice

    Hong-xu Zhang; Dan-dan Liu; Lin Li; Ru-bing Duan; Li Wang; Jing Cao; Li-juan Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To screen and identify key genes differentially displayed in mouse fore stomach carcinoma, in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying carcinogenesis.Methods: The animal models complied with each period of NIH mouse fore stomach carcinoma induced by N-Nitrososarcosineethylester (NSEE) were used in this study. The mice were euthanized on days 14, 28, 56, 77 and 84, respectively, after NSEE-piped treatment, and classified according to their pathologies. The differentially expressed genes were isolated from both normal and morbid tissues by mRNA differential display technique and screened by using Reverse Northern blot. Bioinformatics were employed to analyze the results observed. After identification, ten fragments were cloned and matched with GENEBANK database through homologous analysis.Results: One gene was found identical to splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (Sf3b1), while seven fragments hold the homology of known cDNA clones. In contrast, other two fragments had extremely low identity to any genes registered in GENBANK databases.Conclusion: It is the first time to demonstrate in this study that splicing factor3b, subunit1 (Sf3b1) is related to mouse fore stomach carcinoma. Furthermore, ESC-3 and ESC-4 are suggested to contribute to the development of mouse fore stomach carcinoma, thus may be candidates of new targets of oncogenes.

  5. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a mix

  6. Stomach contents of cetaceans in the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz.

    M. Garcia-Polo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the diet, through the analysis of stomach contents, of different species of cetaceans in Andalusian waters. Stomachs of 53 specimens, 36 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba, 13 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and 4 Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus stranded in the provinces of Cadiz, Huelva, Malaga and Almeria (South Iberian Peninsula were examined. Strandings were attended by members of the official stranding network of Andalusia. Fourteen of the specimens had no food remains in the stomachs: 9 striped dolphins, 2 common dolphins and 1 Risso´s dolphin. Prey remains consisted mostly of hard structures e.g. fish otoliths, bones and eye lenses, cephalopod jaws and eye lenses and crustaceans exoskeletons. These remains were identified using published guides (e.g. Clarke, 1986; Härkonen, 1986; Xavier & Cherel, 2009 and reference material available at the Centro Oceanográfico in Vigo of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO. Diet was characterised for each cetacean species using three standard indices, calculated for each category of prey and for group totals: the frequency of occurrence in the stomachs, the number of individuals and the reconstructed prey weight. These indices were also expressed as percentages to allow comparison between cetacean species and groups (e.g. dolphin sex and area of stranding. The results indicate that striped dolphins feed predominantly on small mesopelagic fish, mainly species of the Myctophidae family, although pearlsides (Maurolicus muelleri were also present. Significant numbers of gobies (Gobiidae were also found in the stomachs. Other prey identified were hake (Merluccius merluccius, silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus, bogue (Boops boops and scads (Trachurus spp.. Because of the degree of erosion of some otoliths they could not be identified to species level. Cephalopods were also found in the stomachs of striped dolphins with specimens of the families Brachioteuthidae

  7. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on FDG PET: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Seong Eun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-nine patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in our study. In all of them, FDG PET and gastrofibroscopy were performed within one week. One man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy was excluded. We reviewed 38 cases (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32{approx}79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. On interpretation of FDG PET scan, two nuclear physician evaluated five parameters on FDG-PET findings of stomach with a concensus : 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (SUVmax), 3) focality, 4) asymmetry, and 5) gross appearance. We correlated FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. On endoscopy, six of 38 patients were proven as gastric cancer, and others had inflammatory lesion (ulcer in 3, chronic gastritis in 12, uncommon from gastritis in 5) or benign noninflammatory lesions (polyp and varix in 3, and normal limit). On the visual analysis, FDG uptake of stomach cancer had the tendency of higher uptake than the other lesions. SUVmax of gastric cancer was 7.95{+-}4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9{+-}0.69 in ulcer, 3.08{+-}1.2 in chronic gastritis 3.2{+-}1.49 in uncommon from gastritis). In the appearance of stomach on PET, gastric cancer was shown as focal lesion (5 of 6), and those of benign inflammatory lesions were asymmetric (14 of 20), and diffuse (9 of 20). Some cases of chronic inflammatory lesions, such as ulcer, and chronic gastritis, showed focal appearance and mimicked cancerous lesion (4 of 15). On FDG PET, the lesions of stomach cancer had higher FDG uptake and focal appearance comparing with the other benign inflammatory lesions. However, ulcer, and chronic gastritis showed focal appearance on PET, which could be mimicked as cancerous

  8. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on FDG PET: correlation with endoscopic findings

    The purpose of our study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-nine patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in our study. In all of them, FDG PET and gastrofibroscopy were performed within one week. One man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy was excluded. We reviewed 38 cases (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32∼79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. On interpretation of FDG PET scan, two nuclear physician evaluated five parameters on FDG-PET findings of stomach with a concensus : 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (SUVmax), 3) focality, 4) asymmetry, and 5) gross appearance. We correlated FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. On endoscopy, six of 38 patients were proven as gastric cancer, and others had inflammatory lesion (ulcer in 3, chronic gastritis in 12, uncommon from gastritis in 5) or benign noninflammatory lesions (polyp and varix in 3, and normal limit). On the visual analysis, FDG uptake of stomach cancer had the tendency of higher uptake than the other lesions. SUVmax of gastric cancer was 7.95±4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9±0.69 in ulcer, 3.08±1.2 in chronic gastritis 3.2±1.49 in uncommon from gastritis). In the appearance of stomach on PET, gastric cancer was shown as focal lesion (5 of 6), and those of benign inflammatory lesions were asymmetric (14 of 20), and diffuse (9 of 20). Some cases of chronic inflammatory lesions, such as ulcer, and chronic gastritis, showed focal appearance and mimicked cancerous lesion (4 of 15). On FDG PET, the lesions of stomach cancer had higher FDG uptake and focal appearance comparing with the other benign inflammatory lesions. However, ulcer, and chronic gastritis showed focal appearance on PET, which could be mimicked as cancerous lesion on PET

  9. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in the expression levels of HPRT1 and 18S rRNA in 'normal-' versus 'tumor stomach tissues'. The stability analyses by geNorm suggest B2M-GAPDH, as best reference gene combination for 'stomach cancer cell lines'; RPL29-HPRT1, for 'all stomach tissues'; and ACTB-18S rRNA, for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. NormFinder also identified B2M as the best reference gene for 'stomach cancer cell lines', RPL29-B2M for 'all stomach tissues', and 18S rRNA-ACTB for 'all stomach cell lines and tissues'. The comparisons of normalized expression of the target gene, GPNMB, showed different interpretation of target gene expression depend on best single reference gene or combination. This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference

  10. Urinary metabonomics of stomach cancer assessed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    ZHANG Yan; REN Hui; JIANG Yang; GAO Yu-fei; LIU Shu-ying

    2013-01-01

    Background Stomach cancer is among the most commonly occurring malignancies worldwide.It would be beneficial to develop a urine-based assay whereby patients with undiagnosed stomach cancer could be screened and their cancer detected in the earliest stages.Methods A urinary metabonomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to analyze urine samples from patients with stomach cancer and healthy controls.Results Statistical analysis revealed a clear separation of patients and healthy controls using the aforementioned methodology.Some significantly changed metabolites were identified.Conclusions Use of the metabonomics method in patients with stomach cancer could effectively detect distinct changes in urinary metabolites and had the capacity to detect cancer; therefore,it may be a valuable tool in earlier diagnosis.Furthermore,the detection and identification of altered metabolites in the current study may help elucidate possible mechanisms involved in stomach cancer.

  11. Predicting ingestion times of individual prey from information about stomach contents of predatory fishes in the field

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to previous approaches, and incorporating interactions between individual prey in the stomach, the cylinder model of gastric evacuation predicted accurately the ingestion times of individual prey recovered from stomachs of predatory gadoids sampled in laboratory experiments. For appli......In contrast to previous approaches, and incorporating interactions between individual prey in the stomach, the cylinder model of gastric evacuation predicted accurately the ingestion times of individual prey recovered from stomachs of predatory gadoids sampled in laboratory experiments....... For application to field situations, estimates of the variance sigma(2)(tau) = (sigma(2)(tau,e) + sigma(2)(tau,m)) of the predicted time interval tau between prey ingestion and stomach sampling were obtained from generalised considerations about the errors of estimated gastric evacuation rate (sigma......, of the usefulness of the method in specific field studies on the feeding biology of predatory fishes. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. The Effects of Initial Symptoms on the Prognosis in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    Melisa Celayir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of initial symptoms on the prognosis in patients with stomach cancer. Methods: The study was carried out first retrospectively reviewing the records of patients with stomach cancer treated and followed up in Hamidiye Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Medical Oncology Clinic. Patients with stomach cancer admitted to our clinic from 2005 to 2014, followed up routinely, and with known final statuses were included in the present study. Initial symptoms of the patients were recorded, and the main symptom was identified in patients with multiple symptoms. Furthermore, demographic, clinical and pathological features of the patients were recorded, and survival analyses were performed based on the symptoms. Results: One hundred twenty nine stomach cancer cases were evaluated in the study. The median age was found to be 64 years. 69% of patients (n=89 were male and 31% (n=40 were female. The median survival was found to be 24.43 months (19.66-29.20. The initial complaint in 47% of patients (n=57 was dyspeptic problems, and in 39% (n=37 it was detected to be weight lose. While median survival was 7.57 months in patients complaining of weight loss, it was 26.19 months and 14 months in patients suffering from vomiting and bleeding, and in those with dyspepsia, respectively. Conclusion: Initial symptoms are directly correlated with survival in patients with stomach cancer. In our study, weight loss was the most significant prognostic symptom. If a patient complains of weight loss, the symptom should be taken into due consideration and prompt diagnostic interventions should be performed. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53: 241-5

  13. Solitary gastric Peutz-Jeghers type stomach polyp mimicking a malignant gastric tumor

    Jong-Shiaw Jin; Ji-Kuen Yu; Tang-Yi Tsao; Lien-Fu Lin

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of Peutz-Jeghers type polyps of the stomach are associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation and multiple intestinal polyposis.A solitary PeutzJeghers type polyp of the stomach is rare.We here report a case of a 71-year-old woman with a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach who presented with intolerable epigastric pain and weight loss of 5 kg over the prior two months.During the hospital treatment course for this patient,endoscopic examination revealed a bulging lesion with a central hole,mucosal ulceration,an asymmetrical wall thickness and a narrowing of the gastric lumen.A gastric biopsy further revealed ulceration with moderate dysplasia.The patient received endoscopic ultrasonography which showed a second subepithelial lesion that measured 4 cm × 3 cm.Computed tomography of the abdomen subsequently showed a thickened gastric wall with three visibly enlarged lymph nodes,all greater than 1 cm.The suspected diagnosis was malignant gastric cancer with lymph node metastases.The other lesion,which measured 2 cm × 2 cm × 1 cm was noted in the submucosa of the jejunum during surgery.The patient was treated using a subtotal gastrectomy and partial resection of the jejunal tumor.The final pathological report indicated a gastric Peutz-Jeghers type polyp with proliferation of smooth muscle bundles in the submucosal layer,and hyperplastic glands in the mucosal layer and ectopic pancreas of the jejunum.This is the first reported clinical case of a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type polyp of the stomach accompanying a lymph node enlargement and ectopic pancreas in the jejunum that simulates stomach cancer with lymph node metastases.

  14. Estimation of frequency, population doses and stochastic risks in stomach mass screening examinations in Japan, 1980

    The population doses and the stochastic risks from stomach photofluorographic examinations were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The annual number of photofluorographic examinations was 2.14 million for male and 1.96 million for female, with a total of 4.10 million. Organ or tissue doses related to the stochastic effects were determined with a phantom measurement using X-ray apparatuses of stomach mass screening. The average organ or tissue dose per full examination was evaluated from the experimental data by assuming mean technical factors such as X-ray tube voltage and body thickness of preson, based on the results of nationwide survey. The collective effective dose equivalent from stomach mass screening was 16, 135 man Sv, which was calculated according to the ICRP recommendation. The per Caput mean effective dose equivalent was 0.37 cSv for male and 0.42 for female, including skin cancer. The annual population doses were 1.8 Gy for genetically significant dose, 117 μGy for per Caput mean bone arrow dose, 100 μGy for leukemia significant dose and 79.4 μGy for malignant significant dose. The population risks, which were calculated using the population doses and risk factors of stochastic effects were 3 for genetic effects, 24 for leukemia and 153 for malignant diseases, respectively, for the whole population of Japan. The individual stochastic risks from photofluorographic examinations for stomach mass screening were lower than the risks from radiographic examination for stomach X-ray diagnosis. (author)

  15. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer in Urban Shanghai

    PingpingBao; LifengGao; DakeLiu; MenghuaTao; FanJin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the possible risk factors for stomach cancer among men and women in Shanghai, China. METHODS In urban Shanghai, in-person interviews were completed for 311 cases newly diagnosed with stomach cancer of ages 30-74. Data were collected from April 1999 to October 1999 and compared to 1579 population-based controls (controls in three cancer studies used together). Information on demographic variables, smoking, diet consumption and others was collected from all subjects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to adjust the possible factors. RESULTS Stomach cancer risk in men rose with smoking, eating hot and fried foods, chronic gastritis and a family history of gastric cancer among men; the risk among women was associated with the consumption of preserved,pickled and fried foods,heavy drinking, chronic gastritis, a history of ulcer disease and a family history of gastric cancer. A doseresponse relationship was found (trends test, P<0.01) among men smokers. In contrast, the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, beans (especially soybeans) and soy products, plant oil, and eggs and egg products, was inversely associated with stomach cancer risk. After adjustment of the potential confounding variables, these associations remained significant. CONCLUSIONS The present findings provide further evidence that smoking, eating salted foods (especially salted vegetables), oil-fried foods(including fried cereal, eggs, and peanuts), chronic gastritis, a family history of gastric cancer and so on increase the risk of stomach carcinoma in Shanghai. Fresh vegetables and fruits, beans and soybean products (even after adjusted for use of fresh vegetables and fruits), plant oil, and so on may have protective effects.

  16. Intestinal metaplasia in X-ray-irradiated rats as a model of differentiation of digestive tracts

    This review described the relationship between experimental intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer and the importance of stem cell present in the digestive tracts. Rat stomach was externally irradiated by X-ray generated by Shimadzu Shin-aigou with 200 kVp and the filter of 0.5 mm Cu+1.0 Al at the dose rate of 80 R/min. Total dose of 30 Gy, e.g., irradiation of 5 Gy/day every day and of 10 Gy/day every 3rd day, resulted in the formation of metaplasia and stomach cancer was observed in 10% animals after 1.5 years. The incidence of metaplasia and cancer varied with the irradiation conditions. There were strain difference in rats and species difference between rats and mice in the susceptibility in induction of the X-ray-metaplasia in the stomach. Stomach cancer from the metaplasia was not seen with the gastric carcinogen like methyl-nitrosourea but was seen with the large intestinal carcinogen like dimethylhydrazine, indicating that the stem cell in the metaplasia, since which having the character of intestinal cells and not of gastric cells, differentiated to cancer cells. Thus the importance of the stem cell in the stomach carcinogenesis was suggested. (K.H.)

  17. Discussion of Stomach Cancer Pain Treated from Liver%论胃癌疼痛从肝论治

    张晓妮; 李慧杰; 齐元富(指导)

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the physiological basis of TCM theory of liver and stomach ,respectively from the theory of viscera and anatomical basis,theory of five elements,theory of qi activity four aspects,to explore the mechanism of stomach cancer pain. And discuss liver-fire invading the stomach type,blood stasis of liver and stomach type,heat stagnation of liver and stomach type,incoordination between the liver and stomach type,phlegm and wet junction in several clinical often type respectively from the etiology and pathogenesis , clinical symptoms,prescription and medicine,etc,inquires into the feasibility of the treatment of the stomach cancer pain from liver.%从中医理论肝、胃的生理基础出发,分别从脏腑理论、解剖基础、五行理论、气机理论四个方面,探讨胃癌疼痛的病机,并针对肝气犯胃型、肝胃血瘀型、肝胃郁热型、肝胃不和型、痰湿内结型等临床常见证型,分别从病因病机、症状表现、潜方用药等方面多角度探讨从肝论治胃癌疼痛的可行性。

  18. Pathological Changes in Internal Organs after Blocking Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels along the Stomach Meridian in Pigs

    Wen-Ting Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The correlation between meridians and organs (Zang-fu is an important aspect of meridian theory. The objective of this paper is to investigate the pathological changes in the organs resulting from blocking low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC along the stomach meridian by injecting gel in pigs so as to offer some insight into the correlation between meridians and internal organs. Methods. Four white piglets and twelve black minipigs were divided into four batches and were observed in different periods. Each batch included two pairs of pigs and each pair matched two pigs with similar conditions among which gel was injected into 6~8 low hydraulic resistance points along the the stomach meridian in the experimental pig and the same amount of saline was injected into the same points in the control pig. The state of stomach and intestine was observed 6~10 weeks after the blocking model was developed. Results. The results showed that there were bloated stomach or/and intestine in all the experimental pigs while there were normal states in seven control pigs except one dead during the experiment. Conclusion. The findings confirmed that the blockage of LHRC along the stomach meridian can influence the state of stomach and intestine, leading to a distension on stomach or/and intestine.

  19. Molecular identification of prey in the stomach contents of Harp Seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) using species-specific oligonucleotides.

    Marshall, H D; Hart, K A; Yaskowiak, E S; Stenson, G B; McKinnon, D; Perry, E A

    2010-01-01

    All methods of diet analysis in marine mammals, including hard part analysis (HPA), have biases affecting the accuracy of prey-species identification and frequency in the estimated diet due to differential consumption, digestion and retention. Using PCR amplification of specific prey DNA with species-specific primers, we developed a DNA-based method that complements HPA and provides an alternative means to detect prey from stomach contents of Harp Seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus). The target size that could be reliably amplified was determined using a digestion time-series of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) tissue in simulated seal stomachs. Various target lengths were trialed using general teleost primers; amplicons of approximately 800 bp or less were consistently obtained. Prey species-specific PCR primers for Atlantic Cod, Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) and Capelin (Mallotus villosus) were designed and tested with DNA from the stomach contents of 31 Harp Seals. Amplicons were obtained for all three species-specific primer sets. Amplification results compared with HPA revealed: (i) Atlantic Cod hard parts were found in five stomachs where no Atlantic Cod DNA amplified, suggesting that Atlantic Cod may be over-represented in the estimated diet, (ii) amplification of Arctic Cod DNA occurred for 17 stomachs, including all 12 stomachs with, and five stomachs without, Arctic Cod hard parts, and (iii) Capelin DNA amplified for four of five stomachs with Capelin hard parts and for one stomach without Capelin hard parts. We conclude that PCR amplification of specific prey DNA provides a viable means to complement Harp Seal diet analysis by HPA, but suggest that valuable information for quantitative diet analysis rests in a quantitative PCR approach. PMID:21565007

  20. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  1. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Stomach and Small Bowel

    Published data suggest that the risk of moderately severe (≥Grade 3) radiation-induced acute small-bowel toxicity can be predicted with a threshold model whereby for a given dose level, D, if the volume receiving that dose or greater (VD) exceeds a threshold quantity, the risk of toxicity escalates. Estimates of VD depend on the means of structure segmenting (e.g., V15 = 120 cc if individual bowel loops are outlined or V45 = 195 cc if entire peritoneal potential space of bowel is outlined). A similar predictive model of acute toxicity is not available for stomach. Late small-bowel/stomach toxicity is likely related to maximum dose and/or volume threshold parameters qualitatively similar to those related to acute toxicity risk. Concurrent chemotherapy has been associated with a higher risk of acute toxicity, and a history of abdominal surgery has been associated with a higher risk of late toxicity.

  2. Radiological findings after transposition of the stomach for replacement of long oesophageal segments

    Lechner, G.; Roka, R.; Niederle, B.; Waneck, R.

    1982-10-01

    Thirty-seven patients, in whom the stomach had been transposed in order to replace a long segment of the oesophagus, were studied. Radiologically important early complications and the late results of this surgical technique were correlated. Twenty-five patients were observed radiologically and clinically for a period of three to 20 months. The study was directed at the morphology of the transposed stomach and of the anastomosis, and particularly at the problem of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Knowledge of the operation site is essential for evaluating the transplant (pleura defect). Radiological examination is the most suitable method for evaluating the cervical extra-thoracic anastomosis in the early post-operative phase (six to ten days). It is also effective at a later stage for the early recognition of fibrotic stenosis which will require treatment. An attempt has been made to define an ideal situation following gastric transposition which will usually correspond with a good clinical result.

  3. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach - proper identification and treatment remain a challenge.

    Søreide, Jon Arne; Greve, Ole Jacob; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Størset, Svein

    2016-06-01

    Objective The term hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) of the stomach was introduced three decades ago with the observation of high serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in some gastric adenocarcinoma patients. This very rare gastric cancer patient subgroup is likely frequently misdiagnosed. Material Two patients who were recently diagnosed with HAC of the stomach at our institution are presented. We also performed a structured literature search and reviewed pertinent articles to provide knowledge to improve the proper identification, diagnosis and management of patients with gastric HAC. Results HAC is a rare subgroup of gastric carcinoma with poor prognosis. Clinical management of this population may be challenging. The scientific literature is largely based on very small patient series or case reports, and the evidence for proper decision making and management is considered weak. Conclusion All physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with gastric cancer should pay attention to this rare subgroup to improve identification. PMID:26728165

  4. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  5. Precision of ingestion time and evacuation predictors for individual prey in stomachs of predatory fishes

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Without evaluating precision, gastric evacuation models in combination with stomach data are widely used to investigate the feeding biology of wild predatory fishes. Assuming each predator individual to operate with its own evacuation rate parameter, the precision of estimated ingestion times for...... individual prey in the stomachs of predatory fishes was derived in this study. This way, the variability of gastric evacuation not accounted for by a deterministic model of gastric evacuation was described. The variability of initial body mass of ingested prey was included as well. General values 0.03 and 0...... whiting (Merlangius merlangus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and saithe (pollock) (Pollachius virens). Deriving the variance of gastric evacuation rate, evacuation time, and remaining prey mass, the study also established a basis for statistical analyses of the results obtained from laboratory experiments...

  6. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM. (letters)

  7. Endoscopic and ultrasound diagnostics as contemporary method in diagnostics of dog stomach diseases

    Krstić Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The visualization of pathological processes in the dog stomach determines a correct diagnosis or differential diagnosis, which presents the basic prerequisite for rational therapy. In addition to the conventional type of clinical examination which covers the taking of anamnestic data, observation of the patient and laboratory tests, there are also certain computerized diagnostic methods (magnetic resonance and scanner which are the most precise and most reliable in the verification of stomach diseases. However, the listed approaches are either insufficiently relevant in making the diagnosis or are too expensive and demanding for the everyday clinical practice. These are the reasons why veterinary medicine today increasingly resorts to the use of other forms of imaging diagnostics, and, as its representatives, the video endoscopic, ultrasound and X-ray examination of the digestive tract.

  8. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine.

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacious for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  9. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted.

  10. Radiological findings after transposition of the stomach for replacement of long oesophageal segments

    Thirty-seven patients, in whom the stomach had been transposed in order to replace a long segment of the oesophagus, were studied. Radiologically important early complications and the late results of this surgical technique were correlated. Twenty-five patients were observed radiologically and clinically for a period of three to 20 months. The study was directed at the morphology of the transposed stomach and of the anastomosis, and particularly at the problem of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Knowledge of the operation site is essential for evaluating the transplant (pleura defect). Radiological examination is the most suitable method for evaluating the cervical extra-thoracic anastomosis in the early post-operative phase (six to ten days). It is also effective at a later stage for the early recognition of fibrotic stenosis which will require treatment. An attempt has been made to define an ideal situation following gastric transposition which will usually correspond with a good clinical result. (orig.)

  11. Helicobacter spp. in the saliva, stomach, duodenum and faeces of colony dogs.

    Ekman, E; Fredriksson, M; Trowald-Wigh, G

    2013-01-01

    The role of Helicobacter spp. infection in canine gastrointestinal disease is unclear and routes of transmission are of epidemiological and zoonotic importance. The aim of this study was to identify Helicobacter spp. in the saliva, stomach, duodenum and faeces of dogs using a multiplex PCR, and to evaluate any attendant histopathological changes. Helicobacter canis was the most common species detected in saliva and faeces and no correlation between the presence of Helicobacter spp. and histopathological changes in either the stomach or duodenum was observed. All dogs examined were co-infected with up to four species of the organism. This is the first time these bacteria have been studied at species level at multiple sites within the canine alimentary tract. PMID:22683393

  12. Investigation of the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: The role of percutaneous endoscopy

    Kanwar RS Gill; J Mark McKinney; Mark E Stark; Ernest P Bouras

    2008-01-01

    Accessing the bypassed portion of the stomach via conventional endoscopy is difficult following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. However, endoscopic examination of the stomach and small bowel is possible through percutaneous access into the bypassed stomach (BS) with a combined radiologic and endoscopic technique. We present a case of obscure overt gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding where the source of bleeding was thought to be from the BS. After conventional endoscopic methods failed to examine the BS, percutaneous endoscopy (PE) was used as an alternative to surgical exploration.

  13. Design and Evaluation of Stomach-Specific Drug Delivery of Domperidone using Floating Pectin Beads

    K.Varun Kumar; P. Srikanth Choudary; Ajaykumar. B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of present study was to develop floating beads of Domperidone (DOM) in order to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa, improve patient compliance and obtain improved therapeutic efficacy. They are prepared by extrusion congealing technique with pectin as a polymer. Floating beads were characterized by polymer compatibility by using FT-IR. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content, e...

  14. Glomus tumour of the stomach: an unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleeding

    Diaz-Zorrilla, Carmina; Grube-Pagola, Peter; Remes-Troche, Jose María; Ramos-De la Medina, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Glomus tumours are a rare type of subepithelial mesenchymal tumours that present in deep visceral organs such as the stomach, which are difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with diabetes who presented with anaemia, abdominal pain and melena diagnosed preoperatively with a gastric glomus tumour initially misdiagnosed as a gastric ulcer located at the lesser curvature. Upon referral to our centre a repeat endoscopy and biopsy were performed. A partial gastrectomy was p...

  15. A histomorphological study of regional lymphnodes in carcinomas of breast, stomach and colon.

    Britto C; Geethanjali S; Rameshkumar K

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Immune response plays an important role in the interaction between malignant neoplasms and their host, which is reflected as histologic changes in the lymph nodes draining tumours. MATERIAL: 641 regional lymph nodes from 64 primary carcinomas of breast, stomach and colon were examined to assess such a response. METHODS: The lymphnodes were classified into one of the following histological patterns--lymphocyte predominance (LP), germinal centre predominance (GCP), lymphocyte depl...

  16. Heterotopic Pancreas in the Stomach: A Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature

    Uday A Gokhale; Annu Nanda; Rajasekharan Pillai; Dhia Al-Layla

    2010-01-01

    Context Heterotopic pancreas is the presence of pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is a rare condition and can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract with the stomach and the small bowel being the most common sites. It is usually asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally. Case report We report the case of a 48-year-old Omani female who presented with recurrent epigastric pain. Endoscopy revealed a sessile mass in the antrum which was s...

  17. REMOVAL OF 123 NAILS FROM STOMACH OF A SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENT: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is a commonly seen incident in emergency room , usually in children , mentally impaired and alcoholics. We are presenting a case of 48 year old schizophrenic male patient who ingested 123 iron nails requiring surgical removal. The interesting feature was absence of any serious complication even after 2 years of continuous ingestion of nails. In our knowledge this was the third heaviest ingestion of metallic nails from stomach in last 10 year literatur e.

  18. Stomach contents of sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus stranded in the North Sea 1990-1996

    Santos, M. B.; Pierce, G.J.; Boyle, P.R. (Peter R.); Reid, R.J.; Ross, H. M.; Patterson, I. A. P.; Kinze, C.C.; S. Tougaard; Lick, R.; Piatkowski, Uwe; Hernandez-García, V.

    1999-01-01

    Stomach contents of 17 sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus stranded in Scotland and Denmark during 1990-96 were analysed. All were sub-adult or adult males and stranded between November and March. They had presumably entered the North Sea during their southward migration from feeding grounds in Arctic waters. Other studies indicate that the majority of the whales were apparently healthy. The diet of these whales was found to consist almost entirely of cephalopods, principally squid of the gen...

  19. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    E Prabhakar Reddy; V Seshadri Reddy; K. CHANDRA MOULI; PVLN Srinivasa Rao

    2010-01-01

    Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA) and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS) and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid pero...

  20. Histology of the mucosa of the oesophagogastric junction and the stomach in adult Rana perezi.

    Gallego-Huidobro, J; Pastor, L M

    1996-01-01

    The histological structure of the frog digestive mucosa changes at the oesophagogastric junction. The pseudostratified ciliated mucosal epithelium of oesophageal type changes to a simple mucus-secreting epithelium of gastric type. The glands straighten and the muscularis mucosae develops as a complete layer. The muscularis increases in thickness. Unlike the mammalian stomach, in the frog the surface of the plicae forms convoluted ridges that delimit furrow-shaped pits. Two types of gastric gl...

  1. An analysis of the physiological FDG uptake in the stomach with the water gastric distention method

    Physiological FDG uptake in the stomach is a common phenomenon, especially noted at the cardia. Water intake just before scanning will result in gastric distention and thinning of the gastric wall, which in turn may lead to a reduction in the physiological uptake in the gastric wall. In the current study, we investigated whether gastric distention by water intake just before PET imaging reduces physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. The patient population comprised 60 patients who underwent whole-body FDG-PET imaging for cancer screening following gastroscopy performed within the preceding week. All patients took 400 ml of water for hydration and were administered 185 MBq of FDG intravenously. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a group with additional water intake (AW group; n = 30) and a group without additional water intake (NW group; n = 30). In the AW group, an additional 400 ml of water was given just before PET imaging. For quantitative analysis, the stomach was classified into three areas [upper (U), middle (M) and lower (L)], and the degree of FDG uptake in each area was evaluated using standardised uptake values (SUVs). In the NW group, the mean SUVs in the U, M and L areas were 2.41 ± 0.75, 2.28 ± 0.73 and 1.61 ± 0.89, respectively, while in the AW group they were 1.82 ± 0.66, 1.73 ± 0.56 and 1.48 ± 0.49, respectively, and 2.21 ± 0.38 in the oesophago-gastric junction. The mean SUVs in the U and M areas in the AW group were significantly lower than those in the NW group (p < 0.05). Additional water intake just before PET imaging is an effective method for suppressing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. (orig.)

  2. An analysis of the physiological FDG uptake in the stomach with the water gastric distention method

    Kamimura, Kiyohisa [Fujimoto Hayasuzu Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miyazaki (Japan); Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujita, Seigo; Yano, Tatsuhiko; Ogita, Mikio; Umemura, Yoshiro; Fujimoto, Toshiro [Fujimoto Hayasuzu Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishii, Ryuichi; Wakamatsu, Hideyuki; Nagamachi, Shigeki [Miyazaki Medical College, Department of Radiology, Miyazaki (Japan); Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Physiological FDG uptake in the stomach is a common phenomenon, especially noted at the cardia. Water intake just before scanning will result in gastric distention and thinning of the gastric wall, which in turn may lead to a reduction in the physiological uptake in the gastric wall. In the current study, we investigated whether gastric distention by water intake just before PET imaging reduces physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. The patient population comprised 60 patients who underwent whole-body FDG-PET imaging for cancer screening following gastroscopy performed within the preceding week. All patients took 400 ml of water for hydration and were administered 185 MBq of FDG intravenously. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a group with additional water intake (AW group; n = 30) and a group without additional water intake (NW group; n = 30). In the AW group, an additional 400 ml of water was given just before PET imaging. For quantitative analysis, the stomach was classified into three areas [upper (U), middle (M) and lower (L)], and the degree of FDG uptake in each area was evaluated using standardised uptake values (SUVs). In the NW group, the mean SUVs in the U, M and L areas were 2.41 {+-} 0.75, 2.28 {+-} 0.73 and 1.61 {+-} 0.89, respectively, while in the AW group they were 1.82 {+-} 0.66, 1.73 {+-} 0.56 and 1.48 {+-} 0.49, respectively, and 2.21 {+-} 0.38 in the oesophago-gastric junction. The mean SUVs in the U and M areas in the AW group were significantly lower than those in the NW group (p < 0.05). Additional water intake just before PET imaging is an effective method for suppressing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses...

  4. Differences in relative volume and weight of stomach among four free living ruminants

    Kamler, Jiří; Dvořák, J.; Kamlerová, K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2003), s. 33-39. ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : feeding strategies * stomach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_033.pdf

  5. Detection of expressed IL-32 in human stomach cancer using ELISA and immunostaining.

    Seo, Eun-Hee; Kang, Jeongwoo; Kim, Ki-Hong; Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Sojung; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Eun-Jin; Park, Dong-Ki; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Yang Kyu; Kim, Jin Man; Hong, Jin Tae; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently identified proinflammatory cytokine that is one of the IL-18 inducible genes, and plays an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We produced antibodies against IL-32 and studied the expression of IL-32 in human stomach cancer. We detected IL-32 secreted from K-562 cells that werw stably transfected with IL-32 and in the sera of stomach cancer patients, by a sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody KU32-52 and a polyclonal antibody. In order to optimize a sandwich immunoassay, recombinant IL-32alpha was added, followed by the addition of a biotinylated KU32-52 into microtiter plate wells precoated with a goat anti-IL-32 antibody. The bound biotinylated KU32-52 was probed with a streptavidin conjugated to HRP. This sandwich ELISA was highly specific and had a minimal detection limit of 80 pg/ml (mean+/-SD of zero calibrator) and measuring up to 3,000 pg/ml. This ELISA showed no cross-reaction with other cytokines such as hIL-1alpha, hIL-1beta, hIL-2, hIL-6, hIL-8, hIL-10, hIL-18, and hTNF-alpha. Intra-assay coefficients of variation were 18.5% to 4.6% (n=10), and inter-assay coefficients were 23% to 9% (n=10). The average IL-32 level in the sera of 16 stomach cancer patients (189 pg/ml) was higher than that of 12 healthy control men (109 pg/ml). Our results indicate that serum IL-32 level can be detected by using an established ELISA, and that this immunoassay and mAb KU32-09 specific for immunohistochemistry can be used in the detection of expressed and secreted IL- 32 in stomach cancer patients. PMID:18852519

  6. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I; Trenczek, Tina E; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  7. Effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on cholinergically mediated contractions of human isolated stomach muscle.

    Sanger, G J

    1985-09-01

    The experiments examine the actions of metoclopramide and domperidone on the responses evoked by electrical field stimulation or by acetylcholine, in longitudinal muscle strips obtained from human stomach. Electrical field stimulation evoked contractions which were predominantly cholinergically mediated; metoclopramide 0.28-28 microM caused a concentration-dependent increase in the height of these contractions. In the presence of atropine and barium chloride, electrical stimulation evoked relaxations of the stomach muscle, probably by stimulating non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves; metoclopramide 28 microM had no effect on these relaxations. Metoclopramide 0.003-2.8 microM had no effect on contractions evoked by exogenous acetylcholine, although higher concentrations of the drug increased the contractions. The results suggest that in human isolated stomach, low concentrations of metoclopramide may increase electrically evoked cholinergic activity by increasing the release of neuronal acetylcholine. Stimulation by metoclopramide of cholinergic activity in the gut may therefore be an important mechanism by which the drug increases gastrointestinal motility during therapy. Cholinergically mediated contractions were not increased by domperidone, and other mechanism(s) of action may therefore be important for this drug. PMID:2867191

  8. Successful en bloc resection of primary hepatocellular carcinoma directly invading the stomach and pancreas

    Dimitris P Korkolis; Chrysanthi Aggeli; George D Plataniotis; Emmanuel Gontikakis; Helen Zerbinis; Nikitas Papantoniou; Dimitris Xinopoulos; Nikiforos Apostolikas; Perikles P Vassilopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Multivisceral surgical resection for cure was successfully performed in a 70-year-old man suffering from a primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with direct invasion to the stomach and pancreas. The patient presented with gastric outlet obstruction, upper abdominal pain and a history of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy revealed an infiltrating tumor protruding through the gastric wall and obliterating the lumen. Computer tomograghy (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated a 15-cm tumor in the left lateral segment of the liver with invasion to the stomach and pancreas. AIpha-foetoprotein (AFP) levels and liver function tests were normal. The patient underwent an en bloc left hepatectomy, total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and radical lymphadenectomy. Pathology revealed a poorly differentiated, giant cell HCC involving the stomach and pancreas. Disease-free margins of resection were achieved. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Sixteen months after surgery, he has no recurrence or distal metastasis. Direct invasion of HCC into the GI tract is rarely encountered. Complete surgi cal resection should be considered in selected patients with an appropriate hepatic functional reserve.

  9. Expressions of cyclin D1 and p27kip1 in carcinogenesis of stomach mucosa

    Qunqing Liu; Guiying Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the expressions of cyclin D1 and p27kipl in the canceration course of the stomach.Methods: The immunohistochemical staining technique (SP method) was used to detect the expressions of cyclin D1, p27kip1 in chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia (DYS), gastric carcinoma (GCA) biopsy specimens.Results: The positive cyclin D1 expression rates increased with the progressing from CAG→IM→DYS→GCA respectively, and those in IM, DYS and GCA were different from those in CSG, P<0.05, while DYS group was indifferent from GCA group, P>0.05.The positive p27k'pl expression rates decreased with the mucosa progressing from CAG→IM→DYS→GCA.There was a negative correlation between the expression cyclin D1 and p27kip1 (y=-0.53, P=0.000).Conclusion: Expression rates of cyclin D1 in the canceration course of the stomach mucosa trend were increased and those of p27kip1 were decreased; the abnormal expressions of them were found in the early term of the canceration course of the stomach mucosa, and the inverse expression suggests there may be a negative feedback regulatory loop between cyclin D1 and p27kip1.

  10. STOMACH-SPECIFIC MUCOADHESIVE NANOPARTICLES AS A CONTROLLED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    SINGHAI AKHLESH KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientific and technological advancement have been made in the rate controlled oral drug delivery system by overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence time (GRT and unpredictable gastric emptying time (GET. So an interest increased towards novel dosage forms, that can retained in the stomach for a prolonged and predictable period of time. The concept of such novel dosage forms is to decrease the GI transit rate of the drug delivery system by attachment to the mucus layer, thereby increasing the overall time for drug absorption. A further advantage of such delivery systems is that the drug no longer must diffuse through the luminal contents in order to reach the mucosal epithelium. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of stomach specific mucoadhesive nanoparticles for drug delivery to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing side effects. Here we have discussed about concept of gastric emptying, absorption window, potential drug candidates, technological development evaluation and applications for stomach-specific mucoadhesive nanoparticles. Marketed products for oral nanoparticulate drug delivery systems are also discussed in this review.

  11. Serum biomarker tests are useful in delineating between patients with gastric atrophy and normal, healthy stomach

    Katsunori Iijima; Yasuhiko Abe; Ryosuke Kikuchi; Tomoyuki Koike; Shuichi Ohara; Pentti Sipponen; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the value of serum biomarker tests to differentiate between patients with healthy or diseased stomach mucosa: i.e. those with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis or atrophic gastritis, who have a high risk of gastric cancer or peptic ulcer diseases.METHODS: Among 162 Japanese outpatients, pepsinogenⅠ(PgⅠ) and Ⅱ(Pg Ⅱ) were measuredusing a conventional Japanese technique, and the European GastroPanel examination (PgⅠand Pg Ⅱ,gastrin-17 and H pylori antibodies). Gastroscopy with gastric biopsies was performed to classify the patients into those with healthy stomach mucosa, H pylori nonatrophic gastritis or atrophic gastritis. RESULTS: Pg Ⅰ and Pg Ⅱ assays with the GastroPanel and the Japanese method showed a highly significant correlation. For methodological reasons, however, serum Pg Ⅰ, but not Pg Ⅱ, was twice as high with the GastroPanel test as with the Japanese test.The biomarker assays revealed that 5% of subjects had advanced atrophic corpus gastritis which was also verified by endoscopic biopsies. GastroPanel examination revealed an additional seven patients who had either advanced atrophic gastritis limited to the antrum or antrum-predominant H pylori gastritis.When compared to the endoscopic biopsy findings,the GastroPanel examination classified the patients into groups with "healthy" or "diseased" stomach mucosa with 94% accuracy, 95% sensitivity and 93% specificity.CONCLUSION: Serum biomarker tests can be used to differentiate between subjects with healthy and diseased gastric mucosa with high accuracy.

  12. Stereomicroscopic and ultrastructural characterization of propionitrile-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1978-01-01

    Acute duodenal ulcer produced by subcutaneous injection of propionitrile in rats was studied by stereo, light, and electron microscopy in order to gain insight into the localization and mechanism of initial cell injury. Stereomicroscopy revealed an initial fissuring and splitting of the tips of t...... from the stomach....

  13. Effect of gastrin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Olsen, P S

    1990-01-01

    Gastrin has been shown to be an important trophic hormone for the mucosa of the stomach and the proximal intestine. In the present study the effect of gastrin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats was investigated. After partial hepatectomy a significant rise in the concentration...

  14. First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat.

    SMITH, T; DeMaster, E G; Furne, J K; Springfield, J; Levitt, M D

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol metabolism by gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral ethanol time-concentration curves (AUCs) in rats and humans. We quantitated this metabolism in rats by measuring the gastric absorption of oral ethanol (0.25 g/kg) and the gastric venous-arterial (V-A) difference of ethanol versus ethanol metabolites (acetate, acetaldehyde, and bicarbonate). Over 1 h, approximately 20% of the ethanol was absorbed from the stomach and 70% was empti...

  15. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat

    Nabi Shariatifar; Shahram Shoeibi; Moslem Jaferi Sani; Amir Hossein Jamshidi; Ali Zarei; Abbas Mehdizade; Manouchehr Dadgarnejad

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as...

  16. The effect of various drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in immobilized rats

    Schramm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments related to the importance of functional disorders in the central nervous system in connection with stomach diseases were performed on Wistar rats. Assuming that severe mental strains may be triggering factors for such disorders, testing of the effects of different drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in these rats was done. The immobilization method described by Bonfils was used. Particular importance was placed on the sex related difference which appeared.

  17. Comparison of Gastroprotective Effects of Triphala Formulations on Stress-induced Ulcer in Rats

    Nariya, M. B.; Shukla, V. J.; B Ravishankar; S M Jain

    2011-01-01

    Triphala is categorized as rejuvenator and traditionally been used in various gastric disorders including intestinal inflammation. The aim of present study was to examine the comparative gastroprotective effects of Triphala formulations against experimental gastric ulcer in rats to substantiate its traditional claim. Gastric ulcer was induced by water immersion plus stress-induced ulcers in rats. The drug effects were assessed by studying macroscopic gross injury and stomach tissue biochemica...

  18. 《脾胃论》中从肝论治脾胃思想探究%Discuss Theory of Treatment through Liver to Spleen-stomach Diseases in Treatise on Spleen and Stomach

    吴庆和; 叶焕文

    2011-01-01

    《脾胃论》是脾胃学说的代表作,其详细阐述了脾胃疾病的辨证论治,对脾胃病系诊治产生了深远的影响,现其理论和方剂仍广泛运用于临床.但是《脾胃论》并没有系统论述“从肝论治脾胃”的重要观点,作者就此进行系统整理.%Treatise on Spleen and Stomach is the representative classic of theory of Spleen-stomach, which describes the syndrome differentiation and treatment of Spleen-stomach diseases in detail, and which gets an deep affect on diagnosis and treatment of Spleen-stomach diseases, and the theories and prescriptions recorded in which are still used at clinic widely. But, Treatise on Spleen and Stomach doesn't discuss the important view of "treatment through Liver to Spleen-stomach diseases" systematically, the author tries to collect the points from the book.

  19. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  20. A comparative analysis of double-crested cormorant diets from stomachs and pellets from two Lake Ontario colonies

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) diets were compared with evidence from the stomachs of shot birds and from regurgitated pellets at High Bluff Island and Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario. The highest similarity in diets determined by stomach and pellet analyses occurred when both samples were collected on the same day. Diet overlap dropped substantially between the two methods when collection periods were seven to ten days apart, which suggested differences in prey availability between the two periods. Since the average number of fish recovered in pellets was significantly higher than that in stomachs, use of pellets to determine fish consumption of double-crested cormorants may be more valid than stomach analysis because pellet content represent an integrated sampling of food consumed over approximately 24 hours.

  1. Effects of ingestion of cold and hot water on the course of thermal changes in the stomach and intestine

    Batinkov, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    With the use of a thermocouple and mirror galvanometer, calibrated before the experiment and after each test, it was found that the normal temperature in the esophagus is 0.1-0.4 C higher than in the oral cavity, the temperature in the duodenum is somewhat less than in the stomach, but higher with cholecystitis, duodenitis or gastritis, the temperature in the normal stomach equals or is somewhat higher than in the esophagus, and that the temperature of distended stomachs frequently is lower than in the esophagus. It was found that hot water is retained in the stomach longer than cold water, and that both hot and cold water are allowed to pass into the duodenum when the water temperature becomes approximately equal to that of the surrounding organs.

  2. Quantitative measurement of duodeno-gastral reflux with 99mTc-HIDA in the framework of stomach secretion analysis

    99m Tc HIDA was put into use first under standardized conditions in the framework of routinely carried out stomach secretion analyses in order to study the importance of bile reflux in stomach disorders. With this procedure a simple possibility is given in the area of stomach secretion analysis to test if there is a bile reflux to the stomach. Patients with fresh duodenal ulcers had significantly higher reflux rates than those with chronic Ulcus duodeni. After selective proximal vagotomy with submucal pyloro plastic the reflux rates sank in comparison to those before the operation. The color of the aspirate and the reflux values, measured by the here presented procedure, are directly correlated. (TRV)

  3. Diet of invasive lionfish on hard bottom reefs of the Southeast USA: insights from stomach contents and stable isotopes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents and stable isotope analyses were used to determine the diet of lionfish in the warm-temperate hard bottom reef community in theSoutheast US...

  4. Decomposition of wheat bran and ispaghula husk in the stomach and the small intestine of healthy men

    Andersen, J R; Bukhave, K; Højgaard, L;

    1988-01-01

    for monosaccharides, either free or fiber-bound, by gas-liquid chromatography. Both types of fiber were hydrolyzed in the stomach, but not in the small bowel. Of ispaghula husk, 1-6% was hydrolyzed, as was 5-8% of wheat bran. Intestinal absorption of free arabinose was 85-93%, but excretion of arabinose in the urine......Decomposition of dietary fibers in the stomach and small bowel was studied in 13 healthy male volunteers. Liquid control meals were compared with test meals, which in addition contained a source of fiber (wheat bran or ispaghula husk) in random order. Aspirations were collected from the stomach...... was not greater than after control meals. For further evaluation of gastric hydrolysis six additional healthy male volunteers were studied by serial aspirations from the antral part of the stomach. Hydrolysis was instantaneous for both fibers, and was significantly more pronounced for wheat bran than...

  5. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was us...

  6. Stomach content analysis of juvenile, scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini captured off the coast of Mazatlan, Mexico

    Torres Rojas, Yassir E.; Hernández Herrera, Agustin; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Alatorre Ramírez, Vanessa Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    We quantified the diet of juvenile, scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini in the area off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, to understand their feeding ecology this shark. The prey species of Sphyrna lewini were identified and quantified from stomach content analysis. In addition, we determined the variations between genders. During two fishing seasons (2000–2001 and 2001–2002), we analyzed 232 stomachs, of which 85% contained food. The trophic spectrum was composed of three species of cephalopo...

  7. Comparing Cystatin C Changes as a Measure of Renal Function Before and After Radiotherapy in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    Ahmad Ameri; Asadollah Alidoosti; Khosro Mojir Sheybani; Farnaz Taslimi; Morteza Tabatabaiefar; Maryam Mirzaie Moghadam; Hooshang Amir Rasouli; Pedram Fadavi; Shahrzad Aref

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare Cystatin C changes before and after radiotherapy in patients with stomach cancer who were candidate for radiotherapy. This study was conducted as a prospective cohort one. Eighteen patients with definite diagnosis of stomach cancer under treatment by radiotherapy who presented to Radiotherapy-Oncology Center of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran-Iran, and the treatment in all cases was simultaneous chemoradiation with Xeloda were included. I...

  8. DBiochemical effect of Ginko biloba extract on carbohydrate metabolism in (induced type two diabetic rats

    Omayma A.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761 has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5000 years that possesses various biological activities and has been shown to be useful in diabetes treatment. This study was carried out on 120, 12-14 weeks old male rats and weighted 150-200 gm. Rats were classified into two main large experiments. Experiment 1: Non-diabetic rats Included 40 of normal male rats were divided into two groups each one comprises 20 rats kept in separate metal cages and classified as follows: Group 1: Non-diabetic rats were administered with 0.2 ml of normal saline only (control group.Group 2:Non-diabetic rats were received (GBE (120 mg/kg, given orally by stomach tube and daily for 6 weeks.Experiment 2: Diabetic rats "STZ group" Included 80 male diabetic rats were divided into four groups each one comprises 20 rats kept in a separate metal cages and classified as follows: Group 1: Diabetic rats were administered with 0.2 ml of normal saline only (diabetic control group.Group 2: Diabetic rats were received (GBE (120 mg/kg, given orally by stomach tube and daily for 6 weeks. Group 3: Diabetic rats were received glimepiride (20mg/kg, given orally by stomach tube and daily for 6 weeks. Group 4: Diabetic rats received glimepiride in combination with (GBE, given orally by stomach tube and daily (1:1 for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all animals groups after 3 and 6 weeks from treatment. Serum were separated and processed directly for (glucose, Lactate, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, Minerals (Na+, K+, Ca++, L-MDA concentration-(insulin, Glucagon, Testosterone levels- (AST and ALT activities were the parameters of biochemical interest investigated. The obtained results revealed that, a significant increase in serum glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, ALT, AST, L-MDA concentration. On contrary, a significant decrease in serum lactate, insulin, glucagon, testosterone, Na+, K+, Ca++ levels were observed in

  9. Gastric, intestinal and colonic absorption of metoprolol in the rat

    Doménech, J.; M. Alba; Morera, J. M.; Obach, R.; Delfina, J. M. Plá

    1985-01-01

    1 The absorption of metoprolol from the stomach, small intestine and colon of anaesthetized rats has been evaluated using an in situ technique. Absorption rates were measured in terms of the rate of disappearance of metoprolol fumarate from the lumen between 5 and 30 min after dosing. Adsorption was estimated from the initial rapid fall in luminal content within the first 5 min after drug administration.

  10. The Possible Therapeutic Role of Vitamin Eand Curcumin on Hepato gastric Carcinoma in Rats

    The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that vitamin E and curcumin may block free radical formation thus, preventing liver injury induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NED) in rats. In this study, adult male rats were divided into five groups; control group, rats treated with 200 mg NED/100 g and served as cancer rats (HGC), rats with hepato gastric carcinoma plus vitamin E which were injected intraperitoneal with 30 mg vitamin E dissolved in 10% sucrose for one month (HGC+E), rats with hepato gastric carcinoma plus curcumin which were treated orally with 100 mg curcumin/100 g for one month (HGC+Cur) and rats with hepato gastric carcinoma plus vitamin E plus curcumin which were treated as the same last groups (HGC+ E+Cur). In HGC group, a significant increase was observed in serum tumour markers (CEA, AFP and CA19.9) as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and stomach while significant decrease was reported in GSH and GPx in blood, liver and stomach. Similarly, a remarkable decrease in cytochrome P450 level in the rats with hepato gastric carcinoma was recorded as compared to those of the normal control group. It could be concluded that treatment of the rats with hepato gastric carcinoma with vitamin E and curcumin showed significant amelioration in all previous parameters

  11. Rare Helicobacter pylori Infection May Explain Low Stomach Cancer Incidence: Ecological Observations in Bali, Indonesia.

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mulyadi, I Ketut; Moestikaningsih; Oka, Tjok Gede; Soeripto; Triningsih, Fx Ediati; Triyono, Teguh; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Hosono, Akihiro; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence rate of stomach cancer in Bali, Indonesia, is estimated to be strikingly lower than that in Japan. We conducted an on-site ecological study to investigate the association between the stomach cancer incidence and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Recruiting 291 healthy persons (136 men and 155 women) from the general population in Bali, Indonesia, we conducted a urea breath test (UBT) to examine H. pylori infection, along with a pepsinogen test to detect chronic atrophic gastritis and urine analysis to estimate sodium and potassium excretion. UBT positivities were 9% (2-15, 95% confidence interval) for men and 7% (1-12) for women, and positive cases for H. pylori IgG antibodies were 1% (0-3) for men and 3% (0-5) for women, significantly lower than the respective values in Japan. Positive pepsinogen tests in Bali were 0% (0-0) for men and 1% (0-4) for women, also significantly lower than the Japanese figures. Computed values for daily salt excretion were 13.3±4.1 g (mean ± SD) for men and 11.1±3.1 g for women, as high as corresponding Japanese consumption values. Moreover, the estimated potassium excretion was 3.2±0.7 g for men and 2.8±0.6 g for women in Bali, significantly higher than the figures in Japan. There were no associations across genetic polymorphisms of IL-beta, TNF-alpha, and PTPN11 with UBT positivity. The low incidence of stomach cancer in Bali may thus mainly be due to the rare H. pylori infection. Namely, the bacterium infection seems to be a critical factor for gastric cancer rather than host or other environmental factors. PMID:27039823

  12. Dietary polyphenols generate nitric oxide from nitrite in the stomach and induce smooth muscle relaxation

    Nitrite, considered a biological waste and toxic product, is being regarded as an important physiological molecule in nitric oxide (·NO) biochemistry. Because the interaction of dietary phenolic compounds and nitrite would be kinetically (due to the high concentrations achieved) and thermodynamically (on basis of the redox potentials) feasible in the stomach, we have studied the potential reduction of nitrite by polyphenols present in several dietary sources. By measuring the time courses of ·NO production in simulated gastric juice (pH 2), the efficiency of the compounds studied is as follows: Epicatechin-3-O-gallate > quercetin > procyanidin B8 dimer > oleuropein > procyanidin B2 dimer > chlorogenic acid > epicatechin > catechin > procyanidin B5 dimer. The initial rates of ·NO production fall in a narrow range (ca. 1-5 μM s-1) but the distinct kinetics of the decay of ·NO signals suggest that competition reactions for ·NO are operative. The proof of concept that, in the presence of nitrite, phenol-containing dietary products induce a strong increase of ·NO in the stomach was established in an in vivo experiment with healthy volunteers consuming lettuce, onions, apples, wine, tea, berries and cherries. Moreover, selected mixtures of oleuropein and catechin with low nitrite (1 μM) were shown to induce muscle relaxation of stomach strips in a structure-dependent way. Data presented here brings strong support to the concept that polyphenols consumed in a variety of dietary products, under gastric conditions, reduce nitrite to ·NO that, in turn, may exert a biological impact as a local relaxant.

  13. Novel data according Will Roger`s phenomenon in stomach cancer patients

    Dubinina, V. G.; Lukjanchuk, О. V.; Lurin, A. G.; Маshukov, А. А.; Bilenko, А. А; Zgura, A. N.; Raciborsky, D. V.; Merlich, S. V.; Shilin, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dubinina V. G., Lukjanchuk О. V., Lurin A. G., Маshukov А. А., Bilenko А. А., Zgura A. N., Raciborsky D. V., Merlich S. V., Shilin I. V. Novel data according Will Roger`s phenomenon in stomach cancer patients. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(6):185-206. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.55178 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3570   The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parame...

  14. A novel broadband Raman endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach

    Lin, Kan; Bergholt, Mads S.; Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hongzhi; Ren, Jian-lin; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel simultaneous fingerprint (FP) and high-wavenumber (HW) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy developed for in vivo diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach under wide-field endoscopic imaging. The FP/HW Raman endoscopy technique was performed to differentiate IM from normal tissues with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 83%. This study shows the great potential of the FP/HW Raman endoscopic technique for early diagnosis of non-neoplastic gastric disease in vivo during routine endoscopic examination.

  15. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Inflammatory Pseudotumor Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Stomach

    Cheong, Hong Ryeol; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am; Kim, Gwang Ha; An, Sung Gyu; Lim, Won

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4RD) is a relatively recently recognized entity that is histopathologically characterized by an extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells with dense fibrosis. IgG4RD is now known to affect any organ system, and a few cases of gastrointestinal lesions have also been reported. However, solitary IgG4RD of the stomach is still very rare. Furthermore, as it can mimic malignant conditions, it is important to recognize this dise...

  16. Câncer de estômago: fatores de risco Stomach cancer: risk factors

    Anna Valéria de Britto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Há cinqüenta anos o câncer de estômago vem perdendo a importância em termos de morbi-mortalidade em países considerados de primeiro mundo. Isso não ocorre no Brasil. Os principais fatores de risco evidenciados a partir de estudos epidemiológicos em várias populações do mundo e associados a essa neoplasia são alguns padrões de dieta. Com a descoberta do papel carcinogênico das nitrosaminas e do potencial anti-oxidante da vitamina C, algumas das associações entre câncer gástrico e padrões de dieta passaram a ser parcialmente entendidas. Com a descrição da Helicobacter pylori em 1983 e as evidências da relação dessa bactéria com certos processos patológicos do estômago, alguns precursores do câncer gástrico, novos elementos foram agregados ao processo fisiopatológico dessa entidade. O conhecimento hoje adquirido sobre a fisiopatologia do câncer gástrico, mesmo que parcial, fornece perspectivas estimulantes para prevenção e diagnóstico precoce.For the last fifty years, stomach cancer has become less important in terms of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, but the same pattern has not occurred in Brazil. The main risk factors for this neoplasm are certain diet patterns that became evident through epidemiological studies in various population groups. After the carcinogenic effects of nitrosamines and the anti-oxidant activity of vitamin C were discovered, some of the associations between stomach cancer and diet were partially understood. After the description of Helicobacter pylori in 1983 and the evidence of the relationship between this bacteria and certain stomach diseases, new elements were added to the knowledge about the development of this neoplasm. Current knowledge, albeit incomplete, provides interesting prospects for the prevention and early diagnosis of stomach cancer.

  17. Effects of fission neutrons and X-rays on the epithelium of the mouse stomach

    A quantitative study is presented of the effects of whole-body irradiation on the stomach of mice. Two types of ionizing radiation were compared - fast fission neutrons of 1.0 MeV mean energy and 300 kVp X-rays. The effects on the functional cell populations, on gastric secretion and on gastric stem cell populations were studied. These effects have been investigated a) for a neutron dose in the lethal dose-range of 4.0 Gy as a function of time and b) at a post-irradiation interval of 3 weeks as a function of neutron and X-ray dose. (Auth.)

  18. Papillomas and other lesions in the stomachs of pine mice. [Microtus pinctorum

    Cosgrove, G.E.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1965-08-26

    This paper describes a research project which took place from January to May 1964. Fifty pine mice were trapped in Roane County, TN. None of the sites were near a radioactive area. The mice were fed mixed seed and oatmeal mixed with peanut butter. They also had access to fresh greens and water. The mice were necropsied soon after capture. Histological examination of the stomach linings of these mice revealed papillomas and other lesions. The cause of the papillary lesions was not determined. 6 figures, 1 table.

  19. Gastritis of the Herniated Stomach in Patients with Esophageal Hiatus Hernia

    Forstner, G. G.; Bogoch, A.

    1963-01-01

    Seven illustrative cases of gastritis of the herniated stomach in patients with sliding esophageal hiatus hernia are reported. Five had superficial gastritis (three mild, one moderate and one severe); two had atrophic gastritis. Gastritis was present in two patients whose mucosa appeared normal at esophagoscopy. Interstitial hemorrhage into the lamina propria was present in four of the seven biopsy specimens. The possibility that interstitial hemorrhage may be related to the development of gastric erosions is considered. The pathogenesis of this form of gastritis is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:13958838

  20. Heterotopic Pancreas in the Stomach: A Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature

    Uday A Gokhale

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Heterotopic pancreas is the presence of pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is a rare condition and can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract with the stomach and the small bowel being the most common sites. It is usually asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally. Case report We report the case of a 48-year-old Omani female who presented with recurrent epigastric pain. Endoscopy revealed a sessile mass in the antrum which was snared and showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the submucosa on histopathology. Conclusion Heterotopic pancreas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric mass lesions.

  1. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  2. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang CHA general Hospital, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  3. Extracting optical scattering properties on the basis of phase contrast images for diagnosing stomach cancer

    We combine morphological granulometry with Mie theory in order to analyze phase contrast images of biomedical tissue for cancer diagnosis. This method correlates microscopic phase distributions of the tissue image and macroscopic optical scattering properties of the tissue. Our results show that the particle size density distribution can be used to quantitatively identify morphological changes of cancerous stomach tissues. Our method can distinguish normal tissue from cancerous tissues, using the significant differences in scattering coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and phase function. Therefore, this method can provide not only quantitative information for the diagnosis of cancer, but also accurate optical scattering parameters for photothermal therapy for cancer. (paper)

  4. Acute massive gastric dilatation: A rare cause of gangrene of stomach

    Yogender Singh Kadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation (AGD followed by necrosis is a rare and potentially fatal event; it is usually seen in patients with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia. A 13 - year - old girl with no remarkable medical history was brought to the Emergency Department suffering acute abdominal symptoms. Emergency laparotomy revealed massive gastric dilatation and necrosis of most of the stomach. We performed subtotal gastrectomy and the patient recovered uneventfully. We report this case to demonstrate that AGD and subsequent gastric gangrene can occur in patients without any underlying disorders

  5. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  6. Estimation of feeding patterns for piscivorous fish using individual prey data from stomach contents

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Temming, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The problem of estimating temporal feeding patterns using stomach data is considered, where the time of ingestion for each prey item can be predicted through a gastric evacuation model. The arrival of prey is modelled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with known periodic intensity. A maximum...... likelihood approach is used to estimate the intensity, which is assumed to be the same for all predators, incorporating different uncertainties for the arrival time of each prey item. The method is applied to a case where a population of whiting (Merlangius merlangus) is feeding on sandeel (Ammodytes marinus...

  7. In vitro tests of barium sulphate suspensions for double contrast examinations of the stomach

    Four barium sulphate suspensions were investigated with respect to their adhesion and contrast following standard means of spreading the contrast over a model stomach, which corresponds in its detailed structure with the surface of the gastric mucosa. By this means various factors, which make a true comparison in vivo impossible, could be eliminated and a comparison of the suspensions became possible. Using similar mechanical and chemical situations, the radiographs of the artificial mucosa showed very different results from the use of the different preparations. These corresponded well with the findings in vivo. (orig.)

  8. A body-packer with a cocaine bag stuck in the stomach.

    Beauverd, Yan; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Wolff, Hans; Ris, Frédéric; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Elger, Bernice S

    2011-06-28

    Management of patients carrying packets of drugs in the digestive tract is a frequent medical problem. We report on a patient who was referred by the police after ingestion of packets of cocaine. After spontaneous elimination of 81 drug packets, the patient had three unremarkable stools. A plain abdominal X-ray disclosed no residual packet but computed tomography (CT) scan showed one in the stomach. As this was not eliminated during the 10 d following ingestion, it was removed through gastrotomy. This case stresses the usefulness of the CT scan to ensure that no residual packet is present before hospital discharge. PMID:21860710

  9. Manipulation Study on Spleen-stomach Deficiency Type of Child Anorexia Treated by Tuina

    PAN Yun-hua; GUI Cheng-hu; CUI Yi-jun

    2005-01-01

    By summarizing and observing the clinical treatment of spleen-stomach type of child anorexia by tuina, the author found that the following manipulation had a main effect:kneading Banmen, rubbing the abdomen, kneading Zhongwan(CV 12), pinching the spine and kneading Zusanli(ST 36).%通过总结推拿对小儿厌食症脾胃虚弱型的临床治疗,以及作者在临床治疗中的观察,起主要作用的手法有揉板门、摩腹、揉中脘、捏脊、揉足三里.

  10. The radiological examination of the detailed relief pattern of the stomach. Pt. 4

    Following earlier work on the relationship between the micromucosal pattern of the stomach and chronic gastritis, a comparison was carried out between the appearances in the pyloric canal and the histological findings in that area. The presence of chronic gastritis could not be excluded, irrespective of the type of relief pattern. Normal gastric mucosa was only found in areas showing medium sized areae gastricae. Fundamental problems concerning the radiological technique are discussed as well as the evidence for the diagnosis of chronic gastritis. (orig.)

  11. A Rare Case of Sarcina ventriculi of the Stomach in an Asymptomatic Patient.

    Haroon Al Rasheed, Mohamed Rizwan; Kim, George J; Senseng, Carmencita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcina ventriculi is a gram-positive coccus that grows in a tetrad arrangement in the stomach. In the past 35 years, less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature, and it has been associated with life-threatening complications such as emphysematous gastritis and perforation. Treatment of S ventriculi generally consists of proton pump inhibitors with or without adjuvant antibiotic therapy. We report the first ever case of S ventriculi, including the morphological and immunohistochemical features, occurring in an asymptomatic patient with a history of Helicobacter pylori gastric ulcers. PMID:26453674

  12. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    Lee Yeon-Su

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study of stomach cancer using RT-qPCR, although selection of optimal reference genes is critical for interpretation of results. Methods We assessed the suitability of six possible reference genes, beta-actin (ACTB, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, ribosomal subunit L29 (RPL29 and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA in 20 normal and tumor stomach tissue pairs of stomach cancer patients and 6 stomach cancer cell lines, by RT-qPCR. Employing expression stability analyses using NormFinder and geNorm algorithms we determined the order of performance of these reference genes and their variation values. Results This RT-qPCR study showed that there are statistically significant (p Conclusion This study validated RPL29 and RPL29-B2M as the best single reference genes and combination, for RT-qPCR analysis of 'all stomach tissues', and B2M and B2M-GAPDH as the best single reference gene and combination, for 'stomach cancer cell lines'. Use of these validated reference genes should provide more exact interpretation of differential gene expressions at transcription level in stomach cancer.

  13. Reg IV Protein is Expressed in Normal Rat Tissue

    Starčević-Klasan, Gordana; Ažman, Josip; Picard, Anne; Jurišić-Eržen, Dubravka; Nikolić, Marina; Jerković, Romana

    2008-01-01

    The Reg IV gene has been documented in the colon, small intestine, stomach and pancreas of the human. Expression of the Reg IV in different cell types has been associated with regeneration, cell growth and cell survival, cell adhesion and resistance to apoptosis. It is unknown whether the Reg IV protein is present in the normal rat tissue. The aim of this study was to reveal the expression of the Reg IV protein in the rat spleen and colon. Western blot analysis using antibody spec...

  14. Detection of Brucella antigen in the aborted ovine fetal stomach contents using a modified ELISA test

    Th. M. Al-Nima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two flocks of sheep suffering from abortion in Mosul city, Iraq. The clinical findings in ewes were abortion during the 3-4 months of gestation period in the both flocks. The total percentage of abortion was 11.7 %, whereas stillbirth percentage was 4 %. Brucella spp. was isolated from four (33.3 % of the 12 samples (stomach contents of the aborted fetuses. All culture – positive samples had also positive with direct smears. By a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Brucella antigens were detected in the fetal stomach contents of 5 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The test had a good negative predictive value but only a moderate positive predictive value. Therefore, the test would be useful for confirming the existence of suspect disease. Comparison of modified ELISA with bacterial isolation demonstrated a close agreement (Kappa value = 0.92. Of the 12 serum samples from aborted ewes, eight samples were positive with Rose Bengle test (66.7 %, more than 10 samples (83.3 % were detected by indirect ELISA test.

  15. CLINICAL STUDY ON SPLEEN-STOMACH-REINFORCING MOXIBUSTION TREATMENT OF DIARRHEA-TYPE IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    WU Huangan; ZHAO Chen; SHI Zheng; CHEN Hanping; LIU Yan; LIU Shimin

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, the therapeutic effect of spleen- stomach- reinforcing moxibustion for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is observed and its underlying mechanisms on immunity are analyzed. A total of 72IBS patients are randomly divided into moxibustion group (n = 46) and acupuncture group (control group, n = 26). Acupoints used are Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), etc. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM contents, blood T-lympocytes (T+3, T+4, T+8) counts, T+4/T+8, cancer embryonic antigen (CEA) content, serum IL-2 and sIL-2R contents are assayed for evaluating changes of the immunocompetence. After two courses of treatment (24 sessions), results show that in moxibustion group, 25 cases (54.35%) are cured, 17 experience improvement in clinical symptoms and 4 have no apparent changes, with an effective rate of 91.30%; in control group, 8 cases (30.78%) are cured,12 experience improvement and 6 have no marked improvement, with an effective rate of 76.92 %. The therapeutic effect of moxibustion is significantly superior to that of acupuncture (P < 0.01). In addition, moxibustion can effectively rectify abnormal immune function and stabilize human's immunity. This research provides a reliable experimental basis for clinical application of "principal prescription of moxibustion for reinforcing the spleen and stomach".

  16. Alterations in physical state of silver nanoparticles exposed to synthetic human stomach fluid

    The bioavailability of ingested silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) depends in large part on initial particle size, shape and surface coating, properties which will influence aggregation, solubility and chemical composition during transit of the gastrointestinal tract. Citrate-stabilized AgNPs were exposed to synthetic human stomach fluid (SSF) (pH 1.5) and changes in size, shape, zeta potential, hydrodynamic diameter and chemical composition were determined during a 1 h exposure period using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (TEM/EDS), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) combined with Rietveld analysis. Exposure of AgNPs to SSF produced a rapid decrease in the SPR peak at 414 nm and the appearance of a broad absorbance peak in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region. During exposure to SSF, changes in zeta potential, aggregation and morphology of the particles were also observed as well as production of silver chloride which appeared physically associated with particle aggregates. - Highlights: ► Citrate-stabilized AgNPs were exposed to synthetic human stomach fluid (pH 1.5). ► Particle changes in chemical composition, zeta potential, aggregation and morphology were observed. ► Silver chloride appeared to be physically associated with the particle aggregates.

  17. Clinical application of transarterial and intraperitoneal pump hyperthermia perfusion chemotherapy of stomach and colon carcinomas postoperatively

    Objective: To evaluate methods of the treatment for preventing cancer recurrence and metastasis after resection of stomach and colon carcinomas. Methods: Fifty patients with stomach and colon carcinomas 1-12 months post-operatively were divided into two groups according to the different chemotherapy methods. Twenty-four patients in group A were treated by regional transarterial and intraperitoneal pump hyperthermia perfusion chemotherapy. Twenty-six patients in group B were treated by transarterial perfusion chemotherapy as the control. They were followed up for 12-36 months. Results: Comparing with group B, the survival rate in group A was higher, and the hepatic metastasis and recurrent rates were lower. This was the obvious difference for the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: The joint treatment of regional transarterial and abdominal cavity pump hyperthermia perfusion is evidently effective and safe with effective prevention of cancer recurrence or metastasis. Also it may be helpful to restrain the growth of recurrence and metastasis, prolong the survival period and improve the living quality. (authors)

  18. Jasmonates trigger prey-induced formation of 'outer stomach' in carnivorous sundew plants.

    Nakamura, Yoko; Reichelt, Michael; Mayer, Veronika E; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-05-22

    It has been widely accepted that the growth-related phytohormone auxin is the endogenous signal that initiates bending movements of plant organs. In 1875, Charles Darwin described how the bending movement of leaves in carnivorous sundew species formed an 'outer stomach' that allowed the plants to enclose and digest captured insect prey. About 100 years later, auxin was suggested to be the factor responsible for this movement. We report that prey capture induces both leaf bending and the accumulation of defence-related jasmonate phytohormones. In Drosera capensis fed with fruitflies, within 3 h after prey capture and simultaneous with leaf movement, we detected an increase in jasmonic acid and its isoleucine conjugate. This accumulation was spatially restricted to the bending segment of the leaves. The application of jasmonates alone was sufficient to trigger leaf bending. Only living fruitflies or the body fluids of crushed fruitflies induced leaf curvature; neither dead flies nor mechanical treatment had any effect. Our findings strongly suggest that the formation of the 'outer stomach' in Drosera is a chemonastic movement that is triggered by accumulation of endogenous jasmonates. These results suggest that in carnivorous sundew plants the jasmonate cascade might have been adapted to facilitate carnivory rather than to defend against herbivores. PMID:23516244

  19. A preoperative assessment of adjacent organ invasion by stomach carcinoma with high resolution computed tomography

    Adjacent organ invasion by stomach carcinoma on computed tomography (CT) was studied. CT images of tumors and their adjacent organs, whose invasion was assessed at surgery, were retrospectively analyzed in 51 gastric cancer patients. An absence of fat planes or an irregularity of the border between the tumor and adjacent organs was not found to be significantly related with invasion. The mean densities of the region of interest (ROI) set at the border were greater at the invasion sites (60.0±38.1) than at noninvation sites (35.6±55.5)(p<0.05). The standard deviation of the densities in the ROI was not affected by invasion. The discriminant function determined invasion to the pancreas, liver, and colon with an accuracy of 75%, 61%, and 78%, respectively. In diagnosing the invasion of stomach cancer on CT, the conventional criteria were not practical, while a quantitative analysis of the density in the ROI with high resolution CT was considered to improve the accuracy. (author)

  20. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet

    Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([51Cr]EDTA) and particle ([103Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [51Cr]EDTA and [103Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [103Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [51Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [103Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [51Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)

  1. Dopamine regulation of [3H]acetylcholine release from guinea-pig stomach

    The involvement of dopamine receptors in cholinergic transmission of guinea-pig stomach was investigated by analyzing the effects of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists on acetylcholine (ACh) release from this organ. Electrical stimulation (1-20 Hz) of strips of guinea-pig stomach preloaded with [3H] choline induced a [3H]ACh release that was calcium dependent and tetrodotoxin sensitive. Dopamine inhibited this transmural stimulation-induced [3H]ACh release in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-8)-10(-4) M). This effect of dopamine was not altered by 10(-5) M hexamethonium, thereby suggesting that the major dopamine receptors are located on the postganglionic cholinergic neurons. Concentration-response curves for dopamine on [3H]ACh release were inhibited by haloperidol, sulpiride and domperidone but not by prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol and ketanserin. LY 171555, an agonist for the D2 dopamine receptor, but not SKF 38-393, an agonist for the D1 dopamine receptor, to some extent decreased the release of [3H]ACh induced by transmural stimulation. In view of the results, the release of ACh from postganglionic cholinergic neurons is probably required through dopamine receptors antagonized by D2 antagonists but not by adrenergic or serotonin receptor antagonists

  2. Treating insomnia from spleen and stomach%从脾胃辨治不寐

    杨玉柯

    2012-01-01

      Stomach function disorders can cause insomnia, variety of symptoms of Shizhi Yongzu, movements disorders;overwork spleen injury, lack of effort;spleen loss of transportation metaplasia phlegm. Treatment should be based on the Xiaodao Hewei;Spleen Qi, nourishing the nerves;spleen to help transport qi and phlegm method to restore the function of the spleen and stomach, sleep soundly at night of course just fine, and to focus on treatment seeking nature.%  脾胃功能失调均能引起不寐,其中各症分别为食滞壅阻,升降失调;过劳伤脾,心血不足;脾虚失运,化生痰湿。治疗以消导和胃,调畅气机;益气补脾,养血安神;健脾助运,行气化痰;为方法,恢复脾胃功能,则夜寐自安,并要注重治病求本。

  3. Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.

  4. Is It Worthwhile to Fully Evaluate the Stomach in Every Ultrasound Examination of the Abdominal Cavity?

    To evaluate the usefulness of abdominal sonography in the fasting state with no hypotonic agents in the detection and exclusion of gastric lesions. One-hundred patients with normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 94 patients with a major gastric abnormality (including 59 intraluminal tumors, three submucosal masses, 29 ulcers, two polyps and one hypertrophied gastric mucosa) and 75 patients with minor gastric abnormalities (mainly gastritis) were enrolled into the study. Of the 100 normal patients, ultrasound showed four false positive results with 96% specificity of the examination. Within the major gastric lesion group, ultrasound was true positive in 55 of 59 tumors, 15 of 29 ulcers, three of three submucosal masses and the case of giant gastric mucosa. It was negative in the detection of gastric polyps. It could detect only 8% of minor gastric abnormalities. Abdominal sonography in the fasting state, if carefully performed, is sufficiently accurate in detection and exclusion of major gastric lesions. Therefore, although it cannot replace endoscopic and barium studies of the stomach, careful evaluation of the stomach is recommended in every sonographic evaluation of the abdominal cavity

  5. Histogenesis of the stomach of the pre-hatching quail: a light microscopic study.

    Soliman, Soha A; Ahmed, Yasser A; Abdelsabour-Khalaf, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds. PMID:26643380

  6. Iodine deficiency induces a VEGF-dependent microvascular response in salivary glands and in the stomach.

    Vanderstraeten, Jessica; Derradji, Hanane; Craps, Julie; Sonveaux, Pierre; Colin, Ides M; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Despite efforts to optimize iodine supply in iodine deficient countries, iodine deficiency (ID) remains a global problem worldwide. Activation of the local microvasculature by ID in the thyroid gland aims at improving the local supply of iodide. For this purpose, the thyrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that acts on adjacent capillaries, via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)/Hypoxia Inducible factor (HIF)-dependent pathway. Beside the thyroid, other organs including salivary glands and the stomach do express the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and are able to take iodide up, potentially rendering them sensitive to ID. To verify this hypothesis, ID-induced effects on the local microvasculature were studied in salivary glands and in the stomach. ID was induced by feeding young mice with an iodide-deficient diet and NIS inhibitor perchlorate in the drinking water. In salivary glands, ID induced a transient increase in HIF-1α protein expression accompanied by a transient, VEGF-dependent increase in blood flow. In the gastric mucosa, ID transiently increased VEGF expression in the mucin-secreting epithelium and in ghrelin-secreting endocrine cells. These observations suggest that microvascular changes in response to ID occur in NIS-expressing tissues other than the thyroid. NIS expressing cells could be viewed as iodide sensors that respond to ID by inducing vascular changes, probably to optimize iodide bioavailability at regional or systemic levels. PMID:26838679

  7. Low-grade MALT lymphoma of the stomach: a review of treatment options

    Purpose: Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach (MLS) is often associated with the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria. Eradication of the infection with antibiotic therapy may result in regression of the lymphoma. But when antibiotic treatment fails to reverse the malignant process or if H. pylori is absent, other treatment options should be considered. Because MLS is often confined to the stomach and regional lymph nodes, it is potentially curable with local therapy. Endoscopy and improved imaging, with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computerized tomography (CT), have reduced the prior dependence on surgery for diagnosis and staging of gastric lymphomas. Methods and Results: This review details the advances in the diagnosis, classification, and imaging of MLS. We also describe the experience that supports the use of radiation therapy as the preferred treatment of MLS in patients who have not responded to antibiotic therapy or have not had evidence for H. pylori infection. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for MLS is not only effective and safe, but offers the significant advantage of low morbidity and gastric function preservation

  8. Multiple carcinoids in the duodenum, pancreas and stomach accompanied with type A gastritis: A case report

    Takeo Bamba; Shin-ichi Kosugi; Tatsuo Kanda; Toshihiro Tsubono; Yasuo Sakai; Nobuyuki Musha; Noriko Ishihara; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of multiple duodenal, pancreatic, and gastric carcinoids. A 67-year old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a duodenal carcinoid.Laboratory tests revealed that the patient was associated with macrocytic anemia and hypergastrinemia, and type A gastritis was shown by gastrofiberscopy.During surgery, another tumor was incidentally found in the head of the pancreas. The tumors in the duodenum and pancreas were completely excised by pancreatoduodenectomy and immunohistologically diagnosed as gastrin-and serotonin-producing carcinoids,respectively. Pathological examination revealed that in addition to the grossly found carcinoids, there were subclinical carcinoids, one of which was an endocrine cell micronest, located in the stomach and duodenum.The tumors in the duodenum, pancreas, and stomach showed different characteristics from one another morphologically and immunochemically. Although no definitive evidence has been obtained, some sort of genetic anomaly may have been involved in this case,and hypergastrinemia due to duodenal gastrinoma may induce multiple gastric carcinoids.

  9. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing early gastric cancer of the remnant stomach: report of a case.

    Shibata, Yutaka; Sato, Kouhei; Kodama, Masashi; Nanjyo, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A 67-year-old man initially underwent a distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0; Stage IA) in March 1995. During the follow-up period, an elevation of the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (98.8 ng/ml) and a liver tumor (S4) were detected. A left hepatectomy was performed in December 1996. Immunohistochemically, AFP-positive cells were present in both the primary gastric tumor and metastasized liver tumor. The serum AFP level normalized immediately, but it elevated again to 22.4 ng/ml. An endoscopic examination revealed a protruding lesion in the remnant stomach. A total resection of the remnant stomach was performed in February 2005. The tumor was evaluated T1, N0, M0; Stage IA, with positive staining for AFP. The patient has survived without any sign of recurrence for more than 11 years after the first diagnosis of cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a long-term survival of AFP-producing gastric cancer with successfully resected metachronous liver metastasis and gastric remnant carcinoma. PMID:17952534

  10. Investigation on the amino acid secretion and absorption in the stomach of the growing pig

    2 pigs of 35 kg live weight were fitted with re-entrant duodenal cannulas anterior to the pancreatic duct and fed on barley-soy and casein-wheat starch diet, resp., prior to the experiment. After 24 hours fasting they were given a single meal of 15N-labelled free amino acids-wheat starch (A) or 15N-labelled wheat (B) diet and digesta leaving the stomach were collected during 12 hours. The proportion of TCA soluble N in total N of digesta increased with time from 10% to 40% with diet B and decreased from 90% to 47% with diet A. Total N leaving the stomach within 12 hours accounted for 96% and 106% of N ingested on diet A and B, while the amount of 15N accounted for only 66% and 86% of 15N given in diets A and B, resp. The content of endogenous N in the digesta were 1.22 g/12 h after feeding diet A and 1.67 g/12 h after feeding diet B. It was concluded that considerable amounts of N are secreted and absorbed in the part of the digestive tract proximal to the opening of the pancreatic duct. (author)

  11. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Segura, Sheila; Pender, Jacqueline; Dodge, Jessica; Brandwein, Steven L; El-Fanek, Hani

    2016-04-01

    Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma (PGSCC) is an exceedingly rare disease, accounting for 0.04% - 0.07% of all gastric cancers. First reported in 1895 by Rörig et al, less than 100 cases of PGSCC worldwide have been reported in the literature. These reports show PGSCC is more common in males (5:1 male to female ratio), and exhibits a peak incidence in the sixth decade of life. It may involve any portion of the stomach with predilection for the proximal stomach, especially along the lesser curvature. Although no clear pathogenesis of this tumor has been reported, several plausible theories have been proposed. These include squamous differentiation of preexisting gastric adenocarcinoma, cancerization of ectopic squamous epithelium, malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of glandular epithelium, association with Helicobacter pylori or Epstein-Barr virus infection, and evolution in the setting of marked chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. This report presents and discusses the case of a 64-year-old female who developed PGSCC arising in the gastric fundus. PMID:27265923

  12. Hepatic radiation injury in the rat

    The whole livers of rats were exposed intraoperatively to graded doses (0 to 75 Gy) of 137Cs gamma radiation. At various times (0 to 155 days) after liver irradiation, minimally invasive, nondestructive tests (rose bengal retention and plasma alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) were performed on at least half the surviving animals in each dose group to assess developing liver injury. Liver histology was done on animals sacrificed 96 to 100 days after irradiation. Radiation damage to the stomach killed approximately 50% of the animals 30 to 60 days after exposure to doses of 25 Gy or higher. These deaths were significantly reduced when care was taken to shield the stomach during irradiation. Stomach injury did not, however, appreciably affect liver function as measured by rose bengal retention. Whole-liver irradiation to 15 Gy resulted in reduced liver size and minimal histological changes, but did not result in increased rose bengal retention or plasma alkaline phosphatase concentration. The next highest dose group studied (25 Gy) showed significant histological abnormalities and liver injury as measured by increased rose bengal retention and liver enzymes. The latent period for development of hepatic injury, as measured by increased rose bengal retention, was 35 to 42 days and was relatively invariant over the 25- to 75-Gy dose range. Hepatic vein lesions and cellular necrosis were the most prominent histological lesions observed in 25-Gy-irradiated liver

  13. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external γ-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr-2 (F=44,5; P=0,007). For 239Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external γ-irradiation or 239Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with γ-irradiation or 239Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  14. Combined effects of radiation and other agents on the stomach cancer incidence among Mayak Atomic Plant workers

    Zhuntova, G.V.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Belyaeva, Z.D. [Branch No 1 of State Research Center of Public Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation). Biophysics Inst.; Rovny, S.I.; Sirchikov, V.A.

    2000-05-01

    The gravity of a problem of the combined action of radiation and other factors again was confirmed sessions UNSCEAR in May, 1998. It especially is important at study of cancer diseases in connection with the polyetiology and multistage of them development. The estimation of radiation, medico-biological factors and condition of life in occurrence of a stomach cancer among Mayak personnel was specified by case-cohort research. For a quota 503 men (157 cases of a stomach cancer, 346 men of the healthy personnel) attributive risk of the radiation factors was 8.8%, medico-biological - 57,2% (from them by greatest was influence chronic gastritis with secreting insufficiency - 35.4%), tobacco consumption - 31,6%. At an estimation of risk of a stomach cancer depending on external {gamma}-irradiation best fitting was received at use of square-law model. The excess relative risk was 0,27 Gr{sup -2} (F=44,5; P=0,007). For {sup 239}Pu incorporation was not revealed of distinct connection with stomach cancer incidences. Interaction of the radiation and non-radiation factors also was appreciated. The interaction of gastritis with external {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu was multiplicate. The interaction of smoking with {gamma}-irradiation or {sup 239}Pu incorporation was multiplicate also. The distribution histological types of a stomach cancer among the workers of Mayak plant differed in comparison with not working. Among the workers the increase poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed. (author)

  15. Twenty five years since the first prospective study by Forman et al. (1991) on Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer risk.

    Sitas, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, despite its incidence and mortality falling in many places. The discovery in 1984 that a bacterial infection with Helicobacter pylori could cause stomach and duodenal ulcers prompted work in its role in causing gastritis, and led to the first prospective study in 1991 by Forman et al., showing that infection with H.pylori increased the risk of stomach cancer in those infected by almost three-fold. Prior to then, it was hypothesized that stomach was caused by poor diets. While diets may still play a role, the falls in stomach cancer incidence have been associated with reductions in population prevalence of H. pylori. Discovery of the link was accelerated by the use of stored sera from other unrelated studies, and the use of serological assays. Since those discoveries the treatment landscape of gastric disorders has changed significantly, with a rapid uptake of antibiotic and proton pump inhibitors (triple) therapies in those who are H. pylori positive. Over time we have seen falls in gastric cancer, peptic and duodenal ulcers and in many of the procedures previously used to cure peptic ulcer disease, such as vagotomies and gastrectomies. Further still, an oral vaccine against H. pylori, first trialled in China, holds much promise of being the third vaccine against a cancer causing infection. If successful this would lead to a further reduction in H. pylori related conditions, and ultimately gastric cancer, an otherwise lethal disease. PMID:26922171

  16. Contents of chemical elements in stomach during prenatal development: different age-dependent dynamical changes and their significance

    Shao-Fan Hou; Hai-Rong Li; Li-Zhen Wang; De-Zhu Li; Lin-Sheng Yang; Chong-Zheng Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe dynamic of different chemical elements in stomach tissue during fetal development.METHODS: To determine contents of the 21 chemical elements in each stomach samples from fetus aging four to ten months. The content values were compared to those from adult tissue samples, and the values for each month group were also analyzed for dynamic changes.RESULTS: Three representations were found regarding the relationship between contents of the elements and ages of the fetus, including the positive correlative (K), reversely correlative (Na, Ca, P, Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Li, Cd, Ba,Se ) and irrelevant groups (Mg, Co, Ni, V, Pb, Ti).CONCLUSION: The chemical elements' contents in stomach tissues were found to change dynamically with the stomach weights. The age-dependent representations for different chemical elements during the prenatal development may be of some significance for assessing development of fetal stomach and some chemical elements. The data may be helpful for the nutritional balance of fetus and mothers during prenatal development and even the perinatal stages.

  17. Exploration of Stomach Qi in Treatise on Febrile Diseases%《伤寒论》“胃气”探析

    何新慧

    2011-01-01

    探讨《伤寒论》中胃气的涵义,分析胃气和的生理状态、胃气不和的病理状态,并提出保护胃气的方法和措施.%This paper explores the meaning of stomach qi in Treatise on Febrile Diseases, analyzes the physiological state of stomach qi harmony, and the pathological state, classification, and therapeutical principal and method of stomach qi disorder, and proposes the measures to protect stomach qi.

  18. Coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the stomach presenting as a collision tumor: first case report and literature review

    Shin, Hyeong Chan; Gu, Mi Jin; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Jae Woon; Choi, Joon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Collision tumors of the stomach are rare. We report on a case of a collision tumor consisting of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the stomach in a 16-year-old female. A polypoid mass located in the distal body of the stomach was observed on abdominal computed tomography. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach and 4d lymph node biopsy was performed. On gross examination, a protruding submucosal mass, measuring 4 × 3.5 × 2.5 cm in s...

  19. Comparison of stomach contents and condition of two catfish species living at ambient temperatures and in a heated discharge

    The lower condition factors for two catfish species in water heated by effluents from APCo's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant as compared to control areas probably is not due to lack of food as evidenced by macroinvertebrate sampling and the fact that only 4.3 percent of the catfish stomachs were empty. Results suggested that young-of-the-year channel catfish were nonselectively eating food organisms present at both control and heated stations. The difference between stomach contents of flatheat catfish from the heated site and fauna available at that site indicated that fish were either moving out of the heated area to feed or were selectively feeding on organisms (particularly mayflies) which were in the substrate or drifted into the heated area. Stomach contents of the two species and distribution and abundance of the macroinvertebrate benthos community are detailed

  20. H. pylori seropositivity before age 40 and subsequent risk of stomach cancer: a glimpse of the true relationship?

    Christina Persson

    Full Text Available Stomach carcinogenesis involves mucosal and luminal changes that favor spontaneous disappearance of Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, the association between the infection and cancer risk might typically be underestimated. As acquisition of the infection almost invariably occurs before adulthood, the serostatus at age 16-40 should best reflect the lifetime occurrence of the infection. We therefore conducted a case-control study nested within a historic cohort of about 400,000 individuals who donated sera before age 40 to either of two large Swedish Biobanks between 1968 and 2006, and whose records were linked to complete nationwide registers. For each stomach adenocarcinoma case occurring at least 5 years after serum donation 2 controls were selected matched on age, sex and year of donation and biobank. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori cell-surface antigens (Hp-CSAs were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and antibodies against CagA with an immunoblot assay. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs for stomach adenocarcinoma among H. pylori infected relative to uninfected. We confirmed 59 incident cases of stomach adenocarcinoma (41 non-cardia tumors during follow-up. ORs for non-cardia stomach adenocarcinoma among subjects with Hp-CSA antibodies (regardless of CagA serostatus, antibodies against CagA (regardless of Hp-CSA serostatus, and antibodies to both, relative to those who were seronegative to both, were 17.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-72.9, 10.9 (95% CI 3.2-36.9, and 48.5 (95% CI 5.8-407.4, respectively. H. pylori infection is a much stronger risk factor for non-cardia stomach adenocarcinoma than initially realized. However, further studies are needed to answer whether it is a necessary cause, as the possibility of misclassification of H. pylori status could not be ruled out in our study.

  1. Dietary supplementation with zinc oxide stimulates ghrelin secretion from the stomach of young pigs.

    Yin, Jingdong; Li, Xilong; Li, Defa; Yue, Tao; Fang, Qian; Ni, Jianjun; Zhou, Xuan; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-10-01

    Dietary supplementation with zinc is known to enhance food intake and growth in young children. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Ghrelin, a peptide derived mainly from stomach, plays an important role in food-intake regulation. The present study was conducted with the piglet model to test the hypothesis that zinc may increase gastric ghrelin secretion. In Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) , thirty-six 28-day-old weaned pigs were assigned to two groups (18 pigs/group), receiving four-week supplementation of 0 or 2000 mg/kg Zn (as ZnO) to the basal diet containing 100 mg/kg Zn. In Experiment (Exp. 2), sixteen 28-day-old piglets were assigned to the same treatments (n=8/group) as in Exp. 1, except that they were pair-fed an equal amount of diet. At the end of the experiments, blood, stomach and duodenum samples were obtained for biochemical analysis, including assays of ghrelin protein and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in plasma, as well as quantification of ghrelin and IGF-I mRNA levels in the duodenum and gastric mucosa. Further, gastric mucosal cells from unsupplemented piglets were cultured with 0-0.5 mM ZnO for 2-24 h for assays of ghrelin production and gene expression. Dietary Zn supplementation increased plasma concentrations of ghrelin, IGF-I and cholecystokinin; IGF-I gene expression in the duodenum as well as food intake and piglet growth (Exp. 1). The effects of ZnO on plasma levels of ghrelin, intestinal IGF-I expression and piglet growth were independent of food intake. Addition of ZnO to culture medium enhanced ghrelin production from gastric mucosal cells without affecting ghrelin mRNA levels. Collectively, our results indicate that ZnO stimulates ghrelin secretion from the stomach at the post-transcriptional level. This novel finding aids in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanism for a role of zinc in promoting food intake and growth of young children. PMID:18926680

  2. Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features

    Takashi Yao; Takashi Utsunomiya; Masafumi Oya; Kenichi Nishiyama; Masazumi Tsuneyoshi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Minimal deviation carcinoma of the uterine cervix,otherwise known as extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA), is characterized by its benign microscopic appearance in contrast to its aggressive behavior.In order to elucidate the clinicopathological features and biological behavior of the gastric counterpart of EWDA,we, using immunohistochemistry, analyzed nine lesions for the phenotypic expression, proliferative activity, and the expression of oncogene-associated products.METHODS: Clinicopathological features, including preoperative biopsy diagnosis, were reviewed. Using immunohitstochemistry, Ki-67 labeling index and expression of p53 and c-erbB-2 protein in the gastric lesions were detected.RESULT: Locations in the middle or upper third of the stomach and polypoid macroscopic features are characteristic of EWDA of the stomach. Although 4 of the 9 lesions showed only focal lymphatic or venous invasion,lymph node metastasis was not present and none of the patients died of the lesions (mean follow-up period, 56mo). All 9 cases of EWDA could be classified into gastric phenotype (5 lesions) and intestinal phenotype (4 lesions). The former resembled gastric foveolar epithelium,mucous neck cells or pyloric glands, but their papillary structures were frequently elongated and the tumor cells and their nuclei were slightly larger and more hyperchromatic compared to normal epithelium. The latter resembled intestinal metaplasia with minimal nulcear atypia and irregular glands; two of these lesions demonstrated complete intestinal phenotype, while two demonstrated incomplete intestinal phenotype. Ki-67 labeling index was low and none of the cases revealed over-expression of p53 and c-erbB-2 protein.CONCLUSION: Unlike minimal deviation carcinoma of the cervix, these findings suggest that EWDA of the stomach is a lesion of low-grade malignancy. This favorable biological behavior is supported by the data of a low Ki-67 labeling index and a lack of p53 or c

  3. Organic Extractives from Mentha spp. Honey and the Bee-Stomach: Methyl Syringate, Vomifoliol, Terpenediol I, Hotrienol and Other Compounds

    Igor Jerković; Gordana Hegić; Zvonimir Marijanović; Dragan Bubalo

    2010-01-01

    The GC and GC/MS analyses of the solvent organic extractive from the stomach of the bees, having collected Mentha spp. nectar, revealed the presence of methyl syringate (6.6%), terpendiol I (5.0%) and vomifoliol (3.0%) that can be attributed to the plant origin. Other major compounds from the bee-stomach were related to the composition of cuticular waxes and less to pheromones. Organic extractivesfrom Mentha spp. honey were obtained by solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SP...

  4. Clinical observation on repair of lymphocyte injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy treated by regulating spleen-stomach needling

    张智龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore therapeutic effect and actionmechanism of regulating spleen-stomach needling on diabetic nephropathy(DN).Methods Using multi-centric,randomized,controlled and blind principles,144 cases of DN were divided into an observation group and a control group according to random digital tab,72 cases in each one.Based on regular treatment of diabetes,the regulating spleen-stomach needling was applied at Zhongwan(CV 12),Quchi(LI 11),Hegu(LI 4)and Xuehai(SP 10),etc.in

  5. Clinical and epidemiological profile of cases of deaths from stomach cancer in the National Cancer Institute, Brazil

    Guedes, Maria Teresa dos Santos; de Jesus, José Paulo; de Souza Filho, Odilon; Fontenele, Raquel Malta; Sousa, Ana Inês

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stomach cancer is the third most common cause of death worldwide, mainly affecting people with low socioeconomic status. In Brazil, we expect 20,390 new cases of stomach cancer in 2014, in both sexes, and according to the proportional distribution of the ten most prevalent types of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) expected for 2014, this type of cancer was estimated to be the fourth most common in men and sixth in women. Aim To investigate and analyse the clinical and epi...

  6. A RARE CASE REPORT OF SYNCHRONOUS MALIGNANCY – SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF BASE OF TONGUE AND ADENO CARCINOMA OF STOMACH

    Prakash

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The synchronous occurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue with gastric adenocarcinoma is very rare. We report a case of 50 year old male patient presented to ENT OPD with complaints of throat pain, painful swallowing since 1month. Indirect laryngoscopy showed ulceroproliferative growth in Base of tongue, vallecula and epiglottis. Upper GI endoscopy showed ulceroproloferative lesion involving base of tongue, left epiglottis and vallecula. Endoscopic Biopsy from the growth revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue and adeno carcinoma of the stomach. We report this case to highlight a rare occurrence of synchronous malignancy of posterior tongue and stomach

  7. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Sang Woo; Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yu Chul; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 {approx} 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 {+-} 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 {+-} 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 {+-} 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 {+-} 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( {rho} =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern

  8. Cross-sectional study with multiple measurements of biological markers for assessing stomach cancer risks at the population level.

    Tsugane, S; Tsuda, M; Gey, F; Watanabe, S.

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine correlations between measurable biologic markers and mortality from stomach cancer was performed in various areas of Japan. Blood and urine were collected from randomly selected 40- to 49-year-old men and their spouses in four areas with different rates of mortality from stomach cancer. The samples were analyzed for levels of the micronutrients vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and lycopene in plasma and for levels of NaCl, nitrate, and N-nitrosamino ac...

  9. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 ∼ 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 ± 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 ± 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 ± 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 ± 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( ρ =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern. However, benign

  10. Taurine Prevents Ibuprofen-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Influences Endogenous Antioxidant Status of Stomach in Rats

    Balasubramanian, T.; Somasundaram, M.; A. John William Felix

    2004-01-01

    Recently, free radical–induced tissue damage is implicated in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)–involved gastric mucosal lesion. Administration of taurine, an endogenous antioxidant, is reported to be beneficial in various clinical conditions. Therefore, we decided to study the protective effect of taurine in ibuprofen-induced gastropathy and the effects of administration of taurine on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and g...

  11. An evaluation of toxicity in essential oils of Geraniol, Geranial acetate, Gingerol and Eugenol in rats

    seema farhath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of essential oils geraniol, geranial acetate, eugenol and gingerol on biochemical parameters in rats. Male rats were treated with 5 mL/Kg/day of essential oil in ethanol as vehicle for 14 consecutive days. Rats in the treated groups showed a more pronounced increase in body weight in comparison to control rats after 14 days and the biochemical (glucose, urea, creatinine, SGOT and SGPT were observed and the rat was sacrificed and its stomach was taken out, opened and examined for macroscopic haemorrhagic gastric lesions. The results suggested that the  biochemical parameters,geraniol and geranial acetate caused a significant increase in the levels of Glucose and Urea whereas there is a decreased level of glucose and urea in Gingerol and Eugenol and The level of creatinine  differ slightly between the rats of control and treated groups and no haemorrhagic lesions were found.

  12. Photodynamic therapy application of PAMAM-porphyrin molecule on stomach cancer cells

    Kiris, Tugba; Burgucu, Mehmet Necmi; Sagir, Tugba; Senel, Mehmet; Isik, Sevim; Bölük-basi Ates, Gamze; Tabakoglu, Hasim Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    In this study, effect of a novel LED-based light source developed for 96-well-plates cell culture applications, was tried on AGS stomach cancer cell line, in combination with Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) modified - porhyrin molecule. For each 4 generation of modified PpIX molecule 5 different concentrations tried. According to results PAMAM molecule doesnt have any photosensitizer property also didn't show any toxic effect even if higher concentrations. Morphology and real time monitoring analysis results hold up each other and confirmed that, PpIX molecules with and without modificated high concentrations (>100μM) caused cell death via toxicicity this reason optimal concentration for PAMAM modified PpIX should be between 25 - 50 μm concentration .

  13. [Comparative evaluation of dysplasia and early cancer of the stomach based on analysis of DNA content].

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Sklianskaia, O A

    1984-01-01

    DNA content in the tumour cell nuclei was studied in 16 cases of early stomach carcinoma and in the adjacent areas of the foveolar epithelium dysplasia and metaplastic intestinal epithelium. One wave microspectrophotometry was used; the slides were stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum. The number of DNA synthesizing diploid cells was increasing with the increase of the dysplasia degree. The number of tetraploid cells was higher and the signs of aneuploidy appeared in the areas of noninvasive carcinoma. The stem line in early invasive carcinoma was represented by the diploid cells. The increase of cell atypia in tubular and papillary adenocarcinoma is followed by increase of the tetraploid cell number and by the appearance of polyploidy and aneuploidy. Both undifferentiated and goblet-cell carcinomas have similar parameters of the DNA histogram. DNA content allows an objective judgement on the degree of an early carcinoma cell atypia and differentiation of the advanced dysplasia and noninvasive carcinoma. PMID:6098243

  14. Heterotopic pancreas in the stomach: A case report and literature review

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomic location of the pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be found at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathologic changes such as inflammation,bleeding, obstruction, and malignant transformation. In this report, a 40 years old woman with epigastric pain due to ectopic pancreatic tissue in the stomach is described. The difficulty of making an accurate diagnosis is highlighted. The patient has remained free of symptoms since she underwent wedge resection of the lesion three years ago. Frozen sections may help in deciding the extent of resection intraoperatively. Although ectopic pancreas is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a submucosal gastric tumour.

  15. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    Corá, L. A.; Andreis, U.; Romeiro, F. G.; Américo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t50) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  16. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t50) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process

  17. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: Chief cells emerge from the Mist

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.

  18. Radiological evaluation about the effects of acute and chronic pancreatitis on the stomach patterns

    The present study was intended to examine the spectrum of radiographic patterns of the stomach associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis and their complications. Subjects served for the study consisted of 70 cases of pancreatitis (36 cases in acute stage and 34 cases in chronic stage). Intramural and perigastric permeation of extravasated pancreatic enzymes and secondary inflammatory reaction that follows are responsible for the radiographic change observed. 1. Generalized rugal thickening and particularly selective mucosal prominences in greater curvature of body and antrum are characteristically seen in acute (14 of 36 cases- 39%) and chronic pancreatitis (11 of 34 cases- 32%) 2. The only finding of the chronic pancreatitis includes patterns mimicking limits plastica, indurated and nondistensible rugae induced by perigastric adhesion (11 of 34 cases- 32%) Familiarization with these patterns of involvement contributes to the radiographic diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and avoides serious diagnostic errors in case of chronic pancreatitis

  19. PECULIARITIES OF THE BABESIOUS INFECTION INFLUENCE TO NONLINER MICE STOMACH STRUCTURE

    Pokhil S.I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The babesias are one of the most ubiquitous and widespread blood parasites in the worldbased on numbers and distribution of species in animals, second only to the trypanosomes . They generally have two classes of hosts, an invertebrate and a vertebrate host. The maintenance of Babesia spp. Is dependent on both hosts; the specific tick vector must feed on a vertebrate reservoir that is competante in maintaining the Babesia organisms in an infectious state. Therefore, B. microti presents itself as an emerging zoonosis only in areas where there is a primary competent reservoir. The first documented case of babesiosis in humans was in 1957 . A splenectomized farmer in Yugoslavia was diagnosed with a B. bovis infection. But now most cases of babesial infections in humans have been asquired in temperate regions of the USA and Europe. That a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite, one of the causative agents of piroplasmosis (babesiosis. The disease is characterized by sings of malaise, inappetence, fever, hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria. The parasite has a wide distribution and occurs on all continents, except Australia. The life cycle of the parasite in animals organism (equine hosts, traveling dogs, cats comprises two intracellular stages: sporozoites innoculated by infected ticks develop into schizonts within lymphocytes where they maltiply and subsequently transform into microzoites, which then invide erythrocytes. Purpose of the experiment’s to study the influence of the babesious infection to nonliner female mice stomach structure. Materials and methods. The examinational material of this investigations are the female nonliner controle intact miсe of the 4-6-week-old (n=15 and such paterns, which were with the babesious infection (n=45. For all of examinational animals groups were used macroscopic and hystological methods. Macroscopic analysis was included organoleptic, biomechanical, microtopographical methods of investigations (external

  20. Carcinosarcoma of the stomach: A case report and review of the literature

    2007-01-01

    Carcinosarcomas are rare, malignant, biphasic tumors. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with gastric carcinosarcoma, along with its clinical, macroscopic and histopathological features. Macroscopically, a specimen of deformed stomach was obtained that measured 200 mm × 150 mm × 100 mm. A 150 mm × 100 mm ×50 mm exophytic tumoral mass (Borrmann type Ⅰ)was found, which involved the posterior wall from the cardia to the antrum. Histopathologically, a mixed type of malignancy was revealed: an adenocarcinoma with intestinal metaplasia, with interposed fascicles of fusiform atypical cells and numerous large, rounded and oval cells. The tumor showed positive histochemistry for cytokeratin 18, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A and vimentin. Liver metastases were diagnosed 8 mo postoperatively, and the patient died 4 mo later. A review of the available literature is also presented.

  1. [Research on the cat stomach worm, Ollulanus tricuspis (Leuckart, 1865)--state of the art].

    Hasslinger, M A

    1985-01-01

    The stomach worm of the cat with an unusual cycle has a special place among the nematodes. O. tricuspis can develop and breed endogen as well as exogen, the infection of other hosts with freedom of movement, takes place through the ingestion of vomitus material containing parasites. As the conventional coproscopic methods of routine diagnosis have failed, the examination of gastric mucus or gastric mucosal scrapings post mortem offers itself. Intra vitam a provocated vomitus or a gastric irrigation are the diagnostic methods of choice. Increased vomiting of unknown genesis should, however, evoke suspicion relating to an O. tricuspis-infection and suggest an examination of the material. Besides the cat, dog, pig, wild cat, fox, cheetah, lion and tiger act as natural or inadequate hosts. Pathological alterations or clinical symptoms are more obvious in unusual carriers of parasites. Therapeutically only Citarin 2,5% was convincing. PMID:3895570

  2. Detection of early gastric cancer using hydro-stomach CT: Blinded vs unblinded analysis

    Ki Jeong Park; Min Woo Lee; Ji Hyun Koo; Yulri Park; Heejung Kim; Dongil Choi; Soon Jin Lee

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the difference in diagnostic performance of hydro-stomach computed tomography (CT) to detect early gastric cancer (EGC) between blinded and unblinded analysis and to assess independent factors affecting visibility of cancer foci. METHODS:Two radiologists initially blinded and then unblinded to gastroscopic and surgical-histological findings independently reviewed hydro-stomach CT images of 110 patients with single EGC.They graded the visibility of cancer foci for each of three gastric segments (upper,middle and lower thirds) using a 4-point scale (1:definitely absent,2:probably absent,3:probably present,and 4:definitely present).The sensitivity and specificity for detecting an EGC were calculated.Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were analyzed. The visibility of an EGC was evaluated with regard to tumor size,invasion depth,gastric segments,histological type and gross morphology using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:The respective sensitivities and specificities [reviewer 1:blinded,20% (22/110) and 98% (215/220); unblinded,27% (30/110) and 100% (219/220)/reviewer 2:blinded,19% (21/110) and 98% (216/220); unblinded,25% (27/110) and 98% (215/220)] were not significantly different.Although intraobserver agreements were good (weighted κ = 0.677 and 0.666), interobserver agreements were fair (blinded,0.371) or moderate (unblinded,0.558).For both univariate and multivariate analyses,the tumor size and invasion depth were statistically significant factors affecting visibility. CONCLUSION:The diagnostic performance of hydrostomach CT to detect an EGC was not significantly different between blinded and unblinded analysis.The tumor size and invasion depth were independent factors for visibility.

  3. Investigation of stomach disease in atomic bomb survivors. The 12th report

    Radiation can be an additional risk factor of stomach cancer (SC), of which major risk is said to be H. pylori infection in Japanese. This study was performed to see the correlation between A-bomb exposure and SC prevalence based on results of mass survey for stomach disease done from 2000 to 2009. Primary survey of A-bomb survivors was conducted by simple roentgenography followed by detailed examination of suspicious subjects for SC with gastric endoscope. Subjects with the detected cancer were classified in 3 groups of exposure situation of within-1.9 km close to (C), 2.0 km-distant from (D), and entrance in (E), the Hiroshima City. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test, and by relative and proportional attributable risk assumed on Poisson distribution. The total number of the survey subject was 65,864 involving 32,281 men. The proportion of subjects receiving the detailed examination was found as high as 89.3% (2000) and 93.9% (2009), and detection rate of SC was 0.34% in 2009 in contrast to the previous 0.25%. Relative and attributable risks of SC in C survivors were 2.24 and 55.8%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in D and E survivors. Proportion of SC at an early stage, 52.5%, was significantly lower in C survivors than that in E survivors, 68.4%. Further investigation was thought necessary as ICRP Pub 103 (2007) had concerned carcinogenic risk even at low dose (<20 mSv). (T.T.)

  4. The effect of folic acid on the development of stomach and other gastrointestinal cancers

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the roles of folic acid and β-carotene in the chemoprevention of gastric and other gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Results A total of 7 new cases of gastrointestinal cancers were diagnosed with 3 stomach, 1 colon and 1 esophageal cancers occurring in the placebo group; 1 stomach cancer in both of the N-βC and S-βC groups, and no cancer occurring in FA group. In terms of GI cancers, there was a significant reduction in the FA group, compared with the placebo group (P=0.04). A similar trend was observed in both N-βC and S-βC groups (P=0.07-0.08). Taken together, the three intervention groups displayed a highly significant decrease in occurrence (P=0.004, vs placebo), and a lower risk for GI cancers (OR=0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.51). For development of gastric cancer, any one of the three active-treated groups did not reach statistically significant reduction. The FA group showed obvious improvement of the gastric mucosal lesions with more patients displaying lesions reversed or stable atrophy and inflammation (P=0.04), reversed intestinal metaplasia (P=0.06) at the end of follow-up, and reversed displasia (P=0.017) at 12 months. Two cases of false jaundice were found in β-carotene groups with no influence on administration, and no side-effects were reported in FA group. Conclusions This trial revealed the interventional effect of folic acid on the development of GI cancers, a similar effect of β-carotene was also detected. Also, folic acid may be of use to treat atrophic gastritis by preventing or reversing the precancerous lesions.

  5. Dietary practices in households as risk factors for stomach cancer: a familial study in Poland.

    Jedrychowski, W; Boeing, H; Popiela, T; Wahrendorf, J; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Kulig, J

    1992-06-01

    In the framework of a nationwide case-control study of risk factors for stomach cancer, a household survey was conducted on those food habits at the family level which were considered relevant for stomach cancer. The practices of 741 case and 741 control households were compared and relative risks calculated by the unconditional maximum likelihood method. For each household, the person responsible for cooking completed the survey. Respondents to the household survey were 35% of the cases and 40% of the controls of the case-control study and otherwise other household members. Case households relied more frequently on their own gardens as a major source of vegetables and fruit, and they cooked their vegetables more often than control households. The vegetable and fruit consumption during the summer period per family member was significantly less in case households compared to control households. The difference in per capita vegetable and fruit consumption between case and control households persisted, but was considerably less pronounced when the consumption of the index person (case or control) was subtracted from the household consumption. The consumption of mainly wholemeal bread showed a relative risk (RR) of 0.18 (95% CI 0.07-0.44) compared with mainly white bread consumption, whereas frequent frying and stewing of meat was associated with an increased risk compared to boiling of meat (RR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.48-2.87). No association with risk was found for long-term refrigerator use or other storage modalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467778

  6. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of neuroendocrine tumor in stomach and duodenum

    Xiang-yao WANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with neuroendocrine tumor in stomach and duodenum for early diagnosis. Methods  The clinical, endoscopic and pathological data of 20 patients admitted to the PLA General Hospital from Jan. 2012 to Jan. 2015 and diagnosed as gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumor were collected for retrospective analysis. The histopathological classification of the disease was made according to the WHO 2010 Classification of the Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Result  Ten male and 10 female patients aged between 35 and 77 (mean 55.5±10.6 years old were recruited in the present study. Tumor located in the stomach in 13 cases, and in duodenum in 7 cases. The maximum diameter of the tumor was 0.2-2.5cm. Endoscopic features included polypoid protrusion, hemispheric submucosal protrusion, and mucosal erosion. All the patients were treated endoscopically, among them, four patients were treated with electrocoagulation and electrosection, 10 by endoscopic resection (EMR, and 6 by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. In one patient, surgical excision was done after ESD. Biopsy under gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography were conducive to the diagnosis and treatment. According to the histopathological classification, 19 cases were classified as NET grade 1, and another one as NET grade 2. The follow-up study showed no metastasis and recurrence. Conclusions  The early diagnosis and treatment for gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumor can lead to satisfactory results. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.03.12

  7. Treatment of Simple Obesity of Stomach-intestine Excessive Heat Type by Acupuncture and Tuina

    LI Li-qiu; GONG Wei-zhi

    2005-01-01

    将60例胃肠实热型单纯性肥胖病的患者随机分为针刺推拿结合组(治疗组)和单纯针刺组(对照组),每组30例,分别给予针刺推拿结合与单纯针刺治疗.通过疗前疗后肥胖指标、血脂指标的对比,进行两组的临床疗效对比分析.治疗组与对照组的总有效率各为90.0%、73.0%,针刺推拿结合治疗胃肠实热型单纯性肥胖病效果显著,优于针刺治疗(P<0.05).%Sixty cases of simple obesity of stomach-intestine excessive heat type were randomly divided into acupuncture-Tuina groupand single acupuncture group, 30 cases in each group, and were given acupuncture-Tuina and single acupuncture respectively. The clinical effects of two groups were analyzed and compared by obesity and fat indexes before and after treatment. The total effective rates in acupuncture-Tuina and simple acupuncture group were 90.0% and 73.3% respectively. The effect of acupuncture-Tuina in treating simple obesity with stomach-intestine excessive heat type was satisfactory, and better than that of acupuncture(P<0.05).

  8. Summary of Zhang Xi-chun's thoughts in treating counter flow of thoroughfare vessel of stomach and stomach Qi rising in reverse order%张锡纯论治冲胃气逆疾病述要

    双莉; 杨玉兰; 高常柏

    2012-01-01

    The common diseases due to counter flow of thoroughfare vessel of stomach and stomach Qi rising in reverse order included cerebral hyperemia, vomit, hematemesis, gasp syndrome, dysphagia, retrograde menstruation and so on. Zhang Xi-chun thought that the pathological foundations causing these diseases are deficiency of kidney, liver-fire, and weakness of stomach Qi etc. For treating them, therefore, he liked to apply herbs lowering adverse Qi combined with tonifying herbs. Ochre and pinellia ternate were commonly used by Zhang Xi-chun. He suggested that both herbs were effective herbs to suppress the counter flow of thoroughfare vessel and stomach Qi. The tonifying herbs can help to restore the normal physiology of Zang and Fu organs and treat the counter flow of thoroughfare vessel and stomach Qi fundamentally. Additionally, he also used the method of raising Qi to treat the disease such as retrograde menstruation.%常见的冲胃气逆疾病有脑充血、呕吐、吐衄、喘证、膈证、倒经等,张锡纯认为引起此类疾病的病理基础是肾虚、肝火、胃气虚弱等.对于此类疾病,张锡纯喜用降逆药物配合对症的补益之药治疗.降逆药物,张锡纯常取代赭石、半夏,认为两药皆是镇降冲胃气逆的良药,补益药物,能恢复脏腑的正常生理,从根本上治疗引起冲胃气逆的病理基础,另外张锡纯还用升提大气的方法治疗冲胃气逆引起的倒经等病.

  9. Efficacy of enteral diets in the prevention of stress-induced gastric erosions in rats.

    Sriram, K; Abrahamian, V; Kaminski, M V; Santiago, G C

    1987-04-01

    This study compares the prophylactic effects of two different diets and routes of feeding on restraint stress-induced gastric erosions in the rat. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were food-deprived and immobilized for 24 hours using a steel wire mesh. A small silicone tube was placed into either the proximal jejunum or the stomach via a laparotomy. There were three groups of ten rats (five jejunum-fed, five stomach-fed), receiving infusions (50 ml/24 h) of: (A) normal saline; (B) free amino acids (Vivonex HN, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals) (60 cal and 0.318 G nitrogen); or (C) a peptide diet, with the nitrogen source as lactalbumin hydrolysate, otherwise identical to B. Gastric acidity was measured every 4 hours. At 24 hours, blood was collected and serum gastrin levels determined. The animals were then sacrificed and the stomachs examined. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Fewer gastric erosions and lower serum gastrin levels and gastric acidity were found in animals fed diets B and C, versus animals fed normal saline (p less than 0.05). There was no difference between groups B and C. Our results also show that enteral diets using the jejunal route are better than those using the gastric route in reducing the incidence of stress-induced gastric erosions in rats. PMID:3108349

  10. Expression of survivin in human gastric carcinoma and gastric carcinoma model of rats

    Xiao-Dong Zhu; Geng-Jin Lin; Li-Ping Qian; Zhong-Qing Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, in human gastric carcinomas and gastric carcinoma models of rats.METHODS: With the method of immunohistochemical staining, we studied the expression of survivin in 20 cases of chronic gastritis and 56 cases of gastric carcinomas. We used N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and high dose sodium-chloride diet to induce rat gastric carcinomas. Survivin expression was studied in glandular stomachs of normal rats, adenocarcinomas and tissues adjacent to the tumor, as well as in rats during the induction period.RESULTS: Survivin was expressed in 27 of 56 (48.2 %)cases of human gastric carcinoma tissues and 1 of 20 (5 %)cases of chronic gastritis. It was found that the expression of survivin had no relation with the elements of age, tumor depth, tumor size, and disease stage, but was significantly related to histological type. The positive rate of survivin expression in cases of intestinal type was significantly higher than that in cases of diffuse type (P<0.05). In animal experiments, survivin expression in glandular stomachs of normal rats, of rats in middle induction period, in adenocarcinomas and tissues adjacent to tumor were 0,40.0 %, 78.3 % and 38.9 %, respectively. Compared with the survivin expression in normal rats, the differences were significant.CONCLUSION: These data imply that survivin plays an important role in the onset of gastric carcinoma and that high survivin expression is an early event of gastric carcinoma.

  11. Diet of the crayfish Paranephrops zealandicus in bush and pasture streams : insights from stable isotopes and stomach analysis

    Crayfish (Paranephrops zealandicus White) stomachs from streams in both native bush (mainly tree leaves and dicotyledonous seeds) and exotic pasture settings (mainly grass stems and monocotyledonous seeds) were dominated by allochthonous material. More detritus occurred in stomachs in autumn-winter than in spring-summer, but quantities were similar in crayfish from native bush and pasture streams. The stomachs of larger crayfish contained a significantly greater proportion of detritus than smaller individuals. Aquatic invertebrates were the second most abundant dietary category by volume, with highest values in winter, but there were no significant differences between land uses or crayfish size classes. A wide range of invertebrates was eaten by crayfish, with mayfly nymphs, chironomid larvae, and snails predominating. The latter were numerically more prominent in crayfish from bush than pasture streams. Terrestrial invertebrates were recorded from 4% of stomachs, but there were no significant differences in relation to land use, season, or crayfish size class. Despite aquatic invertebrates making up 13C and perhaps of microfloral origin, seems to be an important energy source for crayfish in both stream types. (author). 52 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Winter diets of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on a northern feeding ground: integrating stomach contents and stable isotope analyses

    Williams, Natalie C.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The foraging ecology and diet of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, remain understudied, particularly in peripheral areas of its distribution. We assessed the diet of an aggregation of juvenile green turtles at the northern edge of its range during winter months using two approaches. Stomach content analyses provide a single time sample, and stable isotope analyses integrate diet over a several-month period. We evaluated diet consistency in prey choice over time by comparing the results of these two approaches. We examined stomach contents from 43 juvenile green turtles that died during cold stunning events in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, in 2008 and 2011. Stomach contents were evaluated for volume, dry mass, percent frequency of occurrence, and index of relative importance of individual diet items. Juvenile green turtles were omnivorous, feeding primarily on seagrasses and tunicates. Diet characterizations from stomach contents differed from those based on stable isotope analyses, indicating the turtles are not feeding consistently during winter months. Evaluation of diets during warm months is needed.

  13. Sources of variability and comparability between salmonid stomach contents and isotopic analyses: study design lessons and recommendations

    Vinson, M.R.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    We compared sources of variability and cost in paired stomach content and stable isotope samples from three salmonid species collected in September 2001–2005 and describe the relative information provided by each method in terms of measuring diet overlap and food web study design. Based on diet analyses, diet overlap among brown trout, rainbow trout, and mountain whitefish was high, and we observed little variation in diets among years. In contrast, for sample sizes n ≥ 25, 95% confidence interval (CI) around mean δ15Ν and δ13C for the three target species did not overlap, and species, year, and fish size effects were significantly different, implying that these species likely consumed similar prey but in different proportions. Stable isotope processing costs were US$12 per sample, while stomach content analysis costs averaged US$25.49 ± $2.91 (95% CI) and ranged from US$1.50 for an empty stomach to US$291.50 for a sample with 2330 items. Precision in both δ15Ν and δ13C and mean diet overlap values based on stomach contents increased considerably up to a sample size of n = 10 and plateaued around n = 25, with little further increase in precision.

  14. Spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-28

    Previous studies have shown that the survival of larval and juvenile anchovy off the continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay is not significantly different from that observed on the shelf, even though the food concentration is significantly higher on the shelf. In this paper we investigate the causes for the lack of relationship between food and survival for anchovy juvenile through analyses of feeding activity versus zooplankton distribution (in the transition from summer to fall from 2003 to 2010). The spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy in relation to body size on and off the shelf revealed higher stomach fullness in areas off the shelf, where less zooplankton biomass was available. This result indicates that the food concentration is not always the main factor determining ingestion in fish. A situation of comparatively lesser prey abundance may provide better feeding conditions when combined with lower predation risk and lower light attenuation. In addition, the relatively heavier stomachs found in anchovies caught in years of higher recruitment indices suggest a large stomach content may be a symptom of good biological condition that may favour the winter survival of a larger fraction of the juvenile stock. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  15. Three-dimensional organization of lymphatics in the dog stomach: a scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts.

    Sugito, M; Araki, K; Ogata, T

    1996-03-01

    The three-dimensional organization of the lymphatics in the dog stomach was studied by scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts, which were made by direct parenchymal injection of low-viscosity Mercox-resin into the mucosa and the muscular layers. Although the organization of lymphatics in the stomach has been studied by a variety of methods, the origin of the lymphatics and their connection in each layer has not been clearly defined. In this study, using dog stomach because of its structural similarity to the human stomach, we defined the lymphatic structure in all gastric layers, with lymphatics absent in the upper two-thirds of the lamina propria mucosae. They were first encountered at the deepest level of the lamina propria, immediately above the lamina muscularis mucosae. These lymphatics were composed of single-layered irregular meshes. Slender lymphatics arising from this network passed through the lamina muscular is mucosae and drained into the lymphatic plexus, which was composed of thicker lymphatics at the uppermost layer of the submucosa. Lymphatic valves were frequently seen in this plexus. From this plexus, slender connecting lymphatics with valves extended straight downward without lateral communications and drained into the lymphatic plexus at the deepest layer of the submucosa. This latter plexus, composed of large-caliber lymphatics, issued flattened lymphatics which formed a three-dimensional network in the muscular layer. The subserosal lymphatics were composed of thick lymphatics with tortuous courses and drained into the efferent lymphatics. PMID:8727364

  16. Study on the role of gastric Helicobacter infection in gross pathological and histological lesions of the stomach in finishing pigs.

    Szeredi, L; Palkovics, G; Solymosi, N; Tekes, L; Méhesfalvi, J

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter infection in finishing pigs and the influence of this infection on gastric lesions was studied. Stomachs of 89 finishing pigs from 27 randomly selected herds were sampled at the slaughterhouse. Forty cases (Group A) were selected based upon the presence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea, and further 49 cases were obtained at random (Group B). Three samples of gastric tissue (junction of pars oesophagea and pars cardiaca, fundic area, and pyloric area) were collected from each stomach for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Helicobacter antigen was detected in 76 cases (85.4%). No association was found between the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach and the occurrence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea or gastritis detected on histological examination. However, a significant association was found between the occurrence of Helicobacter in the pyloric area and the presence of erosions/ulcers in the pars oesophagea (OR: 7.01, p = 0.022) in Group B. A significant association was also evident between the presence of Helicobacter and glandular lesions (dilatation of the glands + glandular abscess + degeneration of glandular epithelial cells). In conclusion, Helicobacter infection seems to be a contributing factor to pathological changes in the stomach of finishing pigs. PMID:16156132

  17. Survival of non-Western first generations immigrants with stomach cancer in North East Netherlands: Short communication

    Siemerink, E.J.M.; Aa, van der M.A.; Siesling, S.; Hospers, G.A.P.; Mulder, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Isolated groups, such as first generation non-Western immigrants, are at risk for suboptimal utilisation of the health care system resulting in a worse outcome. Methods: From 1989 to 2007, all patients with stomach cancer were selected from the Comprehensive Cancer Centre North-East c

  18. Studies on the regulation of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by acid in the esophagus and stomach.

    Banovcin, P; Halicka, J; Halickova, M; Duricek, M; Hyrdel, R; Tatar, M; Kollarik, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the major mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux, but the regulation of TLESR by stimuli in the esophagus is incompletely understood. We have recently reported that acid infusion in the esophagus substantially (by 75%) increased the number of meal-induced TLESR in healthy subjects. We concluded that the TLESR reflex triggered by gastric distention with meal was enhanced by the stimulation of esophageal nerves by acid. However, the possibilities that the acid infused into the esophagus acts after passing though lower esophageal sphincter in stomach to enhance TLESR, or that the acid directly initiates TLESR from the esophagus were not addressed. Here, we evaluated the effect of acid infusion into the proximal stomach on meal-induced TLESR (study 1) and the ability of acid infusion into the esophagus to initiate TLESR without prior meal (study 2). We analyzed TLESRs by using high-resolution manometry in healthy subjects in paired randomized studies. In study 1, we found that acid infusion into the proximal stomach did not affect TLESRs induced by standard meal. The number of meal-induced TLESRs following the acid infusion into the proximal stomach was similar to the number of meal-induced TLESRs following the control infusion. In study 2, we found that acid infusion into the esophagus without prior meal did not initiate TLESRs. We conclude that the increase in the meal-induced TLESRs by acid in the esophagus demonstrated in our previous study is not attributable to the action of acid in the stomach or to direct initiation of TLESR from the esophagus by acid. Our studies are consistent with the concept that the stimuli in the esophagus can influence TLESRs. The enhancement of TLESR by acid in the esophagus may contribute to pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux in some patients. PMID:25873206

  19. On the gastrocecal inhibitory reflex in the rat.

    Lee,Zai-Liu

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available In rats anesthetized with urethane, the effects of distention of the stomach upon cecal motility and neural mechanisms which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited which generate this effect were studied. Cecal motility was inhibited when the pars glandularis of the stomach was distended by pressure ranging from 25 to 30 cm H2O. This inhibitory reflex was not affected by bilateral cervical vagotomy, but completely abolished following bilateral severance of the greater splanchnic nerves or after intravenous administration of guanethidine. After transection of the spinal cord at the level of the 5th thoracic segment the inhibitory reflex remained intact, but was abolished following pithing of the 6th thoracic segment and below. It may be concluded that the afferent and efferent path of the gastrocecal inhibitory reflex mainly pass through the greater splanchnic nerves and the reflex center is located in thoracic segments caudal to the 6th thoracic segment.

  20. Effect of feed supplementation with phytohaemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate on growth and nitrogen elimination pathways in rats with acute renal failure induced by nephrectomy

    Filip, Rafat; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    + AKG, 3) Shap-operated, 4) Sham-operated + AKG. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. Results: Lower daily weight gain (Pintestine and total Gl tract weight (P...-operated and uraemic rats, AKG treatment led to a significant reduction in the urea levels (Pintestinal wall, apparently favouring faecal excretion, can...

  1. Effect of scorpion toxin on the enterochromaffin-like cells in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats: a morphological study

    N. H. Toppa

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of scorpion toxin (Tityus serrulatus in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi infected rats did not cause ultrastructural morphologic changes on enterochromaffin-like (ECL cells of the stomach, although it induced a significant increase of the gastric secretion. Our data seem to indicate that gastric ECL cells structure is not affected by stimulation with scorpion toxin or by acute infection with T. cruzi in the rat.

  2. Effect of scorpion toxin on the enterochromaffin-like cells in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats: a morphological study

    N.H. TOPPA; V. H. R. Leite; A.J.A. Barbosa; Chiari, E; H. M. S. Gonzaga; L. Freire-Maia; Cunha-Melo, J R

    1989-01-01

    Intravenous injection of scorpion toxin (Tityus serrulatus) in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi infected rats did not cause ultrastructural morphologic changes on enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the stomach, although it induced a significant increase of the gastric secretion. Our data seem to indicate that gastric ECL cells structure is not affected by stimulation with scorpion toxin or by acute infection with T. cruzi in the rat.

  3. Effect of scorpion toxin on the enterochromaffin-like cells in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats: a morphological study.

    Toppa, N H; Leite, V H; Barbosa, A J; Chiari, E; Gonzaga, H M; Freire-Maia, L; Cunha-Melo, J R

    1989-01-01

    Intravenous injection of scorpion toxin (Tityus serrulatus) in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi infected rats did not cause ultrastructural morphologic changes on enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the stomach, although it induced a significant increase of the gastric secretion. Our data seem to indicate that gastric ECL cells structure is not affected by stimulation with scorpion toxin or by acute infection with T. cruzi in the rat. PMID:2510237

  4. 言语产生的胸腹呼吸机制%Chest and stomach breathing control for speech production

    杨锋; 侯兴泉; 孔江平

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzes the chest and stomach breathing control for speech production and its relationship with speech prosody.The results show that chest-stomach compound breathing is manifested in normal speech,with the stomach breathing reset preceding the chest reset and the start of speech signal,with the length of the expiration phase relative to the speech signal.Poem chanting requires more air volume than normal speech.Chest breathing provides sufficient air volume for the maintenance of the thoracic cavity expansion until the end of the utterance.Stomach breathing controls the release rate for the chest breathing through contraction of the abdominal muscle and diaphragm,enabling continuous speech flow.A reset occurs for both chest and stomach breathing immediately before a prosodic sentence.A stomach and chest breathing signal trough occurs immediately before a prosodic phrase.This research describes the respiratory mechanism in speech production as a foundation for articulatory modeling of respiration.%该文通过胸呼吸和腹呼吸信号研究言语产生的胸腹呼吸机制,以及呼吸与韵律间的关系.实验结果表明:言语以胸腹联合式呼吸为主,腹呼吸重置时间早于胸呼吸重置时间和语音起始时间,呼气相时长约等于语音时长.吟诵所需气息量比朗读大.胸呼吸主要作用是保证足够的气息量,在发音时胸腔保持扩张状态至发音结束.腹呼吸主要作用是,通过腹肌和膈肌稳健收缩,控制气流持续释放,以获得连续的语音.韵律句起始处对应一个胸腹呼吸重置,韵律短语边界对应胸腹呼吸间断.该研究对言语呼吸生理机制的认识和理解具有重要意义,为言语产生呼吸生理建模提供研究基础.

  5. The value of gastroenterultrasound developer in diagnosis of the stomach tumor%胃肠超声助显剂在诊断胃肿瘤中的应用价值

    Qi Xu; Jianguo Xia

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the value of gastroenterultrasound developer in diagnosis of the stomach tumor.Methods:38 patients who diagnosed as stomach tumor by gastroscopy were chosen,and their images before and alter by using gastroenterultrasound developer were compared.Results:The difference between the detectable rate of stomach tumor before and after by using gastroenterultrasound developer was significant (P<0.01).Conclusion:Gastroenterultrasound developer has a high diagnostic value in diagnosis of the stomach tumor.

  6. Modified double contrast-enhanced examination of the stomach of adipose patients after vertical gastroplasty

    The study reported covers 28 patients who were examined once by radiology before surgery, and twice after surgery. The first post-surgery examination was done on days 5-7, the second during the 4th until 6th month after surgery. For the first examination, water-soluble contrast agent was initially applied, then barium containing contrast agent. The second examination was done by modified double contrast technique. The most frequent, pre-surgery findings revealed gastro-esophageal reflux in 13 patients. The first post-surgery control detected a somastenosis in 2 patients, while the second control examination detected complications of various nature in 11 patients and gastro-esophageal reflux in 5 patients. In 6 patients, discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings was stated. The pouch size did not correlate with the frequency of complications, or with the body-to-mass index decrease. The examination method proposed in this article yields pre-surgery information on the anatomy of the stomach, more accurate dewscription of post-surgery complications, and better evaluation of the antireflux effect of the vertical gastroplasty. (orig.)

  7. Small Submucosal Tumors of the Stomach: Differentiation of Gastric Schwannoma from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with CT

    Choi, Jin Wook; Choi, Dong Gil; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Sohn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Soon Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    To identify the CT features that help differentiate gastric schwannomas (GS) from small (5 cm or smaller) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and to assess the growth rates of both tumors. We included 16 small GSs and 56 GISTs located in the stomach. We evaluated the CT features including size, contour, surface pattern, margins, growth pattern, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intralesional low attenuation area, hemorrhage, calcification, surface dimpling, fistula, perilesional lymph nodes (LNs), invasion to other organs, metastasis, ascites, and peritoneal seeding. We also estimated the tumor volume doubling time. Compared with GISTs, GSs more frequently demonstrated a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs (each p < 0.05). The intralesional low attenuation area was more common in GISTs than GSs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Tumor volume doubling times for GSs (mean, 1685.4 days) were significantly longer than that of GISTs (mean, 377.6 days) (p = 0.004). Although small GSs and GISTs show similar imaging findings, GSs more frequently show an exophytic or mixed growth pattern, homogeneous enhancement pattern, perilesional LNs and grow slower than GISTs.

  8. Scintigraphic quantitation of gastrointestinal motor activity and transport: Oesophagus and stomach

    For the recognition and characterisation of oesophageal motor disorders, manometry represents the most reliable tool but yields no information on bolus transport. The transport can be quantitated by radionuclide techniques. The patient is positioned supine beneath a gamma-camera and instructed to swallow a radiolabelled bolus in a single gulp. Using a marker over the cricoid and the activity in the stomach as landmarks, regions of interest are drawn representing the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus and the gastric fundus. Activity-time curves enable one to recognise the clearance patterns in these regions. In combination, manometric and radionuclide transit studies recognise a higher number of motor disorders than either procedure alone. Radionuclide methods also are the most reliable and sensitive to quantitate gastric emptying. Procedure, meal size and composition as well as patient position must be standardised and correction techniques applied. The emptying of solid and liquid meal constituents can be evaluated concomitantly. Solids start to empty only after a lag phase of varying extent. With semi-solid meals, which are emptied at the same rate as solid meals of identical composition in the postlag phase, the recording time can be considerably shorter. Besides gastric emptying, the amplitude, frequency and propagation velocity of antral contractions can be recorded using serial images of short frame time and specially devised analytic techniques. (orig.)

  9. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins.

    Michael J Polito

    Full Text Available Stomach content analysis (SCA and more recently stable isotope analysis (SIA integrated with isotopic mixing models have become common methods for dietary studies and provide insight into the foraging ecology of seabirds. However, both methods have drawbacks and biases that may result in difficulties in quantifying inter-annual and species-specific differences in diets. We used these two methods to simultaneously quantify the chick-rearing diet of Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo (P. papua penguins and highlight methods of integrating SCA data to increase accuracy of diet composition estimates using SIA. SCA biomass estimates were highly variable and underestimated the importance of soft-bodied prey such as fish. Two-source, isotopic mixing model predictions were less variable and identified inter-annual and species-specific differences in the relative amounts of fish and krill in penguin diets not readily apparent using SCA. In contrast, multi-source isotopic mixing models had difficulty estimating the dietary contribution of fish species occupying similar trophic levels without refinement using SCA-derived otolith data. Overall, our ability to track inter-annual and species-specific differences in penguin diets using SIA was enhanced by integrating SCA data to isotopic mixing modes in three ways: 1 selecting appropriate prey sources, 2 weighting combinations of isotopically similar prey in two-source mixing models and 3 refining predicted contributions of isotopically similar prey in multi-source models.

  10. Immunohistochemical studies of the enteric nervous system and interstitial cells of Cajal in the canine stomach

    Colin Musara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, the probable pacemakers in gastrointestinal motility, was investigated using an antigenic marker of gastric ICC known as C-Kit. Antiserum raised against the general neuronal marker protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP as well as the nitrergic neuronal marker neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS were used to investigate the distribution of gastric nerves. Polyclonal goat anti-human C-Kit was reliable in labelling ICC in the stomach. Two classes of ICC were identified according to their distribution: ICC-MY distributed around the periphery of myenteric ganglia and ICC-IM in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. The neuronal marker PGP was reliably consistent in revealing the density and distribution of the enteric nervous system. Density of nerve fibres was higher in circular smooth muscle than in longitudinal smooth muscle. From nNOS immunohistochemistry, it is evident that inhibitory (nitrergic nerves constitute a substantial fraction of the enteric nervous system.

  11. Small Submucosal Tumors of the Stomach: Differentiation of Gastric Schwannoma from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with CT

    To identify the CT features that help differentiate gastric schwannomas (GS) from small (5 cm or smaller) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and to assess the growth rates of both tumors. We included 16 small GSs and 56 GISTs located in the stomach. We evaluated the CT features including size, contour, surface pattern, margins, growth pattern, pattern and degree of contrast enhancement, and the presence of intralesional low attenuation area, hemorrhage, calcification, surface dimpling, fistula, perilesional lymph nodes (LNs), invasion to other organs, metastasis, ascites, and peritoneal seeding. We also estimated the tumor volume doubling time. Compared with GISTs, GSs more frequently demonstrated a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs (each p < 0.05). The intralesional low attenuation area was more common in GISTs than GSs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that a homogeneous enhancement pattern, exophytic or mixed growth pattern, and the presence of perilesional LNs were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Tumor volume doubling times for GSs (mean, 1685.4 days) were significantly longer than that of GISTs (mean, 377.6 days) (p = 0.004). Although small GSs and GISTs show similar imaging findings, GSs more frequently show an exophytic or mixed growth pattern, homogeneous enhancement pattern, perilesional LNs and grow slower than GISTs.

  12. Long-term results of stomach-conserving therapy in gastric MALT lymphoma

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of stomach-conserving therapy and to assess the value of histological probable minimal residual disease (pMRD) in predicting outcome in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. Materials and methods: We studied 115 patients with stage I-II2 gastric MALT lymphoma treated between 1975 and 2002. Initially, first-line treatment consisted of radiotherapy only. Since 1994 most patients were primarily treated with Helicobacter pylori eradication; radiotherapy was used in case of eradication failure. To assess the value of pMRD, first follow-up biopsy samples classified as compete remission (CR) according to classical clinico-pathological criteria and biopsy samples 1 year after assessment of histological CR were reviewed; results were related to outcome. Results: Following radiotherapy only (n = 56) 96% achieved a clinical CR; 10-year cancer-specific survival rate was 94%. Following H. pylori eradication only (n = 35) CR-rate was 43% and after additional treatment 89%; 5-year cause-specific survival was 93%. There was no difference in relapse rate following initial histological CR or pMRD. Conclusions: Patients with early stage gastric MALT lymphoma have a favorable long-term outcome following conservative treatment. Outcome after H. pylori eradication followed by delayed radiotherapy on indication was excellent. In our series pMRD was not associated with increased risk of recurrence

  13. Autoradiographic and enzyme histochemical studies of intestinal metaplasia in human stomach

    The relationship between growth potency and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal metaplasia of human stomach was studied using enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic technique. Both alkaline phosphatase positive and negative glands were seen in the intestinal metaplasia. Two types of alkaline phosphatase positive glands were observed, one in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were distributed from the lower part to the surface of the gland and the other in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were localized only at the surface of the gland. 3H-Thymidine labelled cells in the former gland were localized only at the bottom but the labelled cells in the latter were distributed in the lower part of the gland. 3H-Thymidine labelled cells in alkaline phosphatase negative gland were distributed from the bottom to middle part of the gland. These results imply that the intestinal metaplasia in which cell proliferative zone was localized at the bottom of the gland showed alkaline phosphatase activity just like the activity in the small intestine, however the gland in which the cell proliferative zone was prolonged showed the alkaline phosphatase activity different from the small intestine. (author)

  14. Bacterial flora concurrent with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases

    Yuan Hu; Li-Hua He; Di Xiao; Guo-Dong Liu; Yi-Xin Gu; Xiao-Xia Tao; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylorl) bacterial flora concurrent with H.py/ori infection.METHODS:A total of 103 gastric biopsy specimens from H.py/ori positive patients were selected for bacterial culture.All the non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).RESULTS:A total of 201 non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were cultivated from 67 (65.0%) of the 103 gastric samples,including 153 isolates identified successfully at species level and 48 at genus level by MALDI-TOF MS.The dominant species were Streptococcus,Neisseria,Rothia and Staphylococcus,which differed from the predominantly acid resistant species reported previously in healthy volunteers.The prevalence of non-H.pylori bacteria was higher in non-ulcer dyspepsia group than in gastric ulcer group (100% vs 42.9%,P < 0.001).Six bacterial species with urease activity (Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus capitis,Staphylococcus aureus,Brevibacterium spp.and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were also isolated.CONCLUSION:There is a high prevalence of the non-H.pylori bacteria concurrent with H.pylori infection,and the non-H.pylori bacteria may also play important as-yet-undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of stomach disorders.

  15. From the stomach to other organs: Helicobacter pylori and the liver

    Marek; Waluga; Micha?; Kukla; Micha?; ?orniak; Agata; Bacik; Rafa?; Kotulski

    2015-01-01

    Many recent studies have examined the importance of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection in the pathogenesis of the diseases outside the stomach and explored the significance of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of some metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have provided evidence that H. pylori is also involved in the pathogenesis of some liver diseases. Many observations have proved that H. pylori infection is important in the development of insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The worsening of liver inflammation of different origins also occurs during H. pylori infection. Some studies have indicated that H. pylori infection induces autoimmunological diseases in the liver and biliary tract. The potential significance of this bacterium in carcinogenesis is unclear, but it is within the scope of interest of many studies. The proposed mechanisms through which H. pylori impacts the development of hepatobiliary diseases are complex and ambiguous. The importance of other Helicobacter species in the development of hepatobiliary diseases is also considered because they could lead to the development of inflammatory, fibrotic and necrotic injuries of the liver and, consequently, to hepatocellular carcinoma. However, many contrary viewpoints indicate that some evidence is not convincing, and further studies of the subject are needed. This review presents the current knowledge about the importance of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of liver and in biliary diseases.

  16. How regulation based on a common stomach leads to economic optimization of honeybee foraging.

    Schmickl, Thomas; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-21

    Simple regulatory mechanisms based on the idea of the saturable 'common stomach' can control the regulation of protein foraging and protein allocation in honeybee colonies and colony-level responses to environmental changes. To study the economic benefits of pollen and nectar foraging strategies of honeybees to both plants and honeybees under different environmental conditions, a model was developed and analyzed. Reallocation of the foraging workforce according to the quality and availability of resources (an 'adaptive' strategy used by honeybees) is not only a successful strategy for the bees but also for plants, because intensified pollen foraging after rain periods (when nectar quality is low) compensates a major fraction of the pollination flights lost during the rain. The 'adaptive' strategy performed better than the'fixed' (steady, minimalistic, and non-adaptive foraging without feedback) or the 'proactive' (stockpiling in anticipation of rain) strategies in brood survival and or in nectar/sugar economics. The time pattern of rain periods has profound effect on the supply-and-demand of proteins. A tropical rain pattern leads to a shortage of the influx of pollen and nectar, but it has a less profound impact on brood mortality than a typical continental rainfall pattern. Allocating more bees for pollen foraging has a detrimental effect on the nectar stores, therefore while saving larvae from starvation the 'proactive' strategy could fail to collect enough nectar for surviving winter. PMID:26576492

  17. Carbonic anhydrase IV expression in rat and human gastrointestinal tract regional, cellular, and subcellular localization.

    Fleming, R.E.; Parkkila, S; Parkkila, A K; Rajaniemi, H; Waheed, A; Sly, W S

    1995-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked isozyme previously identified on the surface of renal tubular epithelium and certain populations of vascular endothelium. This report identifies the regional, cellular, and subcellular localization of CA IV in the rat gut. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated little CA IV expression in stomach or proximal small intestine, but abundant expression in distal small and large intestine. In contrast, CA II mRNA was abu...

  18. Different effects of cytoprotective drugs on ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in pylorus-ligated rats

    Takeuchi, K.; Nishiwaki, H.; Niida, H.; Okabe, S. (Kyoto Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    In anesthetized rats oral administration (2 ml) of both ethanol (50% in 150 mM HCl) and aspirin (80 mM in 150 mM HCl) produced bandlike lesions in the stomach, while more generalized lesions occurred in the pylorus-ligated stomach when the irritant was given intragastrically through the fistula prepared in the rumen and the mucosal folds were removed by stomach distension. The bandlike lesions induced in the intact stomach by both irritants were significantly and dose-dependently prevented by 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2: 3 and 10 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously), cysteamine (30 and 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or timoprazole (10 and 30 mg/kg, per os) at the doses which significantly inhibited gastric motility. In the pylorus-ligated stomach, however, neither of these agents showed any protection against the generalized lesions induced by ethanol, but such lesions caused by aspirin were significantly prevented only by dmPGE2. These agents also showed similar effects against the reduction of transmucosal PD in the pylorus-ligated stomach exposed to ethanol and aspirin. These results suggest that (1) the formation of bandlike lesions caused by ethanol and aspirin depends on the presence of mucosal folds and may be prevented by the agents that inhibit gastric motility, (2) the pathogenesis of the lesions induced by aspirin and ethanol may be different in the pylorus-ligated stomach, and (3) dmPGE2 has a unique protective ability that is not shared by usual cytoprotective agents.

  19. An analysis of the diagnostic information derived from screening as against films during radiological examination of the stomach

    The value of screening procedures (with image intensifiers and television monitor) was compared with films during the radiological examination of the stomach, using a double contrast method. In one experiment, the diagnostic accuracy of experienced radiologists using screening only was compared with standardised films. There was a definite improvement using films. The reason for this was not the difference in the technical excellence of the images, but depended on the cognitive processes which lead the doctor to a diagnosis. For this purpose, static pictures provide a better basis than dynamic, rapidly changing and brief view seen during screening. The results lead to certain considerations concerning the methods for the radiological examination of the stomach. (orig.)

  20. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  1. Drifting invertebrates, stomach contents, and body conditions of juvenile rainbow trout from fall through winter in a Wyoming tailwater

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the availability of drifting invertebrates and the stomach contents and body conditions of stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout from fall through winter in the Big Horn River downstream from Boysen Dam in Wyoming. When the density and biomass of drifting invertebrates declined with water temperature during the fall, stomach contents and body conditions substantially decreased among both wild and stocked fish. During the coldest portion of the winter, the density of small drifting invertebrates increased as did the body conditions of both wild and hatchery trout. We suggest that the perceived increase in body conditions during late winter was due to survival of fish with higher body conditions and not growth of fish from fall to late winter.

  2. Colonization of an acid resistant Kingella denitrificans in the stomach may contribute to gastric dysbiosis by Helicobacter pylori.

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Hidekazu; Yanai, Hideo; Nishikawa, Jun; Nakazawa, Teruko; Iizasa, Hisashi; Jinushi, Masahisa; Sakaida, Isao; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    In the stomach of a gastric ulcer patient who had been administered an anti-acid, a gram-negative and urease-negative bacillus similar in size to Helicobacter pylori was infected together with H. pylori. According to biochemical test and 16S rRNA gene analysis, the urease-negative bacterium was identified as Kingella denitrificans, a human nasopharyngeal commensal. In contrast to the standard strain of K. denitrificans, the isolate showed catalase activity, did not produce acid from glucose, and exhibited acid tolerance. Acid tolerance of H. pylori was increased by cocultivation with the K. denitrificans isolate, but not with other isolates of K. denitrificans. Disruption of physiological and immunological niche by dysbiotic colonization of bacterium may provide pathological attributes to human stomach. Collectively, a careful administration of anti-acids to the elderly, especially those with atrophic gastritis, is necessary to avoid repression of the gastric barrier to bacteria. PMID:24462438

  3. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-poly (acrylic acid hydrogels as stomach specific delivery for amoxicillin and metronidazole

    Hemant Yadav K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop stomach specific delivery systems for amoxicillin and metronidazole using chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels. Chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels were prepared with different composition of copolymers. The hydrogels were evaluated for swelling studies, mucoadhesive studies, in vitro drug release, scanning electron microscopic and FTIR analysis. The effect of chitosan and poly (acrylic acid on swelling and in vitro drug release was carried out. The n value calculated was < 0.5 for all the formulations containing amoxicillin and metronidazole indicating Fickian diffusion mechanism. The hydrogels with chitosan and poly (acrylic acid ratio of 0.25:1 showed greater mucoadhesive property, maximum swelling and complete release of drugs, hence can be used for stomach specific delivery of drugs.

  4. Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators

    Romeo, Teresa; Battaglia, Pietro; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Andaloro, Franco

    2012-09-01

    The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae, Ommastrephidae, and Onychoteuthidae. The sepiolid Heteroteuthis dispar was the most abundant species ( n = 1,402) while the ommastrephid Todarodes sagittatus showed the highest biomass. They can be considered key-species in the pelagic food web of the study area. The neutrally buoyant Histioteuthis bonnellii, H. reversa, and Chiroteuthis veranyi seem to characterize the deeper water layers. Given the difficulty in sampling pelagic cephalopods, the presence of cephalopod beaks in the stomach of predators represents a fundamental tool to assess the biodiversity and the ecological importance of these taxa in the marine ecosystem.

  5. Improved X-ray diagnosis of stomach by progress in the development of contrast media and examination techniques

    Three factors have been responsible for the advances during the past few years in X-ray examination of the stomach: Improvement of the contrast media used; introduction of the rare-earth foils; and examination techniques imaging all sections of the stomach and of the duodenal bulb under hypotension in double-contrast technique, in complete filling, and imaging the accessible sections by means of proper compression. An interesting technique employs a combination of two different barium sulphate suspension used at the same time, e.g. Bubbly Barium or some other barium sulphate preparation with a small amount of High-Density Barium yielding excellent image of the gastric mucosa (technique with two contrast media). (orig.)

  6. Effects of trout bradykinin on the motility of the trout stomach and intestine: evidence for a receptor distinct from mammalian B1 and B2 subtypes

    Jensen, Jorgen; J. Michael Conlon

    1997-01-01

    Trout bradykinin ([Arg0,Trp5,Leu8]-bradykinin; trout BK), recently isolated from kallikrein-treated trout plasma, produced sustained and concentration-dependent contractions of isolated longitudinal muscle from rainbow trout stomach (pD2=7.01±0.03) and proximal small intestine (pD2=7.37±0.07). The maximum responses were 85±2% (stomach) and 101±35% (intestine) of the corresponding responses to 10−5 M acetylcholine. Strips of circular smooth muscle from trout stomach and intestine did not contr...

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  8. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment. PMID:15338718

  9. Epithelial cell renewal in the digestive gland and stomach of mussels, season, age and tidal regime related variations

    Zaldibar, B.; Cancio, I.; Marigómez, I.

    2008-01-01

    The natural variability in cell proliferation activity in the epithelium of the digestive gland and stomach was investigated in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk), of different age and tidal level at different seasons. After treating mussels with the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 6 hours, BrdU immunohistochemistry was performed every 2 hours for the next 36. The relative proportion of BrdU positive cells was quantified as BrdU labelling (‰). ...

  10. Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Penetrating to the Stomach and the Common Bile Duct

    Norihiro Goto; Masahiro Yoshioka; Motohito Hayashi; Toshinao Itani; Jun Mimura; Kimio Hashimoto

    2012-01-01

    Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas occasionally penetrates to others organs. We present a case of IPMN penetrating to the stomach and the common bile duct. Case report A 75-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of epigastric pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a papillary tumor protruding into the markedly dilated main pancreatic duct and splenic vein obstruction. The tumor was diagnosed as IPMN arising in the main duct, but he rejected surger...

  11. Functional and morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the stomach after long application of proton pump inhibitors

    M. V. Markina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes of mucous membrane of rats’ stomach after long term application of proton pump inhibition – Omeprazole. Increase of pepsin concentration, volume and рН in both fasting and basal gastric juice in comparison with the control was observed. It is established that the content of nitrates and nitrites in gastric juice and in the rats’ mixed saliva after the 12th day of introduction of proton pump inhibitors is 3:1.

  12. Different types of spinal afferent nerve endings in stomach and esophagus identified by anterograde tracing from dorsal root ganglia.

    Spencer, Nick J; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A; Brookes, Simon; Hibberd, Tim

    2016-10-15

    In visceral organs of mammals, most noxious (painful) stimuli as well as innocuous stimuli are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). One of the major unresolved questions is the location, morphology, and neurochemistry of the nerve endings of spinal afferents that actually detect these stimuli in the viscera. In the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, there have been many anterograde tracing studies of vagal afferent endings, but none on spinal afferent endings. Recently, we developed a technique that now provides selective labeling of only spinal afferents. We used this approach to identify spinal afferent nerve endings in the upper GI tract of mice. Animals were anesthetized, and injections of dextran-amine were made into thoracic DRGs (T8-T12). Seven days post surgery, mice were euthanized, and the stomach and esophagus were removed, fixed, and stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Spinal afferent axons were identified that ramified extensively through many rows of myenteric ganglia and formed nerve endings in discrete anatomical layers. Most commonly, intraganglionic varicose endings (IGVEs) were identified in myenteric ganglia of the stomach and varicose simple-type endings in the circular muscle and mucosa. Less commonly, nerve endings were identified in internodal strands, blood vessels, submucosal ganglia, and longitudinal muscle. In the esophagus, only IGVEs were identified in myenteric ganglia. No intraganglionic lamellar endings (IGLEs) were identified in the stomach or esophagus. We present the first identification of spinal afferent endings in the upper GI tract. Eight distinct types of spinal afferent endings were identified in the stomach, and most of them were CGRP immunoreactive. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3064-3083, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019197

  13. PERITONEAL WASH CYTOLOGY POSITIVITY IN CLINICALLY AND RADIOLOGICALLY PROVEN NON-METASTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA STOMACH – A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL STUDY

    Abdulla Kunnummal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The presence of intra-peritoneal free cancer cells (IPFCC in adenocarcinoma stomach has been proven to be associated with grim prognosis and is staged as M1 disease in latest TNM staging. Major resections are not indicated in these patients that will add to the morbidity and increase the cost and duration of hospital stay and also delay the commencement of palliative chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study was conducted in a tertiary care apex institute in Kerala, India. 60 consecutive cases of clinically and radiologically proven non-metastatic adeno carcinoma stomach with tissue diagnosis, who were being planned for curative resection, were selected and subjected to preoperative laparoscopic peritoneal washing. 300 ml of normal saline was introduced to peritoneal cavity. Which was aspirated after irrigating all surfaces of the peritoneal cavity. Sample was centrifuged, stained with Papanicolaou stain and cytological analysis for IPFCC was done from the Department of Pathology. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 18.1 and p-value <.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 31.6% (19 cases of the clinically and radiologically proven non-metastatic adenocarcinoma stomach were restaged as metastatic disease after laparoscopic peritoneal wash cytology analysis. Of them 14(23.3% of the sample had visible peritoneal metastasis found during laparoscopic inspection, but the remaining 5 cases did not have visible peritoneal metastasis but were positive for IPFCC which could be detected only after peritoneal wash cytology analysis and not by mere laparoscopic inspection, which accounts for 10.8% of those who were labeled as non-metastatic and curable even after preoperative diagnostic laparoscopy. CONCLUSION Preoperative laparoscopy and peritoneal wash cytology analysis is mandatory in clinically and radiologically proven non-metastatic carcinoma stomach, who are being planned for curative resection

  14. Significance of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose accumulation in the stomach on positron emission tomography

    To explain the accumulation of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose (18FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) in the stomach and differences in its pattern, we focus on the accumulation pattern in association with endoscopic findings of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. Of 599 cases undergoing 18FDG-PET examinations, we retrospectively analyzed the pattern of 18FDG accumulation in the stomach, findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and Hp infection. The pattern of 18FDG accumulation was classified into three groups: localized accumulation only in the fornix (Group A, 32 patients), diffuse accumulation throughout the entire stomach (Group B, 49 patients), and no accumulation (Group C, 191 patients). Regarding the relation between Hp infection and 18FDG accumulation, Hp infection was positive in 56.3% of Group A, 73.5% of Group B, and 24.1% of Group C, with significant differences (p18FDG accumulation and gastric mucosal inflammation, when Groups A and B were compared with Group C, nearly half of the cases in the former groups had papular redness with a significantly higher frequency of redness and erosion. Three cases found to have malignant tumor were limited to the former groups. One mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma case was also found in the same group. Accumulation of 18FDG largely corresponded to mucosal inflammation including superficial gastritis and erosive gastritis, and therefore the main cause of non-specific 18FDG accumulation was considered to be inflammatory mucosa (mainly redness). The accumulation pattern was not associated with atrophic changes of the gastric mucosa or with Hp infection, but with mucosal inflammatory changes, including redness and erosion localized to the fornix. Accumulation of 18FDG in the stomach suggests a high probability of the presence of inflammatory change in the gastric mucosa forming a background for the development of cancer or malignant lymphoma, and thus requires further

  15. Evidence for the occurrence of the same strain of Campylobacter pylori in the stomach and dental plaque.

    Shames, B; Krajden, S; Fuksa, M; Babida, C; Penner, J L

    1989-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease analysis with HindIII, HaeIII, and BglII endonucleases of DNA extracted from each of eight colonies of Campylobacter pylori subcultured from a stomach biopsy and from each of eight colonies subcultured from dental plaque of the same patient indicated that at least three strains were present in the dental plaque but only one strain was present in the biopsy. One of the dental strains had restriction patterns indistinguishable from those of the biopsy isolate, providing...

  16. Functional and morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the stomach after long application of proton pump inhibitors

    M. V. Markina; A. K. Vyatkin; V. P. Lyashenko; RUDENKO A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Changes of mucous membrane of rats’ stomach after long term application of proton pump inhibition – Omeprazole. Increase of pepsin concentration, volume and рН in both fasting and basal gastric juice in comparison with the control was observed. It is established that the content of nitrates and nitrites in gastric juice and in the rats’ mixed saliva after the 12th day of introduction of proton pump inhibitors is 3:1.

  17. [Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].

    Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

    2010-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50μl/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 μl/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 μl/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 μl/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 μl/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta. PMID:21450144

  18. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  19. Organic Extractives from Mentha spp. Honey and the Bee-Stomach: Methyl Syringate, Vomifoliol, Terpenediol I, Hotrienol and Other Compounds

    Igor Jerković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The GC and GC/MS analyses of the solvent organic extractive from the stomach of the bees, having collected Mentha spp. nectar, revealed the presence of methyl syringate (6.6%, terpendiol I (5.0% and vomifoliol (3.0% that can be attributed to the plant origin. Other major compounds from the bee-stomach were related to the composition of cuticular waxes and less to pheromones. Organic extractivesfrom Mentha spp. honey were obtained by solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major honey headspace compounds were hotrienol (31.1%–38.5%, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (0.5–6.0%, cis- and trans-linalool oxides (0.9–2.8%, linalool (1.0–3.1% and neroloxide (0.9–1.9%. Methyl syringate was the most abundant compound (38.3-56.2% in the honey solvent extractives followed by vomifoliol (7.0–26.6%. Comparison of the honey organic extractives with the corresponding bee-stomach extractive indicated that methyl syringate and vomofoliol were transferred to the honey while terpendiol I was partially transformed to hotrienol in ripened honey.

  20. Stomach contents of the Pacific sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon longurio (Carcharhiniformes, Carcharhinidae in the southeastern Gulf of California

    Yolene R Osuna-Peralta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon longurio of the SE Gulf of California are described using the stomach contents of 250 specimens (135 males and 115 females obtained weekly from December 2007 to March 2008 in the two main landing sites of the artisanal fishing fleet of Mazatlan. The mean total length (TL was 77.7 ± 12.8 cm and the respective ranges for males and females were 60-120 cm and 52120 cm. Size distribution showed two modal groups (juveniles: 52-80 cm, mode 72.5 cm, and adults: 85-140 cm, mode 92.5 cm. Out of the 395 preys identified in 235 stomachs with identifiable contents, the most important were cephalopods (Index of Relative Importance, IRI = 93.1%, mainly Argonauta spp. (IRI = 92.9%. The total IRI value for fish was 5.9%, mostly represented by Oligoplites refulgens and Oligoplites sp. (joint IRI value = 4.8%. The diversity of the stomach contents of males and females was not significantly different, and although the values of diversity, equitability and dietary breadth indexes were lower in juveniles than in adults, ANOSIM analysis did not show differences in dietary habits related to age and sex. The results indicate a specialized feeding behaviour, with Argonauta spp. as preferred prey. This behaviour does not agree with all previous information on R. longurio, and is probably due to local availability of this prey during the sampling period.