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Sample records for acid waste streams

  1. Plutonium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purifications operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1.4 (50-100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO (tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer

  2. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal

  3. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Recovery of plutonium from nitric-acid waste streams

    Nitric acid (7M) waste streams at Rocky Flats contain 0.01 to 0.001 g/1 plutonium and new processes are under development to reduce the plutonium levels to 10-5 g/1. Anion exchange and solvent extraction methods are under evaluation. Several macroreticular and microreticular anion exchange resins were evaluated and Rohm and Hass (IRA-938) gave significant improvement in plutonium capacity and elution over several other resins tested. The solvent extraction process uses dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate extractant. The results of recent tests using a combined anion exchange extraction chromatography process will be described for recovering both plutonium and americum

  5. Removal of plutonium and americium from hydrochloric acid waste stream using extraction chromatography

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique would allow recycle of the largest portion of HCl, while lowering the quantity and improving the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and similar laboratory-produced resins coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in hydrochloric acid solutions over the range of 0.1 - 10.0 N HCl, whole varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and contact time intervals. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients, and in the kinetics of actinide removal were observed as a function of resin formulation. The usefulness of these resins for actinide removal from HCl effluent streams is discussed

  6. Cleanup of hydrochloric acid waste streams from actinide processes using extraction chromatography

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent steams. Successful application of this technique would allow recycle of the largest portion of HCl, while lowering the quantity and improving the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and similar laboratory-produced resins coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and contact time intervals. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients, and in the kinetics of actinide removal were observed as a function of resin formulation

  7. Utilization of multiple waste streams for acid gas sequestration and multi-pollutant control

    Soong, Y.; Dilmore, R.M.; Hedges, S.W.; Howard, B.H.; Romanov, V. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A novel CO{sub 2} sequestration concept is reported that combines SO{sub 2} removal and CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, using a bauxite-processing residue which is a waste product and with waste brine water from oil/gas production. The bauxite residue/brine mixture of 46/54 v/v exhibited a CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of > 0.078 mol L{sup -1} when exposed to pure CO{sub 2} at 20 C and 2.73 MPa. At a higher temperature of 140 C, a bauxite residue/brine mixture of 80/20 v/v indicated a CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of > 0.094 mol L{sup -1} when exposed to pure CO{sub 2} at 3.85 MPa. Under the same reaction conditions, an identical ratio of reaction mixture exposed to simulated flue gas at a similar initial pressure was capable of sequestering 0.16 mol of CO{sub 2} and > 99.9 % of the applied SO{sub 2}. Calcite formation was verified as a product of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. The caustic bauxite residues (pH 12.5-13.5) and acidic wastewater brine (pH 3-5) are also effectively neutralized after participating as reactive reagents in the conceptual process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Development of column grade ammonium molybdo phosphate granules for the separation of cesium from acidic waste streams in reprocessing plants (Paper No. AL-44)

    Ammonium molybdo phosphate(AMP) microcrystals can be converted into granular form suitable for column operations if a suitable binder is used. The column filled with such AMP granules, can be effectively used to remove cesium from the reprocessing waste streams prior to final disposal. But difficulty arises as most of the monomers affect AMP. A process has been developed to obtain AMP in granualar form suitable for column operations which does not alter the capacity, kinetics and stability of the exchanger. The performance of the grunular form AMP in treating acidic waste streams of reprocessing plants has been described here. (author)

  9. Miscellaneous Waste Stream strategy document

    This strategy document addresses objectives and implementation for the Miscellaneous Waste Stream (MWS) program through FY1996. Its intention is to develop's comprehensive pollution prevention/hazard minimization program for MWS projects. The overall focus of this program is aimed at pollution prevention/hazard minimization for MWS processes and involves the elimination/minimization of processes and materials that result in pollutant releases to all environmental media. The document is divided into three categories of initial issues identified from funded MWS projects: waste streams, assessment tools, and waste characterization and worker exposure methods development. Initial strategy requires the development of a baseline of major waste streams at each facility and the identification of MWS issues and proposed solutions. Goals and schedules will evolve as these new issues are identified. Applicable pollution prevention/hazard minimization technologies will be identified, prioritized, and employed to address each issue commensurate with funding availability. Options will then be chosen and the proven technologies transferred to other sites, including commercial industry. Most notably, this strategy document calls for a 50 percent volume and toxicity reduction by CY1995 in the miscellaneous waste streams generated by processes within the MWS

  10. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  11. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties

  12. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  13. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO3, HNO3, and HNO3-H2SO4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H2SO4, HNO3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H2SO4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  14. Comparative evaluation of DHDECMP [dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-methylphosphonate] and CMPO [octylphenyl-N,N,-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide] as extractants for recovering actinides from nitric acid waste streams

    Certain neutral, bifunctional organophosphorous compounds are of special value to the nuclear industry. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbomoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) are highly selective extractants for removing actinide and lanthanide elements from nitric acid. We obtained these two extractants from newly available commercial sources and evaluated them for recovering Am(III), Pu(IV), and U(VI) from nitric acid waste streams of plutonium processing operations. Variables included the extractant (DHSECMP or CMPO), extractant/tributylphosphate ratio, diluent, nitrate concentration, nitrate salt/nitric acid ratio, fluoride concentration, and contact time. Based on these experimental data, we selected DHDECMP as the perferred extractant for this application. 18 refs., 30 figs

  15. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  16. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS MandO 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''

  17. Pectin content and composition from different food waste streams.

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Bruggeman, Geert; Bosch, Montse; Petrusan, Janos; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, 26 food waste streams were selected according to their exploitation potential and investigated in terms of pectin content. The isolated pectin, subdivided into calcium bound and alkaline extractable pectin, was fully characterized in terms of uronic acid and other sugar composition, methylation and acetylation degree. It was shown that many waste streams can be a valuable source of pectin, but also that pectin structures present a huge structural diversity, resulting in a broad range of pectin structures. These can have different physicochemical and biological properties, which are useful in a wide range of applications. Even if the data could not cover all the possible batch by batch and country variabilities, to date this represents the most complete pectin characterization from food waste streams ever reported in the literature with a homogeneous methodology. PMID:26868545

  18. BioREFINE-2G project – Engineering of industrial yeast strains for production of dicarboxylic acids from side and waste streams

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina;

    2014-01-01

    compounds can be polymerised to biodegradable polymersthat can find application as plastics, coatings or adhesives. To reach the goals, the identification of relevant metabolic routes, strain engineering and the development of a toolbox for manipulation of industrial S. cerevisiae strains are required. Here......, we present advanced genetic engineering tools applicable for generally hardly amenable strains with industrial background. This involves tools forstable heterologous gene (over-)expression and a strategy for fast performance of gene disruption inmultiple ploidy strains. The use of the developed...... generation biorefineries utilize less than 20% of the biomass feedstock for ethanol production. Major side-streams are produced such as pentose and lignin waste streams that are used for biogas and energy production. Converting the carbon from these waste streams into added-value products would improve the...

  19. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Analysis of SRP waste streams for waste tank certification

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) will apply for certification from the State of South Carolina to operate the SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The permit application will be submitted as a RCRA Part B, Volume 16, entitled ''RCRA Part B Application For the F and H-Area Radioactive Waste Farm.'' RCRA regulations require that influent and effluent streams of hazardous waste sites be characterized to obtain an operating permit. The Waste Management Technology Department requested ADD to determine 21 components (including pH and weight percent solids) in the current influent streams to SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The analyses will be used to supplement existing data on the composition of High-Level Waste. Effluent streams, which will feed Saltstone and the DWPF, will be analyzed when they are produced. This report contains the data obtained from analyzing key influent streams to SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The precision of the data and the analytical methods that were used are also discussed

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  2. Dietary change and fate of related waste streams

    Korpalska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption patterns or dietary patterns are repeated arrangements observed in food consumption by a population group. Organic waste streams are by-products of the food production which are not suitable for human consumption. Nowadays, waste streams

  3. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  4. Biodegradation testing of solidified low-level waste streams

    The NRC Technical Position on Waste Form (TP) specifies that waste should be resistant to biodegradation. The methods recommended in the TP for testing resistance to fungi, ASTM G21, and for testing resistance to bacteria, ASTM G22, were carried out on several types of solidified simulated wastes, and the effect of microbial activity on the mechanical strength of the materials tested was examined. The tests are believed to be sufficient for distinguishing between materials that are susceptible to biodegradation and those that are not. It is concluded that failure of these tests should not be regarded of itself as an indication that the waste form will biodegrade to an extent that the form does not meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR Part 61. In the case of failure of ASTM G21 or ASTM G22 or both, it is recommended that additional data be supplied by the waste generator to demonstrate the resistance of the waste form to microbial degradation. To produce a data base on the applicability of the biodegradation tests, the following simulated laboratory-scale waste forms were prepared and tested: boric acid and sodium sulfate evaporator bottoms, mixed-bed bead resins and powdered resins each solidified in asphalt, cement, and vinyl ester-styrene. Cement solidified wastes supported neither fungal nor bacterial growth. Of the asphalt solidified wastes, only the forms of boric acid evaporator bottoms did not support fungal growth. Bacteria grew on all of the asphalt solidified wastes. Cleaning the surface of these waste forms did not affect bacterial growth and had a limited effect on the fungal growth. Only vinyl esterstyrene solidified sodium sulfate evaporator bottoms showed viable fungi cultures, but surface cleaning with solvents eliminated fungal growth in subsequent testing. Some forms of all the waste streams solidified in vinyl ester-styrene showed viable bacteria cultures. 13 refs., 12 tabs

  5. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available

  6. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  7. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  8. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  10. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  11. Anaerobic digestion of two biodegradable municipal waste streams

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Landfill avoidance for organic wastes is now a high priority worldwide. Two fractions of the municipal waste stream were considered with respect to their potential for diversion through controlled anaerobic digestion. The physical and chemical properties of source segregated domestic food waste (ss-FW) and of the mechanically-recovered organic fraction of municipal solid waste (mr-OFMSW) were analysed, and their methane yields determined in both batch and semi-continuous digestion. Methane po...

  12. Characterization of waste streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) plants generate solid low-level waste (LLW) that must be disposed of or stored on-site. The available disposal capacity of the current sites is projected to be fully utilized during the next decade. An LLW disposal strategy has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program as a framework for bringing new, regulator-approved disposal capacity to the ORR. An increasing level of waste stream characterization will be needed to maintain the ability to effectively manage solid LLW by the facilities on the ORR under the new regulatory scenario. In this paper, current practices for solid LLW stream characterization, segregation, and certification are described. In addition, the waste stream characterization requirements for segregation and certification under the LLWDDD Program strategy are also examined. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Extending value stream mapping through waste definition beyond customer perspective

    Khurum, Mahvish; Petersen, Kai; Gorschek, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Value Stream Mapping is one of the several Lean practices, which has recently attracted interest in the software engineering community. In other contexts (such as military, health, production), Value Stream Mapping has achieved considerable improvements in processes and products. The goal is to also leverage on these benefits in the software intensive product development context. The primary contribution is that we are extending the definition of waste to fit in the software intensive product...

  14. Acidic lakes and streams in the United States: The role of acidic deposition

    A statistically designed survey of lakes and streams in acid-sensitive areas of the United States, the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), was used to identify the role of acidic deposition, relative to other factors, in causing acidic conditions in 1,181 lakes and 4,668 streams. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of acid anions in 75% of the acidic lakes and 47% of the acidic streams. Organic anions are dominant in one-fourth of the acidic lakes and streams; acidic mine drainage is the dominant acid source in 25% of the acidic streams. Other causes of acidic conditions are relatively unimportant on a regional scale. Nearly all the deposition-dominated acidic systems were found in six well-delineated subpopulations that represent about one-fourth of the NSWS lake population and one-third of the NSWS stream population

  15. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  16. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J B

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  17. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  18. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

    A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection

  1. Automated Solutions for Identification of Abnormalities within Waste Streams

    Management and analysis of data within the waste management world is a vital, yet time consuming activity. In the past, data submitted for waste stream characterization and container certification required human review and approval. While human review can identify data points that fall outside accepted parameters, identification of statistical outliers and anomalies requires a comprehensive comparison against historical data points. A full statistical review of submitted data cannot be adequately performed without technical assistance. This paper will detail the development of the Statistical Tracking Tool (STT) developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Waste Data System (WDS) and other automated optimization tools designed to greatly reduce time devoted processing nuclear waste shipments. The tools within the WDS provide technical assistance for analyzing data within waste streams prior to characterization and certification approval and assisting in the building of overpacks and payloads for shipment and disposal. The identification of potentially problematic data sets will prevent erroneous waste shipments avoiding regulatory fines, wasted man hours, and work stoppages. Further analysis will be given to additional techniques and principles that can be applied to a wider range of data adding to the efficacy and value of the Statistical Tracking Tool. (authors)

  2. Modeling the economics of blending organic processing waste streams

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into va...

  3. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    While there has been extensive research on the global scale to quantify the fluxes and reservoirs of carbon for predictive climate change models, comparably little attention has been focused on carbon cycles in the built environment. The current management of urban carbon cycles presents a major irony: while cities produce tremendous fluxes of organic carbon waste, their populations are dependent on imported carbon because most urban have limited access to locally sourced carbon. The persistence of outdated management schemes is in part due to the fact that reimagining the handling of urban carbon waste streams requires a transdisciplinary approach. Since the end of the 19th century, U.S. cities have generally relied on the same three options for managing organic carbon waste streams: burn it, bury it, or dilute it. These options still underpin the framework for today's design and management strategies for handling urban carbon waste. We contend that urban carbon management systems for the 21st century need to be scalable, must acknowledge how climate modulates the biogeochemical cycling of urban carbon, and should carefully factor local political and cultural values. Urban waste carbon is a complex matrix ranging from wastewater biosolids to municipal compost. Our first goal in designing targeted and efficient urban carbon management schemes has been examining approaches for categorizing and geochemically fingerprinting these matrices. To date we have used a combination of major and trace element ratio analysis and bulk matrix characteristics, such as pH, density, and loss on ignition, to feed multivariable statistical analysis in order to identify variables that are effective tracers for each waste stream. This approach was initially developed for Boston, MA, US, in the context of identifying components of municipal compost streams that were responsible for increasing the lead inventory in the final product to concentrations that no longer permitted its use in

  4. The removal of alpha-emitting radionuclides from liquid waste streams

    World-wide experience on the removal of alpha-emitting radionuclides from liquid waste streams is reviewed with particular emphasis on waste streams from reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel and on countries other than the United Kingdom. Current practice concentrates on the use of precipitation and evaporation, either singly or in combination, for the treatment of these waste streams. (author)

  5. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  6. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  7. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL

  8. Nitrification in four acidic streams in southern New Jersey

    Schornick, James C., Jr.; Ram, Neil M.

    1978-01-01

    Four characteristically acidic streams in southern New Jersey were investigated to determine the effect of secondary effluent on nitrification in the receiving waters. Chemical and microbiological data were obtained at four sites on each stream. From these data seven factors were evaluated to determine the proclivity of each stream to nitrify. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were used to describe the general condition of the streams, while neutralization of alkalinity, nitrogen species concentration trends, biological and nitrogenous oxygen demand incubations, and nitrifying bacteria densities were used to determine the actual presence of nitrification in each stream. Each stream had a unique distribution of conditions, making it possible to qualitatively rank the streams according to their proclivity to nitrify. Hay StackBrook showes strong evidence for nitrification on the basis of all four nitrification indicators, whereas Landing Creek showed little, if any, evidence of nitrification. Hammonton Creek is apparently nitrifying, but because of the uncertainty in the downstream trends of the nitrogen species and a lower level of alkalinity neutralization, it is nitrifying less than Hay Stack Brook. Squankum Branch also showed some evidence for nitrification, mostly on the basis of the biological and nitrogenous oxygen demand incubations. Although these streams are acidic in character, acidity does not appear to be an exclusive factor in determining whether a stream will undergo nitrification. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Long Term Stability Testing Results for Savannah River Site Organic and Aqueous Waste streams

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate waste streams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic waste stream with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous waste stream, and an aqueous waste stream with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) legacy plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste and the F-Canyon PUREX waste constituted the volatile organic wastes and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic waste stream. The aqueous waste streams included a rainwater waste stream and an aqueous organic waste stream. MSE also evaluated the PUREX waste stream with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous-type sorbent materials. Based on testing performed at MSE, the rainwater waste stream was successfully solidified by SRS personnel using two different sorbents. Several small oil wastes were also successfully solidified by SRS personnel using granular clay sorbents based on information provided by MSE from the oils waste stream testing and 75,706 Liters (L) [20,000 gallons (gal)] of the F-Canyon PUREX waste was solidified at Waste Consolidation Specialists (WCS). Solidification of the various surrogate waste streams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE testing and evaluation facility located at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release testing (LRT) values with LRT results obtained over three years later in an attempt to understand the long-term stability characteristics of the solidified waste streams. The paper also includes solidification results for B-25 box samples generated late in 2005. (authors)

  10. Groundwater stream experiment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    Seitz, M.G.; Bowers, D.; Fortney, D.R.

    1981-08-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the practicality of using laboratory groundwater stream experiments to model a hydraulic breach of a nuclear waste repository located deep in a bedded salt environment. A test plan is included in this report that gives details of the apparatus, rocks, solutions, and analyses to be used in a groundwater stream experiment. Preliminary experiments revealed the essential impermeability of halite; only a small concentration of water (about 75 ppM) moved in halite by diffusion, with a coefficient of 2.0 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2//s. From work completed in this program, groundwater stream experiments appear to be a practical method of establishing the chemical interactions that would occur in a breached repository in bedded salt.

  11. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-11

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

  12. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering 99TcO4- from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO4-), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for 99TcO4-. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO4- and TcO4-

  13. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M ampersand C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division's pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M ampersand C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams

  14. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  15. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  16. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  17. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to cons...

  18. innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management

    treatment of radioactive waste dtreams is receiving considereble attention in most countries. the present work is for the radioactive wastewater stream management, by volume reduction by a mutual heating and humidificaction of a compressed dry air introduced through the wastewater. in the present work, a mathematical model describing the volume reduction by at the optimum operating condition is determined. a set of coupled first order differential equations, obtained through the mass and energy conservations laws, are used to obtain the humidity ratio, water diffused to the air stream, water temperature, and humid air stream temperature distributions through the bubbling column. these coupled differential equations are simulataneously solved numerically by the developed computer program using fourth order rung-kutta method. the results obtained, according to the present mathematical model, revealed that the air bubble state variables such as mass transfer coefficient (KG) and interfacial area (a) have a strong effect on the process. therefore, the behavior of the air bubble state variables with coulmn height can be predicted and optimized. moreover, the design curves of the volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams are obtained and assessed at the different operating conditions. an experimental setup was constructed to verify the suggested model. comperhensive comparison between suggested model results, recent experimental measurements and the results of previous work was carried out

  19. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  20. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  1. Standard test method for determining elements in waste Streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the sample. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable in process control within waste treatment facilities. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels that do not require special personnel or environmental protection. 1.3 A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is found in Table 1. 1.4 This test method has been used successfully for treatment of a large variety of waste solutions and industrial process liquids. The com...

  2. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    Specialty ion specific media were examined and developed for, not only pre- and post-outage waste streams, but also for very difficult outage waste streams. This work was carried out on first surrogate waste streams, then laboratory samples of actual waste streams, and, finally, actual on-site waste streams. This study was particularly focused on PWR wastewaters such as Floor Drain Tank (FDT), Boron Waste Storage Tank (BWST), and Waste Treatment Tank (WTT, or discharge tank). Over the last half decade, or so, treatment technologies have so greatly improved and discharge levels have become so low, that certain particularly problematic isotopes, recalcitrant to current treatment skids, are all that remain prior to discharge. In reality, they have always been present, but overshadowed by the more prevalent and higher activity isotopes. Such recalcitrants include cobalt, especially Co 58 [both ionic/soluble (total dissolved solids, TDS) and colloidal (total suspended solids, TSS)] and antimony (Sb). The former is present in most FDT and BWST wastewaters, while the Sb is primarily present in BWST waste streams. The reasons Co 58 can be elusive to granulated activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange (IX) demineralizers is that it forms submicron colloids as well as has a tendency to form metal complexes with chelating agents (e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, or EDTA). Such colloids and non-charged complexes will pass through the entire treatment skid. Antimony (Sb) on the other hand, has little or no ionic charge, and will, likewise, pass through both the filtration and de-min skids into the discharge tanks. While the latter will sometimes (the anionic vs. the cationic or neutral species) be removed on the anion bed(s), it will slough off (snow-plow effect) when a higher affinity anion (iodine slugs, etc.) comes along; thus causing effluents not meeting discharge criteria. The answer to these problems found in this study, during an actual

  3. Decomposition of zinc ferrite from waste streams of steelmaking

    Tauriainen, M. (Miia)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare different methods to decompose the zinc ferrite from the waste streams of steel making. The samples were acquired from SSAB Raahe blast furnace and converter flue gas scrubbers and Outokumpu Tornio Works bag filters EAF1, EAF3, AOD and CRK. Sludges and dusts contain significant amounts of zinc in form of zinc oxide and zinc ferrite. Zinc ferrite is highly stable compound which makes recovery of the zinc difficult. The zinc could be recovered and recycled ...

  4. Monitoring of plutonium-contaminated solid waste streams

    The fundamentals of the active neutron interrogation techniques are summarized. Design criteria for this techniques are numerically illustrated by one-dimensional one-group diffusion theory (plane geometry). Emphasis is given to the evaluation of the induced fission source in a neutron-irradiated sample. The concept and the mathematical model of a reference monitor are described. This model is based on the Nordheim method of heterogeneous neutron diffusion media. The apparatus consists of a cylindrical lead pile provided with two axial channels, one for adaptation of a (Sb - Be) neutron source and the other for placing of the sample (waste item). The radial and azimuthal distributions of source neutron flux around the sample are measured. From Fourier analysis of this flux distribution the spatial average of the source neutron flux in the sample is deduced. Induced fission neutrons are counted by energy biased detectors. This report is the fifth chapter of the guide: Monitoring of plutonium-contaminated solid waste streams

  5. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: ORNL; Y-12 Plant; K-25 Plant; Pantex Plant; Norfolk Naval Shipyard; Hanford Site; and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard

  6. Membrane systems to treat gaseous and nuclear industry waste streams

    Membranes are creating a revolution in the world separation technology. The applications of the membrane systems are recognised in water purification, removal of undesired waste constituents from the aqueous, organic liquids and gaseous streams. The systems named reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis are well known and have found applications in the above fields. Membranes have been known to common man for use only in filtration systems at the laboratory scale. Recent developments in gas separations have found applications in CO/sub 2/, So/sub 2), H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ stripping from the industrial and also nuclear gaseous effluents to save the environment from pollution and retain radioactivity in house. The supported liquid membrane based systems have been applied to recover metals from the industrial and radioactive liquid wastes. The status of the technology to treat the gaseous and liquid effluents have been described with the contributions for the development of immobilised liquid systems for the removal of some metal ions, which are present as radionuclides in the liquid wastes. Application of reverse osmosis to reduce the waste volume and the undesired radionuclides like /sup 54/Mn, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 110/Ag, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs have also been discussed. Membranes systems for gas purification have also been discussed to treat industrial effluents. (author)

  7. Control of aromatic-waste air streams by soil bioreactors

    Contamination of groundwater resources is a serious environmental problem which is continuing to increase in occurrence in the United States. It has been reported that leaking underground gasoline storage tanks may pose the most serious threat of all sources of groundwater contamination. Gasolines are comprised of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic portion consists primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX compounds). BTEX compounds are also among the most frequency identified substances at Superfund sites. Pump and treat well systems are the most common and frequently used technique for aquifer restoration. Treatment is often in the form of air stripping to remove the volatile components from the contaminated water. Additionally, soil ventilation processes have been used to remove volatile components from the vadose zone. Both air stripping and soil ventilation produce a waste gas stream containing volatile compounds which is normally treated by carbon adsorption or incineration. Both treatment processes require a substantial capital investment and continual operation and maintenance expenditures. The objective of the study was to examine the potential of using soil bioreactors to treat a waste gas stream produced by air stripping or soil ventilation process. Previous studies have shown that various hydrocarbons can be successfully treated with soils. The study examined the removal of BTEX compounds within soil columns and the influence of soil type, inlet concentration, and inlet flow rate on the removal efficiency

  8. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream

  9. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  10. Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment

    Prigg, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment produced by the North West Water Authority in 1985. This report forms part of a series on component biological investigations, identified by location or topic, within the acid rain project. Reporting of the Wastwater catchment data would not have been given priority ordinarily, but it has been brought forward to coincide with J. Robinson's reporting of his investigations of land use and liming in the catchment. Thi...

  11. Removal of styrene from waste gas stream using a biofilter

    B Bina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Styrene is produced in large quantities in the chemical industries and it has been listed among the 189 hazardous and toxic atmospheric contaminants under Clean Air Act Amendments, 1990, due to its adverse effects on human health. The biofiltration has been widely and efficiently applied during recent decades for the treatment of air streams contaminated by volatile organic compounds at low concentrations. Also this technology has been applied widely and efficiently in the removal of styrene from waste gas streams. Methods: Biofiltration of waste gas stream polluted by styrene vapor was investigated in a three-stage bench scale reactor. Yard waste compost using shredded hard plastics as a bulking agent in a 75:25 v/v mix of plastics:compost was used to packing biofilter. The system inoculation was achieved by adding thickened activated sludge obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant and the effects of loading rate, inlet concentration, and empty bed retention time variations on the performance and operation of biofilter were studied. Results: Microbial acclimation to styrene was achieved with inlet concentration of 65 ± 11 ppm and bed contact time of 360 s after 57 days of operation. Under steady state conditions experimental results showed equal average removal efficiency of about 84% at loading rates of 60 and 80 g m-3 h-1 with empty bed retention time of 60 s. Maximum elimination capacity was obtained up to 81 g m-3 h-1 with organic loading rate of about 120 g m-3 h-1. Reduction in performance was observed at inlet concentrations of upper than 650 ppm related to organic loading rates up to 160 g m-3 h-1 and then removal efficiency was decreased sharply. Evaluation of the concentration profile along the bed height of column indicated that the most value of elimination capacity occurred in the first section of biofilter. Elimination capacity also showed higher performance when empty bed retention time was reduced to 30 s

  12. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  13. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  14. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  15. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  16. Design of a static mixer reactor for copper recovery from waste streams

    Van Wageningen, W.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project was the development of a plug flow reactor for the reduction of heavy metals (Cu2+) from industrial waste streams. Potential application of the reduction process inside The Netherlands lies in the IC and galvanic industry, where small waste streams containing aqueous co

  17. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy's anticipated mixed waste streams

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE's waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE's mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters

  18. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Ogle, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  19. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities

  20. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  1. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  2. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE's waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ''best-in-class'' industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste: The elastic waste stream

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for disposal of greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). A recent DOE study projects that some 3,240 cubic meters of GTCC LLW will be generated through 2035. As important as the projection, however, are the caveats about the uncertainties involved in the projection. GTCC LLW is labeled the elastic waste stream, not because of characteristics of the waste, but because legal interpretations and regulatory policies will have a major affect on the volume of waste ultimately considered GTCC LLW. For the past several years, DOE has implemented a three-phase strategy for implementing its responsibilities for GTCC LLW. Under the strategy, DOE would provide for interim storage of GTCC LLW that poses a potential threat to public health and safety, would plan for a dedicated storage system that would accept GTCC LLW on a less restricted basis, and would plan for eventual disposal of the waste. Based on information developed by the GTCC LLW over the past several years, the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and the Idaho Operations Office have directed that the program reassess whether this is the most effective strategy to meet DOE's responsibilities under the Act

  4. Zirconium phosphate waste forms for low-temperature stabilization of cesium-137-containing waste streams

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes because volatiles are present in the wastes. A composite of zirconium-magnesium phosphate has been developed and shown to stabilize ash waste contaminated with a radioactive surrogate of 137Cs. Excellent retainment of cesium in the phosphate matrix system was observed in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests. This was attributed to the capture of cesium in the layered zirconium phosphate structure by intercalation ion-exchange reaction. But because zirconium phosphate has low strength, a novel zirconium/magnesium phosphate composite waste form system was developed. The performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfy the regulatory criteria. Test results indicate that zirconium-magnesium-phosphate-based final waste forms present a viable technology for treatment and solidification of cesium-contaminated wastes

  5. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe. PMID:27067099

  6. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO3 etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO3 strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO3 and H2SO4 which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO3/sup /minus// to be displaced by SO4/sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO3 is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Immobilization of nitrate waste streams containing small amounts of organic solvents

    The influence of organic solvents in nitrate waste streams is investigated concerning the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the full size waste forms when ordinary Portland cement is used as a binder matrix. Simulated waste streams containing sodium nitrate varying from 0 to about 26 wt %, including tributyl phosphate/dodecane, 30/70, as the organic phase varying from 0 to 10 wt %, were assayed. (author)

  8. Leaching of Electronic Waste Using Biometabolised Acids

    M. Saidan; B. Brown; M. Valix

    2012-01-01

    The revolution in information and communication technology has brought huge technical benefits and wealth, but has created a major global problem: the generation of vast amounts of electronic waste, or e-waste through product obsolesce. The challenge in managing e-waste will be in developing sustainable recycling tech- nologies that are able to address the volume and complexity of this waste using cost effective and ecologically sen-sitive methods. In this study, the capability or microorganism metabolic acids in dissolving the metallic tractions from waste printed circuit boards was examined. Several factors were considered in the examination of the activityof the acids-including secondary reactions, solution pH, temperature and the nature of ligands in solutions (or bioacid constituents). The leaching tests were cgnducted ex-situ, using synthetic organic acids. Leaching was performed for periods of up to 6 hat 70-90 ℃ and 1000 r-min-1.

  9. Sources of acidic storm flow in an Appalachian Headwater Stream

    Swistock, Bryan R.; Dewalle, David R.; Sharpe, William E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the source of increased dissolved aluminum concentrations during acidic storm flows on a small Pennsylvania stream. Data for six episodes during fall 1986 and spring 1987 showed depressions in stream pH and increases in sulfates, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved aluminum. Flow separation analyses were conducted using 18O as a tracer in a three-component mass balance tracer model. Results showed that soil water and groundwater are the dominant flow sources, accounting for approximately 20 and 75% of total flow during storms, respectively. Channel precipitation generally provided less than 5% of total flows. Hydrograph separation using aluminum agreed with 18O results, while other chemical parameters produced unsatisfactory results. The data support Hewlett's (1982) variable source area concept of storm flow generation with inputs of older, deep circulating groundwater from low-elevation source areas early in an event and later inputs of younger soil water and possibly shallow groundwater from expanding source areas at higher elevations. The results suggest that the most toxic runoff events for aquatic life occur during large storms when the greatest inputs of soil water cause elevated stream dissolved aluminum concentrations. Reductions in storm flow acidity and dissolved aluminum concentrations on this catchment will be most dependent upon changes in soil water and/or groundwater chemistry.

  10. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1–5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8 × 105 mg kg−1 As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5 × 104 mg kg−1 As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. - Highlights: • Stream sediments in a former mining area remain polluted with up to 25 g As per kg. • The main arsenic mineral in adjacent mine wastes appears to be scorodite. • Low solubility scorodite was inversely correlated with potentially mobile As. • Combining mineralogical and

  11. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK

    Rieuwerts, J.S., E-mail: jrieuwerts@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Mighanetara, K.; Braungardt, C.B. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rollinson, G.K. [Camborne School of Mines, CEMPS, University of Exeter, Tremough Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ (United Kingdom); Pirrie, D. [Helford Geoscience LLP, Menallack Farm, Treverva, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9BP (United Kingdom); Azizi, F. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1–5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8 × 10{sup 5} mg kg{sup −1} As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5 × 10{sup 4} mg kg{sup −1} As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. - Highlights: • Stream sediments in a former mining area remain polluted with up to 25 g As per kg. • The main arsenic mineral in adjacent mine wastes appears to be scorodite. • Low solubility scorodite was inversely correlated with potentially mobile As. • Combining

  12. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe)

  13. Design of a static mixer reactor for copper recovery from waste streams

    Van Wageningen, W.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project was the development of a plug flow reactor for the reduction of heavy metals (Cu2+) from industrial waste streams. Potential application of the reduction process inside The Netherlands lies in the IC and galvanic industry, where small waste streams containing aqueous copper exist. Outside The Netherlands, the process could be applicable in the mining industry,e.g. in Chili or South Africa. The copper is reduced in the form of particles by soluble carbohydrates, wh...

  14. Categorisation of waste streams arising from the operation of a low active waste incinerator and justification of discharge practices

    Waste streams arising from the low active waste incinerator at Harwell are described, and the radiological impact of each exposure pathway discussed. The waste streams to be considered are: (i) discharge of scrubber liquors after effluent treatment to the river Thames; (ii) disposal of incinerator ash; and (iii) discharge of airborne gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. Doses to the collective population and critical groups as a result of the operation of the incinerator are assessed and an attempt made to justify the incineration practice by consideration of the radiological impact and monetary costs associated with alternative disposal methods. (author)

  15. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired. PMID:18258282

  16. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 106 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 108; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>4500stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N2) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO2stack was > 1.5 x 106 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  17. Recycle stream impacts on feed treatment flowsheets and glass formulation for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify high-level radioactive wastes stored on the Hanford site. The vitrification flowsheet is being developed to assure that low-level effluent streams will be sufficiently low in TRU and gamma activity to allow direct disposal in shallow land burial. To achieve this goal, the process is being designed to separate high activity components from off-gas treatment decontamination waste streams, thereby creating a recycle stream which must be combined with the plant food. The intent of this paper is to consider the impacts of such a recycle stream on glass formulation, melter operability, redox control upsets due to the recycle of nitrates, and the ability of a single composition frit to accommodate shifts in the recycle flowsheet

  18. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 1000C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 1000C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 1000C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters

  19. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  20. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  2. Evaluating and controlling the characteristics of the nuclear waste in the FWMS using waste stream analysis model

    The Waste Stream Analysis (WSA) Model is used by the Department of Energy to model the item and location dependent properties of the nuclear waste stream in the Federal Waste Managements System and at utility spent fuel storage facilities. WSA can simulate a wide variety of FWMS configurations and operating strategies and can select and sequence spent fuel for optimal efficiency in the FWMS while minimizing adverse impact on the utility sector. WSA tracks each assembly from the time of discharge to ultimate geologic disposal including all shipping cask and waste package loadings and both at-reactor and FWMS consolidation. WSA selects the highest capacity shipping cask or waste package that does not violate external dose rate or heat limitations for a group of spent fuel assemblies to be containerized. This paper presents an overview of the Waste Stream Analysis Model and a number of key results from a set of coordinated SIMS runs, which illustrates both the impact of waste characteristics on system performance and the ability to control waste characteristics by use of selection and sequencing strategies. 7 refs., 6 figs

  3. Quantification of Acidic Compounds in Complex Biomass-Derived Streams

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; Salvachua, Davinia; Cywar, Robin M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-09-07

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkaline pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here too excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.

  4. Removal of pertechnetate from simulated nuclear waste streams using supported zerovalent iron

    Darab, John

    2008-01-01

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4-) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy"s Hanford Site: (1) the di...

  5. Application of coals as sorbents for the removal of Cr from aqueous waste streams

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2001-09-01

    The study reported further understanding of how various electron transfer processes operate for Cr(VI) with a view to using coals for the removal of Cr(VI) from waste streams. Skye peat, Spanish and German lignites, UK high and low volatility bituminous coals and an activated carbon were used. After treatment to remove exchangeable cations, ion exchange experiments were conducted in 0.1 M acetic acid-sodium acetate (1:1) buffer and 0.05 M sulphuric acid solutions and the slurries were agitated once a day. The ion concentrations in the solutions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Cr(VI) renaming in solution was determined by the standard calorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide method. Peat and low rank (Spanish Mequinenza) coal exhibited a larger capacity for Cr(VI) removal than bituminous coal. Redox mechanisms are operative coupled with the oxidation of the coal and peat surfaces. Desorption of Cr(III) formed by reduction which occurs in strongly acidic media also needs to be considered. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  6. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program

  7. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  8. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  9. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  10. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  11. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK.

    Rieuwerts, J S; Mighanetara, K; Braungardt, C B; Rollinson, G K; Pirrie, D; Azizi, F

    2014-02-15

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1-5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8×10(5)mgkg(-1) As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5×10(4)mgkg(-1) As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. PMID:24295744

  12. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Linking landscape characteristics, streamwater acidity and brown trout (Salmo trutta) distributions in a boreal stream network

    Buffam, Ishi

    2007-01-01

    Perturbations of stream ecosystems are often mediated by the terrestrial watershed, making the understanding of linkages between watersheds and streams essential. In this thesis I explore the connections between landscape characteristics, streamwater acidity and brown trout (Salmo trutta) distributions in Krycklan, a 67 km2 boreal stream network in northern Sweden. The study focuses on hydrochemical changes during the snowmelt-driven spring flood, a period of episodic acidity which is thought...

  14. Recycling ferrous and nonferrous waste streams with FASTMET

    McClelland, James M.; Metius, Gary E.

    2003-08-01

    In metals processing, residue streams are routinely generated containing recoverable metallic compounds. These metallics represent both valuable materials and potential disposal problems to the producer. Midrex, primarily involved in ferrous conversion for many years, has developed a variety of new processing techniques for ferrous and non-ferrous recovery. The processing technologies involve either shaft or rotary hearth furnaces, and can be both hydrocarbon or coal based. Recent developments have included conversion studies for ferrous and non-ferrous residual streams that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. The technologies to be presented, predominantly coal based, include FASTMET®, FASTMELT®, and Itmk3®.

  15. Recycling ferrous and nonferrous waste streams with FASTMET

    McClelland, J.M.; Metius, G.E. [Midrex Technology, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2003-08-01

    In metals processing, residue streams are routinely generated containing recoverable metallic compounds. These metallics represent both valuable materials and potential disposal problems to the producer. Midrex, primarily involved in ferrous conversion for many years, has developed a variety of new processing techniques for ferrous and non-ferrous recovery. The processing technologies involve either shaft or rotary hearth furnaces, and can be both hydrocarbon or coal based. Recent developments have included conversion studies for ferrous and non-ferrous residual streams that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. The technologies presented, predominantly coal based, include FASTMET, FASTMELT, and Itmk3.

  16. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  17. Detrital processing in streams exposed to acidic precipitation in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    Continuing high rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States may lead to long-term effects on stream communities, because sensitive catchments are continuing to lose anions and cations. A two-year study of the effects of pH and associated water chemistry variables on detrital processing in three streams with different bedrock geology in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia were investigated. Leaf pack processing rates and macroinvertebrate colonization and microbial biomass (ATP concentration) on the packs in the three stream were compared. It was found that macroinvertebrate and microbial communities differed both among streams that differed in their capacity to buffer the effects of acidic precipitation and among years in the same stream; these differences in biotic communities were not large enough to affect rates of leaf processing between the two years of the study, but they did significantly affect processing rates between acidic and circumneutral streams

  18. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  19. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  20. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum ''recipe'' for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600 C

  1. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  2. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  3. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  4. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  5. Remediation of phosphorus from electric furnace waste streams

    Electrothermal production of elemental phosphorus (P4) generates substantial amounts of highly toxic phossy water sludge, slag and other gaseous wastes. Because of their high phosphorus content the sludges pose potential fire hazards. In the absence of a reliable processing technology, large amounts of these hazardous wastes are accumulated at an annual rate of 1.5-2.5 million tons from current and past operations. The accumulated sludges are stored in ponds or in special containment vessels in 30 locations in 18 states including Alabama, California, Tennessee, Idaho and Montana. Serious water pollution problems will result unless these wastes are given extensive treatment to remove the elemental phosphorus. Federal regulations prohibit permanent storage of flammable wastes. This paper reports that recently, researchers at the University of Alabama have developed a two-step method for the treatment of phosphorus sludge that includes bulk removal of phosphorus by physical separation techniques followed by remediation of the residual P4 in the sludge using a novel wet air oxidation technique known as HSAD

  6. Classification of toxic chemical-waste streams from nuclear reactors

    The radiological and chemical constituents from light water reactors are identified, the methodology for comparing the hazards of various chemicals quantitatively with those of radioactive materials is presented, and the possible management basis of low-level waste (LLW) is considered

  7. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe the development of cementitious waste forms for evaporated Hanford waste waters from several sources. Basin 42 waste water and simulants of proposed Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary wastes and Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System secondary wastes were solidified in cementitious matrices termed ''dry cementitious formulation.'' Solidification of these brines was difficult to deal with because of high sulfate contents. Two approaches were explored. The first was based on compositions similar to sulphoaluminate-belite cements. The main component of these cements is 4CaO · 2Al2O3 · SO4. When hydrating in the presence of sulfate, these cements rapidly form ettringite. The goal was to consume the sulfate by rapidly forming ettringite. Forming ettringite before the mixture has filly set minimizes the potential for deleterious expansion at a later date. These formulations were developed based on mixtures of calcium-aluminate cement, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class F fly ash, and Portland cement. A second approach was based on using high alumina cement like ciment fondu. In this case the grout was a mixture of ciment fondu, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class f fly ash, and Portland cement. The literature shows that for concretes based on equal amounts of ciment fondu and blast furnace slag, cured at either 20 C or 38 C, the compressive strength increased continuously over a period of 1 year. In this second approach, enough reactive calcium aluminate was added to fully consume the sulfate at an early age. The results of this study will be presented. Included will be results for expansion and bleed water testing, adiabatic temperature rise, microstructure development, and the phase chemistry of the hydrated materials. The results of

  8. Screening of Phosphorus-Accumulating Fungi and Their Potential for Phosphorus Removal from Waste Streams.

    Ye, Yulin; Gan, Jing; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-01

    While bacteria have been primarily studied for phosphorus (P) removal in wastewater treatment, fungi and their ability to accumulate intracellular polyphosphate are less investigated. P-accumulating fungal strains were screened from soybean plants and surrounding soil by flask cultivation with potato dextrose broth and KH2PO4 in this study. Mucor circinelloides was selected for its high efficiency in P removal efficiency and high cellular P content. Neisser staining and growth-curve analysis confirmed that M. circinelloides stored polyphosphate intracellularly by luxury phosphate uptake. The effect of culture medium compositions on P removal efficiency and cellular P content was also investigated. Monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose) and organic nitrogen (N, such as urea, and peptone) promoted fungi growth and P accumulation. M. circinelloides also preferred organic phosphates. When glucose, urea, and phytic acid sodium salt were used as the carbon, N, and P source, respectively, the maximum utilization efficiency was 40.1% for P and 7.08% for cellular P content. In addition, the potential of M. circinelloides for P removal from waste streams was investigated. Compared with the non-inoculated control culture, inoculation with M. circinelloides improved the soluble P removal in treating wastewater centrate, screened manure, and digested manure. PMID:26280802

  9. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  10. Partial stream digestion of residual municipal solid waste.

    De Baere, L

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has become more important than the digestion of source separated biowaste. More than 52% of the capacity available in Europe was designed for digestion of residual municipal waste by the end of 2006, while this was only 13% in 1998. Partial digestion of residual waste organics, by which only a part of the organics is digested, has been implemented to reduce the need for dewatering and subsequent wastewater treatment. The digestate coming from part of the organics is immediately mixed with the non-digested organic fraction. This organic fraction is drier and still contains a lot of energy which can be used to dry the digestate during the aerobic composting of the mixture of digested and undigested organics. Such a MBT-plant has been operating for over a year whereby 2/3 of the organics (including sludge cake) are digested (25,000 t/year) and mixed after digestion with the remaining 1/3 of the organics. Biogas production averages 125.7 Nm2 per ton fed and contained 56.2% of methane. The mixture of digestate and non-digested organics is aerated in tunnels during 4 to 6 weeks. The stabilized end product is landfilled, meeting the stringent German standards for inert landfills. By using a dry fermentation able to produce a digestate at 35% solids, there is no need for dewatering the digestate so that no wastewater is produced. PMID:18441435

  11. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills. PMID:25106533

  12. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1998-10-26

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  13. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  14. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  15. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    Williams K.M.; Turner A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration ...

  16. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW [i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)] that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials [liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids], could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends

  17. Comparison of anion exchange resins for recovering plutonium from nitric acid waste

    Microreticular and macroreticular anion exchange resins were compared for their capability of recovering plutonium from nitric acid waste streams. Plutonium breakthrough capacity and elution behavior of the resins were determined as a function of resin properties. Small-bead microreticular resins with a polystyrene matrix containing 4% divinylbenzene cross-linkage showed the best performance. Of the 20- to 50-mesh resins, the macroreticular resin, Amberlite IRA-938, gave the highest plutonium breakthrough capacity and eluted plutonium the fastest

  18. Anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals and their influence on the structure of stream food webs

    We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food chains, less links) than those in naturally acidic, naturally high metal, and circumneutral streams. Food webs of naturally high metal streams were structurally similar to those in mining streams, lacking fish predators and having few species. Whereas, webs in naturally acidic streams differed very little from those in circumneutral streams due to strong similarities in community composition and diets of secondary and top consumers. The combined negative effects of acidity and metals on stream food webs are clear. However, elevated metal concentrations, regardless of source, appear to play a more important role than acidity in driving food web structure. - Highlights: ► Food webs in acid mine drainage impacted streams are small and extremely simplified. ► Conductivity explained differences in food web properties between streams. ► Number of links and web size accounted for much dissimilarity between food webs. ► Food web structure was comparable in naturally acidic and circumneutral streams. - Food web structure differs in streams with anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals.

  19. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  20. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  1. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO`s) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968.

  2. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO's) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968

  3. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  4. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment

  5. Waste and Lead Time Reduction in a Software Product Customization Process with Value Stream Maps

    Mujtaba, Shahid; Feldt, Robert; Petersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Custom-developed adaptations of software products are increasingly important to meet different and changing customer needs and heterogeneous system environments. Efficient software customization processes with short lead times are thus a priority for companies to stay competitive. The purpose of this case study is to identify waste-related problems in a software product customization process by using value stream maps (VSM). The study was conducted at the telecom company Ericsson AB; the empi...

  6. Large spill of mining wastes in Portelo stream: impacts on ecosystem integrity and on angling potential

    Ana Maria GERALDES; Elsa RAMALHOSA; Caetano, Miguel; Teixeira, Amílcar

    2013-01-01

    Streams located at Montesinho Natural Park (NE Portugal) have high potential for brown trout (Salmo trutta) angling . However, in this territory there are severa! abandoned mine sites. Therefore, the continuous drainage of fine grained tailings can be particularly problematic due to arsenic, copper, aluminium and zinc. However, until now no significant disturbance was detected in water quality and in biota. Nevertheless, there has never been such a large spill of mining wastes ...

  7. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  8. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Erminda Tsouko; Constantina Kourmentza; Dimitrios Ladakis; Nikolaos Kopsahelis; Ioanna Mandala; Seraphim Papanikolaou; Fotis Paloukis; Vitor Alves; Apostolis Koutinas

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L)...

  9. CHEMICAL FLUX IN AN ACID-STRESSED STREAM

    The acidity of rain and snow falling on widely separated areas of the world has been increasing during the past 30 yr (refs 1-3). Acid rainfall consists of a dilute solution of sulphuric and nitric acids due to the oxidation and hydrolysis of airborne sulphur and nitrogen and fre...

  10. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors

  11. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  13. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000

  14. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  15. Surrogate waste streams for use in MWFA funded research and development

    Researchers developing technologies for treatment of mixed (both hazardous and radioactive) wastes are strongly encouraged to test using materials representative of the wastes targeted by their processes. Using actual wastes is essential for treatability studies and demonstrations prior to implementation, but is excessively costly and impractical during development. Thus, it is a responsibility of the focus area to provide researchers with surrogate recipes for use in development. Data from tests with standardized recipes will also facilitate comparison of results for competing technologies by potential end users and industry. Due to the wide range of waste materials in the DOE inventory and the scope of technology covered by the focus area, no one surrogate will accurately represent all wastes in all applications. The surrogates described are based on generic base compositions representative of that class of wastes, with variable constituents to be added over a recommended test range. Not all of the additives must be tested for each technology; focus should be directed to the constituents and physical forms present in the waste streams targeted by the developer. Excluding some parameters, or reducing the parametric testing rather than using the full range of concentration recommended simply limits the scope of potential application when the data is considered by a potential user. Surrogates are described for debris, sludges, and caustic scrub solution. Soils are recognized as a fourth class, and are considered too complex to represent with a surrogate. Descriptive text is also included to explain how the recipes were developed, and why each test additive is prescribed

  16. PERSISTENT EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF STREAMS LINKED TO ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON SOIL

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indic...

  17. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    The authors evaluated several calorimetric assays for ReO4-, and discovered that all were flawed. They evaluated atomic absorption spectroscopy as a technique to determine sub-millimolar concentrations of ReO4-, and discovered that it is not sensitive enough for their use. However, they discovered that ICP-AES can be used to determine concentrations of ReO4- down to 0.25 ppm. They next determined that ReO4- can be quickly extracted (10 minutes or less) from aqueous HNO3 using the commercial extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate diluted with 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Higher concentrations of extractant led to higher values of Kd (the distribution ratio). Kd was lower as the nitrate concentration of the medium increased, and was also lowered by increasing the acidity at constant nitrate ion concentration. The authors performed parallel studies with TcO4-, determining that Kd(ReO4-) and Kd(TcO4-) track similarly as the conditions are changed. An effort was made to prepare substituted pyridium nitrate salts that are soluble in organic solvents to be used as alternate extractants. However, in all cases but one, the salts were also soluble to some extent in the aqueous phase, significantly limiting their usefulness as extractants for these purposes. Many of the new extractant salts would partition between the organic solvent and water so that 10% of the extractant salt was in the aqueous phase. Only 1-methyl-3,5-didodecylpyridium nitrate did not show any measurable solubility in water. However, this compound was not as good an extractant as Aliquat-336. A considerable effort was also made to find suitable alternative solvents to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Several ketone solvents with flash points above 60 C were tested, and two of these, 2-nonanone and 3-nonanone, were superior to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene as a diluent

  18. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  19. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams

    Hughes, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macro-invertebrate taxa.

  20. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-09-30

    The authors evaluated several calorimetric assays for ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that all were flawed. They evaluated atomic absorption spectroscopy as a technique to determine sub-millimolar concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that it is not sensitive enough for their use. However, they discovered that ICP-AES can be used to determine concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} down to 0.25 ppm. They next determined that ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can be quickly extracted (10 minutes or less) from aqueous HNO{sub 3} using the commercial extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate diluted with 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Higher concentrations of extractant led to higher values of K{sub d} (the distribution ratio). K{sub d} was lower as the nitrate concentration of the medium increased, and was also lowered by increasing the acidity at constant nitrate ion concentration. The authors performed parallel studies with TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, determining that K{sub d}(ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) and K{sub d}(TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) track similarly as the conditions are changed. An effort was made to prepare substituted pyridium nitrate salts that are soluble in organic solvents to be used as alternate extractants. However, in all cases but one, the salts were also soluble to some extent in the aqueous phase, significantly limiting their usefulness as extractants for these purposes. Many of the new extractant salts would partition between the organic solvent and water so that 10% of the extractant salt was in the aqueous phase. Only 1-methyl-3,5-didodecylpyridium nitrate did not show any measurable solubility in water. However, this compound was not as good an extractant as Aliquat-336. A considerable effort was also made to find suitable alternative solvents to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Several ketone solvents with flash points above 60 C were tested, and two of these, 2-nonanone and 3-nonanone, were superior to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene as a diluent.

  1. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary economic turnover of dangerous waste from different production branches. This gives possibility to produce construction products of recycled materials and at the same time to solve the problem of environmental protection. The article considers and analyzes scientific methodological approaches to creation of a model of a complex control system for the streams of building waste in frames of organizing uniform ecologically safe and economically effective complex system of waste treatment in country regions.

  2. Effects of acid mine drainage on southwestern Pennsylvania stream

    Moon, T.C.; Lucostic, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were studied in a small valley stream in southwestern Pennsylvania, where the pH value below a coal mine effluent discharge was 5.8-7.0. The major factor affecting the benthic community seemed to be ferric hydroxide. Certain taxa were abundant at station sites above the mine discharge, while only those taxa tolerant of polluted conditions, such as Chironomidae and Tubifex, were prevalent at the downstream station sites. An analysis of benthic populations demonstrated environmental stress within the aquatic ecosystem.

  3. Automated methodology for estimating waste streams generated from decommissioning contaminated facilities

    As part of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), a viable way to determine aggregate waste volumes, cost, and direct labor hours for decommissioning and decontaminating facilities is required. In this paper, a methodology is provided for determining waste streams, cost and direct labor hours from remediation of contaminated facilities. The method is developed utilizing U.S. facility remediation data and information from several decommissioning programs, including reactor decommissioning projects. The method provides for rapid, consistent analysis for many facility types. Three remediation scenarios are considered for facility D ampersand D: unrestricted land use, semi-restricted land use, and restricted land use. Unrestricted land use involves removing radioactive components, decontaminating the building surfaces, and demolishing the remaining structure. Semi-restricted land use involves removing transuranic contamination and immobilizing the contamination on-site. Restricted land use involves removing the transuranic contamination and leaving the building standing. In both semi-restricted and restricted land use scenarios, verification of containment with environmental monitoring is required. To use the methodology, facilities are placed in a building category depending upon the level of contamination, construction design, and function of the building. Unit volume and unit area waste generation factors are used to calculate waste volumes and estimate the amount of waste generated in each of the following classifications: low-level, transuranic, and hazardous waste. Unit factors for cost and labor hours are also applied to the result to estimate D ampersand D cost and labor hours

  4. Process Control for Simultaneous Vitrification of Two Mixed Waste Streams in the Transportable Vitrification System

    Cozzi, A.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jantzen, C.M.; Brown, K.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.

    1998-05-01

    Two highly variable mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste sludges were simultaneously vitrified in an EnVitCo Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) deployed at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The TVS was the result of a cooperative effort between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and EnVitCo to design and build a transportable melter capable of vitrifying a variety of mixed low level wastes.The two waste streams for the demonstration were the dried B and C Pond sludges at the K-25 site and waste water sludge produced in the Central Neutralization Facility from treatment of incinerator blowdown. Large variations occurred in the sodium, calcium, silicon, phosphorus, fluorine and iron content of the co- blended waste sludges: these elements have a significant effect on the process ability and performance of the final glass product. The waste sludges were highly reduced due to organics added during processing, coal-pile runoff (coal and sulfides), and other organics, including wood chips. A batch-by-batch process control model was developed to control glass viscosity, liquidus, and reduction/oxidation, assuming that the melter behaved as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor.

  5. Sequential destruction of acid and dissolved TBP and the electrodeposition of fission products in simulated Raffinate stream by electrolytic method

    The acidity of the 1st cycle raffinate produced from CORAL has to be reduced from 4N to 0.1N in order to reduce its volume by evaporation is achieved by electrolytically in the catholyte compartment. A simple and efficient electrolytic method developed for the sequential destruction of nitric acid and dissolved TBP and the electro-deposition of fission products in simulated raffinate waste streams of fast reactor fuel reprocessing in CORAL. In the present work, using platinum anode and titanium cathode, with applied potential of 2.6-3.7 volts and current density of 80 mA/cm2, it is achieved which in turn destroys the simulated solution of raffinate (first cycle HLW) containing 3.85 N nitric acid, and 250 ppm of dissolved TBP destructed to 49 ppm (confirmed by G.C.) and the 90 % of fission products are deposited in the cathode by electro-deposition which is confirmed after the analysis by ICP-OES and AAS technique. By this simple electrolytic method, the nitric acid is completely destroyed from 3.85 N to 0.6 N within 31-38 hrs at different temperatures with C.E. of 67 to 80%. Using this method of cathodic deposition by the separation of some of the fission products gives valuable solution to recover most of the fission products in the raffinate can easily converted to little amount of solid and the recovery of fission products from HLW raffinate stream is made easy and it can be converted to low level waste which proves efficient management of HLW and the Gamma dose could be brought down to workable levels

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle waste stream immobilization with cermets for improved thermal properties and waste consolidation

    Ortega, Luis H., E-mail: bertortega@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX (United States); Kaminski, Michael D., E-mail: kaminski@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL (United States); Zeng, Zuotao, E-mail: zeng@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL (United States); Cunnane, James, E-mail: cunnane@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In the pursuit of methods to improve nuclear waste form thermal properties and combine potential nuclear fuel cycle wastes, a bronze alloy was combined with an alkali, alkaline earth metal bearing ceramic to form a cermet. The alloy was prepared from copper and tin (10 mass%) powders. Pre-sintered ceramic consisting of cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium alumino-silicates was mixed with unalloyed bronze precursor powders and cold pressed to 300 × 10{sup 3} kPa, then sintered at 600 °C and 800 °C under hydrogen. Cermets were also prepared that incorporated molybdenum, which has a limited solubility in glass, under similar conditions. The cermet thermal conductivities were seven times that of the ceramic alone. These improved thermal properties can reduce thermal gradients within the waste forms thus lowering internal temperature gradients and thermal stresses, allowing for larger waste forms and higher waste loadings. These benefits can reduce the total number of waste packages necessary to immobilize a given amount of high level waste and immobilize troublesome elements.

  7. Diatoms as biomonitors in two temporary streams affected by acid drainage from disused mines

    Diatoms are increasingly used as biomonitors of water quality in Australia, partly as an extension of the AUSRIVAS concept and partly through the increasing emphasis on biological/ecological monitoring of stream health that is acknowledged in the Australian and New Zealand water quality guidelines (ANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000). This work brings together the findings of three studies relating diatom populations to the water chemistry of two temporary streams affected by acid drainage. In the three studies reported, changes in the benthic diatom flora have been successfully used to: show the toxic effects of acid drainage from two mine sites; differentiate between nutrient and acid drainage pollution in a stream system affected by more than one pollutant and provide independent corroboration of the AQUARISK ecological risk assessment code

  8. Environmental Implications of Radioactive Waste Disposal as Related to Stream Environments

    Increasing volumes of radioactive waste materials are being introduced into streams annually. These originate from the many laboratories in which radioactive materials are used for beneficial purposes, as well as from existing atomic energy facilities. To these amounts introduced directly into the river under essentially controlled conditions must be added those radioactive materials originating from fall-out and feeding into the stream through run-off or direct deposition. Since these same streams may serve a multiplicity of purposes, as for example, potable and industrial water, recreation, fishing, irrigation, and navigation, the effect of these discharges on each of these activities must be carefully evaluated. Present criteria do not provide a complete basis for determining permissible levels of discharge unless information is available on the amounts of specific radionuclides already present and the fate of these same nuclides in the downstream environment. Permissible levels of discharge will have to be modified in accordance with the above information and particularly in terms of the uses to which the downstream watercourse is put. Where several sources of discharge are to be permitted on a given water-course, allocation of maximum amounts of specific radionuclides must be established in accordance with downstream exposures of populations from all sources. Several suggested approaches to the handling-of this problem of waste management in relation to downstream uses are outlined and some of the difficulties associated with the application of each approach are considered. (author)

  9. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  11. Removal of Pertechnetate From Simulated Nuclear Waste Streams Using Supported Zerovalent Iron

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4#sup -#) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site: (1) the direct removal of pertechnetate from highly alkaline solutions, typical of those found in Hanford tank waste, and (2) the removal of dilute pertechnetate from near-neutral solutions, typical of the eluate streams from commercial organic ion-exchange resins that may be used to remediate Hanford tank wastes. It was envisioned that both applications would involve the subsequent encapsulation of the loaded sorbent material into a separate waste form. A high surface area (>200 m2/g) base-stable, nanocrystalline zirconia was used as a support for nanoiron for tests with highly alkaline solutions, while a silica gel support was used for tests with near-neutral solutions. It was shown that after 24 h of contact time, the high surface area zirconia supported nanoiron sorbent removed about 50% (Kd = 370 L/kg) of the pertechnetate from a pH 14 tank waste simulant containing 0.51 mM TcO4#sup -# and large concentrations of Na+, OH-, NO3#sup -#, and CO3#sup 2-# for a phase ratio of 360 L simulant per kg of sorbent. It was also shown that after 18 h of contact time, the silica-supported nanoiron removed >95% pertechnetate from a neutral pH eluate simulant containing 0.076 mM TcO4#sup -# for a phase ratio of 290 L/kg. It was determined that in all cases, nanoiron reduced the Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), or possibly to Tc(V), through a redox reaction. Finally, it was demonstrated that a mixture of 20 mass % of the solid reaction products obtained from contacting zirconia-supported nanoiron with an

  12. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    Lawrence, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  13. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Delva, Laurens; Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  14. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Delva, Laurens, E-mail: Laurens.Delva@ugent.be; Ragaert, Kim, E-mail: Kim.Ragaert@ugent.be; Cardon, Ludwig, E-mail: Ludwig.Cardon@ugent.be [Centre for Polymer and Materials Technologies (CPMT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 915, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  15. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation

  16. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)

  17. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is

  18. Paper Study Evaluations Of The Introduction Of Small Column Ion Exchange Waste Streams To The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb2O5, TiO2, and ZrO2, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8

  19. Study on recycle of materials and components from waste streams during decommissioning for heavy water research reactor

    The recycle of valuable materials from potential waste streams is one of important elements of waste minimization, and it can minimize the environment impact. The recycle of the arising was researched with taking the decommissioning of heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy as an example. By analyzing all the possible wastes that could generate during the decommissioning of HWRR, some amount of materials have potential values to recycle and may be used either directly or after appropriate treatment for other purposes. The research results show that in HWRR decommissioning at least tons of irons, 10 tons of aluminum and 5 tons of heavy water can be recycled by carrying out the waste minimization control measures (eg. waste classification and waste stream segregation), adopting appropriate decontamination technologies, and performing the requirements of clearance. (authors)

  20. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  1. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  2. Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle. II. Recycle preparation for wastewater streams

    Recycle preparation methods were evaluated for secondary aqueous waste streams likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. Adsorption, reverse osmosis, and ozonization methods were evaluated on a laboratory scale for their application to the treatment of wastewater. Activated carbon, macroreticular resins, and polyurethanes were tested to determine their relative capabilities for removing detergents and corrosive anions from wastewater. Conceptual flow sheets were constructed for purifying wastewater by reverse osmosis. In addition, the application of ozonization techniques for water recycle preparation was examined briefly

  3. Recovery of ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and bioenergy production via bipolar bioelectrodialysis

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia and sulfate, which are prevalent pollutants in agricultural and industrial wastewaters, can cause serious inhibition in several biological treatment processes, such as anaerobic digestion. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical approach termed bipolar bioelectrodialysis was developed to...... recover ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and thereby counteracting their toxicity during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were also accomplished. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, nitrogen and sulfate fluxes of 5.1 g View the MathML sourceNH4+-N/m2/d and...

  4. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for

  5. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES and H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES and H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction

  6. Feasibility Study on the Vitrification of Concentrated Boric Acid Waste

    Vitrification technology has been gradually recognized as one of effective solidification methods for concentrated boric acid wastes generated in PWR. Vitrification for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes has a large volume reduction and good durability for the final products. A feasibility study for the vitrification of concentrated boric acid wastes has been performed with developing the pre-treatment methods of powdered wastes, glass compositions using glass formulation and demonstration test. The pre-treatment method is pelletizing the powder type for stable feeding within cold crucible melter. The glass compositions should be developed considering molten glass are related with wastes reduction. High contents of sodium and boron within borate wastes give influence to waste loading. A variety of factors obtained from the demonstration test are reviewed, which is wastes feeding rate, off-gas characteristics on stack and glass characteristics of final products such as durability for implementing the wastes disposal requirement. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility of vitrification and review the solidification method for concentrated boric acid wastes and obtain the physicochemical characteristics of solidified glass.

  7. Personal Review: Sources of sulfide in waste streams and current biotechnologies for its removal

    MAHMOOD Qaisar; ZHENG Ping; CAI Jing; HAYAT Yousaf; HASSAN Muhammad Jaffar; WU Dong-lei; HU Bao-lan

    2007-01-01

    Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated by a number of industries. It is emitted into the environment as dissolved sulfide (S2- and HS-) in wastewaters and as H2S in waste gases. Due to its corrosive nature, biological hydrogen sulfide removal processes are being investigated to overcome the chemical and disposal costs associated with existing chemically based removal processes. The nitrogen and sulfur metabolism interacts at various levels of the wastewater treatment process. Hence, the sulfur cycle offers possibilities to integrate nitrogen removal in the treatment process, which needs to be further optimized by appropriate design of the reactor configuration, optimization of performance parameters, retention of biomass and optimization of biomass growth. The present paper reviews the biotechnological advances to remove sulfides from various environments.

  8. Removal of plutonium from low level Purex waste streams by Chitosan

    The low level waste solution generated from Purex process contains traces of Plutonium and Americium contributing alpha activity to the solution. Chitosan is it natural bio-polymer derived from Chitin. Successful studies were carried out using Chitosan to recover the uranium, thorium and americium from different waste streams. The studies were extended to find out its plutonium sorption characteristics. Chitosan was equilibrated with pure plutonium tracer solution at different pH, for 60 minutes with a Chitosan to aqueous ratio of 1:100 and the raffinates were filtered and analysed radio metrically. The results showed -95 % of plutonium could be recovered by Chitosan between pH 4 and 7. Elution study of loaded plutonium was also studied with 1M HNO3. (author)

  9. Manipulation of the ash flow temperature and viscosity of a carbonaceous Sasol waste stream

    J.C. van Dyk; M.J. Keyser; F.B. Waanders; M. Conradie [Syngas and Coal Technologies, Sasolburg (South Africa). Sasol Technology, R& amp; D Division

    2010-01-15

    In 2001 Sasol investigated selected the Lurgi Multi Purpose Gasification (MPG) process for converting a Sasol-Lurgi MK III fixed bed dry bottom coal gasifier at the former Sasolburg coal-to-liquids plant to a slagging gasification process. The MPG process was considered anoption suitable for the gasification of feedstocks which are difficult to manage. The most obvious differences between the feedstocks previously gasified, compared to the Sasol dusty tar, were found to be the viscosity and melting point of the dusty tar. The viscosity of the Sasol dusty tar mixture was higher than a factor of 10 ofpreviously used feedstocks. Another important feedstock property is the ash melting point of the feed within the gasifier. Ash particles fed with the tar melt in the high temperature zone of the flame. Molten ash particles which hit the gasifier wall will solidify and stick to the wall if the wall temperature is below the melting point of the ash. The melting point of the dusty tar ash is 1380{sup o}C and a fluxing agent has to be added to reduce the melting temperature below 1250{sup o}C to limit excessive wear of the refractory lining. It was concluded that the viscosity of dusty tar can be decreased with the addition of specific waste solvent streams. The ash fusion temperatures of dusty tar can be lowered by adding a fluxing agent. The addition of spent Fe-catalyst as fluxing agent was found to be less effective than limestone. The addition of Fe can cause the acid/base ratio to change so that the ash fusion temperature increases. The results show in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres the Fe-catalyst was transformed into the slag melt as either Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under oxidizing conditions and FeO under reducing conditions. The slag showed no sign of metallic Fe and was very homogeneous under oxidizing and reducing conditions. 17 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  11. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  12. Partitioning and recovery of neptunium from high level waste streams of PUREX origin using 30% TBP

    237Np is one of the longest-lived nuclides among the actinides present in the high level waste solutions of reprocessing origin. Its separation, recovery and transmutation can reduce the problem of long term storage of the vitrified waste to a great extent. With this objective, the present work was initiated to study the extraction of neptunium into TBP under the conditions relevant to high level waste, along with uranium and plutonium by oxidising it to hexavalent state using potassium dichromate and subsequently recovering it by selective stripping. Three types of simulated HLW solutions namely sulphate bearing (SB), with an acidity of ∼ 0.3 M and non-sulphate wastes originating from the reprocessing of fuels from pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) with acidities of 3.0 M HNO3 were employed in these studies. The extraction of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) was very high for PHWR- and FBR-HLW solutions, whereas for the SB-HLW solution, these values were less but reasonably high. Quantitative recovery of neptunium and plutonium was achieved using a stripping solution containing 0.1 M H2O2 and 0.01 M ascorbic acid at an acidity of 2.0 M. Since, cerium present in the waste solutions is expected to undergo oxidation in presence of K2Cr2O7, its extraction behaviour was also studied under similar conditions. Based on the results, a scheme was formulated for the recovery of neptunium along with plutonium and was successfully applied to actual high level waste solution originating from the reprocessing of research reactor fuels. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Using fatty acids to fingerprint biofilm communities: a means to quickly and accurately assess stream quality.

    DeForest, Jared L; Drerup, Samuel A; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of lotic ecosystem quality plays an essential role to help determine the extent of environmental stress and the effectiveness of restoration activities. Methods that incorporate biological properties are considered ideal because they provide direct assessment of the end goal of a vigorous biological community. Our primary objective was to use biofilm lipids to develop an accurate biomonitoring tool that requires little expertise and time to facilitate assessment. A model was created of fatty acid biomarkers most associated with predetermined stream quality classification, exceptional warm water habitat (EWH), warm water habitat (WWH), and limited resource (LR-AMD), and validated along a gradient of known stream qualities. The fatty acid fingerprint of the biofilm community was statistically different (P = 0.03) and was generally unique to recognized stream quality. One striking difference was essential fatty acids (DHA, EPA, and ARA) were absent from LR-AMD and only recovered from WWH and EWH, 45 % more in EWH than WWH. Independently testing the model along a stream quality gradient, this model correctly categorized six of the seven sites, with no match due to low sample biomass. These results provide compelling evidence that biofilm fatty acid analysis can be a sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective biomonitoring tool. We conceive of future studies expanding this research to more in-depth studies of remediation efforts, determining the applicable geographic area for the method and the addition of multiple stressors with the possibility of distinguishing among stressors. PMID:27061804

  14. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  15. Acid digestion of chlorine-containing wastes, (2)

    In the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility, about 40% of the alpha-contaminated solid wastes contains organic chlorides, mainly PVC sheets and chloroprene rubber gloves. Acid digestion has been developed to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated wastes, while converting the wastes into stable nonreactive residue. Based on the results of the basic studies on the acid digestion for nonradioactive chlorine-containing wastes, a non-radioactive pilot plant equipped with a 200 l digester was designed and constructed to confirm the performance in scaled-up process and the engineering problems. The following matters are described: the pilot plant of nonradioactive acid digestion and the experiments performed with it to confirm the reproducibility of the results of basic studies and to verify the safety of the processes. Many useful results were able to be obtained for the nitric acid oxidation processes. (J.P.N.)

  16. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  17. Removal of BTEX vapours from waste gas streams using silica aerogels of different hydrophobicity.

    Standeker, Suzana; Novak, Zoran; Knez, Zeljko

    2009-06-15

    Silica aerogels are alternative adsorbents to activated carbon (AC) for the removal and the recovery of organic vapours from gas streams. The adsorption capacity measurements of different silica aerogels were done by mini-column method. Continuous adsorption measurements show that silica aerogels are excellent adsorbents of BTEX vapours from waste gas stream. Compared to the most used adsorbents, such as AC and silica gel, aerogels exhibit capacities which enormously exceed that of both commonly used adsorbents. By increasing the degree of hydrophobicity, aerogels become less effective, but they do not adsorb water vapour from gas stream. Silica monolith aerogels with different degrees of hydrophobicity by incorporating methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) or trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) in standard sol-gel synthesis were prepared. Excellent properties of aerogels, obtained with the sol-gel synthesis, were preserved with supercritical drying with CO(2). The degree of hydrophobicity of the aerogels was tested by measuring the contact angle (theta) of a water droplet with the aerogel surface. The aerogels were also characterised by FTIR, nitrogen sorption and DSC/TG measurements. PMID:19095355

  18. Environmental technology applications: fact file on toxic contaminants in industrial waste process streams

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1977-05-11

    This report is a compendium of facts related to chemical materials present in industrial waste process streams which have already been declared or are being evaluated as hazardous under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Since some 400 chemicals are presently covered by consensus standards, the substances reviewed are only those considered to be a major threat to public health and welfare by Federal and State regulatory agencies. For each hazardous material cited, the facts relate, where possible, to an identification of the stationary industrial sources, the kind of waste stream impacted, proposed regulations and established effluent standards, the volume of emissions produced each year, the volume of emissions per unit of industrial product produced, present clean-up capabilities, limitations, and costs. These data should be helpful in providing information for the assessment of potential problems, should be of use to the manufacturers of pollution control equipment or of chemicals for pollution control, should be of use to the operators or potential operators of processes which produce pollutants, and should help to define industry-wide emission practices and magnitudes.

  19. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels

  20. Removal of Contaminants from Waste Streams at Gas Evolving Flow-Through Porous Electrodes

    Electrochemical techniques have been used for the removal of inorganic and organic toxic materials from industrial waste streams. One of the most important branch of these electrochemical techniques is the flow-through porous electrode. Such systems allow for the continuous operation and hence continuous removal of the contaminants from waste streams at high rates and high efficiency. However, when there is an evolution of gas bubbles with the removal process, the treatment process needs a much different treatment of both the design and the mathematical treatment of the such these systems. The evolving gas bubbles within the electrode decrease the pore electrolyte conductivity of the porous electrodes, decrease the efficiency and make the current more non-uniform. This cause the under utilization of the reaction area and finally make the electrode inoperable. In this work the harmful effects of the gas bubbles on the performance of the porous electrode will be modeled. The model accounts for the effects of kinetic, mass transfer and gas bubbles resistance on the overall performance of the electrode. This will help in optimizing the operating conditions and the cell design

  1. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    Williams K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration benchmark. We sampled water chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish throughout the watershed during the spring and summer of 2011. Water chemistry results indicated that pH and total alkalinity increased post-restoration, while acidity, sulfate, and iron concentrations decreased. Watershed-level taxa richness, local taxa richness, biomass, diversity, and density of macroinvertebrates were significantly higher post-restoration; however, %EPT was not significantly different. Fish species richness, density, and brook trout density were all significantly higher post-restoration. These results provide clear evidence that both abiotic and biotic components of streams can recover from AMD pollution.

  2. Using liquid waste streams as the moisture source during the hydrothermal carbonization of municipal solid wastes.

    Li, Liang; Hale, McKenzie; Olsen, Petra; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be an environmentally beneficial approach for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to value-added products. The influence of using activated sludge and landfill leachate as initial moisture sources during the carbonization of paper, food waste and yard waste over time at 250°C was evaluated. Results from batch experiments indicate that the use of activated sludge and landfill leachate are acceptable alternative supplemental liquid sources, ultimately imparting minimal impact on carbonization product characteristics and yields. Regression results indicate that the initial carbon content of the feedstock is more influential than any of the characteristics of the initial liquid source and is statistically significant when describing the relationship associated with all evaluated carbonization products. Initial liquid-phase characteristics are only statistically significant when describing the solids energy content and the mass of carbon in the gas-phase. The use of these alternative liquid sources has the potential to greatly increase the sustainability of the carbonization process. A life cycle assessment is required to quantify the benefits associated with using these alternative liquid sources. PMID:25074717

  3. Effects of acid mine drainage on a headwater stream ecosystem in Colorado

    The ecological effects of acid mine drainage were investigated during the summer of 1993 on St. Kevin Gulch, a headwater stream near Leadville, Colorado. The stream currently receives acidic water from an abandoned mine. The pH downstream of the mine is between 3.5 and 4.5, and several metals exceed concentrations toxic to aquatic organisms. Zinc is present at especially high concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) Furthermore, the stream bottom is covered with a thick layer of iron hydroxide precipitates. Effects on stream biota have been dramatic. Aquatic flora in the affected reach is limited to a green filamentous alga, Ulothrix subtilissima. Macroinvertebrate densities are significantly lower in the affected reach (mean = 99 indiv/m2; SD = 88 indiv/M2) compared to an upstream (pristine) reference reach (mean = 1,735 indiv/m2; SD = 652 indiv/M2). Functional processes were also studied in the stream. Net primary production (NPP) was measured during midday with recirculating chambers. Production was significantly lower in the affected reach (mean NPP 13.3 MgO2hr-1m-2; SD = 87 MgO2hr-1m-2) than the upstream reference reach (NPP = 64.1 MgO2hr-1m-2; SD = 27.7 MgO2hr-1m-2). Decomposition, measured with litter bags, was also lower in the affected reach than the upstream site. In 1994, St. Kevin Gulch is scheduled to undergo remediation that will treat the acidic water from the mine. Further studies on this stream will provide information on the recovery processes in lotic ecosystems

  4. Composition, activity- and heat-inventory of different waste streams from LWR and FBR nuclear fuel cycles

    According to the German concept, spent reactor fuel elements are intended to be reprocessed. The resulting radioactive wastes are planned to be disposed of in a salt dome. Long-term safety analysis for the nuclear waste repository and the evaluation of waste treatment methods require detailed information about the composition, activity- and heat-inventory of the waste streams. In this report data are listed which were calculated for radioactive wastes from reprocessed fuel elements (high-level waste concentrate, medium-level waste concentrate, dissolver residues) and radioactive wastes from the fabrication of nuclear fuel elements. Data are given for the reprocessing and the fabrication of uranium dioxide and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel elements for light-water reactors. In addition the corresponding waste streams from a fast breeder reactor nuclear fuel cycle are characterized. For the calculations the KORIGEN-code was used with input data for reference-type reactors. The calculation of the time dependent radionuclide composition of the wastes was based on element separation factors which were experimentally determined. (orig.)

  5. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams

    Hughes, Robert M.

    1985-05-01

    Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macroinvertebrate taxa. These results revealed that: (a) chemical and physical habitats at the impacted sites were disrupted, (b) the presence of trout was an inadequate measure of ecological integrity for these sites, and (c) watershed classification based on a combination of mapped terrestrial characteristics provided a reasonable method to select control sites where potential control sites upstream and downstream were unsuitable.

  6. An evaluation of the effects of acid rain on low conductivity headwater streams in Pennsylvania

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of water collected at 32 sites on headwater streams in Pennsylvania during low-flow conditions in 1970-80 were compared to pre-1971 data to evaluate whether acid rain had changed the chemistry of the streams in the previous decade. Most pH, alkalinity, and sulfate values of the samples collected in 1970-80 fell within the ranges of values for samples collected before 1971. The limited data indicate, however, that pH may have increased and alkalinity and sulfate may have decreased with time.

  7. Determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams by fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique

    A fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams. The developed method is simple, accurate and applicable to all ranges of nitric acid and heavy metal concentrations relevant to the purex process. The method is based on the formation of yellow colour with an acid-sensitive indicator such as chrome azurol s, the intensity of yellow colour is proportional to the acid concentration. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 455 nm in the range of acidity 1-10 M of nitric acid. The results obtained are reproducible with standard deviation 2% and relative error is less than 3%. The results obtained by the developed technique are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard procedure. This method is adaptable for remote operation and on-line monitoring. (author)

  8. System and process for capture of acid gasses at elevated pressure from gaseous process streams

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Linehan, John C.; Rainbolt, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zheng, Feng

    2016-09-06

    A system, method, and material that enables the pressure-activated reversible chemical capture of acid gasses such as CO.sub.2 from gas volumes such as streams, flows or any other volume. Once the acid gas is chemically captured, the resulting product typically a zwitterionic salt, can be subjected to a reduced pressure whereupon the resulting product will release the captures acid gas and the capture material will be regenerated. The invention includes this process as well as the materials and systems for carrying out and enabling this process.

  9. A study of the use of seeded ultrafiltration for the treatment of thorium-uranium mining waste streams

    The use of seeded ultrafiltration for the treatment of radioactive waste streams arising from the nuclear industry has demonstrated its high potential as an efficient process for the removal of radionuclides present in the rad waste streams. The experimental data on simulated mining streams has given indications on the suitability of this technique for the treatment of mining waste streams. The results also show that proper choice of absorbers can reduce not only the radioactivity level but also remove most of the products of both the thorium and uranium decay series. Decontamination factors (D F) for the system using manganese dioxide (Mn O2) are only slightly affected by the preparation method. On the contrary, the D F achieved using titanium hydroxide (HTiO) absorber was found to be dependent on the preparation method. The experimental data shows that total activity levels can be reduced to below to below detection limit (3 E-3 Bq/ml). The extent of decontamination of thorium containing waste streams was found to be dependent on the absorber used; in the order diuranate > HTiO> Fe(OH)3> Mn O2. The use of HTiO reduced the decay product activity of almost all the thorium daughters to nearly background levels. A D F of the order of 300 can easily be achieved using diuranate floe. 10 fig., 5 tab

  10. GLASSFORM-Version 1: A spreadsheet or an algorithm for generating preliminary glass formulations for waste streams

    GLASSFORM-Version 1, a spreadsheet or an algorithm software package, was developed for generating preliminary glass formulations for waste streams. A spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel 97 for Windows 95 was also developed for predicting key glass properties for laboratory scale vitrification studies of simulated waste streams. The algorithm version based on Modula 2, which can be run on Windows-95 or NT, was developed to plot the glass component ratios versus the waste loading. At this time the algorithm was not developed for predicting the key glass properties. The spreadsheet or the algorithm version is an effective tool for developing preliminary glasses with a potential to be chemically durable, dense for volume reduction, of low viscosity for glass pouring, redox controlled, and resistant to corrosion of melter components such as Inconel 690. For a given solid waste stream oxide composition in wt.% or in grams or in ppm and waste loading in wt.%, the spreadsheet or the algorithm calculates glass component ratios that provide an empirical indication of the quality of a candidate glass. In addition to the component ratios for glass quality indicators, glass property composition relationships for glass durability and processability were incorporated into the spreadsheet version. These spreadsheet or algorithm versions can also be used for studying the effects of such actions as varying waste loadings or of varying individual waste components on glass properties and glass component ratios, provided specific glass property models are incorporated. As an example, the software was applied to candidate phosphate-containing glasses at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, previously Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) and also the borosilicate glasses such as the Savannah River Laboratory Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, the Hanford standard (ARM-1) glass, and the French R7T7 glass. Application of the software to new waste streams such as at

  11. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  12. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ13CDIC) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ13CDIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe2+, alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ13CDIC. We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe2+ followed by Fe3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH)3(s). The extent of DIC decrease and 13C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO3- dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO3- or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe3+ hydrolysis for HCO3- dehydration. The 13C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe2+ was proportional to HCO3- concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO3- input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC in AMD impacted streams may have

  13. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been producing 99Mo since 1967 for medical use of its decay product 99mTe. This early generation development of fission product 99Mo uses low enriched 235U as dioxide, nitric acid dissolution of the irradiated pellets and recovery of molybdenum by adsorption onto alumina. Increasing production over this period since the late 1960's has led to the accumulation of stored liquid waste in specifically designed storage tanks. ANSTO investigated a number of options to treat this liquid waste culminating in the development, commissioning and operation of a two-stage evaporation process with an intervening chemical treatment step. The need for chemical destruction of the low level of contained ammonia, as nitrate, arose due to the past practice of incorporating a small volume of ammoniacal condensate with the acid waste. This ammoniacal waste is no longer added to the acidic waste, but the need to remove ammonia from the historic waste has led to the development of a novel technique to destroy the ammonia content in the liquid. The liquor is reduced to a crystalline solid with the elimination of water and acid that can be treated by conventional means. (author)

  14. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Zhang, Yifeng

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater......-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main...... efficiency were investigated. The effects of hydraulic retention time, external resistance, other ionic species in the groundwater and external nitrification on the system performance were also elucidated. Over 90% of nitrate was removed from groundwater without energy input, water pressure, draw solution...

  15. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  16. Cement encapsulation of low-level radwaste streams

    Low-level waste streams will be generated during the clean-up of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York. A study was conducted on several presently identified waste streams to develop cement encapsulation recipes with maximum waste loadings. First, jar scale tests were performed on simulated wastes to develop and evaluate cement encapsulation recipes. Using the most promising recipe, full-scale encapsulation tests were then performed. Recipes were developed and successfully tested on the following wastes: 39 and 53 weight percent supernatant (i.e., neutralized nitric acid waste), hydroxide and carbonate precipitated sludge, filter precoat sludge, granular weak-acid resin and granular strong-acid resin. One waste stream, dried supernatant, could not be encapsulated at the desired waste loading using the existing full-scale, high shear mixer

  17. Transuranic removal from neutralized current acid waste with pneumatic hydropulse filtration

    Neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) is generated by the solvent extraction portion of the PUREX process. It contains <20% solids by volume, and is currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. These solids contain the transuranic (TRU) elements and most of the fission products and will be converted to glass for permanent disposal. Because of the high cost of vitrification and repository disposal, there is a large economic incentive to minimize volume. Separation of the solids from the supernatant liquor provides a more concentrated high-level waste stream for vitrification, thereby reducing the cost. Removal of the solids will also provide an approximately TRU- free supernatant liquor which can be disposed of as grout in near-surface facilities. Allowing the solids to settle, then decanting (settle/decant) and filtering the supernatant are the principal unit operations used for TRU removal. These unit operations as shown will be used at the B Plant, an existing facility at the Hanford Site

  18. ANALISIS WASTE DALAM ALIRAN MATERIAL INTERNAL DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING PADA PT XYZ

    Ketut Gita Ayu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research is excess inventory and motion waste which commonly occur in warehouse and production floor. This research is carried out to minimize the average level and eliminate unnecessary motions, with consideration of electronic pull and traceability system characteristics. Product X, the highest-selling product, is the object of this research. To identify the current condition, the current state Value Stream Mapping (VSM is developed as the basis to arrange improvement plan to minimize the wastes. Safety stock is determined through average and maximum consumption difference; and reorder point is determined to comply with pull approach. Average inventory level is calculated using continuous review method. The simulation was conducted and it was shown that 8.29 minutes is the maximum lateness. Thus, safety stock and reorder point are adjusted accordingly to anticipate stockout due to lateness. The improvement of process cycle efficiency is shown to increase from 4.1 % to 5.1 % as projected in future state VSM.

  19. Radionuclides in process and waste streams at an operating uranium mill

    A survey was carried out at the Nabarlek uranium mill, located in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia, to determine the distribution of radium-226, thorium-230, lead-210 and polonium-210 in process and waste streams. Particular emphasis was placed on waste treatment processes. The survey showed that 20% of the 230Th and only small fractions of the 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po were mobilized in the leaching circuit. Neutralization of tailings/raffinate slurry to pH 8.5 removed over 99% of the 230Th, 210Pb and 210Po, but the concentration of dissolved 226Ra increased. The performance of barium chloride treatment circuits for the removal of 226Ra was examined. Under optimum conditions, more than 98% of the total radium was removed from decant tailings water containing 80 to 150 Bq 226Ra.L-1 by a mixing tank and a reactor-clarifier. Addition of barium chloride had only a small effect on the long-term concentration of 226Ra in the presence of tailings. (author)

  20. Biological technologies for the removal of sulfur containing compounds from waste streams: bioreactors and microbial characteristics.

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Jian; Liu, Junxin

    2015-10-01

    Waste gases containing sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, thioethers, and mercaptan, produced and emitted from industrial processes, wastewater treatment, and landfill waste may cause undesirable issues in adjacent areas and contribute to atmospheric pollution. Their control has been an area of concern and research for many years. As alternative to conventional physicochemical air pollution control technologies, biological treatment processes which can transform sulfur compounds to harmless products by microbial activity, have gained in popularity due to their efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental acceptability. This paper provides an overview of the current biological techniques used for the treatment of air streams contaminated with sulfur compounds as well as the advances made in the past year. The discussion focuses on bioreactor configuration and design, mechanism of operation, insights into the overall biological treatment process, and the characterization of the microbial species present in bioreactors, their populations and their interactions with the environment. Some bioreactor case studies are also introduced. Finally, the perspectives on future research and development needs in this research area were also highlighted. PMID:26250546

  1. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company

  2. The dissolution of kaolin by acidic fluoride wastes

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of kaolin as a lining material for the storage of acidic and acidic fluoride wastes is investigated, No significant changes are observed gravimetrically or structurally for kaolin soaked under acidic conditions down to pH 2 for periods up to 90 days, Some release of aluminium was...... noted with decreasing pH, Severe kaolin dissolution was apparent, however, when soaked in solutions less than pH 3 to 4 with a fluoride concentration of 0.05 M. Aluminium-oxygen bonding in kaolin appears to be substantially more prone to hydrofluoric acid attack than does silicon-oxygen bonding...

  3. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  4. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  5. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program. PMID:25462673

  6. Material stream management of biomass wastes for the optimization of organic wastes utilization; Stoffstrommanagement von Biomasseabfaellen mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Verwertung organischer Abfaelle

    Knappe, Florian; Boess, Andreas; Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Vogt, Regine [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris; Wiegmann, Kirsten; Fritsche, Uwe [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The effective use of the valuable substances found in waste materials can make an important contribution to climate protection and the conservation of fossil and mineral resources. In order to harness the potential contribution of biomass waste streams, it is necessary to consider the potential of the waste in connection with that of the total biomass. In this project, relevant biogenous material streams in the forestry, the agriculture as well as in several industries are studied, and their optimization potentials are illustrated. Scenarios are then developed, while taking various other environmental impacts into considerations, to explore possible optimized utilization of biomass streams and biomass waste substances for the future. Straw that is not needed for humus production and currently left on the field can be used for its energy content. The realisation of this potential would be significant contribution towards climate protection. The energetic use of liquid manure without negatively influencing its application as commercial fertilizer can also be similarly successful because of its large volume. The results of our study also support an increased energetic use of saw residues as fuel (in form of pellets) in small furnaces. For household organic wastes, the report suggests the fermentation with optimized energy use and intensified marketing of the aerobically treated compost as peat substitution. While for waste cooking fat that is currently disposed in the residual waste, a separate collection and direct use in motors that are used as combined heat and power generation are recommended. For meat and bone meal and communal sludge that are not being used substantial currently or in the future, phosphorus can be recovered with promising success from the ash produced when the waste is burnt in mono incinerators. These technical options should however be tested against disposal standard. (orig.)

  7. Acid digestion of chlorine-containing wastes, (3)

    Along with the R and D efforts on the treatment of plutonium-contaminated waste materials for volume reduction and stabilization at PNC, studies have been conducted for the development of the technology related to the acid digestion treatment utilizing sulfuric acid and nitric acid. This report is described on the treatment capacity, the treatment of decomposed gas, and the properties of the reduced residues following the treatment. The process involves two steps; the decomposition employing sulfuric acid and the oxidation utilizing nitric acid. The treatment capacity during reaction is influenced by the foaming of the acid digestion solution for the H2SO4 decomposition process. A series of experiments were carried out on H2SO4 decomposition reaction by feeding the crushed samples of 10 mm size into hot sulfuric acid (250 degree C) continuously under a pressure of 100 mm aq. The foaming of the acid digestion solution is closely related to the concentration of solids such as carbon and inorganic materials. Addition of nitric acid to the H2SO4 decomposition process is effective for controlling the foaming of the acid digestion solution. The influence of initial nitric acid concentration upon sulfur oxide oxidation-absorption is very small when the nitric acid concentration is in the range from 14 to 32 percent. (Kato, T.)

  8. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics

  9. Hybrid sensor for metal grade measurement of a falling stream of solid waste particles.

    Abdur Rahman, Md; Bakker, M C M

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid sensor system for accurate detection of the metal grade of a stream of falling solid waste particles is investigated and experimentally verified. The system holds an infrared and an electromagnetic unit around a central tube and counts all the particles and only the metal particles, respectively. The count ratio together with the measured average particle mass ratio (k) of non-metal and metal particles is sufficient for calculation of grade. The performance of the system is accurately verified using synthetic mixtures of sand and metal particles. Towards an application a case study is performed using municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in size fractions 1-6mm, which presents a major challenge for nonferrous metal recovery. The particle count ratio was inherently accurate for particle feed rates up to 13 per second. The average value and spread of k for bottom ash was determined as 0.49 ± 0.07 and used to calculate grade within 2.4% from the manually analysed grade. At higher feed rates the sensors start missing particles which fall simultaneously through the central tube, but the hybrid system still counted highly repeatable. This allowed for implementation of a count correction ratio to eliminate the stationary error. In combination with averaging in measurement intervals for suppression of stochastic variations the hybrid system regained its accuracy for particle feed rates up to 143 per second. This performance and its special design, intended to render it insensitive to external interference and noise when applied in an eddy current separator, make the hybrid sensor suitable for applications such as quality control and sensor controlled separation. PMID:22498575

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  11. Recovery of nitric acid from simulated acidic high level radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

    Acidic waste is generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle. The waste contains minor amounts of actinides (241Am, Pu, Np) along with large number of long-lived radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 106Ru etc. Before disposal or storage, the overall activity of the waste needs to be reduced. Along with this, the high amount of acid present in the waste needs to be removed. In this study, DD has been used to recover nitric acid from acidic solutions with compositions similar to radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

  12. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    Letricia Barbosa-Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1, similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1 was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6% as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage-contaminated stream

    Larson, Lance N.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William

    2013-09-01

    Biological low-pH Fe(II)-oxidation creates terraced iron formations (TIFs) that remove Fe(III) from solution. TIFs can be used for remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), however, as sediment depth increases, Fe(III)-reduction in anoxic subsurface areas may compromise treatment effectiveness. In this study we used near-surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and in situ pore-water samplers to spatially resolve bulk conductivity changes within a TIF formed in a stream emanating from a large abandoned deep clay mine in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA. Because of the high fluid electrical conductivity of the emergent AMD (1860 μS), fresh water (42 μS) was added as a dilution tracer to visualize the spatial and temporal extent of hyporheic exchange and to characterize subsurface flow paths. Distinct hydrogeochemical niches were identified in the shallow subsurface beneath the stream by overlaying relative groundwater velocities (derived from ERI) with pore-water chemistry profiles. Niches were classified based on relatively “fast” versus “slow” rates of hyporheic exchange and oxic versus anoxic conditions. Pore-water concentrations and speciation of iron, pH, and redox potential differed between subsurface flow regimes. The greatest extent of hyporheic exchange was beneath the center of the stream, where a shallower (70 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone. At these locations, relatively slower groundwater exchange may promote biotic Fe(II)-oxidation and improve the long-term stability of Fe sequestered in TIFs.

  14. Evaluation of the capabilities of the Hanford Reservation and Envirocare of Utah for disposal of potentially problematic mixed low-level waste streams

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area is developing a program to address and resolve issues associated with final waste form performance in treating and disposing of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) inventory. A key issue for the program is identifying MLLW streams that may be problematic for disposal. Previous reports have quantified and qualified the capabilities of fifteen DOE sites for MLLW disposal and provided volume and radionuclide concentration estimates for treated MLLW based on the DOE inventory. Scoping-level analyses indicated that 101 waste streams identified in this report (approximately 6,250 m3 of the estimated total treated MLLW) had radionuclide concentrations that may make their disposal problematic. The radionuclide concentrations of these waste streams were compared with the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for a DOE disposal facility at Hanford and for Envirocare's commercial disposal facility for MLLW in Utah. Of the treated MLLW volume identified as potentially problematic, about 100 m3 exceeds the WAC for disposal at Hanford, and about 4,500 m3 exceeds the WAC for disposal at Envirocare. Approximately 7% of DOE's total MLLW inventory has not been sufficiently characterized to identify a treatment process for the waste and was not included in the analysis. In addition, of the total treated MLLW volume, about 30% was associated with waste streams that did not have radionuclide concentration data and could not be included in the determination of potentially problematic waste streams

  15. The dissolution of kaolin by acidic fluoride wastes

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of kaolin as a lining material for the storage of acidic and acidic fluoride wastes is investigated, No significant changes are observed gravimetrically or structurally for kaolin soaked under acidic conditions down to pH 2 for periods up to 90 days, Some release of aluminium was...... noted with decreasing pH, Severe kaolin dissolution was apparent, however, when soaked in solutions less than pH 3 to 4 with a fluoride concentration of 0.05 M. Aluminium-oxygen bonding in kaolin appears to be substantially more prone to hydrofluoric acid attack than does silicon-oxygen bonding......, resulting in a preferential release of aluminium over silicon into solution. The solution pH was found to decrease with the dissolution reaction as fluorosilicic acid was produced during the kaolin breakdown....

  16. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems. PMID:24507146

  17. Impact of changing DOC concentrations on the potential distribution of acid sensitive biota in a boreal stream network

    H. Laudon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DOC concentrations have increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the past few decades. As DOC exudes a strong influence on pH this DOC increase could have detrimental effects on acid sensitive biota in many streams and lakes. To investigate the potential implications of changes in the DOC concentration on stream water biota, we have used a mesoscale boreal stream network in northern Sweden as a case study. The network was sampled for stream water chemistry at 60 locations during both winter base flow and spring flood periods, representing the extremes experienced annually in these streams both in terms of discharge and acidity. The effect of changing DOC on pH was modeled for all sampling locations using an organic acid model, with input DOC concentrations for different scenarios adjusted by between −30% and +50% from measured present concentrations. The resulting effect on pH was then used to quantify the proportion of stream length in the catchment with pH below the acid thresholds of pH 5.5 and pH 5.0. The results suggest that a change in stream water DOC during base flow would have only a limited effect on pH and hence on the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. During the spring flood on the other hand a change in DOC would strongly influence pH and the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. For example an increase in DOC concentration of 30% at all sites would increase the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.5 from 37% to 65%, and the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.0 would increase from 18% to 27%. The results suggest that in high DOC waters, even a marginal change in the DOC concentration could impact acid sensitive biota in a large portion of the aquatic landscape.

  18. Impact of changing DOC concentrations on the potential distribution of acid sensitive biota in a boreal stream network

    H. Laudon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DOC concentrations have increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the past few decades. As DOC exerts a strong influence on pH this DOC increase could have detrimental effects on acid sensitive biota in many streams and lakes. To investigate the potential implications of changes in the DOC concentration on stream water biota, we have used a mesoscale boreal stream network in northern Sweden as a case study. The network was sampled for stream water chemistry at 60 locations during both winter base flow and spring flood periods, representing the extremes experienced annually in these streams both in terms of discharge and acidity. The effect of changing DOC on pH was modeled for all sampling locations using an organic acid model, with input DOC concentrations for different scenarios adjusted by between –30% and +50% from measured present concentrations. The resulting effect on pH was then used to quantify the proportion of stream length in the catchment with pH below the acid thresholds of pH 5.5 and pH 5.0. The results suggest that a change in stream water DOC during base flow would have only a limited effect on pH and hence on the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. During the spring flood on the other hand a change in DOC would strongly influence pH and the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. For example an increase in DOC concentration of 30% at all sites would increase the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.5 from 37% to 65%, and the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.0 would increase from 18% to 27%. The results suggest that in poorly-buffered high DOC waters, even a marginal change in the DOC concentration could impact acid sensitive biota in a large portion of the aquatic landscape.

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  20. Influence of the contaminated wastes/soils on the geochemical characteristics of the Bodelhão stream waters and sediments from Panasqueira mine area, Portugal

    Abreu, Maria Manuela; Godinho, Berta; Magalhães, Maria Clara F.; Anjos, Carla; Santos, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Panasqueira is a famous Portuguese tin-tungsten mine operating more or less continuously since the end of the nineteenth century. This mine is located in the Central Iberian Zone, northwest of Castelo Branco, about 35 km from Fundão, being the greatest producer of tungsten in Europe. Panasqueira mine also produces copper and tin. The ore exploitation has caused huge local visual and chemical impact from the large waste tailings, together with water drainage from mine galleries, seepage and effluents from water plant treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the contaminated wastes and soils on the water and sediments characteristics of the Bodelhão stream. This stream crosses the mine area at the bottom of the main tailings, receiving sediments, seepage and drainage waters from wastes and/or soils developed on the waste materials which cover the host rocks (schists), and also from the water treatment plant. Waste materials contain different levels of hazardous chemical elements depending on their age and degree of weathering (mg/kg - As: 466-632; Cd: 2.6-4.2; Cu: 264-457; Zn: 340-456; W: 40-1310). Soils developed on old wastes (60-80 years old) are mainly silty loam, acidic (except one soil (pH 8.2) developed on waste materials covered by leakage mud from a pipe conducting effluent to a pond), with relatively high concentration of organic carbon (median 48.6 g/kg). The majority of soils are heavily contaminated in As (158-7790 mg/kg), Cd (0.6-138 mg/kg), Cu (51-4081 mg/kg), W (19-1450 mg/kg), and Zn (142-12300 mg/kg). The fraction of these elements extracted with DTPA solution, relatively to total concentration, varies from low to As (plant are less acidic (pH: 5.6-6.5) than those collected upper stream (pH 4.9) and showed high electric conductivity (up to 1.5 mS/cm), high concentrations of sulfate (618-1030 mg/L), and hazardous elements: up to 12.4 µg As/L; 83.7 µg Cd/L; 210 µg Cu/L; 5.8 mg Zn/L. The highest concentrations of

  1. Leaf Associated Microbial Activities in a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Schlief, Jeanette

    2004-11-01

    Microbial activity was assessed on birch leaves and plastic strips during 140 days of exposure at three sites in an acidic stream of the Lusatian post-mining landscape, Germany. The sites differed in their degrees of ochre deposition and acidification. The aim of the study was (1) to follow the microbial activities during leaf colonization, (2) to compare the effect of different environmental conditions on leaf associated microbial activities, and (3) to test the microbial availability of leaf litter in acidic mining waters. The activity peaked after 49 days and subsequently decreased gradually at all sites. A formation of iron plaques on leaf surfaces influenced associated microbial activity. It seemed that these plaques inhibit the microbial availability of leaf litter and serve as a microbial habitat by itself. (

  2. Performance of an open limestone channel for treating a stream affected by acid rock drainage (León, Spain).

    Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    higher acidity than the inflow into the system due to the discharge of ARDs (mainly from the tunnel) that is received and to the existence of a natural stream, which is affected by a waste-rock pile. The predictions and calculations necessary for the design of any remediation/attenuation techniques are quite difficult. Despite the fact that the selected design is the most adequate one for this valley and type of passive treatment system (including adequate slopes), we must admit that the physicochemical characteristics of the ARD were not the most appropriate according to the literature. Moreover, during the design, engineers were unaware of the existence of the inflow from two highly polluting sources, which have rendered the passive treatment system ineffective and which therefore suggest that certain improvement measures could be considered. PMID:27068908

  3. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.

  4. Recovery of fish communities in receiving streams after improvements in waste water treatment at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities

    Biological monitoring programs have documented recovery of fish communities in four receiving streams associated with three DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Since 1985, twice-yearly electrofishing surveys have been conducted at sites immediately downstream of each facility. These surveys indicated that increases in abundance and species richness of fish communities were associated with the implementation of various remedial actions such as new waste water treatment facilities, closure of waste disposal ponds, and waste stream dechlorination. Increased abundance was the initial indicator of fish community recovery. Density increased from 0--0.1 fish/m2 to 3.0--29.7 fish/m2 at the four stream sites. Species richness also increased from 0--5 species per sample to 4--12 species per sample at the four sites. The increases in species number involved only fish species that were not sensitive to environmental disturbance. Fish community responses corresponded with treatment start-up dates; the responses generally were incremental, as increments of treatment occurred. Although recovery was evident at each site, the extent of recovery varied and did not match density and species richness patterns in the fish communities of suitable upstream or offsite reference sites

  5. Model of truly closed circuit of waste stream flow in metallurgical enterprise

    Gajdzik, B.; E. Michlowicz; Zwolińska, B.; P. Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    The publication presents flows of metallurgical waste in manufacturing metallurgical enterprise. On the basis of analysis the structure of waste flows and the way of waste management within the enterprise or outside it were described. In the observation of the metallurgical waste flow a universal model of waste flow structure was created. It may be used in waste management of a metallurgical enterprise with full production cycle (from raw materials processes, through steel production up to fi...

  6. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Mixed TRU Waste Streams: SR-W026-221F-HET-A through D

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-10-02

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for the heterogeneous debris mixed transuranic waste streams generated in the FB-Line after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997.

  7. Extraction of zirconium from simulated acidic nitrate waste using liquid membrane in hollow fiber contactor

    The acidic waste raffinate stream of zirconium (Zr) purification plant contains about 2 gpl of Zr in about 2M free nitric acid. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry, is not suitable for the extraction of Zr from this lean solution as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In house synthesized Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) is a potential extractant for Zr from this lean stream. Intensification of this process for recovery of Zr has been attempted through use of efficient contactor, namely, hollow fiber module and efficient process, namely, simultaneous extraction and stripping across liquid membrane containing MAPO. Based on batch equilibrium studies selection of suitable concentration of extractant, composition of diluent, selection and concentration of strippant for the proposed liquid membrane system was made. The selected organic and strippant concentration was used to study suitability of application of Dispersion Liquid Membrane (DLM) in hollow fiber contactor for recovery Zr from solution simulated to Zr plant raffinate. Challenges related to stable operation of the liquid membrane system like stability of the organic phase in the micropores of lumen and stability of the dispersion during the pertraction were addressed through pressure balance across the lumen and choice of adequate dispersion condition respectively. (author)

  8. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of streams with and without acid mine drainage impacts: A paired catchment study in karst geology, SW China

    Sun, Jing; Tang, Changyuan; Wu, Pan; Strosnider, William H. J.; Han, Zhiwei

    2013-11-01

    A paired catchment study was used to assess karst hydrogeochemistry of two streams.Chemistry of streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) was very different.The observation was supported by PHREEQC modeling of equilibrium conditions.Ionic fluxes of AMD-impacted water were higher than that of non-AMD-impacted water.The higher ionic fluxes were predominantly controlled by the oxidation of pyrite.

  9. Benthic Communities of Low-Order Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainages: A Case Study from Central Europe

    Marek Svitok; Milan Novikmec; Peter Bitušík; Branislav Máša; Jozef Oboňa; Miroslav Očadlík; Eva Michalková

    2014-01-01

    Only little attention has been paid to the impact of acid mine drainages (AMD) on aquatic ecosystems in Central Europe. In this study, we investigate the physico-chemical properties of low-order streams and the response of benthic invertebrates to AMD pollution in the Banská Štiavnica mining region (Slovakia). The studied streams showed typical signs of mine drainage pollution: higher conductivity, elevated iron, aluminum, zinc and copper loads and accumulations of ferric precipitates. Elect...

  10. Accumulation of aluminium and iron by bryophytes in streams affected by acid-mine drainage

    Engleman, C.J.; McDiffett, W.F. [Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the accumulation of two heavy metals (Al and Fe) by bryophytes in a northern Pennsylvania stream system affected by acid-mine drainage. Four sites within one watershed were selected on the basis of their pH and dissolved metal concentrations. Significant differences among sites were found with regard to bioaccumulation of Al an Fe. A negative relationship between pH and Fe concentrations in bryophyte tissues was found, with the highest accumulation of Fe observed at the most acidic site (pH 3.5), whereas accumulation of Al was highest at a site with an intermediate pH of 5.2. Bryophytes transplanted from a circum-neutral site to acidic sites showed highly significant increases in Fe and Al concentrations in tissues after 6 weeks, and transplants from more acidic sites to a circum-neutral site generally showed highly significant declines in Fe and Al concentration in tissues after the incubation period.

  11. Determination of free acid in high level liquid waste

    A Flow-dilution spectrophotometric method is developed for rapid determination of free acid in High Level Liquid Waste. Orange IV is used as developer in this method. The results show that the precision of the analysis is less than 3% (n=3) and the quantity of sample is small, the procedure is simple and fast (completed within 3 min). Moreover, the method is much less hazardous for the operator in the analysis of radioactive samples. (authors)

  12. Hybrid sensor for metal grade measurement of a falling stream of solid waste particles

    Highlights: ► A new sensor system is developed for metal grade measurement of falling bottom ash particles. ► The system is hybrid, consisting of an optical and an electromagnetic sensor. ► Grade of ECS concentrated bottom ash in 1–6 mm sieve size accurately measured up to 143 p/s feed rate. ► Accuracy reached was 2.4% with respect to manual analysis. ► Measures for elimination of both stationary and stochastic errors are discussed. - Abstract: A hybrid sensor system for accurate detection of the metal grade of a stream of falling solid waste particles is investigated and experimentally verified. The system holds an infrared and an electromagnetic unit around a central tube and counts all the particles and only the metal particles, respectively. The count ratio together with the measured average particle mass ratio (k) of non-metal and metal particles is sufficient for calculation of grade. The performance of the system is accurately verified using synthetic mixtures of sand and metal particles. Towards an application a case study is performed using municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in size fractions 1–6 mm, which presents a major challenge for nonferrous metal recovery. The particle count ratio was inherently accurate for particle feed rates up to 13 per second. The average value and spread of k for bottom ash was determined as 0.49 ± 0.07 and used to calculate grade within 2.4% from the manually analysed grade. At higher feed rates the sensors start missing particles which fall simultaneously through the central tube, but the hybrid system still counted highly repeatable. This allowed for implementation of a count correction ratio to eliminate the stationary error. In combination with averaging in measurement intervals for suppression of stochastic variations the hybrid system regained its accuracy for particle feed rates up to 143 per second. This performance and its special design, intended to render it insensitive to external

  13. Energy potential from the anaerobic digestion of food waste in municipal solid waste stream of urban areas in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Hoa Huu; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) was introduced in Vietnam more than 10 years ago, but at a small scale to deal with agricultural wastes, manure, etc. Despite its many advantages, AD does not yet make a significant contribution to resolving Vietnams urban waste issues due to a lack of information, data and experience. This paper, using an energy model of food waste digestion, provides a usable source of information regarding energy potential of food waste generated from urban areas in Vietnam in form...

  14. Spatio-Temporal Statistical Modeling of Livestock Waste in Streams. Livestock Series Report 5

    Noel Cressie; James J. Majure

    1996-01-01

    Surface water runoff from large livestock operations finds its way into streams, rivers, and ultimately the larger watershed area. In this paper, the model measures the nitrate concentrations in the upper North Bosque (Texas) watershed, which is a region of concentrated dairy operations. Using 15 months of daily data collected at 17 stream monitoring sites allows the authors to obtain optimal predictions of unknown nitrate concentration at all stream locations at any given time, along with a ...

  15. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  16. Hyporheic exchange and fulvic acid redox reactions in an alpine stream/wetland ecosystem, Colorado front range

    Miller, M.P.; McKnight, Diane M.; Cory, R.M.; Williams, M.W.; Runkel, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of hyporheic zone interactions on the redox state of fulvic acids and other redox active species was investigated in an alpine stream and adjacent wetland, which is a more reducing environment. A tracer injection experiment using bromide (Br-) was conducted in the stream system. Simulations with a transport model showed that rates of exchange between the stream and hyporheic zone were rapid (?? ??? 10-3 s -1). Parallel factor analysis of fluorescence spectra was used to quantify the redox state of dissolved fulvic acids. The rate coefficient for oxidation of reduced fulvic acids (?? = 6.5 ?? 10-3 s -1) in the stream indicates that electron-transfer reactions occur over short time scales. The rate coefficients for decay of ammonium (?? = 1.2 ?? 10-3 s-1) and production of nitrate (?? = -1.0 ?? 10-3 s-1) were opposite in sign but almost equal in magnitude. Our results suggest that fulvic acids are involved in rapid electron-transfer processes in and near the stream channel and may be important in determining ecological energy flow at the catchment scale. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  17. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    Full text: The production of the radioisotope molybdenum-99 by the fission process began at ANSTO in the late 1960's. Molybdenum-99, with a half life of 66 hours, decays by beta emission to produce technetium-99m, a metastable isotope. Technetium-99m is the most widely used medical radioisotope due to its near ideal properties, particularly the radioactive half life of only 6 hours. ANSTO has been producing generators for around 30 years for distribution to hospitals and nuclear medicine centres. These generators produce technetium-99m for medical use by decay of the contained molybdenum-99. To produce molybdenum-99, uranium dioxide pellets enriched to 2.2% 235U are irradiated in ANSTO's HIFAR reactor for about one week. The irradiated pellets are subsequently dissolved in nitric acid to allow the recovery of the molybdenum. An acidic intermediate level liquid waste results from this processing. A primary waste results from the raw leach solution (after removal of the molybdenum onto a packed alumina column) and a weaker secondary waste is produced from a series of column washing steps. The waste solution contains uranium, the majority of the other fission products and low levels of ammonia in a nitric acid solution. This liquid waste had been accumulating and stored in specially designed shielded tanks in a storage facility. A process has been developed at ANSTO to convert this intermediate level liquid waste into a crystalline solid form of considerably less volume and mass, for improved storage. The operation comprises three processing steps. The lower strength secondary waste solution first requires concentration, with the removal of water and some acid into a condensate. The condensate is chemically neutralised and treated through the conventional water treatment plant. Concentrated solution is then treated in a batch chemical process to reduce the low levels of ammonia to very low levels. The final evaporation process removes further water and acid and

  18. Approach of technical decision-making by element flow analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation of municipal solid waste stream

    TIAN Bao-guo; SI Ji-tao; ZHAO Yan; WANG Hong-tao; HAO Ji-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the procedure and methodology which can be used to select the optimal treatment and disposal technology of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to provide practical and effective technical support to policy-making, on the basis of study on solid waste management status and development trend in China and abroad. Focusing on various treatment and disposal technologies and processes of MSW, this study established a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization for MSW handling subjected to environmental constraints. A new method of element stream (such as C, H, O, N, S) analysis in combination with economic stream analysis of MSW was developed. By following the streams of different treatment processes consisting of various techniques from generation, separation, transfer, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of the wastes, the element constitution as well as its economic distribution in terms of possibility functions was identified. Every technique step was evaluated economically. The Mont-Carlo method was then conducted for model calibration. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify the most sensitive factors. Model calibration indicated that landfill with power generation of landfill gas was economically the optimal technology at the present stage under the condition of more than 58% of C, H, O, N, S going to landfill. Whether or not to generate electricity was the most sensitive factor. If landfilling cost increases, MSW separation treatment was recommended by screening first followed with incinerating partially and composting partially with residue landfilling. The possibility of incineration model selection as the optimal technology was affected by the city scale. For big cities and metropolitans with large MSW generation, possibility for constructing large-scale incineration facilities increases, whereas, for middle and small cities, the effectiveness of incinerating waste decreases.

  19. Approach of technical decision-making by element flow analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation of municipal solid waste stream.

    Tian, Bao-Guo; Si, Ji-Tao; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the procedure and methodology which can be used to select the optimal treatment and disposal technology of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to provide practical and effective technical support to policy-making, on the basis of study on solid waste management status and development trend in China and abroad. Focusing on various treatment and disposal technologies and processes of MSW, this study established a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization for MSW handling subjected to environmental constraints. A new method of element stream (such as C, H, O, N, S) analysis in combination with economic stream analysis of MSW was developed. By following the streams of different treatment processes consisting of various techniques from generation, separation, transfer, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of the wastes, the element constitution as well as its economic distribution in terms of possibility functions was identified. Every technique step was evaluated economically. The Mont-Carlo method was then conducted for model calibration. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify the most sensitive factors. Model calibration indicated that landfill with power generation of landfill gas was economically the optimal technology at the present stage under the condition of more than 58% of C, H, O, N, S going to landfill. Whether or not to generate electricity was the most sensitive factor. If landfilling cost increases, MSW separation treatment was recommended by screening first followed with incinerating partially and composting partially with residue landfilling. The possibility of incineration model selection as the optimal technology was affected by the city scale. For big cities and metropolitans with large MSW generation, possibility for constructing large-scale incineration facilities increases, whereas, for middle and small cities, the effectiveness of incinerating waste decreases. PMID:17915696

  20. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NOx vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200 degrees C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time

  1. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  2. Solid acid catalyzed biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

    Jacobson, Kathlene; Gopinath, Rajesh; Meher, Lekha Charan; Dalai, Ajay Kumar [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2008-12-17

    Various solid acid catalysts were evaluated for the production of biodiesel from low quality oil such as waste cooking oil (WCO) containing 15 wt.% free fatty acids. The zinc stearate immobilized on silica gel (ZS/Si) was the most effective catalyst in simultaneously catalyzing the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) present in WCO to methyl esters. The optimization of reaction parameters with the most active ZS/Si catalyst showed that at 200 C, 1:18 oil to alcohol molar ratio and 3 wt.% catalysts loading, a maximum ester yield of 98 wt.% could be obtained. The catalysts were recycled and reused many times without any loss in activity. (author)

  3. Characterization of past and present waste streams from the 325 Radiochemistry Building

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize, as far as possible, the solid waste generated by the 325 Radiochemistry Building since its construction in 1953. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) activities at Building 325 have generated approximately 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

  4. Characterization of past and present waste streams from the 325 Radiochemistry Building

    The purpose of this report is to characterize, as far as possible, the solid waste generated by the 325 Radiochemistry Building since its construction in 1953. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) activities at Building 325 have generated approximately 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site

  5. Method for treating sulfuric acid-containing waste

    When sulfuric acid-containing wastes are treated at a high temperature, since sulfuric acid ingredients (SO4) are converted into gaseous sulfur oxides (SOx), the volume can be remarkably reduced. However, if Na2SO4 generated from a nuclear power plant is treated by using this method, since the pyrolysis temperature of Na2SO4 is higher than 2000degC, it has been impossible to use an incinerator or a high temperature melting reactor (highest temperature: lower than 1500degC) ordinarily used in nuclear power plants. In the present invention, Ba(OH)2 is added under stirring to liquid wastes mainly composed of Na2SO4 to convert it into insoluble BaSO4 (pyrolysis temperature: 1200degC), thereafter, decomposition treatment is applied. With such procedures, sulfuric ingredients are gasified and the radioactive wastes are reduced as less as possible. Since the generated radioactive residues are chemically stable, the storage and disposal thereof are facilitated. (T.M.)

  6. The exploitation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and related waste paper streams in the production of bioalcohol

    Elliston, Adam

    2012-01-01

    An organic fraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) comprised 38.9% (w/w) glucose (cellulose and starch) indicating its potential as a substrate for bioalcohol production. Microscopy indicated that the fraction was rich in waste paper fibres. Much paper waste comes from shredded office paper (50.4% w/w glucose) which is unrecyclable because of poor fibre length. This, and microbiological hazards associated with the use of MSW led to its choice as model substrate for study. Saccharificatio...

  7. A mathematical model for recovery of uranium from acidic nuclear waste using DLM in hollow fiber contractor

    A mathematical model has been developed to predict the transport of uranium through a Dispersion liquid Membrane in Hollow fiber contactor and validated with experiments. Acidic waste of uranium (U) processing plant has been used as feed with the objective of polishing of streams and recycle/safe disposal of effluent Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in dodecane was used as carrier agent and Sodium bi carbonate was used as strippant. The model predicts the rate of transport of U from feed phase to the strip phase through film diffusion and interfacial equilibrium distribution

  8. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  9. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%. PMID:16257200

  10. High-temperature incineration of radioactive waste. Exploitation of the FLK-60 slagging incinerator for the treatment of different waste streams contaminated with plutonium

    During the years 1983 and 1984 the FLK-60 high-temperature slagging incinerator at Mol was used for incineration of simulated plutonium waste and BWR power-station waste after extensive technical adaptations. A total of 10 tons of simulated waste containing 15 g of plutonium and 6 tons of simulated waste containing 624 MBq of 60Co and 393 MBq of cesium isotopes was successfully treated. The average volume reduction factor was 18. Global decontamination factors of 280 000 for 137Cs and 22 000 000 for 239Pu were measured. Routine working and interventions for maintenance and repair could be carried out safely in alpha-conditions. The report describes in detail the technical adaptations and the behaviour of the various parts of the installation during the 39 runs carried out in the contract period. It also gives the chemical and radiochemical composition of the granules and secondary waste streams. The plutonium-based leach rate of the granules is in the range of 2 x 10-5 to 3.5 x 10-4 g/cm2. d. Finally typical mass, energy and radioactivity balances of the installation are given and various options for the final conditioning of the granules are briefly discussed. 6 refs, 6 figs, 29 tables

  11. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described

  12. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from 231-Z

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium Metallurgy Laboratory (231-Z) Facility. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by 231-Z using process knowledge, existing records and oral history interviews. Since 1944 research and development programs utilizing plutonium have been conducted at 231-Z in the fields of physical metallurgy, property determination, alloy development, and process development. The following are sources of solid waste generation at the 231-Z Facility: (1) General Weapons Development Program, (2) process waste from gloveboxes, (3) numerous classified research and development programs, (4) advanced decontamination and decommissioning technologies, including sectioning, vibratory finishing, electropolishing, solution process, and small bench-scale work, (5) general laboratory procedures, (6) foundry area, (7) housekeeping activities, and (8) four cleanout campaigns. All solid wastes originating at 231-Z were packaged for onsite-offsite storage or disposal. Waste packaging and reporting requirements have undergone significant changes throughout the history of 231-Z. Current and historical procedures are provided in Section 4.0. Information on the radioactive wastes generated at 231-Z can be found in a number of documents and databases, most importantly the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System database and Solid Waste Burial Records. Facility personnel also provide excellent information about past waste generation and the procedures used to handle that waste. Section 5.0 was compiled using these sources

  13. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Shott, Gregory [NSTec

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  14. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults.

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman

    2016-07-01

    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. PMID:27216485

  15. Oxidative treatment of a waste water stream from a molasses processing using ozone and advanced oxidation technologies

    The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O3/H2O2 and O3/γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)

  16. In-stream chemical neutralization: A whole watershed approach to mitigating acid mine drainage

    The North Branch of the Potomac River is adversely affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) throughout its entire length. As an alternative to mine-mouth treatment methods an in-stream AMD-neutralization demonstration program for an approximately 25-mile segment of the North Branch of the Potomac River was designed and implemented. This river segment was ranked as the highest priority site in Maryland for a demonstration project owing to its combination of very poor water quality and excellent potential for supporting a recreational sport fishery in the absence of toxic metal and acid loadings. A whole-watershed approach employing Scandinavian doser technologies and calcium carbonate neutralizing agents is the basis for the North Branch Potomac River demonstration project. The project involves four phases: feasibility (1), design (2), implementation (3), and monitoring (4). This watershed approach to mitigating AMD is expected to restore circumneutrial water quality and to promote desirable fishery resources throughout the mainstem and selected tributaries of the North Branch of the Potomac River Upstream of Jennings Randolph Dam. This paper summarizes Phases 1--3 of the demonstration project

  17. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half of...... bioavailability, which is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for CD combining high rate...

  18. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  19. Partitioning of actinides from high-level waste streams of Purex process using mixtures of CMPO and TBP in dodecane

    The extraction of actinides from high active aqueous raffinate waste (HAW) as well as high-level waste (HLW) solutions arising from Purex processing of thermal reactor fuels has been studied using a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. The results on the extraction and stripping of actinides, lanthanides, and other fission products are discussed. Optimum conditions are proposed for the efficient recovery of residual actinides from HAW and HLW streams by CMPO extraction followed by their selective stripping with suitable reagents. Experiments on the extraction and separation of actinides and lanthanides by CMPO in the presence of TBP in dodecane have also been carried out with U(VI) and Nd(III) to arrive at the limiting conditions for avoiding third-phase formation

  20. Extraction of actinides from high level waste streams of purex process using mixtures of CMPO and TBP in dodecane

    The extraction of actinides from high-active aqueous raffinate waste (HAW) as well as high level waste (HLW) solutions arising from Purex processing of thermal reactor fuels has been studied using a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. The results on the extraction and striping of actinides, lanthanides and other fission products have been discussed in this report and optimum conditions have been proposed for the efficient recovery of residual actinides from HAW and HLW streams by CMPO extraction and for their selective stripping with suitable reagents. Experiments on the extraction and separation of actinides and lanthanides by CMPO in the presence of TBP in dodecane have also been carried out with U(VI) and Nd(III) to arrive at the limiting conditions for avoiding third phase formation. (author). 18 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Effects of Ultrasonic and Acid Pretreatment on Food Waste Disintegration and Volatile Fatty Acid Production

    Qinglian Wu; Wanqian Guo∗; Shanshan Yang; Haichao Luo; Simai Peng; Nanqi Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of ultrasonic and acid pretreatment on food waste ( FW) disintegration and volatile fatty acid ( VFA ) production. Single⁃factor experiments are carried out to obtain optimal conditions of individual ultrasonic and acid pretreatment, and response surface method ( RSM ) is applied to optimize the conditions of the combination of ultrasonic and acid ( UA) pretreatment. Results show that the optimal acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments conditions are individual pH 2, individual ultrasonic energy density of 1�0 W/mL and the combination of ultrasonic energy density1�11 W/mL and pH 1�43, respectively. Correspondingly, the maximum disintegration degrees ( DD) of 46�90%, 57�38% and68�83%are obtained by acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments, respectively. After optimizing pretreatment conditions, batch experiments are operated to produce VFA from raw and pretreated FW under anaerobic fermentation process. Both the maximum VFA production ( 976�17 mg COD/gVS) and VFA/SCOD ( 72�89%) are obtained with ultrasonic pretreatment, followed by UA pretreatment, non⁃pretreatment and acid pretreatment, respectively. This observation demonstrates that a higher acidity on acid and UA pretreatments inhibits the generation of VFA. Results suggest that ultrasonic pretreatment is preferable to promote the disintegration degree of FW and VFA production.

  2. Trace metals of an acid mine drainage stream using a chemical model (WATEQ) and sediment analysis

    The high metal contents common to the discharge of acid-mine drainage (AMD) from mines and mine spoils is an environmental concern to both government and industry. This paper reports the results of investigation of the behavior of metals in an AMD system at a former surface coal mine in Tuscarawas County, Oh. AMD discharges from seeps travels, in respective order through a laminar flow stream; a Typha-dominated wetland; a turbulent flow stream; and a sediment retention pond. Dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Al) major and minor components, and other parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen and Eh) were measured in the AMD water at each sample location. A chemical mineral equilibrium model (WATEQ) was used to predict the minerals which should precipitate at each site. Results suggest that the seeps are supersaturated and should be precipitating hematite, goethite and magnetite (iron oxides), and siderite (iron carbonate), whereas water of the other downstream sites were at or below equilibrium conditions for these minerals. The hydrogeochemistry of the AMD was further studied using sequential chemical attacks on the precipitate sediment surface coatings, in order to determine metal concentrations in the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide, and oxidizable fractions. The carbonate and exchangeable fractions of the precipitate are dominated by Ca and Fe, as well as Mg in the carbonate fraction. The Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide fraction contained Fe, Al, Mn, Mg, and trace metals, and also contained the greatest concentration of total elements in the system. The Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide is therefore, the major sink for metals of this AMD system. The decrease in the concentration of metals in the sediment precipitates in the downstream locations, is consistent with WATEQ and water analysis results

  3. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  4. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  5. The effects of riparian forestry on invertebrate drift and brown trout in upland streams of contrasting acidity

    Ormerod, S. J.; Jones, M. E.; Jones, M. C.; Phillips, D. R.

    Variations in macroinvertebrate drift and benthic invertebrate abundance were assessed in 30 upland Welsh streams of varying acidity (pH 6.0) and riparian land-use (conifer, moorland or native broadleaf). The consequences for the diet and condition of wild brown trout Salmo trutta were also assessed. As expected from previous studies, there were significant reductions in benthic invertebrate abundance, aquatic drift density (by >60%), aquatic drift biomass (by >35%), total drift density (by >35%) and total drift biomass (by >20%) at acid sites by comparison with circumneutral sites due largely to the scarcity of mayflies. Absolute drift from terrestrial sources was unrelated to stream pH but formed a significantly greater proportion of total drift at acid sites (30-65% of density) than at circumneutral sites (20-40%) as aquatic contributions declined. Most of this apparent land use effect reflected significantly increased terrestrial drift under broadleaves. There was no significant reduction in terrestrial or aquatic drift at conifer forest sites per se after accounting for low pH. Trout diet varied substantially between locations partly reflecting variations in drift: significantly fewer mayflies and stoneflies were eaten at acid sites, and significantly more terrestrial prey were eaten under broadleaves. However, acidity did not reduce trout condition or gut-fullness. Unexpectedly, trout condition was significantly enhanced at conifer sites, irrespective of their pH. Hence, acidity has greater effects on the benthic abundance and drift density of invertebrates in upland streams than does riparian land use. However, trout forage flexibly enough to offset any possible food deficit, for example by switching to chironomids and terrestrial invertebrates. Enhanced terrestrial contributions to invertebrate drift from riparian broadleaf trees may be important in supplementing foraging opportunities for trout where aquatic prey are scarce. These data illustrate the value

  6. Selective Reduction of Cr(VI in Chromium, Copper and Arsenic (CCA Mixed Waste Streams Using UV/TiO2 Photocatalysis

    Shan Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly toxic Cr(VI is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI to less toxic Cr(III in the presence of arsenate, As(V, and copper, Cu(II. The rapid conversion of Cr(VI to Cr(III during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II and As(V does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI reduction. The Cr(VI reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  7. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions. PMID:25654531

  8. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-01-01

    This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H2O2). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the...

  9. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  10. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents

    Objectives: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). Materials and methods: The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. Results: The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. Conclusion: VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system.

  11. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  12. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater desalination, and biosensors. Although the technologies are promising, a number of hurdles need to be overcome before that field applications are economically feasible. The main purpose of this work was to improve the performance, reduce the construction cost, and expand the application scopes of MFC-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main removal mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus was algae biomass uptake, while nitrification and denitrification process contributed to part of nitrogen removal. The key factors such as algae concentration, COD/N ratios and photoperiod were systemically studied. A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and yield of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved. Alternate exchanging the function between the two cell units was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell, was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Temperature, pH, conductivity and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensor showed

  13. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  14. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    Jilagamazhi Fu

    Full Text Available Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA. The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1 glycerol transportation; 2 enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA. Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in

  15. REDUCING THE WASTE STREAM: BRINGING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMICAL, AND EDUCATIONAL COMPOSTING TO A LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGE

    The Northfield, Minnesota area contains three institutions that produce a large amount of compostable food waste. St. Olaf College uses a large-scale on-site composting machine that effectively transforms the food waste to compost, but the system requires an immense start-up c...

  16. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  17. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE)

  18. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    Duncan, D R; Mayancsik, B A [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J A; Vejvoda, E J; Reddick, J A; Sheldon, K M; Weyns, M I [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  19. Low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids produced from hydrothermal treatment of organic wastes.

    Quitain, Armando T; Faisal, Muhammad; Kang, Kilyoon; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2002-07-22

    This article reports production of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i.e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H(2)O(2)). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H(2)O(2). Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. In addition, production of lactic acid, one of the interesting low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, was discussed on the viewpoint of resources recovery. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. PMID:12117467

  20. Electrolytic destruction of nitric acid in various reprocessing streams of fast breeder reactor fuels

    The salting concentration of Nitric acid to Reprocessing Plants of FBR fuels is 4 M HNO3,. Adjustment of the free acidity of the Dissolver solution from 8 to 10 M HNO3, to a concentration of 4M HNO3 is done cathodically. This would increase the throughput of the plant. The concentration of HNO3 in first cycle raffinate, HAW, that would be stored in SS tanks (interim storage before vitrification) should be less than 6 M; otherwise severe corrosion problems would occur. The HAW discharged in FBR fuel reprocessing plants would contain around 4M HNO3. This has to be reduced to around 0.4M HNO3 in order to effect efficient reduction in waste volume, by evaporation. This has been achieved in the catalytic reduction of HNO3 to oxides of nitrogen. Current efficiency in the 1 L level is around 46%. Conventionally, HNO3 in raffinates are destroyed by addition of formaldehyde. The disadvantages of this method are highlighted in this paper. Addition of 0.01 M Cu2+ is found to completely avoid critical concentration of HNO3 below which nitrate ions will not be destroyed; instead H2 gas would be evolved. The results of these experiments in a simulated HAW are also included in this paper. Operation and the results of electrolytic destruction of HNO3 in simulated raffinate in a scaled-up SS equipment of 3.5 L capacity are also described in this payer. (author)

  1. Interim solidification of SRP waste with silica, bentonite, or phosphoric acid

    One option for interim waste management at the Savannah River Plant is in-tank solidification of the liquid waste solutions. This would reduce the mobility of these highly radioactive solutions until techniques for their long-term immobilization and storage are developed and implemented. Interim treatments must permit eventual retrieval of waste and subsequent incorporation into a high-integrity form. This study demonstrated the solidification of simulated alkaline waste solutions by reaction with silica, bentonite, and phosphoric acid. Alkaline waste can be solidified by reaction with silica gel, silica flour, or sodium silicate solution. Solidified products containing waste salt can be retrieved by slurrying with water. Alkaline supernate (solution in equilibrium with alkaline sludge in SRP waste tanks) can be solidified by reaction with bentonite to form cancrinite powder. The solidified waste can be retrieved by slurrying with water. Alkaline supernate can be solidified by partial evaporation and reaction with phosphoric acid. Water is incorporated into hydrated complexes of trisodium phosphate. The product is soluble, but actual plant waste would not solidify completely because of decay heat. Reaction of simulated alkaline waste solutions with silica gel, silica flour, or bentonite increases the volume by a factor of approximately 6 over that of evaporated waste; reaction with phosphoric acid results in a volume 1.5 times that of evaporated waste. At present, the best method for in-tank solidification is by evaporation, a method that contributes no additional solids to the waste and does not compromise any waste management options

  2. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes

    Baumann, T F; Fox, G A; Reynolds, J

    1998-12-22

    Removal and immobilization of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg2+ extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl- ,4,&l 1,14- pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg2+ was determined to be 95+% with a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg*+, competing ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, A13+, and Fe3+. even in the presence of high concentrations of The bound Hg2+ ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity.

  3. Removal of Xylene fromWaste Air Stream Using Catalytic Ozonation Process

    H Mokarami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are one of the common groups of contaminants encountered in the industrial activities, emitted through air stream into the atmosphere. To prevent the human and environmental health from the adverse effects of VOCs, air streams containing VOCs need to be treated before discharging to environment. This study was aimed at investigating the catalytic ozonation process for removing xylene from a contaminated air stream."nMaterials and Methods: In the present work, a bench scale experimental setup was constructed and used for catalytic ozonation of xylene. The performance of catalytic ozonation process was compared with that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of several concentration of xylene under the similar experimental conditions."nResults: The results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was higher than that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of xylene. The emerging time and elimination capacity of xylene for inlet concentration of 300 ppm was 1.4 and 5.8 times of those in adsorption system. The activated carbon acted as catalyst in the presence of ozone and thus attaining the synergistic effect for xylene degradation."nConclusion: catalytic ozonation process is an efficient technique the treatment of air streams containing high concentrations of xylene. The adsorption systems can also be simply retrofitted to catalytic ozonation process and thereby improving their performance for treating VOCs.

  4. PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: NEW METHODS REDUCE THE MAGNITUDE OF WASTE STREAMS

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized. Process simulators can be effective tools in a...

  5. Materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012 (in tons)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years....

  6. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years....

  7. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site's defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site's N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX's physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail

  8. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  9. Treatment of Pu-containing waste by acid digestion (wet combustion)

    Acid digestion as a process of treatment of plutonium-containing solid waste was developed and demonstrated under conditions of an active operation with respect to the recovery of plutonium. The process composes the following main steps: waste shredding, waste carbonisation, waste oxidation and conversion of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulphate, off-gas treatment, acid recovery and plutonium separation. The technical, safety and operational details of the plant will be presented. Furthermore, methods of the purification of separate plutonium and solidification of secondary waste for final disposal will be described. (orig./RW)

  10. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  11. Radiation pretreatments for optimizing the sugar yield in the acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose

    Cellulosic wastes are now recognized as an underutilized renewable resource for both materials and energy recovery rather than a solid waste disposal problem. Acid hydrolysis offers a potentially attractive route for upgrading the value of cellulosic wastes by converting them to glucose. The glucose can then be used as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and the synthesis of single cell protein. A key step in this developing technology is a cost effective cellulose waste pretreatment for optimizing the sugar yield. Various experimental approaches for achieving this objective are described. A combination waste cellulose pretreatment comprising the hydropulping of an electron beam irradiated cellulose waste feedstock followed by a short time dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis has been found to be particularly effective. Data are given on the employment of various organic acids in place of sulfuric acid for the hydrolysis reaction. The power requirement and additional cost for the electron beam pretreatment are also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Influence of Temperature on Induction Period of Denitration During Concentration of Radioactive Acid Liquid Waste

    YANG; Hui; LI; Chuan-bo; YAN; Tai-hong; ZHENG; Wei-fang

    2013-01-01

    To minimize the volume of waste and recycle nitric acid,the high-and middle-level radioactive liquid waste from reprocessing plant need to be concentrated and de-nitrated,and formic acid and formaldehyde are widely applied as denitration agents.Temperature can affect the induction period of denitration reaction and the safety of process.

  13. ACIDS SOILS’ PH AND NUTRIENT IMPROVEMENT WHEN AMENDED WITH INORGANIC SOLID WASTES FROM KRAFT MILL

    M ZAMBRANO; Parodi, V.; Baeza, J; Vidal, G.

    2007-01-01

    Kraft mill generates a large amount of dregs (D) and grits (G) as solid wastes due to the causticizing process. The disposal of these wastes is expensive in terms of land requirement and maintenance. On the other hand, solid wastes have alkalinity and buffer properties, which make them appropriate for use as amendments to acidic soils. The goal of this work was to determine the physical, chemical, toxicity and hazardousness characteristics of D & G. Additionally, the effect on acidic soils’ p...

  14. Ariab acidic min-influenced water: a waste to waste treatment

    Six samples of acidic mine-influenced water (AMIW) from Ariab area, Red Sea Hills, northeastern part of Sudan, were analyzed for some waste water parameters. The investigation showed that, the pH ranged between 1.30 to 1.88, sulphate content between 40200 to 235300 mg/1, total iron 9879 to 103969 mg/1, copper, 280.0 to 1112.5 mg/1, zinc, 1825 to 3345 mg/1, manganese, 210.0 to 570.0 mg /1 in addition to high contents of cobalt and cadmium which are known for their negative impact on the environment. Khartoum Refinery Sour Water (KRSW) sample was analyzed for some pollutants, the analysis showed that it is alkaline industrial waste having a pH of 10.10, alkalinity of 26381 mg/1 as CaC3/1, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 29400 mg/1 as O2. It was found to be relatively free of heavy and environmentally hazardous elements such as Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Mg. A waste to waste treatment was carried to Ariab AMIW with KRSW, satisfactory results were obtained in reduction of the parameters studied in the treated effluent. The pH of AMIW was raised to about 8.50, and the element contents of Fe, Co, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb were either completely removed or reduced to levels that meet the allowed limits of the industrial effluent disposal threshold. Sulphate content, however, decreased due to dilution, but still above the specified limits of the effluent disposal. (Author)

  15. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS, TEST PLAN 09T1690-1

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  16. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  17. Assessment of the Regenerative Potential of Organic Waste Streams in Lagos Mega-City

    Opejin, Adenike Kafayat

    There is never a better time for this study than now when Nigeria as a country is going through the worst time in power supply. In Lagos city about 12,000 tons of waste is generated daily, and is expected to increase as the city adds more population. The management of these waste has generated great concern among professionals, academia and government agencies. This study examined the regenerative management of organic waste, which accounts for about 45% of the total waste generated in Lagos. To do this, two management scenarios were developed: landfill methane to electricity and compost; and analyzed using data collected during field work and from government reports. While it is understood that landfilling waste is the least sustainable option, this study argued that it could be a viable method for developing countries. Using U.S EPA LandGEM and the IPCC model, estimates of capturable landfill methane gas was derived for three landfills studied. Furthermore, a 35-year projection of waste and landfill methane was done for three newly proposed landfills. Assumptions were made that these new landfills will be sanitary. It was established that an average of 919,480,928m3 methane gas could be captured to generate an average of 9,687,176 MW of electricity annually. This makes it a significant source of power supply to a city that suffers from incessant power outages. Analysis of composting organics in Lagos was also done using descriptive method. Although, it could be argued that composting is the most regenerative way of managing organics, but it has some problems associated with it. Earthcare Compost Company processes an average of 600 tons of organics on a daily basis. The fraction of waste processed is infinitesimal compared to the rate of waste generated. One major issue identified in this study as an obstacle to extensive use of this method is the marketability of compost. The study therefore suggests that government should focus on getting the best out of the

  18. Cleaning of ammonium-polluted streams of waste water; Reinigung von ammoniumbelasteten Abwasserstroemen

    Breithaupt, A. [Prantner GmbH, Verfahrenstechnik, Reutlingen (Germany); Gulde, A. [Prantner GmbH, Verfahrenstechnik, Reutlingen (Germany); Weigert, M. [Prantner GmbH, Verfahrenstechnik, Reutlingen (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    Heavily ammonium-polluted waste water accrues from many different sectors. Depending on the type of the waste water and special cleaning requirements, it must be treated by biological or physico-chemical processes. A combination method consisting of ammonia stripping and catalytic oxidation is described. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Stark mit Ammonium belastete Abwaesser fallen in einer Vielzahl von verschiedenen Entstehungsbereichen an. Diese muessen, abwasserspezifisch und in Abhaengigkeit von den speziellen Reinigungsanforderungen, durch biologische oder physikalisch-chemische Verfahren behandelt werden. Ein Kombinationsverfahren aus Ammoniakstrippung und katalytischer Oxidation wird beschrieben. (orig.)

  19. Methods and Production of Cementation Materials for Immobilisation into Waste Form. Research of Cementation Processes for Specific Liquid Radioactive Waste Streams of Radiochemical Plants

    In the near future Russian Federation is planning to use industrial cementation facilities at two radiochemical combines - PA 'Mayak' and Mountain Chemical Combine. Scope of the research within the IAEA CRP contact No. 14176 included the development of cementation processes for specfic liquid radioactive waste streams that are present in these enterprisers. The research on cementation of liquid waste from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing at PA 'Mayak' allowed obtaining experimental data characterizing the technological process and basic characteristics of the produced cement compounds (e.g. mechanical strength, water resistance, frost resistance, flowability, etc.) immobilizing different streams of waste (e.g. hydrated-salt sludges, filter material pulps, mixture of hydrated salt slurries and filter material pulps, tritium liquid waste). Determined optimum technological parameters will allow industrial scale production of cement compound with required quality and higher flowability that is necessary for providing uniform filling of compartments of storage facilities at these sites. The research has been also carried out for the development of cementation technology for immobilization of pulps from storage tanks of Mountain Chemical Combine radiochemical plant. Cementation of such pulps is a difficult technological task because pulps are of complex chemical composition (e.g. hydroxides of manganese, iron, nickel, etc., as well as silicon oxide) and a relatively high activity. The research of cementation process selection for these pulps included studies of the impact of sorbing additive type and content on cement compounds leachability, flowability, impact of cement compound age to its mechanical strength, heat generation of cement compounds and others. The research results obtained allowed testing of cementation facility with a pulse type mixer on the full-scale. Use of such mixer for pulp cementation makes possible to prepare a homogeneous cement compound with the

  20. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  1. Solidification Of The Hanford Law Waste Stream Produced As A Result Of Near-Tank Continuous Sludge Leaching And Sodium Hydroxide Recovery

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  2. SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE UTILIZATION FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION USING Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid and solid  pineapple wastes contain mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for fermentation to produce organic acid. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were  carried out in batch fermentation using  the  liquid and solid pineapple wastes to produce lactic acid. The anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid were performed at 40 oC, pH 6, 5% inocolum and  50 rpm. Initially  results show that the liquid pineapple waste by  using Lactobacillus delbrueckii can be used as carbon source  for lactic acid fermentation. The production of lactic acid  are found to be 79 % yield, while only  56% yield was produced by using solid waste

  3. Removal of common organic solvents from aqueous waste streams via supercritical C02 extraction: a potential green approach to sustainable waste management in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Leazer, Johnnie L; Gant, Sean; Houck, Anthony; Leonard, William; Welch, Christopher J

    2009-03-15

    Supercritical CO2 extraction of aqueous streams is a convenient and effective method to remove commonly used solvents of varying polarities from aqueous waste streams. The resulting aqueous layers can potentially be sewered; whereas the organic layer can be recovered for potential reuse. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a technology that is increasingly being used in commercial processes (1). Supercritical fluids are well suited for extraction of a variety of media, including solids, natural products, and liquid products. Many supercritical fluids have low critical temperatures, allowing for extractions to be done at modestly low temperatures, thus avoiding any potential thermal decomposition of the solutes under study (2). Furthermore, the CO2 solvent strength is easily tuned by adjusting the density of the supercritical fluid (The density is proportional to the pressure of the extraction process). Since many supercritical fluids are gases at ambient temperature, the extract can be concentrated by simply venting the reaction mixture to a cyclone collection vessel, using appropriate safety protocols. PMID:19368207

  4. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  5. SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE UTILIZATION FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION USING Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The liquid and solid  pineapple wastes contain mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for fermentation to produce organic acid. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were  carried out in batch fermentation using  the  liquid and solid pineapple wastes to produce lactic acid. The anaerobic fermentation of ...

  6. Changes in stream chemistry and biology in response to reduced levels of acid deposition during 1987-2003 in the Neversink River Basin, Catskill Mountains

    Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bode, R.W.; Passy, S.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition has decreased in the northeastern United States since the 1970s, resulting in modest increases in pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), and decreases in inorganic monomeric aluminum (AlIM) concentrations since stream chemistry monitoring began in the 1980s in the acid-sensitive upper Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Stream pH has increased by 0.01 units/year during 1987-2003 at three sites in the Neversink basin as determined by Seasonal Kendall trend analysis. In light of this observed decrease in stream acidity, we sampled 12 stream sites within the Neversink River watershed for water chemistry, macroinvertebrates, fish, and periphytic diatoms in 2003 to compare with a similar data set collected in 1987. Metrics and indices that reflect sensitivity to stream acidity were developed with these biological data to determine whether changes in stream biota over the intervening 16 years parallel those of stream chemistry. Statistical comparisons of data on stream chemistry and an acid biological assessment profile (Acid BAP) derived from invertebrate data showed no significant differences between the two years. For pH and ANC, however, values in 2003 were generally lower than those in 1987; this difference likely resulted from higher streamflow in summer 2003. Despite these likely flow-induced changes in summer 2003, an ordination and cluster analysis of macroinvertebrate taxa based on the Acid BAP indicated that the most acidic sites in the upstream half of the East Branch Neversink River form a statistically significant separate cluster consistent with less acidic stream conditions. This analysis is consistent with limited recovery of invertebrate species in the most acidic reaches of the river, but will require additional improvement in stream chemistry before a stronger conclusion can be drawn. Data on the fish and periphytic diatom communities in 2003 indicate that slimy sculpin had not extended their habitat

  7. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  8. Pretreatment of different waste streams for improvement in biogas production; Foerbehandlingsteknikers betydelse foer oekat biogasutbyte

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); del Pilar Castillo, Maria (JTI (Sweden)); Loren, Anders; Brive, Lena; Ekendahl, Susanne; Nordman, Roger (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biological breakdown of organic municipal and industrial waste to biogas is already in use today. The technology is of outmost importance to attain the environmental goals that our society has set regarding to sustainable development. Of decisive economic importance is the ability to obtain an increased amount of biogas from the same amount of substrate. Alternative resources for biogas production are at the same time of great interest in order to enable a large expansion of biogas production. The goal of applying a suitable pre-treatment step before anaerobic digestion is to open up the molecular structure of inaccessible biopolymers in order to facilitate access to the carbon for microorganisms involved in biological breakdown and fermentation to biogas. Our study shows that introducing a pretreatment step opens new perspectives for biogas production. Treatment of paper residuals by steam explosion increased methane production up to 400 Nm3/ton dry matter, to a double amount of methane yield compared to that of untreated paper. A novel method for pretreatment with an environment-friendly solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was also tested on lignocellulose-rich waste fractions from forest and agricultural. The NMMO-treatment increased the methane yields of spruce chips and triticale straw by 25 times (250 Nm3/ton dry matter), and by 6 times (200 Nm3/ton dry matter), respectively, compared to that of the untreated materials. Keratin-rich feather waste yielded around 200 Nm3 methane/ton dry matter, which could be increased to 450 Nm3/ton after enzymatic treatment and to 360 Nm3/ton after either chemical treatment with lime, or after biological treatment with a recombinant bacterial strain of Bacillus megaterium. However, the gain in increased amount of methane after a pretreatment step should be weighted against a possible increase in energy usage generated by the pretreatment. We have therefore performed a case study in which the energy balance for a biogas

  9. Immobilized materials for removal of toxic metal ions from surface/groundwaters and aqueous waste streams.

    Zawierucha, Iwona; Kozlowski, Cezary; Malina, Grzegorz

    2016-04-20

    Heavy metals from industrial processes are of special concern because they produce chronic poisoning in the aquatic environment. More strict environmental regulations on the discharge of toxic metals require the development of various technologies for their removal from polluted streams (i.e. industrial wastewater, mine waters, landfill leachate, and groundwater). The separation of toxic metal ions using immobilized materials (novel sorbents and membranes with doped ligands), due to their high selectivity and removal efficiency, increased stability, and low energy requirements, is promising for improving the environmental quality. This critical review is aimed at studying immobilized materials as potential remediation agents for the elimination of numerous toxic metal (e.g. Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) ions from polluted streams. This study covers the general characteristics of immobilized materials and separation processes, understanding of the metal ion removal mechanisms, a review of the application of immobilized materials for the removal of toxic metal ions, as well as the impacts of various parameters on the removal efficiency. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of remediation technologies using these materials are addressed. PMID:27044908

  10. Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes; Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren. Fachseminar

    1998-09-01

    The experts` seminar on ``Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes`` is the third event of its kind to be held by the Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF=Centre for Waste Research). The purpose of the seminar is to de-emotionalise the debate going on between environment-oriented citizens, authorities, scientists, operators, and manufacturers and to find solutions that are acceptable in terms of costs as well as environmental impact. The seminar deals with traditional methods such as grate firing as well as with new methods such as low-temperature carbonisation, thermoselect, Noell-KRC, or RCP processes. [Deutsch] Das Fachseminar `Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren` ist die 13. Veranstaltung dieser Art, die durch das Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF) durchgefuehrt wird. Das Seminar soll dazu beitragen, die Diskussion zwischen umweltbewuessten Bevoelkerungsgruppen, Behoerden, Wissenschaft, Betreibern und Herstellern zu versachlichen und dabei Loesungen zu finden, die hinsichtlich der Kosten und der Umweltbeeintraechtigung vertretbar sind. Es werden sowohl die traditionellen Verfahren wie Rostfeuerung als auch neue Verfahren wie Schwelbrenn-, Thermoselekt-, Noell-KRC- oder RCP-Verfahren behandelt. (orig.)

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon evolution and stable carbon isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage contaminated streams: Insights from a laboratory study

    Samples of groundwater, spring water and stream water contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD), and uncontaminated stream water were collected and allowed to evolve in contact with air in the laboratory for 15-88 days. The objective of this study was to (1) document temporal changes in dissolved inorganic C (DIC) concentrations and stable isotopic composition (δ13CDIC) and (2) to determine the reaction mechanism and resulting isotopic fractionation (13C/12C) accompanying the chemical evolution of AMD. The contaminated spring and stream samples and one groundwater sample (with no HCO3-) showed temporal decreases in pH, Fe2+, alkalinity, and DIC, and enrichment in δ13CDIC. One contaminated groundwater sample (with HCO3- between 529 and 630 mg/L) showed a temporal increase in pH despite observed decreases in Fe2+, alkalinity and DIC, and enrichment in δ13CDIC. The uncontaminated stream samples showed a continuous temporal increase in pH, relatively constant alkalinity and DIC, and enrichment in δ13CDIC. The results suggest that proton production related to Fe2+ transformation is the driving force for DIC loss in AMD-contaminated samples, and that DIC loss can be described by first order kinetics. The C isotope enrichment rates associated with DIC loss in the contaminated samples varied between 1.0 per mille and 1.8 per mille for stream water, 2.1 per mille and 2.6 per mille for the spring, 1.0 per mille and 1.2 per mille for groundwater with no HCO3-, and 7.6 per mille and 9.3 per mille for groundwater with high HCO3-. Variations in 13C enrichment in the contaminated samples are attributed to differences in the initial Fe2+:HCO3- ratio. The effect of proton production on 13C enrichment in the AMD-contaminated samples was modeled as a Rayleigh-type distillation, whereby isotope fractionation was constant and occurred in an 'equilibrium closed system'. In the uncontaminated stream samples, C exchange between DIC and atmospheric CO2 resulted in an overall enrichment

  12. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW). PMID:27058878

  13. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. PMID:26941209

  14. Using CaO- and MgO-rich industrial waste streams for carbon sequestration

    To prevent rapid climate change, it will be necessary to reduce net anthropogenic CO2 emissions drastically. This likely will require imposition of a tax or tradable permit scheme that creates a subsidy for negative emissions. Here, we examine possible niche markets in the cement and steel industries where it is possible to generate a limited supply of negative emissions (carbon storage or sequestration) cost-effectively. Ca(OH)2 and CaO from steel slag or concrete waste can be dissolved in water and reacted with CO2 in ambient air to capture and store carbon safely and permanently in the form of stable carbonate minerals (CaCO3). The kinetics of Ca dissolution for various particle size fractions of ground steel slag and concrete were measured in batch experiments. The majority of available Ca was found to dissolve on a time scale of hours, which was taken to be sufficiently fast for use in an industrial process. An overview of the management options for steel slag and concrete waste is presented, which indicates how their use for carbon sequestration might be integrated into existing industrial processes. Use of the materials in a carbon sequestration scheme does not preclude subsequent use and is likely to add value by removing the undesirable qualities of water absorption and expansion from the products. Finally, an example scheme is presented which could be built and operated with current technology to sequester CO2 with steel slag or concrete waste. Numerical models and simple calculations are used to establish the feasibility and estimate the operating parameters of the scheme. The operating cost is estimated to be US$8/t-CO2 sequestered. The scheme would be important as an early application of technology for capturing CO2 directly from ambient air

  15. Flotation isolation of uranium(6) from acidic waste waters with the use of potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids

    The applicability of potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids of R2POOH type where R is C3-C10 hydrocarbon radical as uranium flotation collectors is investigated. Under similar conditions the degree of uranium flotation isolation from nitrate solutions is notably higher than from chloride solutions, and from the latter is higher than from sulfate solutions. The method of uranium flotation isolation using dialkylphosphinic acid soaps was tested in synthetic solutions simulating acid (pH = 2-5) waste waters. Possibility of flotation method to isolate 95-99% of uranium from acid solutions using potassium soaps of dialkylphosphinic acids is demonstrated

  16. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200 °C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ∼93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200 °C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 × 103 kg/m3 and contained ∼39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  17. Comparison of methods for the measurement of trace metals in power plant waste streams

    Over the last eight years, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored a project (RP 1851-1) to compile data on aqueous discharges from steam electric power plants and to validate the monitoring methods used for measuring trace metals. The validation work has consisted of a series of interlaboratory round robin validation programs using samples of known concentration prepared from typical utility matrices. Matrices that have been used for these tests include: river water, ash pond overflow, seawater, seawater with metal cleaning wastes, and treated chemical metal cleaning wastes. Techniques and metals studied include: Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se), Cold Vapor AAS (Hg), Flame AAS (Fe, Zn) , and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for 14 elements (Al , Ba, Be, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Zn). Results were evaluated using a statistical program developed under RP 1851-1. The resulting single operator and overall precision were used to compute limits of detection and quantitation for each of the elements in each matrix. These limits of detection were compared to published EPA detection limits and interpretations of the differences were made. The influence of matrix effects was also examined

  18. Processing of materials and waste streams by electron and ion beams

    The use of electron beams on an industrial scale is well-established. Some 700 accelerators with electron energies ranging from 0.12 to 16 MeV are producing a wide range of products based largely on polymer crosslinking, sterilization of biomedical supplies and curing of coatings. Of the three categories, only the last involves major energy savings. The main benefits associated with the other two categories are product properties not readily obtained by competitive methods. Radiation treatment of sewage sludge and waste water have had some minor triumphs. Simultaneous removal of NOx and SOx from flue gases by electron irradiation has been demonstrated; the potential market for powerful accelerators required for this field is many hundreds. A wide range of environmental problems ranging from organic chlorides in drinking water to military wastes (biological, nuclear and chemical) are the subject of research programs based on electron processing. Attention is also directed to the recent development of several ingenious products based on high energy ion beams (> 10 MeV/nucleon) including smart porous membranes and organic nonlinear optical devices

  19. Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes: synthesis, characterization and application

    Reynolds, J G; Baumann, T F; Nelson, A J; Fox, G A

    2000-07-21

    Removal of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg{sup 2+} extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl-1,4,8,11,14-pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg{sup 2+} was determined to be 95% at a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg{sup 2+}, even in the presence of high concentrations of competing ions such as Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3}, and Fe{sup 3+}. The bound Hg{sup 2+} ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity. The binding of Hg{sup 2+} to the polymer has been examined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The thiacrown appears unaffected by incorporation into the polymer and the Hg{sup 2+} appears to be bound to the polymer complex in a similar manner as Hg{sup 2+} is bound in monomeric thiacrowns containing five sulfur atoms.

  20. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min-1 (120 gal min-1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater

  1. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  2. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  3. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG–DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application

    Highlights: ► Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. ► Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and 13C NMR. ► Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. ► The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. ► Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO2 respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the

  4. Optimal acid digestion for multi-element analysis of different waste matrices

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    distinct waste materials and recyclables. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of different standardized microwave assisted acid digestion methods on waste samples and subsequent multi-element analysis. Six acid digestion methods were applied on a Paper & Cardboard and Composite waste......Informed planning and assessment of waste management systems requires accurate data on physical and chemical characteristics of the waste materials. For many parameters analytical standard methods already exist; however, most of these methods do not account for the specific properties of the...... in the Paper & Cardboard matrix and for 10 elements in the Composite matrix. The ranking procedure points to different methods to be the most optimal digestion methods in the tested waste matrices. The recovery rates can vary by more than 90% among the tested digestion methods depending on the...

  5. AUTOMATED REMOVAL OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANT MATERIAL FROM A MIXED E-WASTE PLASTICS RECYCLING STREAM - PHASE II

    p>Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing waste problems worldwide. Improper handling of e-waste results in vast amounts of toxic waste being sent to landfill and leaching into the water supply. Due to there concerns e-waste recycling is a rapidly growing...

  6. AUTOMATED IDENTIFICATION AND SORTING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN AN E-WASTE RECYCLING STREAM - PHASE I

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing waste problems worldwide. Improper handling of e-waste results in vast amounts of toxic waste being sent to landfill and leaching into the water supply. Due to these concerns, e-waste recycling is a rapidly gro...

  7. Catalytic oxidation for treatment of ECLSS and PMMS waste streams. [Process Material Management Systems

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John; Scott, Bryan; Jolly, Clifford; Carter, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation was added to the baseline multifiltration technology for use on the Space Station Freedom in order to convert low-molecular weight organic waste components such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, and thiocarbamides to CO2 at low temperature (121 C), thereby reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) to below 500 ppb. The rate of reaction for the catalytic oxidation of aqueous organics to CO2 and water depends primarily upon the catalyst, temperature, and concentration of reactants. This paper describes a kinetic study conducted to determine the impact of each of these parameters upon the reaction rate. The results indicate that a classic kinetic model, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation for heterogeneous catalysis, can accurately represent the functional dependencies of this rate.

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g-1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g-1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  10. U.S. experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic waste

    Contaminated transuranic waste from a plutonium finishing plant has been processed in a waste treatment demonstration plant, the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) located at Hanford, Washington, U.S.A. Waste treatment experience, including process and equipment performance, the behavior of plutonium in the system, and chemical and nuclear safety are all discussed. The complementary relationship of this research and development to that at the ALONA pilot plant in Mol, Belgium is noted

  11. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    Wu-Jun Liu; Ke Tian; Hong Jiang; Han-Qing Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The...

  12. Water quality changes in acid mine drainage streams in Gangneung, Korea, 10 years after treatment with limestone

    Shim, Moo Joon; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Giehyeon; Hwang, Yun Ho; Yang, Jung-Seok; O' Loughlin, Edward J.; Kwon, Man Jae

    2015-12-01

    To determine the long-term effectiveness of the limestone treatment for acid mine drainage (AMD) in Gangneung, Korea, we investigated the elemental distribution in streams impacted by AMD and compared the results of previous studies before and approximately 10 years after the addition of limestone. Addition of limestone in 1999 leads to a pH increase in 2008, and with the exception of Ca, the elemental concentrations (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Ni, Zn, S) in the streams decreased. The pH was 2.5–3 before the addition of limestone and remained stable at around 4.5–5 from 2008 to 2011, suggesting the reactivity of the added limestone was diminished and that an alternative approach is needed to increase the pH up to circumneutral range and maintain effective long-term treatment. To identify the processes causing the decrease in the elemental concentrations, we also examined the spatial (approximately 7 km) distribution over three different types of streams affected by the AMD. The elemental distribution was mainly controlled by physicochemical processes including redox reactions, dilution on mixing, and co-precipitation/adsorption with Fe (hydr)oxides.

  13. Aluminium and iron burdens of aquatic biota in New Zealand streams contaminated by acid mine drainage. Effects of trophic level

    Winterbourn, M.J. [Department of Zoology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); McDiffett, W.F.; Eppley, S.J. [Biology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States)

    2000-05-24

    Concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in samples of filamentous algae, bryophytes and invertebrates from 24 stream sites in North Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Sites were variably contaminated by acid coal mine drainage and ranged in pH from 2.6 to 6.2. Conductivity of stream water ranged from 16 to 944 {mu}S{sub 25} cm{sup -1} and maximum concentrations of total dissolved Al and total Fe measured in two successive years were 35.5 and 32.6 mg l{sup -1}, respectively. Metal burdens of algae and bryophytes were not correlated with pH, conductivity or the concentrations of Al and Fe observed in stream water. Metal concentrations in invertebrates were significantly lower than those in plants (mg per g dry wt.), and were similar in herbivore-detritivores (mainly mayfly larvae) and carnivorous species. No evidence was found for the biomagnification of either metal within aquatic food webs. However, invertebrate species exposed to very high concentrations of Al and Fe varied considerably in body burdens, suggesting that groups of insects differ considerably in their physiological or morphological ability to exclude potentially toxic metals.

  14. Radiological assessment of petroleum pipe scale waste streams from dry rattling operations - 16323

    Petroleum pipe scale consists of inorganic solids, such as barium sulfate. These solids can precipitate out of brine solutions that are pumped out of oil wells as part of normal oil field operations. The precipitates can nucleate on down hole pipe walls, causing the buildup of hard scales in some tubular in a pipe string, while leaving others virtually untouched. Once the scale buildup is sufficient to restrict flow in the string significantly, the tubular are removed from service. Once removed, tubular are transported to storage yards for storage, subsequent inspection, and possible recycling. Many of the tubular are never returned to service, either because the threads were too damaged, pipe walls too thin, or the scale buildup too thick. Historically, the tubular refurbishment industry used primarily one of two processes, either a high-pressure water lance or a dry, abrasive 'rattling' process to ream pipes free of scale buildup. The dry rattling process was primarily for touching up new pipes that have rusted slightly during storage; however, pipes with varying levels of scale were reamed, leaving only a thin coating of scale on the inner diameter, and then returned to service. Chemically, radium is an analog for barium, and radium is present in parts-per-million quantities in the brines produced from downhole pumping operations. Thus, some of the scales contain radium salts. When the radium-bearing scales are reamed with a dry process there is the possibility of generating radioactive aerosols, as well as bulk waste materials. At Texas A and M University, and under the university's radioactive materials broad scope license, an outdoor laboratory was constructed and operated with dry rattling equipment restored to the 'as was' condition typical of historical pipe cleaning yards. A battery of measurements were obtained to determine the radiological and aerodynamic properties of scale-waste products liberated from the inner surfaces of a variety of tubular

  15. Solid recovered fuel: influence of waste stream composition and processing on chlorine content and fuel quality.

    Velis, Costas; Wagland, Stuart; Longhurst, Phil; Robson, Bryce; Sinfield, Keith; Wise, Stephen; Pollard, Simon

    2012-02-01

    Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO(2)-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w(d), with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w(d) and 0.74% w/w(d) (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg(ar)(-1). The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery. PMID:22191490

  16. Removal of benzene and toluene from a refinery waste air stream by water sorption and biotrickling filtration

    Paolo Viotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an analysis of a two-stage pilot plant for the removal of toluene and benzene from the exhaust air of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The two-stage air process combines a water scrubber and a biotrickling filter (BTF in sequence, and treats air stripped from the liquid phase compartments of the WWTP. During the experimental period, the pilot plant treated an airflow of 600 Nm3h-1. Average concentrations of the waste air stream entering the water scrubber were 10.61 mg Nm-3 benzene and 9.26 mg Nm-3 toluene. The water scrubber obtained medium-high removal efficiencies (averages 51% and 60%, for benzene and toluene, respectively. Subsequent passage through the BTF allowed a further reduction of average concentrations, which decreased to 2.10 mg Nm-3 benzene and to 0.84 mg Nm-3 toluene, thereby allowing overall average removal efficiencies (REs of 80% and 91% for benzene and toluene, respectively. Results prove the benefits obtained from a combination of different removal technologies: water scrubbers to remove peak concentrations and soluble compounds, and BTFs to remove compounds with lower solubility, due to the biodegradation performed by microorganisms.

  17. Use of Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Remedial Options for an Acid Mine Drainage Stream, With Emphasis on Prediction Uncertainty

    Runkel, R. L.; Kimball, B. A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in Southwestern Colorado, drains a sub-alpine watershed with numerous abandoned mines. A synoptic study conducted in 1999 indicates that the Mineral Creek watershed contributes 60% of the observed copper load for the Upper Animas River. In addition, zinc concentrations observed during the 1999 study exceed toxicity standards along the entire length of Mineral Creek. Given these findings, Mineral Creek is the potential site of future remedial actions to improve stream-water quality. Using the 1999 data, a reactive transport model was used to predict the effects of a small treatment system that neutralizes acidic inflow waters. Model application indicates that the treatment system would significantly improve water quality, producing higher pH values and lower dissolved metal concentrations downstream. Despite this progress, the results of model application may be of limited use for planning remediation, due to the potential uncertainty of model predictions (e.g. errors in the characterization of hydrologic and geochemical processes). An additional study was therefore conducted in 2005 to develop estimates of prediction uncertainty. The 2005 study implemented a paired-synoptic approach in which two synoptics were conducted under similar hydrologic conditions. The first synoptic was similar to the 1999 study in that the overall goal was to characterize stream-water quality under existing (acidic) conditions. The second synoptic study was conducted during a continuous sodium hydroxide injection that was designed to mimic a small treatment system. As in the initial model application, data collected under existing conditions (synoptic 1) will be used to calibrate the reactive transport model. Model inputs will then be modified to reflect the effects of treatment, and predictions of post-remediation water quality will be obtained by model application. The results of this application will then be compared to data from the post

  18. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  19. Treatment of acidic INEEL waste using a countercurrent cobalt dicarbollide-based universal solvent extraction process

    A tertiary solvent containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and polyethylene glycol in different diluents was evaluated for the separation of cesium, strontium, actinides and rare earth elements from acidic liquid radioactive waste in countercurrent solvent extraction processes. This universal solvent extraction process has been demonstrated in 24-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plants, using simulated acidic tank waste, at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), St. Petersburg, Russia, and at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Demonstration of the universal extraction process with actual tank waste is scheduled at the INEEL in 1998

  20. Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  2. Quality control in the recycling stream of PVC cable waste by hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Luciani, Valentina; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Rem, Peter

    2005-05-01

    In recent years recycling is gaining a key role in the manufacturing industry. The use of recycled materials in the production of new goods has the double advantage of saving energy and natural resources, moreover from an economic point of view, recycled materials are in general cheaper than the virgin ones. Despite of these environmental and economic strengths, the use of recycled sources is still low compared to the raw materials consumption, indeed in Europe only 10% of the market is covered by recycled products. One of the reasons of this reticence in the use of secondary sources is the lack of an accurate quality certification system. The inputs of a recycled process are not always the same, which means that also the output of a particular process can vary depending on the initial composition of the treated material. Usually if a continuous quality control system is not present at the end of the process the quality of the output material is assessed on the minimum certified characteristics. Solving this issue is crucial to expand the possible applications of recycled materials and to assign a price based on the real characteristic of the material. The possibility of applying a quality control system based on a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology working in the near infrared (NIR) range to the output of a separation process of PVC cable wastes is explored in this paper. The analysed material was a residue fraction of a traditional separation process further treated by magnetic density separation. Results show as PVC, PE, rubber and copper particles can be identified and classified adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  3. Systems analysis of stock buffering: development of a dynamic substance flow-stock model for the identification and estimation of future resources, waste streams and emissions

    Elshkaki, Ayman

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis falls within a relatively new scientific field of research: Industrial Ecology, which is concerned with studying society’s metabolism to analyze the causes of environmental problems and indicate possibilities for more sustainable management of materials. The research is aimed at developing a dynamic substance flow-stock model that can be used to estimate future resource availability, emissions and waste streams. The developed model extends the currently a...

  4. FINAL REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) IN THE SECONDARY WASTE STREAM OF THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    DUNCAN JB; GUTHRIE MD

    2008-08-29

    This report documents the laboratory results of RPP-PLAN-35958, Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome (VI) to Chrome (III) in the Secondary Waste Stream With the exception of the electrochemical corrosion scans, all work was carried out at the Center for Laboratory Science (CLS) located at the Columbia Basin College. This document summarizes the work carried out at CLS and includes the electrochemical scans and associated corrosion rates for 304 and 316L stainless steel.

  5. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of mixed waste streams to separate generation of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane

    Siddiqui, Z.; Horam, N.J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the net energy potential of single stage mesophilic reactor and two phase mesophilic reactor (hydrogeniser followed by methaniser) using the mix of process industrial food waste (IFW) and sewage sludge (SS). Two-phase reactor efficiency was analysed based on individual optimum influent/environmental (C:N and pH) and reactor/engineering (HRT and OLR) conditions achieved using the batch and continuous reactor study for the hydrogen and methane. Optimum C:N 20 and pH 5.5{+-}0.5 was observed using the Bio-H{sub 2} potential (BHP) and C:N 15 and pH 6.5{+-}0.3 for the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The maximum hydrogen content of 47% (v/v) was achieved using OLR 6 g VS/L/d and HRT of 5 days. Increase in hydrogen yield was noticed with consistent decrease in OLR. The volatile solids (VS) removal and hydrogen yield was observed in range 41.3 to 47% and 112.3 to 146.7 mL/ gVS{sub removed}. The specific hydrogen production rate improved at low OLR, 0.2 to 0.4 L/(L.d) using OLR 7.1 and 6 g VS/L/d respectively was well corroborated comparable to previous reported results at OLR 6 gVS/L/d using the enriched carbohydrate waste stream in particular to food wastes. A significant increase in VFA concentrations were noticed shifting OLR higher from 6 g VS/L/d thereby unbalancing the reactor pH and the biogas yield respectively. In similar, maximum methane content of 70% (v/v) was achieved using OLR of 3.3 gVS/L/d and HRT of 10 days. Slight decrease in methane content was noticed thereby increasing HRT to 12 and 15 days respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal and specific methane production rate was observed in range 57.6 to 68.7 and 0.22 to 1.19 L/(L.d). The specific methane production potential improved thereby reducing the HRT and optimum yield was recorded as 476.6 mL/gVS{sub removed} using OLR 3.3 gVS/L/d. The energy potential of optimum condition in single stage hydorgeniser is 2.27 MW/tonne VS{sub fed}. Using the

  6. Study of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for radioactive waste including uranium

    A lot of solid and liquid radioactive wastes had been produced in the various examinations. The wastes have been stored in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center. Amounts of solid wastes including fluorine and uranium are very much, so techniques of final disposal will be developed and the solid wastes will be disposed. This study estimates the applicability of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for CaF2, NaF, Al2O3 and UF4, so examinations using those wastes were performed and mass balance and activity balance sheets were made. The conclusion is as below. 1. The process using hydrochloric acid to CaF2 is applicable. 2. The process using hydrochloric acid to NaF is applicable. 3. Dissolution of Al2O3 is difficult, but uranium in Al2O3 is almost dissolved, so application of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for Al2O3 is possible. 4. Application of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid to UF4 has problem of insolubility of UF4. 5. Next subjects are a rise of solid/liquid ratio, a increase of efficiency of uranium precipitation and decrease of second wastes which are resins and aluminium as masking material to fluorine. (author)

  7. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities

  8. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  9. Laboratory studies of the treatment of liquid waste streams from uranium milling operations

    Neutralization with lime is a simple, cheap, and effective means of treating acid raffinates from uranium processing to raise the pH, reduce the concentrations of dissolved salts (including heavy metal impurities), and remove amine by adsorption. Two-stage neutralization, using limestone in the first stage at approximately pH 4 and lime in the second, may be advantageous. Lime neutralization of raffinates in the pH range 7 to 8.5 generally reduced the radium concentration to 10 to 200 pCi 1-1, but there was considerable scatter in the experimental data. The radium concentration was further reduced to less than 3 pCi 1-1 by co-precipitation of barium (radium) sulphate with 10 mg Ba (as barium chloride) per litre of raffinate. Adsorption of radium on barytes was also effective in reducing the radium concentration in neutralized raffinate to less than 3 pCi 1-1. The radium concentration of pit water was readily reduced to less than 3 pCi 1-1 when pit water containing 0.01 M sulphate as ammonium, calcium, or sodium sulphate was treated with 20 mg Ba per litre of pit water. Adsorption on barytes was also effective in removing radium from pit water containing 0.03 M sulphate. (author)

  10. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments

  11. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  12. In situ studies with Asian clams (Carbacula fluminea) detect acid mine drainage and nutrient inputs in low-order streams

    This study evaluates the correlation between transplanted Asiatic clam and indigenous community responses to acid mine drainage and nutrient loading in first-to-third-order streams, by comparing the toxicological endpoints of clam survival and growth with benthic macro-invertebrate community indices as community responses to both acid mine drainage and nutrient loading. Clam survival was found to be positively correlated with water column pH and negatively correlated with conductivity and metal concentrations. There was also a positive correlation with the relative abundance of the macro-invertebrate Ephemeroptera, the most sensitive taxonomic group, to acid mine drainage in this watershed. No correlation was found between clam growth and acid mine drainage inputs, but there was evidence of positive correlation with nitrate concentrations and the relative abundance of collector-filterer functional feeding groups. These results suggest that clam growth is related to nutrient levels and accurately reflect benthic macro-invertebrate responses to nutrient loading. 28 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams

  14. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  15. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were -180 x 10-3 J/Kg supernate (-181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to -1,150 x 10-3 J/Kg supernate (-1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate

  16. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  17. Entrained solvent separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous streams generated during uranium recovery from phosphoric acid

    During the two cycle solvent extraction process for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid, solvents such as D2EHPA, di nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA), tri butyl phosphate (TBP), etc., get dissolved/entrained in the various aqueous phases such as WPA, ammonium carbonate solution, MGA and sulphuric acid. These solvents have to be separated both from process economy point of view and for industrial acceptability. Systematic experiments showed that recovery of solvents by diluent washing is not effective for alkaline solution. Hence studies were undertaken to study the feasibility of activated charcoal adsorption for entrained/dissolved solvent separation. (author)

  18. Adsorption of copper, cadmium and zinc on suspended sediments in a stream contaminated by acid mine drainage: The effect of seasonal changes in dissolved organic carbon

    The release of metal-rich, acidic waters from abandoned mining operations is a major problem in Colorado and throughout the Western United States. In Colorado, over 600 km of stream reach are estimated to be affected by such releases (Wentz, 1974). The metals released adversely affect stream biota, including fish. It is therefore important to understand the chemical processes which influence metal transport in these waters. The report details studies of the role of suspended sediments with respect to the transport of several important trace metals in a stream impacted by acid mine drainage. The role of streambed sediments was studied in the same system as part of an earlier project (Acid Mine Drainage: streambed sorption of copper, cadmium and zinc, PB--93-118263)

  19. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-12-01

    tillage and ratoon (no-till) harvest. We expect that the physical soil differences due to tillage versus no-tillage with vegetative regrowth on the biochar-amended soil will increase the diversity of soil microbial community structure, potential for C sequestration, and overall valuation of biochar as a soil amendment for factors such as waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and C sequestration in addition to crop yield and GHG flux. These different treatments paired with intensive biochar characterization will aid in identifying how specific biochar properties translate to soil quality changes and increase the ability to target specific soil deficiencies with a tailored biochar for maximum holistic benefits.

  20. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Electrospun Polymers and Their Fate in Aqueous Waste Streams

    Hoogesteijn von Reitzenstein, Natalia

    -wastewater sludge and water-surfactant---were used to compare concentrations of silver sulfide ENPs (Ag2S-NP) and silver ENPs (AgNP) capped by four different coatings. The functional assays resulted in reproducible experiments which clearly showed variations between nanoparticle phase distributions; the findings may be a product of the effects of the different coatings of the ENPs used. In addition to phase distribution experiments, the production of hydroxyl radical (HO˙) by nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) under simulated solar irradiation was investigated. Hydroxyl radical are a short-lived, highly reactive species produced by solar radiation in aquatic environments that affect ecosystem function and degrades pollutants. HO˙ is produced by photolysis of TiO2 and nitrate (NO3-); these two species were used in photolysis experiments to compare the relative loads of hydroxyl radical which nanoscale TiO2 may add upon release to natural waters. Para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) was used as a probe. Measured rates of pCBA oxidation in the presence of various concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles and NO3 - were utilized to calculate pseudo first order rate constants. Results indicate that, on a mass concentration basis in water, TiO2 produces hydroxyl radical steady state concentrations at 1.3 times more than the equivalent amount of NO3-; however, TiO 2 concentrations are generally less than one order of magnitude lower than concentrations of NO3-. This has implications for natural waterways as the amount of nanoscale TiO2 released from consumer products into natural waterways increases in proportion to its use.

  1. Long-term safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants found in common low level radioactive waste streams

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) can contain non-radioactive as well as radioactive contaminants. However, very few long-term safety assessments of LLW disposal have included quantitative evaluation of the environmental impacts of the non-radioactive contaminants in the wastes since it is commonly assumed that their impacts will be small compared with those of the radioactive contaminants. To test this assumption, QuantiSci Limited has undertaken two studies for the European Commission. The first study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of non-radioactive contaminants in LLW. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. Generic, acceptable disposal levels were calculated for a variety of nonradioactive contaminants that would allow the presence of the waste streams in the range of disposal facilities considered. The second study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The more detailed system and waste stream specific calculations generally implied less restrictive disposal limits for the non-radioactive contaminants. The calculations also indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive as well as radioactive contaminants when assessing the impacts of LLW disposal. (author)

  2. Ion chromatographic determination of dibutylphosphoric acid in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams

    A rapid method was developed for the determination of dibutylphosphoric acid (DBP), a degradation product of tributylphosphate (TBP), which is used in a solvent extraction process for recovery of uranium. DBP, along with any monobutylphosphoric acid (MBP) and phosphoric acid, are extracted from the organic phase into dilute sodium hydroxide. DBP is separated from MBP and phosphoric acid by ion chromatography (IC) and is determined on a peak height ratio basis. The method required only 30 minutes per analysis as compared to the conventional alumina column separation-colorimetric determination procedure, which requires eight hours to complete. DBP has been quantified to a lower limit of 1.5 mg/l. Relative standard deviations ranging from 5.7 to 0.4% were obtained for DBP concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 500 mg/l, respectively

  3. Monitoring of Plutonium Contaminated Solid Waste Streams. A technical guide to design and analysis of monitoring systems

    The basic information on the Pu content in Pu Contaminated Materials (PCM) is the measurement of radiation emitted by Pu isotopes either spontaneously or due to irradiation by external neutron or gamma-sources. Requirements on measurement accuracy and detection limits should be defined by the operator of a Pu-handling facility in accordance with monitoring objectives in the very beginning of the planning of a monitoring system. Monitoring objectives reflect nuclear safety and radiological protection regulations and the needs for Pu-accountancy of nuclear materials management and safeguards. On considering the possibilities and limitations of radiometric techniques a solution of the monitoring problem is based on appropriate segregation and packaging procedures and records upon matrix and isotopic composition of PCM-items to be measured. The general interrelations between waste item characteristics and measurement uncertainty and detection limit are outlined in the first chapter which is addressed to the system planner. Chapter 2 is devoted to the attention of instrument developers and analysts. It presents in a general approach the correlations between the observed radiation leakage rate, respectively detection signal, and the generating source, e.g. Pu-isotopic content of the examined PCM item. Some practical measurement methods are reviewed and their limitations are indicated. The possible radiometric techniques based on detection of gamma rays from alpha decay (and 241Am), neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α,n)-reaction and from induced fission reactions by neutron irradiation of Pu isotopes are presented. The measurement uncertainty of a single PCM item measurement is estimated on the basis of the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of source (Pu) and matrix materials. For the estimation of the cumulative error over a large collection of PCM items from a defined PCM-stream a probabilistic approach is suggested

  4. Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid-sensitive catchments in southern Norway

    H. A. de Wit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Controls of stream water NO3 in mountainous and forested catchments are not thoroughly understood. Long-term trends in stream water NO3 are positive, neutral and negative, often apparently independent of trends in N deposition. Here, time series of NO3 in four small acid-sensitive catchments in southern Norway were analysed in order to identify likely drivers of long-term changes in NO3. In two sites, stream water NO3 export declined ca 50% over a period of 25 years while in the other sites NO3 export increased with roughly 20%. Discharge and N deposition alone were poor predictors of these trends. The most distinct trends in NO3 were found in winter and spring. Empirical models explained between 45% and 61% of the variation in weekly concentrations of NO3, and described both upward and downward seasonal trends tolerably well. Key explaining variables were snow depth, discharge, temperature and N deposition. All catchments showed reductions in snow depth and increases in winter discharge. In two inland catchments, located in moderate N deposition areas, these climatic changes appeared to drive the distinct decreases in winter and spring concentrations and fluxes of NO3. In a coast-near mountainous catchment in a low N deposition area, these climatic changes appeared to have the opposite effect, i.e. lead to increases in especially winter NO3. This suggests that the effect of a reduced snow pack may result in both decreased and increased catchment N leaching depending on interactions with N deposition, soil temperature regime and winter discharge.

  5. Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid-sensitive catchments in southern Norway

    H. A. de Wit

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Controls of stream water NO3 in mountainous and forested catchments are not thoroughly understood. Long-term trends in stream water NO3 are positive, neutral and negative, often apparently independent of trends in N deposition. Here, time series of NO3 in four small acid-sensitive catchments in southern Norway were analysed in order to identify likely drivers of long-term changes in NO3. In two sites, stream water NO3 export declined ca 50% over a period of 25 years while in the other sites NO3 export increased with roughly 20%. Discharge and N deposition alone were poor predictors of these trends. The most distinct trends in NO3 were found in winter and spring. Empirical models explained between 45% and 61% of the variation in weekly concentrations of NO3, and described both upward and downward seasonal trends tolerably well. Key explaining variables were snow depth, discharge, temperature and N deposition. All catchments showed reductions in snow depth and increases in winter discharge. In two inland catchments, located in moderate N deposition areas, these climatic changes appeared to drive the distinct decreases in winter and spring concentrations and fluxes of NO3. In a coast-near mountainous catchment in a low N deposition area, these climatic changes appeared to have the opposite effect, i.e. lead to increases in especially winter NO3. This suggests that the effect of a reduced snow pack may result in both decreased and increased catchment N leaching depending on interactions with N deposition, soil temperature regime and winter discharge.

  6. Effect of aeration rate and waste load on evolution of volatile fatty acids and waste stabilization during thermophilic aerobic digestion of a model high strength agricultural waste.

    Ugwuanyi, J Obeta; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    2005-04-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) is a relatively new, dynamic and versatile low technology for the economic processing of high strength waste slurries. Waste so treated may be safely disposed of or reused. In this work a model high strength agricultural waste, potato peel, was subjected to TAD to study the effects of oxygen supply at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 vvm (volume air per volume slurry per minute) under batch conditions at 55 degrees C for 156 h on the process. Process pH was controlled at 7.0 or left unregulated. Effects of waste load, as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), on TAD were studied at 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 and 16.0 gl(-1) (soluble COD) at pH 7.0, 0.5 vvm and 55 degrees C. Efficiency of treatment, as degradation of total solids, total suspended solids and soluble solid, as well as soluble COD significantly increased with aeration rate, while acetate production increased as the aeration rate decreased or waste load increased, signifying deterioration in treatment. Negligible acetate, and no other acids were produced at 1.0 vvm. Production of propionate and other acids increased after acetate concentration had started to decrease and, during unregulated reactions coincided with the drop in the pH of the slurry. Acetate production was more closely associated with periods of oxygen limitation than were other acids. Reduction in oxygen availability led to deterioration in treatment efficiency as did increase in waste load. These variables may be manipulated to control treated waste quality. PMID:15588774

  7. Benthic Communities of Low-Order Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainages: A Case Study from Central Europe

    Marek Svitok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Only little attention has been paid to the impact of acid mine drainages (AMD on aquatic ecosystems in Central Europe. In this study, we investigate the physico-chemical properties of low-order streams and the response of benthic invertebrates to AMD pollution in the Banská Štiavnica mining region (Slovakia. The studied streams showed typical signs of mine drainage pollution: higher conductivity, elevated iron, aluminum, zinc and copper loads and accumulations of ferric precipitates. Electric conductivity correlated strongly with most of the investigated elements (weighted mean absolute correlation = 0.95 and, therefore, can be recommended as a good proxy indicator for rapid AMD pollution assessments. The diversity and composition of invertebrate assemblages was related to water chemistry. Taxa richness decreased significantly along an AMD-intensity gradient. While moderately affected sites supported relatively rich assemblages, the harshest environmental conditions (pH < 2.5 were typical for the presence of a limited number of very tolerant taxa, such as Oligochaeta and some Diptera (Limnophyes, Forcipomyiinae. The trophic guild structure correlated significantly with AMD chemistry, whereby predators completely disappeared under the most severe AMD conditions. We also provide a brief review of the AMD literature and outline the needs for future detailed studies involving functional descriptors of the impact of AMD on aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Gadolinium separation from HNO3 acidic streams of the nuclear fuel reprocessing by a new continuous flow extraction method

    A method for the continuous transfer of gadolinium from one aqueous phase into another was developed, based on the extraction from a light 0.5 M HNO3 phase into a heavier organic phase consisting of 63 Vol% HDEHP (Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-hydrogen-phosphate) in CHCl3 and the subsequent stripping of the ion into a heavy 4 M H2SO4 solution. During operation the two aqueous phases are mobile, while the organic phase is the stationary one. It was shown that an equilibrium between extraction and stripping builds up that can be maintained for hours. The gadolinium separation achieved by this method allows not only the transfer of this ion into a pure aqueous medium with only a short delay between extraction and stripping, but also its continuous enrichment in the stripping phase. Thus, the apparatus is an ideal tool for combination with analytical flow methods that need purification steps prior to analysis, like continuous fluorimetric Gd determination in nitric acid streams. The best working conditions for the system were determined by examining the influences of the mobile phases flow rates, the ratios of flow rates between the two aqueous streams, and the stirring efficiency. (orig.)

  9. HUMIC ACID-LIKE MATTER ISOLATED FROM GREEN URBAN WASTES. PART I: STRUCTURE AND SURFACTANT PROPERTIES

    Enzo Montoneri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A humic acid-like substance (cHAL2 isolated from urban green wastes before composting was compared to a humic acid-like substance (cHAL isolated from a mix of urban organic humid waste fraction and green residues composted for 15 days. cHAL2 was found to contain more aliphatic and O-alkyl C atoms relative to aromatic, phenol, and carboxyl C atoms, and to yield higher critical micellar concentration (cmc = 0.97 g L-1 and surface tension at the cmc (cmc = 37.8 mN/min water than cHAL (cmc = 0.40 g L-1; cmc = 36.1 mN/m. The results point out that biomass wastes may be an interesting source of biosurfactants with diversified properties that depend on the nature of waste and on its process of treatment.

  10. Influence of lactic acid on the two-phase anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes

    ZHANG Bo; CAI Wei-min; HE Pin-jing

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of lactic acid on the methanogenesis, anaerobic digestion of kitchen wastes was firstly conducted in a two-phase anaerobic digestion process, and performance of two digesters fed with lactic acid and glucose was subsequently compared.The results showed that the lactic acid was the main fermentation products of hydrolysis-acidification stage in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process for kitchen wastes. The lactic acid concentration constituted approximately 50% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the hydrolysis-acidification liquid. The maximum organic loading rate was lower in the digester fed with lactic acid than that fed with glucose. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and COD removal were deteriorated in the methanogenic reactor fed with to the high concentration of lactic acid fed. It could be concluded that avoiding the presence of the lactic acid is necessary in the hydrolysis-acidification process for the improvement of the two-phase anaerobic digestion process of kitchen wastes.

  11. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    None

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  12. Chemical Characteristics of Compost and Humic Acid from Sago Waste (Metroxylon sagu)

    Auldry C. Petrus; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Ab M.N. Muhamad; Hassan M. Nasir; Make Jiwan; Michael G. Banta

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Agriculture waste such as Sago Waste (SW) has a potential to cause pollution either on land or in water. In order to reduce this problem, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of three different treatments on the chemical characteristics of compost and humic acid from SW. Approach: The study had three treatments which were: T1: SW (80%) + chicken feed (5%) + chicken dung slurry (5%) + molasses (5%) + urea (5%), T2: SW (80%) + chicken feed (10%) + chicken dung slur...

  13. Chicken feather fibres waste as a low-cost biosorbent of acid Blue 80 dye

    García Sabido, Daniel; López Mesas, Montserrat; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Chicken feathers (CFs), waste from the poultry industry, were tested as biosorbent for colour removal of synthetic coloured water. Biosorption kinetics and isotherms were determined to provide an explanation to the physicochemical behaviour of the biosorption process of C.I. Acid Blue 80 dye on CFs. Up to 80% of the dye was biosorbed at 50°C demonstrating the biosorbent potential of the waste for the removal of organic dyes. Moreover, two mathematical approaches have been used to estimate the...

  14. Wine wastes as carbon source for biological treatment of acid mine drainage.

    Costa, M C; Santos, E S; Barros, R J; Pires, C; Martins, M

    2009-05-01

    Possible use of wine wastes containing ethanol as carbon and energy source for sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and activity in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) is studied for the first time. The experiments were performed using anaerobic down-flow packed bed reactors in semi-continuous systems. The performance of two bioreactors fed with wine wastes or ethanol as carbon sources is compared in terms of sulphate reduction, metals removal and neutralization. The results show that efficient neutralization and high sulphate removal (>90%) were attained with the use of wine wastes as substrate allowing the production of effluents with concentrations below the required local legislation for irrigation waters. This is only possible provided that the AMD and wine wastes are contacted with calcite tailing, a waste material that neutralizes and provides buffer capacity to the medium. The removal of metals using wine wastes as carbon source was 61-91% for Fe and 97% for both Zn and Cu. The lower removal of iron, when wine waste is used instead of ethanol, may be due to the presence of iron-chelating compounds in the waste, which prevent the formation of iron sulphide, and partial unavailability of sulphide because of re-oxidation to elemental sulphur. However, that did not affect significantly the quality of the effluent for irrigation. This work demonstrates that wine wastes are a potential alternative to traditional SRB substrates. This finding has direct implication to sustainable operation of SRB bioreactors for AMD treatment. PMID:19201010

  15. Sugar beet waste and its component ferulic acid inhibits external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Medina, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Egsgaard, Helge

    2011-01-01

    External arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) mycelium plays an important role in soil while interacting with a range of biotic and abiotic factors. One example is the soil organic amendment sugar beet waste. The fermented Aspergillus niger–sugar beet waste (ASB) increases growth and P uptake by the AM...... mycelium in soil whereas non-fermented waste (SB) had a strong inhibitory effect. The underlying mechanisms are not understood. We used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify differences in composition of water extracts of ASB and SB. The chromatograms showed that ferulic acid was present in SB...... and absent in ASB. We compared the effects of the water extracts of SB and ASB and ferulic acid upon the growth of Glomus intraradices in in vitro monoxenic cultures. Hyphal growth of the AM fungus G. intraradices was extremely reduced in ferulic acid and SB treatments. Moreover, AM hyphae appeared...

  16. Waste Stream Input Model

    ALS-NSCORT,

    2004-01-01

    5 worksheets Provider Notes:This model calculates the exact quantities of fecal matter, inedible biomass, food, and water needed to make Solid Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR)'s input feedstock. It also calculates HRT. The model is based off the desired solids content, scale, volume, diet, and other assumptions. Previous versions are also included in this page. Related Documents:WS152, WWAS17a, WWAS17b

  17. Development and active demonstration of acid digestion of burnable plutonium bearing solid wastes

    The investigations were focused on the active demonstration of the process in a technical scale plant by treatment of 790 kg of waste which contained about 7 kg of plutonium. Complete oxidation of the waste material is achieved within 15 min in sulfuric acid (kept under oxidizing condition by nitric acid) at 250 deg C. At 250 deg C with permanent stirring a rate of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulfate conversion of up to 99.9% is obtained within 8 hours. The waste oxidation product, besides offgas, is a residue of 320 g per kg waste digested. Precipitation of plutonium is achieved with an efficiency of 88% using cetylpyridinium nitrate. Active process demonstration was performed in a plant of 10 kg capacity per daily run from March 1983 until June 1985. The average waste throughput achieved was 4.1 kg waste per run (maximum 10.4 kg). The plutonium decontamination factors were 1010 for the cleaned offgas and 106 for the liquid secondary waste. Tantalum as a potential construction material for the digester does not exhibit specific corrosion; its surface corrosion is 0.1 mm per annum at the maximum

  18. Toluene removal from waste air stream by the catalytic ozonation process with MgO/GAC composite as catalyst.

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Yamini, Yadollah

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the catalytic potential of MgO/GAC composite for toluene elimination from waste air in the catalytic ozonation process (COP). The MgO/GAC composite was a micro-porous material with the BET surface area of 1082m(2)/g. Different functional groups including aromatic CC, saturated CO of anhydrates, hydroxyl groups and SH bond of thiols were identified on the surface of MgO/GAC. Effects of residence time (0.5-4s), inlet toluene concentration (100-400ppmv) and bed temperature (25-100°C) were investigated on degradation of toluene in COP. Impregnation of GAC with MgO increased the breakthrough time and removal capacity by 73.9% and 64.6%, respectively, at the optimal conditions. The catalytic potential of the GAC and MgO/GAC for toluene degradation was 11.1% and 90.6%, respectively, at the optimum condition. The highest removal capacity using MgO/GAC (297.9gtoulene/gMgO/GAC) was attained at 100°C, whereas the highest removal capacity of GAC (128.5mgtoulene/gGAC) was obtained at 25°C. Major by-products of the toluene removal in COP with GAC were Formic acid, benzaldehyde, O-nitro-p-cresol and methyl di-phenyl-methane. MgO/GAC could greatly catalyze the decomposition of toluene in COPand formic acid was the main compound desorbed from the catalyst. Accordingly, the MgO/GAC is an efficient material to catalyze the ozonation of hydrocarbon vapors. PMID:26784452

  19. OPTIMIZATION STUDY OF CITRUS WASTES SACCHARIFICATION BY DILUTE ACID HYDROLYSIS

    Farid Talebnia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of time, acid concentration, temperature and solid concentration on dilute-acid hydrolysis of orange peels was investigated. A central composite rotatable experimental design (CCRD was applied to study the individual effects of these hydrolysis factors and also their interdependence effects. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the peels by cellulase, β-glucosidase, and pectinase enzyme resulted in 72% dissolution of the peels, including 18.7% galacturonic acid and 53.3% of a total of glucose, fructose, galactose, and arabinose. Dilute-acid hydrolysis up to 210°C was not able to hydrolyze pectin to galacturonic acid. However, the sugar polymers were hydrolyzed at relatively low temperature. The optimum results were obtained at 116°C, 0.5% sulfuric acid concentration, 6% solid fraction, and 12.9 min retention time. Under these conditions, the total sugars obtained at 41.8 g/g dry peels and 2.6% of total hexose sugars were further degraded to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. No furfural was detected through these experiments from decomposition of pentoses.

  20. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area. PMID:26873283

  1. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  2. Feasibility of converting lactic acid to ethanol in food waste fermentation by immobilized lactate oxidase

    Highlights: • Residue lactic acid in food waste could be converted to pyruvic acid. • Calcium alginate immobilized the lactate oxidase with high pH and thermal stability. • Immobilized enzyme could convert 70% lactic acid to pyruvic acid. • Ethanol yield could be increased by 20% with lactate oxidase added. - Abstract: Adoption of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) into ethanol fermentation from food waste can replace the sterilization process. However, LAB inoculation will convert part of the substrate into lactic acid (LA), not ethanol. This study adopted lactate oxidase to convert the produced LA to pyruvate, and then ethanol fermentation was carried out. The immobilization enzyme was utilized, and corresponding optimum conditions were determined. Results showed that calcium alginate could successfully immobilize the enzyme and improve pH and thermal stability. The optimum pH and temperature were 6.2 and 55 °C, respectively. The utilization of immobilized enzyme with catalytic time of 5 h could convert 70% LA to pyruvate, and the addition of enzyme increased the ethanol yield by 20% more than that of the control. The process could be applied in food waste storage and can help in reducing carbon source consumption

  3. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). PMID:26159043

  4. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  5. Stabilisation of acid generating waste rock with fly ash : immobilization of arsenic under alkaline conditions

    Backstrom, M. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L. [Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential for using fly ash as an alkaline material for increasing the pH and decreasing arsenic leaching from highly acidic mine waste. A wood ash sample known to contain high concentrations of both calcium and barium was tested with highly acidic mine waste samples that leached approximately 200 mg/L of arsenic at a liquid/solid ratio of 2. Samples were mixed with the fly ash. Control samples consisted of only mine waste, while the amended samples contained 10 g of mine waste and 10 g of wood ash. Ultra pure water was used as a leachant for both systems until the liquid-solid ratio that corresponded to 900 years of drainage for a waste pile that was 3 m high with an annual run-off of 300 mm. Results of the experimental study showed that the pH in the control increased from 1.7 to 2.7, while the pH in the amended system decreased from 12.6 to 11.5. Initial concentrations of arsenic decreased by almost 3 orders of magnitude in the amended systems. Co-precipitation with the iron, and the calcium arsenate precipitation process were identified as the principal arsenic immobilization mechanisms. The study demonstrated that under the right chemical conditions, alkaline amendments can be used to reduce arsenic leaching from mine wastes. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring

  7. Recovery of metals from acid waste water by Cyanidium caldarium

    Ahlf, W.

    1988-06-01

    Cyanidium caldarium grows in acid water obtained from a bacterial leaching procedure and the alga is capable of precipitating metals from the solution. This study demonstrates that changes in culture and oxidation-reduction conditions may result in a different bioaccumulation of metals.

  8. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal by acid modified waste activated carbons.

    Ghosh, Pranab Kumar

    2009-11-15

    Fresh activated carbon (AC) and waste activated carbon (WAC) were pretreated by heating with mineral acids (sulfuric acid and nitric acid) at high temperature to prepare several grades of adsorbents to evaluate their performance on Cr(VI) removal from aqueous phase. Effects of temperature, agitation speed and pH were tested, and optimum conditions were evaluated. Kinetic study was performed under optimum conditions with several grades of modified adsorbents to know the rates of adsorption. Batch adsorption equilibrium data followed both, Freuindlich and Langmuir isotherms. Maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) of the selected adsorbents treated with sulfuric acid (MWAC 1) and nitric acid (MWAC 2), calculated from Langmuir isotherm are 7.485 and 10.929 mg/g, respectively. Nitric acid treated adsorbent (MWAC 2) was used for column study to determine the constants of bed depth service time (BDST) model for adsorption column design. PMID:19553008

  9. The effect of humic acids on the element release from high level waste glass

    Eu and Am doped glasses were interacted with synthetic interstitial clay water (SiC) and corresponding reference leachant, humic acids free interstitial solution (IS) to investigate the influence of humic acids on the leaching behavior of the waste glass. Static leach tests were carried out at 40 C and 90 C. The release of the lanthanide Eu and the actinide Am from the glass was obviously enhanced by the presence of humic acids. The leaching of transition elements, Fe and Ti strongly depends on the humic acids concentration. The leaching of glass matrix components, Al and B was also influenced by the concentrations of humic acids. However, humic acids have little effect on the leaching of glass matrix element Si

  10. A review of acid drainage from waste rock dumps and mine sites (Australian and Scandinavia)

    This report reviews the literature from Australia and Scandinavia on acid drainage from pyritic waste rock dumps with an emphasis on measurements and theory of processes that control the rage of oxidation and the release of pollutants. Conditions within waste rock dumps have been measured at several mine sites and a range of rehabilitation treatments have been tried to reduce the release of pollutants. A number of models have been proposed to calculate air flow, water transport and geochemistry. The data and experience at the mine sites are compared with predictions of the models. Details of Australian and Swedish mine sites where waste rock is a source of acid drainage are described in the Appendices. 92 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Decontamination and inspection plan for phase 2 closure of the 300 Area waste acid treatment system

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 2 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 2, the second phase of three proposed phases of closure for WATS, provides for closure of all WATS portions of the 334-A Building and some, but not all, WATS portions of the 333 and 303-F Buildings. Closure of the entire unit will not occur until all three closure phases have been completed. The DIP also describes the designation and management-process for waste and debris generated during Phase 2 closure activities. Information regarding the decontamination and verification methods for Phase 1 closure can be found in Decontamination and Inspection Plan, for Phase 1 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System, 21 WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001. Information regarding Phase 3 closure will be provided in later documents

  12. HTR Fuel Waste Management: TRISO separation and acid-graphite intercalation compounds preparation

    Considering the need to reduce waste production and greenhouse emissions and still keeping high energy efficiency, various 4th generation nuclear energy systems have been proposed. As far as graphite-moderated reactors are concerned (future high temperature fast or thermal reactors), one of the key issues is the large volumes of irradiated graphite encountered. With the objective to reduce volume of waste in the HTR concept, it is very important to be able to separate the fuel from low level activity graphite representing a large volume. The separated TRISO particles can then be reprocessed for waste separation or disposed off in geological repository. In addition, preparation of acid-GICs from the separated graphite may constitute a way to recycle this waste. We used HTR-type compact fuel with ZrO2 TRISO particles to test two separation methods: low (H2SO4 + H2O2) and high (H2SO4 + HNO3) temperature acid treatments. In both cases the TRISO separation was complete but some TRISO layers oxidized at high temperature. At low temperature, the desegregation of graphite grains is facilitated by intercalation of sulfuric acid between the graphene layers. The acid-GIC obtained consists of pure phases of high quality suggesting their potential industrial recycling.

  13. Kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of solid fluorine containing wastes of aluminium production

    The results of researches of kinetics of sulfuric acid decomposition of solid fluorine containing wastes of aluminium production were considered in this work. The apparent activation energy was determined. The rate constant and pre-exponential factor of Arrhenius equation were defined as well.

  14. Effects of aqueous environment on long-term durability of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. Magnesium phosphate ceramic has been developed to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  15. Anaerobic waste water treatment: influencing parameters on the acid formation of citric acid production waste - investigation in lab scale and on a large treatment plant

    Based on the biochemical background of anaerobic waste water treatment processes and on the kinetic criteria the problems of acid formation in one and two stage fermentations are discussed. Chemical analytics play an important role on the control of anaerobic processes. In a separate chapter the significance of different parameters and their application for the control of acidification processes is discussed. Of special importance is an early information on process disturbances and considerations concerning the balancing of the relevant processes. Analytical problems that occur in practice are also dealt with. The practical experience with the large scale wastewater treatment plant, where the described procedures were applied are the main purpose of the thesis. The main influencing parameters on both the lab scale and large scale processes are compared and the influence of important process variables like temperature, pH, load, waste water composition and addition of aerobic and anaerobic sludges on the acid formation is investigated. The results of the work are discussed and compared with results from the literature. In addition a mathematical model dealing with the main pH-dependent equilibrium conditions for acidification reactions was developed on basis of existing models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes. (author)

  16. Encapsulating fly ash and acidic process waste water in brick structure

    Fly ash contains metals such as cadmium, iron, lead, aluminum and zinc in its structure in appreciable amounts. These metals can leach out into surface and ground waters if fly ash is not properly disposed of. A similar problem also exists for acidic process waste waters discharged by numerous industries. The purpose of this study was to utilize such wastes as additives in the production of construction quality bricks for the purpose of waste elimination. The bricks produced were subjected to flexural strength and water retention capacity tests along with heavy metal leaching experiments in order to determine the applicability of the procedure and the best possible recipes. This paper summarizes the results obtained in these tests along with the possible mechanisms involved in stabilizing the two wastes in the brick structure.

  17. Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U

  18. Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace metals and REE in volcanic massive sulfide host rocks, stream sediments, stream waters and acid mine drainage from the Lousal mine area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal)

    Acid mine drainage represents a major source of water pollution in the Lousal area. The concentrations of trace metals and the rare earth elements (REE) in the host rocks, stream sediment, surface waters and acid mine drainage (AMD) associated with abandoned mine adits and tailings impoundments were determined, in order to fingerprint their sources and to understand their mobility and water-rock interaction. The results show that the Fe-SO4-rich acid waters vary substantially in composition both spatially and seasonally. These waters include very low pH (mostly in the range 1.9-3.0), extreme SO4 concentrations (4635-20,070 mg L-1SO42-), high metal contents (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn and Mn) and very high REE contents. The trace metal concentrations decrease downstream from the discharge points either due to precipitation of neoformed phases or to dilution. The North-American shale composite (NASC)-normalized patterns corresponding to sediment from one stream (Corona stream) show a flat tendency or are slightly enriched in light-REE (LREE). The NASC-normalized patterns corresponding to acidic mine waters show enrichment in the middle REE (MREE) with respect to the LREE and heavy REE (HREE). Moreover, the REE concentrations in acidic mine waters are 2 or 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of the surface waters. Changes of REE concentrations and variation of Eu anomaly show two spatially distinct patterns: (a) pond and spring waters with higher REE concentrations (ranging from 375 to 2870 μg L-1), that records conspicuous negative Eu anomaly, and (b) seeps from tailings impoundments corresponding to lower REE concentrations than the first pattern (ranging from 350 to 1139 μg L-1) with typically negative Eu anomaly. The stream water samples collected from the impacted stream during the spring show a low pH (2.8-3.1) and contain high concentrations of Fe and trace elements (up to 61 mg L-1). Also, temporal variations of the REE concentrations were observed in the Corona

  19. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N2O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH)3. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the α-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments

  20. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of 137 Cesium from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions 2: Bench-Scale Column Experiments, Modeling, and Preliminary Process Design

    Troy J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4?3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales.

  1. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  2. Method of processing boric acid-containing liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants

    Purpose: To process boric acid-containing liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants by ultrafiltration, further process the filtrates with ion exchange resins and recover the processed liquid as primary coolants. Method: Boric acid-containing liquid wastes are sent from a storage tank into a circulation tank, removed with suspended substances through filters and then supplied to an ultrafiltration film module. The liquid suspensions separated in the ultrafiltration film module are returned to the circulation tank. While on the other hand, the filtrates from the ultrafiltration film module are sent into an ion exchange resin column, where ionic impurities are removed. The liquid discharged from the ion exchange resin column is a pure boric acid solution, which is recovered as primary coolants and used again. The suspension substances concentrated in the ultrafiltration film module are then solidified by cements or the likes. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    T.S. El-Tayeb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v to 5 % (v/v decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v. Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w conversion coefficient were obtained.

  4. Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC.

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Pengtao; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-20

    The principal goal of this work was to reuse the carbohydrates and recycle sulfuric acid in the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Therefore, in this work, the optimizations of further hydrolysis of waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC and catalytic conversion of L4 to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were studied. Sulfuric acid was separated by spiral wound diffusion dialysis (SWDD). The results revealed that cellulose can be hydrolyze to glucose absolutely under the condition of temperature 35 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 62 wt%. And 78.3% sulfuric acid was recovered by SWDD. The yield of 5-HMF was highest in aqueous solution under the optimal condition was as follows, temperature 160 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 12 wt%. Then the effect of biphasic solvent systems catalytic conversion and inorganic salt as additives were still examined. The results showed that both of them contributed to prepare 5-HMF. The yield and selectivity of 5-HMF was up to 21.0% and 31.4%, respectively. PMID:26917388

  5. Evaluation of spiral wound reverse osmosis for four radioactive waste processing applications

    A pilot-scale spiral wound reverse osmosis rig was used to treat four significantly different radioactive waste streams, three of which were generated at the Chalk River Laboratories at AECL. These streams included: 1. A chemical decontamination (CD/DC) waste stream which is routinely treated by the plant-scale membrane system at CRL; 2. Reactor waste which is a dilute radioactive waste stream (containing primarily tritium and organic acids), and it an effluent from the operating reactors at AECL; 3. An ion exchange regenerant waste stream which contains a mixture of stream (1) (CD/DC), blended with secondary waste from ion exchange regeneration; 4. Boric acid simulated waste which is a by-product waste of the PWR reactors. This was the only stream treated that was not generated as a waste liquid at AECL. For the first three streams specified above, reverse osmosis was used to remove chemical and radiochemical impurities from the water with efficiencies usually exceeding 99%. In these three cases the 'permeate' or clean water was the product of the process. In the case of stream 4, reverse osmosis was used in a recovery application for the purpose of recycling boric acid back to the reactor, with the concentrate being the 'product'. Reverse osmosis technology was successfully demonstrated for the treatment of all four streams. Prefiltration and oxidation (with photocatalytic continuous oxidation technology) were evaluated as pretreatment alternatives for streams 1, 2, and 3. The results indicated that the effective crossflow velocity through and membrane vessel was more important in determining the extent of membrane fouling than the specific pretreatment strategy employed. (author)

  6. Alternate processing flowsheets for treating NCAW waste slurry with formic acid

    High-level waste stored at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site will be pretreated and fed to the Hanford Waste Virtrification Plant (HWVP). The reference flowsheet used to develop the pretreatment process calls for formic acid. However, the potential for generating H2 and NH3 during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory by Wiemers. Work performed at PNL during FY 1991, FY 1992, and FY 1993 further documented the generation of H2 and NH3 in neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) slurries treated with HCOOH. Studies at the University of Georgia under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL have verified the catalytic role of noble metals in the generation of H2 and NH3. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H2 and NH3 generation phenomena. Since H2 and NH3 may create hazardous conditions in a waste slurry treatment plant, it is important to reduce the H2 generation rate and the amount of NH3 to the lowest levels

  7. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  8. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. PMID:25750056

  9. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation. PMID:24754448

  10. Leaching mechanism of boric acid and cobalt from the paraffin waste form

    Leach test with upper sections of the cylindrical paraffin waste forms was conducted to determine the leaching mechanism of boric acid and Cobalt. Using two specimens with different diameters, leaching rates of boric acid and Cobalt were measured in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1 standard leach test procedure for 30 days. After the leach test, the weight of the dried specimen was measured to confirm the leaching rates. The experiment result showed that the boric acid and Cobalt were congruently released by the diffusion-controlled dissolution, but Cobalt released a little bit more rapidly than the boric acid. One-dimensional shrinking core model based on the diffusion-controlled dissolution was derived to simulate the experiment result. The shrinking core model and experiment results showed a good agreement, and the model estimated the receding front of the boric acid accurately. Also, the earlier appearance of Cobalt can be explained with the shrinking core model

  11. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. PMID:26856447

  12. Separation of transuranium elements and fission products from medium activity aqueous liquid wastes

    In the course of work performed between January 1981 and June 1985 on the separation of TRU elements and fission products three liquid alpha containing waste streams were treated: - medium level waste solutions, - waste solutions from the acid digestion of burnable alpha containing solid residues, - waste solutions from mixed oxide fuel element fabrication. The method of separation was initially developed and optimized with simulating substances. Subesequently it was tested with real waste solutions

  13. Extraction and recovery of mercury and lead from aqueous waste streams using redox-active layered metal chalcogenides. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    'The authors have begun to examine the extraction and recovery of heavy elements from aqueous waste streams using redox-active metal chalcogenides. They have been able to prepare extractants from known chalcogenide starting materials, studied the efficacy of the extractants for selective removal of soft metal ions from aqueous phases, studied the deactivation of extractants and the concomitant recovery of soft metal ions from the extractants, and characterized all of the solids and solutions thus far in the study. The study was proposed as two parallel tasks: Part 1 and Part 2 emphasize the study and development of known metal chalcogenide extractants and the synthesis and development of new metal chalcogenide extractants, respectively. The two tasks were divided into sub-sections that study the extractants and their chemistry as detailed below: Preparation and reactivity of metal chalcogenide host solids Extraction of target waste (guest) ions from simulated waste streams Examination of the guest-host solids recovery of the guest metal and reuse of extractant Each section of the two tasks was divided into focused subsections that detail the specific problems and solutions to those problems that were proposed. The extent to which those tasks have been accomplished and the continued efforts of the team are described in detail below. (b) Progress and Results. The DOE-supported research has proceeded largely as proposed and has been productive in its first 12 months. Two full-paper manuscripts were submitted and are currently under peer review. A third paper is in preparation and will be submitted shortly. In addition, 5 submitted or invited presentations have been made.'

  14. Gallic acid formation from gallotannins-rich agricultural wastes using Aspergillus niger AUMC 4301 or its tannase enzyme

    Gallic acid is used in many fields including dye-making, leather and chemical industries. Seven agricultural wastes were chosen for their high gallotannin content. They were apple baggages, green tea waste, mango seed kernel, olive mill, palm kernel cake, peat moss and tamarind. Each waste was used as a carbon source instead of tannic acid in the fermentation medium. Some agricultural wastes under investigation were already contain free gallic acid especially mango seed kernel followed by green tea waste, while olive mill, peat moss and tamarind were found to be free from gallic acid. The highest concentration of liberated gallic acid from wastes fermented by A. niger AUMC 4301 was occurred at the third day of fermentation. After 72 h, a sharp decrease in gallic acid accumulation was noticed. To overcome this sharp decrease, agricultural wastes were treated with extracellular crude A. niger tannase directly in stead of tannase producer. The concentration of gallic acid increased gradually and reached its maximum at 18 h incubation in case of apple baggages, green tea waste and palm kernel cake. On the other hand, gallic acid production was delayed for a lag period (12-18) h depends on the complexity of used agriculture waste. To increase the tannase productivity by A. niger AUMC 4301, the producer fungus was irradiated by different doses of γ rays, D10 value was 0.81 kGy. Radiation dose 0.5 kGy shows a positive effect on tannase productivity. An experiment examined the change in amino acid profile between irradiated and unirradiated A. niger AUMC 4301 was also conducted.

  15. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27266630

  16. Acidity titration curves - a versatile tool for the characterisation of acidic mine waste water

    Acidity titrations with NaOH are valuable tools for characterisation of acidic mine waters. - Titrations can be used to estimate metal concentrations. - Titrations can be carried out in the field, minimising changes in water chemistry due to sample handling time and procedure. (orig.)

  17. Exploitation of the FLK-60 slagging incinerator for different alpha waste streams and study of the feasibility of medium-level alpha-beta-gamma waste incineration in FLK-60

    The FLK-60 high temperature slagging incinerator and its peripherals were developed by SCK/CEN with the help of the Commission of the European Communities in the framework of contract no. EUR-017-76-7 WAS-B. This second contract, which covered the period between October 1980 and December 1982, aimed at gaining exploitation experience by running the FLK-60 installation with beta-gamma radioactive waste in semi-industrial conditions. At the end of those 27 months, the system was ready for exploitation in alpha-conditions with plutonium-containing materials. This report describes the various plant parameters during the 25 runs carried out in the framework of this contract and the results of characterization tests carried out on the final product and the secondary waste streams. In the meantime, typical operation balances are computed

  18. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Soma Pal Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material of different origin were tested for growth and polymer production. Stockdale medium supplemented with 1% (w/v waste materials failed to yield good growth and polymer accumulation. Two–step cultivation was adopted for better growth and enhanced polymer accumulation. The candy factory waste was most suitable for synthesis of P(3HB accounting 17.8 and 40.58% using single and two-step cultivation conditions respectively. Wastes of domestic and poultry origin produced P(3HB-co-3HV with 3HV content 28.8 and 21.5 mol% respectively in two-step cultivation. Increase concentration of these wastes resulted in further upliftment of 3HV content of polymer with reduced growth and polymer accumulation. However, at optimum incubation the strain MAL-201 cells accumulated P(3HB 48.5% of CDW (at 40h from candy factory waste and P(3HB-co-3HV 24.75 % of CDW with 3HV 34.65 mol % from domestic waste. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and thermal degradation of the polymers accumulated in the cells grown in glucose, glucose with valerate and glucose with waste were compared.

  19. The Potential For Efficient Biological Pre-Treatment Of Exploration Based Waste Streams For Potable Water Production Using A Membrane Reactor Capable Of Simultaneous Nitrification-Denitrification

    Jackson, William; Morse, Audra; Landes, Nick

    Long term space habitation and exploration require high efficiency water recycling systems. Waste streams from space habitation contain high concentrations of both organic nitrogen and ammonium and high ratios of N to organic C compared to terrestrial wastewater. As with terrestrial systems wastewater must be highly treated to remove organic carbon, nitrogen compounds, salts, and trace constituents. In general, either some type of reverse osmosis or distillation step is required as the final treatment prior to disinfection. However, the high waste strength of the waste can seriously impact the efficiency of these post-processors. Biological pre-treatment is one process capable of significant reductions in organic carbon and nitrogen. Biological systems are self sustaining and require minimal inputs of energy or consumables. Research in our lab has been conducted to evaluate a number of micro-gravity compatible biological reactor systems. Both nitrification-denitrification coupled systems, in which oxygen consumption is reduced by using nitrate as an electron acceptor, and single reactor systems for organic removal and nitrification have been extensively investigated. Reactor types include tubular pulsed flow reactors, packed bed reactors, and membrane reactors. Recently a single vessel membrane reactor capable of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (sNDN) has been developed and evaluated for its ability to potentially replace other proposed systems. Results to be presented include a review of past system performance and limitations with comparison to the performance of the new sNDN reactor system. Conversion efficiency, stability, and volumetric reaction rates will be discussed.

  20. Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound

    Lima, Larissa P.; Santos, Francisco F.P.; Costa, Enio; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This paper evaluates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste oil by means of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound application under atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the potential of this technology, the reaction between waste palm oil and ethanol was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol-to-oil weight ratio, potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio, and temperature on the yield of waste oil into FFA. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating conditions affecting the reaction were ethanol-to-oil weight ratio and potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio. The highest yield observed was of 97.3 % after 45 min of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained by applying an ethanol-to-oil weight ratio of 2.4, a potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio of 0.3, and temperature of 60 C. (orig.)

  1. Effects of bacterial action on waste rock producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine

    This work is an evolution of the methodology showed in the paper 'Study of waste of waste rock piles producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine', also submitted for INAC2009. Therefore, the present work also related to the determination of chemical species leaching from waste rock pile 4 (WRP4) of the Uranium Mine and Milling Facility located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, as well as the generation of acid waters. With the previous experimental setup, it has been observed that not only water and available oxygen are significant to pyrite oxidation reaction, but bacterial activity as well. As a first approach, the present work addresses the same experiment, but now testing without the influence of bacterial action. Therefore, the new methodology and experimental setup is now capable of determining the acidity of water in contact with material from the WRP4 and the concentration of chemical species dissolved as function of time. Such would also show the extent of bacterial action interference on the pyrite oxidation reaction. Results are based on mass balances comparing concentrations of chemical species in the waste rock before the experiment and in the waste rock plus the remaining water after the experiment. In addition, the evolution of the pH and EMF (electromotive force) values along with chemical species quantified through the experiment are presented through graphics. That is followed by discussions on the significance of such results in terms of concentration of the involved chemical species. The present work has also shown the need of improving the injection of air into the system. A more sophisticated experimental setup should be assembled in the near future, which would allow the quantification of differences between experimental tests with and without bacterial action. (author)

  2. Resource recovery from waste LCD panel by hydrothermal transformation of polarizer into organic acids.

    Li, Feng; Bai, Lan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen

    2015-12-15

    Based on the significant advantages of hydrothermal technology, it was applied to treat polarizer from the waste LCD panel with the aim of transforming it into organic acids (mainly acetic acid and lactic acid). Investigation was done to evaluate the effects of different factors on yields of organic acids, including the reaction temperature, reaction time and H2O2 supply, and the degradation process of polarizer was analyzed. Liquid samples were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, and solid-phase products were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Results showed that at the condition of temperature 300 °C and reaction time 5 min, the organic materials reached its highest conversion rate of 71.47% by adding 0.2 mL H2O2 and acetic acid was dominant in the products of organic acids with the yield of 6.78%. When not adding H2O2 to the system, the yields of lactic and acetic acid were respectively 4.24% and 3.80% at a nearly equal degree, they are suitable for esterification to form ethyl lactate instead of separating them for this case. In the hydrothermal process, polarizer was first decomposed to monosaccharides, alkane, etc., and then furfural and acids are produced with further decomposition. PMID:26094243

  3. Bioconversion of volatile fatty acids derived from waste activated sludge into lipids by Cryptococcus curvatus.

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Jia-Nan; Yuan, Ming; Shen, Zi-Heng; Peng, Kai-Ming; Lu, Li-Jun; Huang, Xiang-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Pure volatile fatty acid (VFA) solution derived from waste activated sludge (WAS) was used to produce microbial lipids as culture medium in this study, which aimed to realize the resource recovery of WAS and provide low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production simultaneously. Cryptococcus curvatus was selected among three oleaginous yeast to produce lipids with VFAs derived from WAS. In batch cultivation, lipid contents increased from 10.2% to 16.8% when carbon to nitrogen ratio increased from about 3.5 to 165 after removal of ammonia nitrogen by struvite precipitation. The lipid content further increased to 39.6% and the biomass increased from 1.56g/L to 4.53g/L after cultivation for five cycles using sequencing batch culture (SBC) strategy. The lipids produced from WAS-derived VFA solution contained nearly 50% of monounsaturated fatty acids, including palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, ginkgolic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which showed the adequacy of biodiesel production. PMID:27038264

  4. Performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite as buffer materials for radioactive waste repository

    In this study, the performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite (PAmmt) was evaluated by cesium ions adsorption experiments. The PAmmt samples were obtained by activating with 1, 3 and 5 mol L-1 of phosphoric acid, respectively under reflux for 3, 12, and 24 h. Experimental results demonstrated that the treatment of raw K-10 montmorillonite with phosphoric acid increased the materials' affinity for Cs uptake and no significant amount of suspension solids were produced. A relatively insignificant variation in the CEC value was observed. Furthermore, PAmmt also showed high adsorption selectivity toward Cs ions. The improved sorptive properties were mainly related to the increased surface area and the relatively higher surface charge density. Increased specific surface area was the resulted from partial decomposition of lamellar structure of mmt; while the higher surface charge density was caused by the protonation of octahedral Al-OH sites during the acid activation. Generally speaking, stronger acid concentration and longer activation times would produce relatively more decomposed PAmmt particles. However, as the activation exceeds 3 h, the precipitation of Si4+ would passivate PAmmt against further acid attacks. Based upon our results, acid activation by phosphoric acid could produce PAmmt samples with high sorption capacity and selectivity, and good structural integrity, which are beneficial to be used at radioactive waste repository.

  5. Actinide occurrences in sediments following ground disposal of acid wastes at 216-Z-9

    Liquid acid wastes from a Pu recovery facility at Hanford were released to the ground via structures collectively termed trenches from 1955 through 1962. Data are presented from a study of the microdistribution of Am and Pu in samples from the 216-Z-9 trench. Solution sediment relationships and associated actinide removal mechanisms under acid conditions were studied. Core wells were drilled into the sediments in which this covered trench is located and in the immediate vicinity to obtain samples for quantitative mineralogical analysis and comparison of sediments from various depths of contaminated and noncontaminated areas. Analytical techniques are described and results are reported

  6. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition. PMID:25682230

  7. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth

    Atiyeh, R.M.; Lee, S.; Edwards, C.A.; Arancon, N.Q.; Metzger, J.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Soil Ecology Lab.

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. (author)

  8. Pb(II) leaching from waste CRT funnel glass in nitric acid solutions

    A. Strzałkowska; M. Wojtala; J. Siwka

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents experimental results of Pb (II) leaching from waste CRT funnel glass using solution of nitric acid (V) . This work focused on examining the impact of concentration and particle size on the leaching percentage of Pb (II) from funnel glass.Design/methodology/approach: Material for the investigation was crushed and sieved. Leaching was carried out using working solutions pfrom co repared ncentrated HNO3 and mechanical stirrer.Findings: The received results show the po...

  9. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    Patricia Pértile; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Luciano Colpo Gatiboni; André da Costa; Maria Izabel Warmling

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a) changes in the physical and chemical properties of an a...

  10. Laboratory evaluation of an ion exchange process for removing cesium from Purex acid waste solutions

    A laboratory investigation was made of an ion exchange process for removing radioactive cesium from acidic Purex waste. Twenty-seven laboratory ion exchanger runs are reported. Parameters investigated include comparison of Zeolon-900, AW-500 and Duolite ARC-359 ion exchangers, pH of feed solutions, composition of sodium scrub solutions, composition of eluting solutions and overflow versus downflow elution. The cause and rate of zeolite degradation was investigated

  11. Cesium Sorption from Concentrated Acidic Tank Wastes Using Ammonium Molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile Composite Sorbents

    Todd, Terry Allen; Mann, Nicholas Robert; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.,

    2002-10-01

    Ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) composite sorbents have been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) concentrated acidic tank waste. Batch contacts were performed to qualitatively evaluate the effects of increased nitric acid, sodium and potassium. An equilibrium isotherm was generated with simulated concentrated tank waste solutions and fit to the Langmuir equation. Additional batch contact experiments were performed to determine if mercury, plutonium and americium would sorb onto AMP-PAN. Dynamic sorption was evaluated in column tests employing 1.5 cm3 columns operating at 5, 10 and 20 bed volumes of flow per hour. Results indicate, as expected, that dynamic cesium sorption capacity is reduced as the flowrate is increased. Calculated dynamic capacities for cesium were 22.5, 19.8 and 19.6 mg Cs/g sorbent, for 5, 10 and 20 bed volume per hour flows, respectively. The thermal stability of loaded AMP-PAN was evaluated by performing thermogrovimetric analysis (TGA) on samples of AMP, PAN (polymer), and AMP-PAN. Results indicate that AMP-PAN is stable to 400 °C, with less than a 10% loss of weight, which is at least partially due to loss of water of hydration. The evaluation of AMP-PAN indicates that it will effectively remove cesium from concentrated acidic tank waste solutions.

  12. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. PMID:27053375

  13. Bulk Disposal of Unserviceable Toxic Cresylic Acid Waste Using Polymerisation Technique

    Pramod Kumar Rai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A bulk amount of unserviceable toxic cresylic acid waste has been disposed off in a safe and environmentally benign manner. A process to immobilize this waste into non-toxic solid cresol formaldehyde polymer has been developed. Initial study was performed for 1.0 Kg batch size for optimizing the process parameters and conditions, and on the basis of this data, process was scaled-up for bulk disposal (100 Kg / batch. The effect of ratio of reactants, type of catalyst [H2SO4, NaOH and Ca(OH2], catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time have been studied in a batch process. Maximum immobilization in the 1.0 Kg batch studies was obtained when cresylic acid and formaldehyde were taken in a molar ratio 1 : 1.5 using NaOH as a catalyst. For bulk polymerization, a ratio of 1.0 : 1.2 (cresylic acid : formaldehyde with NaOH {0.7 % (wt. / wt. of total charge} was found optimum. The final polymerized product has been buried as per standard procedure in two brick lined pits and finally, the site has been declared as free from the toxic waste.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(5, pp.505-511, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.515

  14. Acid Mine Drainage and Heavy Metal Pollution from Solid Waste in the Tongling Mines, China

    XU Xiaochun; XIE Qiaoqin; CHEN Fang; WANG Jun; WU Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Based on investigation of the characteristics of solid waste of two different mines, the Fenghuangshan copper mine and the Xinqiao pyrite mine in Tongling, Anhui province in central-east China, the possibility and the differences of acid mine drainage (AMD) of the tailings and the waste rocks are discussed, and the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the mine solid waste are also studied. The Fenghuangshan copper mine hardly produces AMD, whereas the Xinqiao pyrite mine does and there are also differences in the modes of occurrence of heavy metal elements in the tailings. For the former, toxic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg exist mostly in the slag mode, as compared to the latter, where the dcoxidization mode has a much higher content, indicating that large amounts minerals in the waste rocks have begun to oxidize at the earth surface. AMD is proved to promote the migration and spread of the heavy metals in mining waste rocks and lead to environmental pollution of the surroundings of the mine area.

  15. Separation of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes by supported liquid membranes

    Supported liquid membranes, SLM, consisting of a solution of 0.25 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and 0.75 M tributylphosphate (TBP) in decalin absorbed on thin microporous polypropylene supports, have been studied for their ability to perform selective separations and concentrations of actinide and lanthanide ions from synthetic acidic nuclear wastes. The permeability coefficients of selected actinides (Am, Pu, U, Np) and of some of the other major components of the wastes have been measured using SLMs in flat-sheet and hollow-fiber configurations. The results have shown that with the thin (25 μm) flat-sheet SLMs, using Celgard 2500 as support, the membrane permeation process is mainly controlled by the rate of diffusion through the aqueous boundary layers. With the thicker (430 μm) hollow-fiber SLMs, using Accurel hollow-fibers as support, the membrane permeation process is controlled by the rate of diffusion through both the SLM and the aqueous boundary layers. Hollow-fibers SLMs exhibited lower permeability coefficients and longer life-times. The experiments have shown that the actinides can be very efficiently removed from the synthetic waste solutions to the point that the resulting solution could be considered a non-transuranic waste (less than 100 mCi/g of disposed form). The work has demonstrated that actinide removal from synthetic waste solutions is a feasible chemical process at the laboratory scale level

  16. Studies on inorganic ion-exchangers. Part I : application of polyantimonic acid for the polishing of uranium product of reprocessing stream

    A systematic study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of applying various inorganic exchangers to specific problems in nuclear fuel reprocessing industry and related spheres of activity. An investigation has been carried out to select a suitable exchanger for the polishing of tail-end uranium product of reprocessing stream free of residual plutonium activity. It includes determination of distribution ratios of uranium and plutonium on the exchangers like zirconium phosphate (ZrP), ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP), ammonium phosphotungstate (APW), polyantimonic acid (PA), polyphosphoantimonic acid (PPA) and breakthrough capacities of plutonium on some of these exchangers. The inhibition studies of sodium on plutonium uptake on polyantimonic acid and the effective decontamination factors achieved using uranium tanker solution from the plant for recycling work have been described. These results indicated the usefulness of the polyantimonic acid exchanger for this purpose. (author)

  17. HUMIC ACID-LIKE MATTER ISOLATED FROM GREEN URBAN WASTES. PART II: PERFORMANCE IN CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Enzo Montoneri; Piero Savarino; Stefano Bottigliengo; Giorgia Musso; Vittorio Boffa; Alessandra Bianco Prevot; Debora Fabbri; Edmondo Pramauro

    2008-01-01

    Novel uses of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes for diversified technological applications are reported. A humic acid-like substance (cHAL2) isolated from green urban wastes was tested as a chemical auxiliary for fabric cleaning and dyeing, and as a catalyst for the photodegradation of dyes. The results illustrate the fact that biomass wastes can be an interesting source of products for the chemical market. Process and product development in this direction are likely to offer hig...

  18. Emergence and fate of cyclic volatile polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5) in municipal waste streams: release mechanisms, partitioning and persistence in air, water, soil and sediments.

    Surita, Sharon C; Tansel, Berrin

    2014-01-15

    Siloxane use in consumer products (i.e., fabrics, paper, concrete, wood, adhesive surfaces) has significantly increased in recent years due to their excellent water repelling and antimicrobial characteristics. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the release mechanisms of two siloxane compounds, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), which have been detected both at landfills and wastewater treatment plants, estimate persistence times in different media, and project release quantities over time in relation to their increasing use. Analyses were conducted based on fate and transport mechanisms after siloxanes enter waste streams. Due to their high volatility, the majority of D4 and D5 end up in the biogas during decomposition. D5 is about ten times more likely to partition into the solid phase (i.e., soil, biosolids). D5 concentrations in the wastewater influent and biogas are about 16 times and 18 times higher respectively, in comparison to the detected levels of D4. PMID:24012894

  19. Theoretical Study on Free Fatty Acid Elimination Mechanism for Waste Cooking Oils to Biodiesel over Acid Catalyst.

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaochao; Zhang, Jilong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Caimei; Han, Peide

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical investigation on the esterification mechanism of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste cooking oils (WCOs) has been carried out using DMol(3) module based on the density functional theory (DFT). Three potential pathways of FFA esterification reaction are designed to achieve the formation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and calculated results show that the energy barrier can be efficiently reduced from 88.597kcal/mol to 15.318kcal/mol by acid catalyst. The molar enthalpy changes (ΔrHm°) of designed pathways are negative, indicating that FFA esterification reaction is an exothermic process. The obtained favorable energy pathway is: H(+) firstly activates FFA, then the intermediate combines with methanol to form a tetrahedral structure, and finally, producing FAME after removing a water molecule. The rate-determining step is the combination of the activated FFA with methanol, and the activation energy is about 11.513kcal/mol at 298.15K. Our results should provide basic and reliable theoretical data for further understanding the elimination mechanism of FFA over acid catalyst in the conversion of WCOs to biodiesel products. PMID:27023919

  20. Cement encapsulation of uranyl nitrate waste

    During decontamination of the former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste streams are being identified which require disposal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One such waste stream, consisting essentially of uranyl nitrate, has been located in one of the processing cells. A study was conducted on this waste stream to determine if it could be stably encapsulated in cement. First, a recipe was developed for cement-encapsulating this highly acidic waste. Samples were then made to perform waste qualification testing as described in the NRC Branch Technical Position-Waste Form to determine the stability of this waste form. The testing showed that the waste form had a compressive strength much greater than the 345 kPA (50 psi) minimum guideline after room-temperature cure, irradiation, thermal cycling, immersion, and biodegradation. In addition, the encapsulated waste had uranium and cerium leachability index values greater than six, which is the minimum recommended by the NRC position paper. The cement-encapsulated uranyl nitrate waste thus met the NRC stability guidelines for the disposal of Class B and Class C radioactive wastes

  1. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  2. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV, and H2/oil ratio were 350 °C, 2 MPa, 15.2 h–1, and 400 mL/mL, respectively. Both the free fatty acids and the triglycerides in the waste cooking oil were deoxygenated at the same time to form hydrocarbons in the hydrotreatment process. The predominant liquid hydrocarbon products (98.9 wt% were n-C18H38, n-C17H36, n-C16H34, and n-C15H32 when a Ru/SiO2 catalyst was used. These long chain normal hydrocarbons had high melting points and gave the liquid hydrocarbon product over Ru/SiO2 a high pour point of 20 °C. Ru/H-Y was not suitable for producing diesel from waste cooking oil because it formed a large amount of C5–C10 gasoline-ranged paraffins on the strong acid sites of HY. When Al-polyoxocation-pillared montmorillonite (Al13-Mont was used as a support for the Ru catalyst, the pour point of the liquid hydrocarbon product decreased to −15 °C with the conversion of a significant amount of C15–C18 n-paraffins to iso-paraffins and light paraffins on the weak acid sites of Al13-Mont. The liquid product over Ru/Al13-Mont can be expected to give a green diesel for current diesel engines because its chemical composition and physical properties are similar to those of commercial petro-diesel. A relatively large amount of H2 was consumed in the hydrogenation of unsaturated C=C bonds and the deoxygenation of C=O bonds in the hydrotreatment process. A sulfided Ni-Mo/Al13-Mont catalyst also produced bio-hydrogenated diesel by the hydrotreatment process but it showed slow deactivation during the reaction due to loss of sulfur. In contrast, Ru/Al13-Mont did not show catalyst deactivation in the hydrotreatment of waste cooking oil after 72 h on-stream because the waste cooking oil was not found to contain sulfur

  3. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  4. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 ''Acceptable Knowledge'' from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge

  5. Heterogeneous catalysis contribution for the denitration of aqueous nuclear radioactive waste with formic acid

    The chemical denitration aims to reduce the nitric acid concentration in nuclear fuel reprocessing aqueous wastes by adding formic acid as a reducing agent. The denitration reaction exhibits an induction period, which duration is related to the time needed by the key intermediate of the reaction, i.e. nitrous acid, to reach a threshold concentration in the reaction medium. The addition of a Pt/SiO2 catalyst in the reaction mixture suppresses the induction period of the chemical denitration. The aim of the present work is to identify the role of Pt/SiO2 in the catalytic denitration mechanism. The experimental work is based on the comparison of catalytic tests performed with various catalysts, in order to identify the intrinsic characteristics of Pt/SiO2 that might influence its activity for the reaction. Catalytic denitration results show that Pt/SiO2 acts only by speeding up the nitrous acid generation in the solution until its concentration reaches the threshold level of 0,01 mol L-1 in the experimental conditions. Catalysts activity is evaluated by quantifying the nitrous acid generated on the platinum surface during the induction period of the homogeneous denitration reaction. The large platinum aggregates reactivity is greater than the one of nano-sized particles. The study of the key step of the catalytic denitration reaction, the catalytic generation of nitrous acid, clarifies the role of Pt/SiO2. The homogeneous denitration is initiated thanks to a redox cycle on the catalyst surface: an initial oxidation of Pt0 by nitric acid, which is reduced into nitrous acid, followed by the reduction of the passivated 'Ptox' by formic acid. Furthermore, a platinum reduction by formic acid prior to the catalytic test prevents any platinum leaching from the catalyst into the nitric solution, being all the more significant as platinum dispersion is high. (author)

  6. Acid Separation, Catalytic Oxidation and Coagulation for ATC Waste Liquid Treatment

    DING Xiaoling; JIA Chunning

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to treat 2-amino-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) waste liquid effectively at present for its characteristics of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high salinity and low biodegradability. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents several kinds of physical-chemical treatment unit techniques, including acid separation, catalytic oxidation and coagulation. First of all, acid separation was adopted to precipitate relevant organics at isoelectric point. When the temperature and pH value of acid separation were controlled at about 5 ℃ and 2.2 respectively, the COD removal rate could reach 27.6%. Secondly, oxidation was used to break chemical constitution of refractory organics. The optimal reaction parameters of catalytic oxidation should be 20 ℃, pH adjusted to 5.0 and [Fe2+] 300 mg/L. Then with 5% H 2O 2 added and after one-hour reaction, the COD removal rate could achieve about 52%. Finally, coagulation was adopted to remove a portion of refractory organics, and 15% polymeric molysite flocculant was the best for the coagulation, and the COD removal rate could reach about 15%. Therefore, the proposed feasible process of physical-chemical pretreatment for ATC waste liquid could have about 70% COD removed in total.

  7. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  8. The development of radioactive waste treatment technology (III)

    Most PWR stations have experienced leakages of boric acid and oil into liquid radwaste systems. Typically, these wastes have been concentrated by an evaporator system. Based on operating plant experiences, boric acid and oil are the majority of the solid loading for disposal and tend to decrease the efficiency significantly. The objective of these studies is to develop pretreatment techniques for the recovery of boric acid and for the removal of oil from such wastes for improving the evaporator performance. To these objectives, lab. scale reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and filtration/coalescence processes are introduced, which can separate boric acid and oil into waste streams. (Author)

  9. Mercury separation from aqueous wastes

    This project is providing an assessment of new sorbents for removing mercury from wastes at US Department of Energy sites. Four aqueous wastes were chosen for lab-scale testing; a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS); a dilute lithium hydroxide solution stored at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at the Y-12 Plant. Eight adsorbents have been identified for testing, covering a wide range of cost and capability. Screening tests have been completed, which identified the most promising adsorbents for each waste stream. Batch isotherm tests have been completed using the most promising adsorbents, and column tests are in progress. Because of the wide range of waste compositions tested, no one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility with the waste solutions. the most effective adsorbents identified to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste stimulant; Mersorb followed by lonac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste stimulant; Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3) for the LIOH solution; and lonac SR-3 followed by lonac SR-4 and Mersorb for the Y-12 groundwater

  10. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution

    Liu, Hu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Shengen, E-mail: zhangshengen@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The article provides a new method for recycling rare earth (RE) from waste phosphor. • When compared with the traditional methods, leach rate was much higher. • Y–Eu concentrate and Tb–Ce concentrate were obtained successively. • It would reduce the burden of later extraction, separation and purification. - Abstract: This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce{sub 0.67}Tb{sub 0.33}MgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}) and the Blue phosphor (Ba{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO{sub 2} are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  11. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution

    Highlights: • The article provides a new method for recycling rare earth (RE) from waste phosphor. • When compared with the traditional methods, leach rate was much higher. • Y–Eu concentrate and Tb–Ce concentrate were obtained successively. • It would reduce the burden of later extraction, separation and purification. - Abstract: This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications

  12. Characterization of nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on an industrial waste-stream by application of the deceleration-stat technique.

    Van Wagenen, Jon; Pape, Mathias Leon; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-05-15

    Industrial wastewaters can serve as a nutrient and water source for microalgal production. In this study the effluent of an internal circulation (IC) reactor anaerobically treating the wastes of a biotechnology production facility were chosen as the cultivation medium for Chlorella sorokiniana in batch and continuous cultures. The aim was to evaluate the rates of nutrient removal and biomass production possible at various dilution rates. The results demonstrate that the industrial wastewater served as a highly effective microalgae culture medium and that dilution rate strongly influenced algae productivity in a short light-path photobioreactor. Batch culture on undiluted wastewater showed biomass productivity of 1.33 g L(-1)day(-1), while removing over 99% of the ammonia and phosphate from the wastewater. Deceleration-stat (D-stat) experiments performed at high and low intensities of 2100 and 200 (μmol photon m(2)s(-1)) established the optimal dilution rates to reach volumetric productivity of 5.87 and 1.67 g L(-1)day(-1) respectively. The corresponding removal rates of nitrogen were 238 and 93 mg L(-1)day(-1) and 40 and 19 mg L(-1)day(-1) for phosphorous. The yield on photons at low light intensity was as high as had been observed in any previous report indicating that the waste stream allowed the algae to grow at its full potential. PMID:25792276

  13. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called 'waste' is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented

  14. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  15. Separation of uranium from solid (U, Pu, Ag) oxide analytical waste: effect of batch size and nitric acid molarity

    Earlier we had studied the effect of leaching of a solid analytical waste of (U,Pu)O2 and AgCl with nitric acid of different molarities for identical as well as varying time intervals and the effect of leaching of this waste with nitric acid as a function of batch size (5,10, 20 g). In the present work, the effect of multistep leaching of a 25 g lot of this analytical waste with 4 and 8 M HNO3 was studied. The concentrations of U, Pu and silver were determined using ICP-AES. The results are discussed in this report. (author)

  16. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. PMID:26996259

  17. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  18. Nutrient recovery from biodigestion waste (water) streams and reuse as renewable fertilizers: a two-year field experiment

    Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Ghekiere, Greet; Michels, Evi; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Meers, Erik; Tack, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using bio-digestion waste derivatives as substitute for synthetic fertilizers and/or as P-poor equivalent for animal manure on soil and crop production. In a field trial, nutrient balances were assessed and the physicochemical soil fertility and quality were evaluated. The biogas yield of the harvested energy crops was also determined. An economical and ecological evaluation was conducted. The highest biomass yields were obtained when the li...

  19. Analysis and Development of Potential Material & By-Product Synergies between Zero-Emissions Industries and Urban Waste Streams.

    Rahman, Md. Arafat

    2013-01-01

    The concept of integration of industries in urban setup is the current trend among researchers and engineers in the field of industrial ecology and environmental engineering. Trend of urbanization forces an increasing human demand for energy, materials, water and other resources. Urban symbiosis nowadays is closely related to the controlling of urban metabolism. Closing material loops works as an effective way for a circular economy where theoretically no waste is generated. In this thesis wo...

  20. Design of efficient catalysts for gasification of biomass-derived waste streams in hot compressed water. Towards industrial applicability.

    Vlieger, de, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The energy required for the globalized living standards of our society depends currently on fossil fuels. The availability and use of fossil fuels were taken for granted during the last century, but depletion of cheap oil and the environmental concerns related to combustion of fossil fuels force us to shift to alternative energy sources. Biomass is believed to be a promising renewable energy source for the future. Conversion of biomass waste to liquid fuels or hydrogen is projected to provide...

  1. Technique for recovering uranium from sludge-like uranium-bearing wastes using hydrochloric acid

    Sludge-like uranium-bearing wastes generated from uranium refining and conversion R and D facilities are stored at the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. So far, approximately 1500 t of uranium wastes with radioactivity levels exceeding 10,000 Bq/g have been generated. We have proposed an environmentally benign aqueous process for recovering uranium from wastes using hydrochloric acid (HCl). This makes it possible to dispose of the wastes easily, and to reclaim uranium as a resource. In this process, first, the uranium content in the calcium fluoride (CaF2) sludge along with the entire sludge is dissolved almost completely in aqueous solutions containing HCl and aluminum chloride. The uranium species are then recovered as peroxide from the CaF2 sludge solution. Their characteristics are similar to those specified for uranium ore concentrate. After recovering the uranium content, the uranium concentration in the solution is reduced to below 0.01 mg/L using an iminodiacetic chelating resin. Also, the uranium concentration of the precipitate generated by the neutralization of the barren solution falls below 1 Bq/g. (author)

  2. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs)

  3. HUMIC ACID-LIKE MATTER ISOLATED FROM GREEN URBAN WASTES. PART II: PERFORMANCE IN CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Enzo Montoneri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel uses of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes for diversified technological applications are reported. A humic acid-like substance (cHAL2 isolated from green urban wastes was tested as a chemical auxiliary for fabric cleaning and dyeing, and as a catalyst for the photodegradation of dyes. The results illustrate the fact that biomass wastes can be an interesting source of products for the chemical market. Process and product development in this direction are likely to offer high economic and environmental benefits in a modern, more sustainable waste treatment strategy.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  5. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH- = B(OH)-4 was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH3 -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl- becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  6. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  7. Stabilization of hazardous ash waste with newberyite-rich chemically bonded magnesium phosphate ceramic

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1995-11-01

    A novel newberyite-rich magnesium-phosphate ceramic, intended for the stabilization of the US Department of Energy`s low-level mixed-waste streams, has been developed by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. The reaction slurry, formed at room temperature, sets rapidly and forms a lightweight hard ceramic with low open porosity and a high compression strength of {approx} 6,200 psi. It is a composite of stable mineral phases of newberyite, luenebergite, and residual Mg oxide. Using this matrix, the authors developed superior waste forms for a surrogate ash waste stream. The final waste form is a low-permeability structural-quality ceramic, in which hazardous contaminants are chemically fixed and physically encapsulated. The compression strength of the waste form is an order of magnitude higher than the land disposal requirement, even at high waste loading. The high compression strength is attributed to stronger bonds in the waste form that result from participation of ash waste in the setting reactions. Long-term leaching studies show that the waste form is stable in an aqueous environment. The chemically bonded phosphate ceramic approach in this study may be a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method for fabricating high-performance waste forms either for stabilizing waste streams or for developing value-added construction materials from high-volume benign waste streams.

  8. Stabilization of hazardous ash waste with newberyite-rich chemically bonded magnesium phosphate ceramic

    A novel newberyite-rich magnesium-phosphate ceramic, intended for the stabilization of the US Department of Energy's low-level mixed-waste streams, has been developed by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. The reaction slurry, formed at room temperature, sets rapidly and forms a lightweight hard ceramic with low open porosity and a high compression strength of ∼ 6,200 psi. It is a composite of stable mineral phases of newberyite, luenebergite, and residual Mg oxide. Using this matrix, the authors developed superior waste forms for a surrogate ash waste stream. The final waste form is a low-permeability structural-quality ceramic, in which hazardous contaminants are chemically fixed and physically encapsulated. The compression strength of the waste form is an order of magnitude higher than the land disposal requirement, even at high waste loading. The high compression strength is attributed to stronger bonds in the waste form that result from participation of ash waste in the setting reactions. Long-term leaching studies show that the waste form is stable in an aqueous environment. The chemically bonded phosphate ceramic approach in this study may be a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method for fabricating high-performance waste forms either for stabilizing waste streams or for developing value-added construction materials from high-volume benign waste streams

  9. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  10. Saltstone Vault Classification Samples Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit/Actinide Removal Process Waste Stream April 2011

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B and W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B and W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B and W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most

  11. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co (III) mediator in a nitric acid based system

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and nitric acid electrolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble transuranic compounds and is regenerated at the anode until the organics are converted to CO2. The nitric acid is an excellent oxidant that facilitates the destruction of the organic components. The anode is not readily attacked by the nitric acid solution, thus the cell can be used for extended continual operation without electrode replacement. 2 figs

  12. Evaluation of the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos in the Carolina stream (San Luis, Argentina).

    Tripole, Susana; Gonzalez, Patricia; Vallania, Adriana; Garbagnati, Marcela; Mallea, Miguel

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos of the Carolina stream (San Luis - Argentina). Samples were obtained in the years 1997-1998 at two sites: site C(1), located 200 m upstream of the drainage, and site C(2), located 800 m downstream. The system buffer capacity was evaluated in the non - contaminated site by means of the buffer index calculation. The physico - chemical changes observed as a consequence of the contribution of acid mine drainage (AMD) were: a decreasing of pH and an increase in the ionic concentration, especially sulfate and Fe coming from the oxidation produced by chemiolithotrophic bacteria. The values obtained indicated a low buffer capacity and a high intrinsic vulnerability of the system to resist the impact originated by the AMD, producing a remarkable decreasing of pH of the receiving stream. These changes caused modifications in the original benthic community that was replaced by organisms more tolerant to the acid stress. A reduction in the abundance and in the taxonomic richness of the benthic macroinvertebrates was observed when compared with the reference station. An increase in the proportion of Chironomidae and of Acari and a decrease in the proportion of the remaining taxa were observed. The most sensitive groups were Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Mollusca. The community was mostly affected by the following variables: pH, conductivity, sulfate and dissolved total Fe. PMID:16565803

  13. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  14. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behaviour of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behaviour of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  15. Recovery of sterols as fatty acid steryl esters from waste material after purification of tocopherols.

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Hirota, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yomi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Kitano, Motohiro; Shimada, Yuji

    2004-08-01

    Tocopherols are purified industrially from soybean oil deodorizer distillate by a process comprising distillation and ethanol fractionation. The waste material after ethanol fractionation (TC waste) contains 75% sterols, but a purification process has not yet been developed. We thus attempted to purify sterols by a process including a lipase-catalyzed reaction. Candida rugosa lipase efficiently esterified sterols in TC waste with oleic acid (OA). After studying several factors affecting esterification, the reaction conditions were determined as follows: ratio of TC waste/OA, 1:2 (wt/wt); water content, 30%; amount of lipase, 120 U/g-reaction mixture; temperature, 40 degrees C. Under these conditions, the degree of esterification reached 82.7% after 24 h. FA steryl esters (steryl esters) in the oil layer were purified successfully by short-path distillation (purity, 94.9%; recovery, 73.1%). When sterols in TC waste were esterified with FFA originating from olive, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, and linseed oils, the FA compositions of the steryl esters differed somewhat from those of the original oils: The content of saturated FA was lower and that of unsaturated FA was higher. The m.p. of the steryl esters synthesized (21.7-36.5 degrees C) were remarkably low compared with those of the steryl esters purified from high-b.p. soybean oil deodorizer distillate substances (56.5 degrees C; JAOCS 80, 341-346, 2003). The low-m.p. steryl esters were soluble in rapeseed oil even at a final concentration of 10%. PMID:15638248

  16. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws

  17. Recovery of uranium from medium active acidic wastes using hollow fiber contactor

    The permeation of U(VI) in presence of fission products has been studied from medium active acidic waste employing 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) as a carrier through hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM). The parameters like carrier concentration, effect of metal ion concentration and flow rate were studied. The result reveals that higher metal ion concentration in feed phase gives higher flux for permeation. Higher flow rate and 30% carrier concentration yield > 90% recovery of U(VI) in 0.1 M NH2OH.HCl in 0.3 M HNO3 as strippant. Recovery could be further enhanced by using fresh strippant. (author)

  18. Preparation of Pure Copper Powder from Acidic Copper Chloride Waste Etchant

    2008-01-01

    The method for the recycling of copper from copper chloride solution was developed. This process consists of extraction of copper, purification and particle size reduction. In the first step, reductive metal scraps were added to acidic copper chloride waste enchants produced in the PCB industry to obtain copper powder.Composition analysis showed that this powder contained impurities such as Fe, Ni, and water. So, drying and purification were carried out by using microwave and a centrifugal separator. Thereby the copper powder had a purity of higher than 99% and spherical form in morphology. The copper powder size was decreased by ball milling.

  19. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Soma Pal Saha; A. Patra; P. B. Ghosh; A.K. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853), a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW) when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v) glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material ...

  20. The application of fish scales in removing heavy metals from energy-produced waste streams: the role of microbes

    Mustafiz, S. [Dalhousie University, halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-09-01

    In energy production, heavy metals pose significant contamination hazards. For example, the petroleum industry generates wastes that are often high in heavy metal concentrations. Heavy metals are very toxic and extremely deleterious to humans, plants, and animals. Application of fish scale to remove heavy metals is a very recent innovation. It is an environmentally appealing and economically attractive alternative to current heavy metal adsorbing materials. Previously, the adsorption phenomenon on this exotic waste material was explained by only physical-chemical reactions. Biological effects on adsorption of heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, and chromium were studied using Atlantic Cod scale. The difference in results between nonsterilized and sterilized experiments shows the microbial contribution to heavy metal removal. Results show a wide range of microbial contribution in removing chromium cations. For lead and arsenic cations, the effect is less. Measurement of pH gives some indication of the microbial role in the biosorption process and of the presence of possible microbial species. (author)