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Sample records for acid waste streams

  1. Plutonium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purifications operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1.4 (50-100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO (tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer

  2. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal

  3. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Recovery of plutonium from nitric-acid waste streams

    Nitric acid (7M) waste streams at Rocky Flats contain 0.01 to 0.001 g/1 plutonium and new processes are under development to reduce the plutonium levels to 10-5 g/1. Anion exchange and solvent extraction methods are under evaluation. Several macroreticular and microreticular anion exchange resins were evaluated and Rohm and Hass (IRA-938) gave significant improvement in plutonium capacity and elution over several other resins tested. The solvent extraction process uses dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate extractant. The results of recent tests using a combined anion exchange extraction chromatography process will be described for recovering both plutonium and americum

  5. Removal of plutonium and americium from hydrochloric acid waste stream using extraction chromatography

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique would allow recycle of the largest portion of HCl, while lowering the quantity and improving the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and similar laboratory-produced resins coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in hydrochloric acid solutions over the range of 0.1 - 10.0 N HCl, whole varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and contact time intervals. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients, and in the kinetics of actinide removal were observed as a function of resin formulation. The usefulness of these resins for actinide removal from HCl effluent streams is discussed

  6. Cleanup of hydrochloric acid waste streams from actinide processes using extraction chromatography

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent steams. Successful application of this technique would allow recycle of the largest portion of HCl, while lowering the quantity and improving the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and similar laboratory-produced resins coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and contact time intervals. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients, and in the kinetics of actinide removal were observed as a function of resin formulation

  7. Utilization of multiple waste streams for acid gas sequestration and multi-pollutant control

    Soong, Y.; Dilmore, R.M.; Hedges, S.W.; Howard, B.H.; Romanov, V. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A novel CO{sub 2} sequestration concept is reported that combines SO{sub 2} removal and CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, using a bauxite-processing residue which is a waste product and with waste brine water from oil/gas production. The bauxite residue/brine mixture of 46/54 v/v exhibited a CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of > 0.078 mol L{sup -1} when exposed to pure CO{sub 2} at 20 C and 2.73 MPa. At a higher temperature of 140 C, a bauxite residue/brine mixture of 80/20 v/v indicated a CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of > 0.094 mol L{sup -1} when exposed to pure CO{sub 2} at 3.85 MPa. Under the same reaction conditions, an identical ratio of reaction mixture exposed to simulated flue gas at a similar initial pressure was capable of sequestering 0.16 mol of CO{sub 2} and > 99.9 % of the applied SO{sub 2}. Calcite formation was verified as a product of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. The caustic bauxite residues (pH 12.5-13.5) and acidic wastewater brine (pH 3-5) are also effectively neutralized after participating as reactive reagents in the conceptual process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Development of column grade ammonium molybdo phosphate granules for the separation of cesium from acidic waste streams in reprocessing plants (Paper No. AL-44)

    Ammonium molybdo phosphate(AMP) microcrystals can be converted into granular form suitable for column operations if a suitable binder is used. The column filled with such AMP granules, can be effectively used to remove cesium from the reprocessing waste streams prior to final disposal. But difficulty arises as most of the monomers affect AMP. A process has been developed to obtain AMP in granualar form suitable for column operations which does not alter the capacity, kinetics and stability of the exchanger. The performance of the grunular form AMP in treating acidic waste streams of reprocessing plants has been described here. (author)

  9. Miscellaneous Waste Stream strategy document

    This strategy document addresses objectives and implementation for the Miscellaneous Waste Stream (MWS) program through FY1996. Its intention is to develop's comprehensive pollution prevention/hazard minimization program for MWS projects. The overall focus of this program is aimed at pollution prevention/hazard minimization for MWS processes and involves the elimination/minimization of processes and materials that result in pollutant releases to all environmental media. The document is divided into three categories of initial issues identified from funded MWS projects: waste streams, assessment tools, and waste characterization and worker exposure methods development. Initial strategy requires the development of a baseline of major waste streams at each facility and the identification of MWS issues and proposed solutions. Goals and schedules will evolve as these new issues are identified. Applicable pollution prevention/hazard minimization technologies will be identified, prioritized, and employed to address each issue commensurate with funding availability. Options will then be chosen and the proven technologies transferred to other sites, including commercial industry. Most notably, this strategy document calls for a 50 percent volume and toxicity reduction by CY1995 in the miscellaneous waste streams generated by processes within the MWS

  10. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  11. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties

  12. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  13. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO3, HNO3, and HNO3-H2SO4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H2SO4, HNO3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H2SO4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  14. Comparative evaluation of DHDECMP [dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-methylphosphonate] and CMPO [octylphenyl-N,N,-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide] as extractants for recovering actinides from nitric acid waste streams

    Certain neutral, bifunctional organophosphorous compounds are of special value to the nuclear industry. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbomoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) are highly selective extractants for removing actinide and lanthanide elements from nitric acid. We obtained these two extractants from newly available commercial sources and evaluated them for recovering Am(III), Pu(IV), and U(VI) from nitric acid waste streams of plutonium processing operations. Variables included the extractant (DHSECMP or CMPO), extractant/tributylphosphate ratio, diluent, nitrate concentration, nitrate salt/nitric acid ratio, fluoride concentration, and contact time. Based on these experimental data, we selected DHDECMP as the perferred extractant for this application. 18 refs., 30 figs

  15. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  16. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS MandO 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''

  17. Pectin content and composition from different food waste streams.

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Bruggeman, Geert; Bosch, Montse; Petrusan, Janos; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, 26 food waste streams were selected according to their exploitation potential and investigated in terms of pectin content. The isolated pectin, subdivided into calcium bound and alkaline extractable pectin, was fully characterized in terms of uronic acid and other sugar composition, methylation and acetylation degree. It was shown that many waste streams can be a valuable source of pectin, but also that pectin structures present a huge structural diversity, resulting in a broad range of pectin structures. These can have different physicochemical and biological properties, which are useful in a wide range of applications. Even if the data could not cover all the possible batch by batch and country variabilities, to date this represents the most complete pectin characterization from food waste streams ever reported in the literature with a homogeneous methodology. PMID:26868545

  18. BioREFINE-2G project – Engineering of industrial yeast strains for production of dicarboxylic acids from side and waste streams

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina;

    2014-01-01

    compounds can be polymerised to biodegradable polymersthat can find application as plastics, coatings or adhesives. To reach the goals, the identification of relevant metabolic routes, strain engineering and the development of a toolbox for manipulation of industrial S. cerevisiae strains are required. Here......, we present advanced genetic engineering tools applicable for generally hardly amenable strains with industrial background. This involves tools forstable heterologous gene (over-)expression and a strategy for fast performance of gene disruption inmultiple ploidy strains. The use of the developed...... generation biorefineries utilize less than 20% of the biomass feedstock for ethanol production. Major side-streams are produced such as pentose and lignin waste streams that are used for biogas and energy production. Converting the carbon from these waste streams into added-value products would improve the...

  19. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Hydrothermal carbonization of municipal waste streams

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that can be used to convert municipal waste streams into sterilized, value-added hydrochar. HTC has been mostly applied and studied on a limited number of feedstocks, ranging from pure substances to slightly more complex biomass ...

  1. Analysis of SRP waste streams for waste tank certification

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) will apply for certification from the State of South Carolina to operate the SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The permit application will be submitted as a RCRA Part B, Volume 16, entitled ''RCRA Part B Application For the F and H-Area Radioactive Waste Farm.'' RCRA regulations require that influent and effluent streams of hazardous waste sites be characterized to obtain an operating permit. The Waste Management Technology Department requested ADD to determine 21 components (including pH and weight percent solids) in the current influent streams to SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The analyses will be used to supplement existing data on the composition of High-Level Waste. Effluent streams, which will feed Saltstone and the DWPF, will be analyzed when they are produced. This report contains the data obtained from analyzing key influent streams to SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The precision of the data and the analytical methods that were used are also discussed

  2. Dietary change and fate of related waste streams

    Korpalska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption patterns or dietary patterns are repeated arrangements observed in food consumption by a population group. Organic waste streams are by-products of the food production which are not suitable for human consumption. Nowadays, waste streams

  3. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  4. Biodegradation testing of solidified low-level waste streams

    The NRC Technical Position on Waste Form (TP) specifies that waste should be resistant to biodegradation. The methods recommended in the TP for testing resistance to fungi, ASTM G21, and for testing resistance to bacteria, ASTM G22, were carried out on several types of solidified simulated wastes, and the effect of microbial activity on the mechanical strength of the materials tested was examined. The tests are believed to be sufficient for distinguishing between materials that are susceptible to biodegradation and those that are not. It is concluded that failure of these tests should not be regarded of itself as an indication that the waste form will biodegrade to an extent that the form does not meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR Part 61. In the case of failure of ASTM G21 or ASTM G22 or both, it is recommended that additional data be supplied by the waste generator to demonstrate the resistance of the waste form to microbial degradation. To produce a data base on the applicability of the biodegradation tests, the following simulated laboratory-scale waste forms were prepared and tested: boric acid and sodium sulfate evaporator bottoms, mixed-bed bead resins and powdered resins each solidified in asphalt, cement, and vinyl ester-styrene. Cement solidified wastes supported neither fungal nor bacterial growth. Of the asphalt solidified wastes, only the forms of boric acid evaporator bottoms did not support fungal growth. Bacteria grew on all of the asphalt solidified wastes. Cleaning the surface of these waste forms did not affect bacterial growth and had a limited effect on the fungal growth. Only vinyl esterstyrene solidified sodium sulfate evaporator bottoms showed viable fungi cultures, but surface cleaning with solvents eliminated fungal growth in subsequent testing. Some forms of all the waste streams solidified in vinyl ester-styrene showed viable bacteria cultures. 13 refs., 12 tabs

  5. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available

  6. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  7. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  8. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  10. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  11. Anaerobic digestion of two biodegradable municipal waste streams

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles J.; Heaven, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Landfill avoidance for organic wastes is now a high priority worldwide. Two fractions of the municipal waste stream were considered with respect to their potential for diversion through controlled anaerobic digestion. The physical and chemical properties of source segregated domestic food waste (ss-FW) and of the mechanically-recovered organic fraction of municipal solid waste (mr-OFMSW) were analysed, and their methane yields determined in both batch and semi-continuous digestion. Methane po...

  12. Characterization of waste streams on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) plants generate solid low-level waste (LLW) that must be disposed of or stored on-site. The available disposal capacity of the current sites is projected to be fully utilized during the next decade. An LLW disposal strategy has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program as a framework for bringing new, regulator-approved disposal capacity to the ORR. An increasing level of waste stream characterization will be needed to maintain the ability to effectively manage solid LLW by the facilities on the ORR under the new regulatory scenario. In this paper, current practices for solid LLW stream characterization, segregation, and certification are described. In addition, the waste stream characterization requirements for segregation and certification under the LLWDDD Program strategy are also examined. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Extending value stream mapping through waste definition beyond customer perspective

    Khurum, Mahvish; Petersen, Kai; Gorschek, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Value Stream Mapping is one of the several Lean practices, which has recently attracted interest in the software engineering community. In other contexts (such as military, health, production), Value Stream Mapping has achieved considerable improvements in processes and products. The goal is to also leverage on these benefits in the software intensive product development context. The primary contribution is that we are extending the definition of waste to fit in the software intensive product...

  14. Acidic lakes and streams in the United States: The role of acidic deposition

    A statistically designed survey of lakes and streams in acid-sensitive areas of the United States, the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), was used to identify the role of acidic deposition, relative to other factors, in causing acidic conditions in 1,181 lakes and 4,668 streams. Atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of acid anions in 75% of the acidic lakes and 47% of the acidic streams. Organic anions are dominant in one-fourth of the acidic lakes and streams; acidic mine drainage is the dominant acid source in 25% of the acidic streams. Other causes of acidic conditions are relatively unimportant on a regional scale. Nearly all the deposition-dominated acidic systems were found in six well-delineated subpopulations that represent about one-fourth of the NSWS lake population and one-third of the NSWS stream population

  15. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  16. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J B

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  17. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  18. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

    A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection

  1. Automated Solutions for Identification of Abnormalities within Waste Streams

    Management and analysis of data within the waste management world is a vital, yet time consuming activity. In the past, data submitted for waste stream characterization and container certification required human review and approval. While human review can identify data points that fall outside accepted parameters, identification of statistical outliers and anomalies requires a comprehensive comparison against historical data points. A full statistical review of submitted data cannot be adequately performed without technical assistance. This paper will detail the development of the Statistical Tracking Tool (STT) developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Waste Data System (WDS) and other automated optimization tools designed to greatly reduce time devoted processing nuclear waste shipments. The tools within the WDS provide technical assistance for analyzing data within waste streams prior to characterization and certification approval and assisting in the building of overpacks and payloads for shipment and disposal. The identification of potentially problematic data sets will prevent erroneous waste shipments avoiding regulatory fines, wasted man hours, and work stoppages. Further analysis will be given to additional techniques and principles that can be applied to a wider range of data adding to the efficacy and value of the Statistical Tracking Tool. (authors)

  2. Modeling the economics of blending organic processing waste streams

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not only as materials in need of disposal, but also as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into va...

  3. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    While there has been extensive research on the global scale to quantify the fluxes and reservoirs of carbon for predictive climate change models, comparably little attention has been focused on carbon cycles in the built environment. The current management of urban carbon cycles presents a major irony: while cities produce tremendous fluxes of organic carbon waste, their populations are dependent on imported carbon because most urban have limited access to locally sourced carbon. The persistence of outdated management schemes is in part due to the fact that reimagining the handling of urban carbon waste streams requires a transdisciplinary approach. Since the end of the 19th century, U.S. cities have generally relied on the same three options for managing organic carbon waste streams: burn it, bury it, or dilute it. These options still underpin the framework for today's design and management strategies for handling urban carbon waste. We contend that urban carbon management systems for the 21st century need to be scalable, must acknowledge how climate modulates the biogeochemical cycling of urban carbon, and should carefully factor local political and cultural values. Urban waste carbon is a complex matrix ranging from wastewater biosolids to municipal compost. Our first goal in designing targeted and efficient urban carbon management schemes has been examining approaches for categorizing and geochemically fingerprinting these matrices. To date we have used a combination of major and trace element ratio analysis and bulk matrix characteristics, such as pH, density, and loss on ignition, to feed multivariable statistical analysis in order to identify variables that are effective tracers for each waste stream. This approach was initially developed for Boston, MA, US, in the context of identifying components of municipal compost streams that were responsible for increasing the lead inventory in the final product to concentrations that no longer permitted its use in

  4. The removal of alpha-emitting radionuclides from liquid waste streams

    World-wide experience on the removal of alpha-emitting radionuclides from liquid waste streams is reviewed with particular emphasis on waste streams from reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel and on countries other than the United Kingdom. Current practice concentrates on the use of precipitation and evaporation, either singly or in combination, for the treatment of these waste streams. (author)

  5. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  6. Nitrification in four acidic streams in southern New Jersey

    Schornick, James C., Jr.; Ram, Neil M.

    1978-01-01

    Four characteristically acidic streams in southern New Jersey were investigated to determine the effect of secondary effluent on nitrification in the receiving waters. Chemical and microbiological data were obtained at four sites on each stream. From these data seven factors were evaluated to determine the proclivity of each stream to nitrify. pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were used to describe the general condition of the streams, while neutralization of alkalinity, nitrogen species concentration trends, biological and nitrogenous oxygen demand incubations, and nitrifying bacteria densities were used to determine the actual presence of nitrification in each stream. Each stream had a unique distribution of conditions, making it possible to qualitatively rank the streams according to their proclivity to nitrify. Hay StackBrook showes strong evidence for nitrification on the basis of all four nitrification indicators, whereas Landing Creek showed little, if any, evidence of nitrification. Hammonton Creek is apparently nitrifying, but because of the uncertainty in the downstream trends of the nitrogen species and a lower level of alkalinity neutralization, it is nitrifying less than Hay Stack Brook. Squankum Branch also showed some evidence for nitrification, mostly on the basis of the biological and nitrogenous oxygen demand incubations. Although these streams are acidic in character, acidity does not appear to be an exclusive factor in determining whether a stream will undergo nitrification. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  8. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL

  9. Long Term Stability Testing Results for Savannah River Site Organic and Aqueous Waste streams

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate waste streams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic waste stream with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous waste stream, and an aqueous waste stream with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) legacy plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste and the F-Canyon PUREX waste constituted the volatile organic wastes and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic waste stream. The aqueous waste streams included a rainwater waste stream and an aqueous organic waste stream. MSE also evaluated the PUREX waste stream with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous-type sorbent materials. Based on testing performed at MSE, the rainwater waste stream was successfully solidified by SRS personnel using two different sorbents. Several small oil wastes were also successfully solidified by SRS personnel using granular clay sorbents based on information provided by MSE from the oils waste stream testing and 75,706 Liters (L) [20,000 gallons (gal)] of the F-Canyon PUREX waste was solidified at Waste Consolidation Specialists (WCS). Solidification of the various surrogate waste streams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE testing and evaluation facility located at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release testing (LRT) values with LRT results obtained over three years later in an attempt to understand the long-term stability characteristics of the solidified waste streams. The paper also includes solidification results for B-25 box samples generated late in 2005. (authors)

  10. Groundwater stream experiment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    Seitz, M.G.; Bowers, D.; Fortney, D.R.

    1981-08-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the practicality of using laboratory groundwater stream experiments to model a hydraulic breach of a nuclear waste repository located deep in a bedded salt environment. A test plan is included in this report that gives details of the apparatus, rocks, solutions, and analyses to be used in a groundwater stream experiment. Preliminary experiments revealed the essential impermeability of halite; only a small concentration of water (about 75 ppM) moved in halite by diffusion, with a coefficient of 2.0 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2//s. From work completed in this program, groundwater stream experiments appear to be a practical method of establishing the chemical interactions that would occur in a breached repository in bedded salt.

  11. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering 99TcO4- from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO4-), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for 99TcO4-. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO4- and TcO4-

  12. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-11

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

  13. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M ampersand C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division's pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M ampersand C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams

  14. Roles of Benthic Algae in the Structure, Function, and Assessment of Stream Ecosystems Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Tens of thousands of stream kilometers around the world are degraded by a legacy of environmental impacts and acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by abandoned underground and surface mines, piles of discarded coal wastes, and tailings. Increased acidity, high concentrations of metals...

  15. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  16. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to cons...

  17. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  18. innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management

    treatment of radioactive waste dtreams is receiving considereble attention in most countries. the present work is for the radioactive wastewater stream management, by volume reduction by a mutual heating and humidificaction of a compressed dry air introduced through the wastewater. in the present work, a mathematical model describing the volume reduction by at the optimum operating condition is determined. a set of coupled first order differential equations, obtained through the mass and energy conservations laws, are used to obtain the humidity ratio, water diffused to the air stream, water temperature, and humid air stream temperature distributions through the bubbling column. these coupled differential equations are simulataneously solved numerically by the developed computer program using fourth order rung-kutta method. the results obtained, according to the present mathematical model, revealed that the air bubble state variables such as mass transfer coefficient (KG) and interfacial area (a) have a strong effect on the process. therefore, the behavior of the air bubble state variables with coulmn height can be predicted and optimized. moreover, the design curves of the volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams are obtained and assessed at the different operating conditions. an experimental setup was constructed to verify the suggested model. comperhensive comparison between suggested model results, recent experimental measurements and the results of previous work was carried out

  19. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  20. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  1. Standard test method for determining elements in waste Streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the sample. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable in process control within waste treatment facilities. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels that do not require special personnel or environmental protection. 1.3 A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is found in Table 1. 1.4 This test method has been used successfully for treatment of a large variety of waste solutions and industrial process liquids. The com...

  2. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    Specialty ion specific media were examined and developed for, not only pre- and post-outage waste streams, but also for very difficult outage waste streams. This work was carried out on first surrogate waste streams, then laboratory samples of actual waste streams, and, finally, actual on-site waste streams. This study was particularly focused on PWR wastewaters such as Floor Drain Tank (FDT), Boron Waste Storage Tank (BWST), and Waste Treatment Tank (WTT, or discharge tank). Over the last half decade, or so, treatment technologies have so greatly improved and discharge levels have become so low, that certain particularly problematic isotopes, recalcitrant to current treatment skids, are all that remain prior to discharge. In reality, they have always been present, but overshadowed by the more prevalent and higher activity isotopes. Such recalcitrants include cobalt, especially Co 58 [both ionic/soluble (total dissolved solids, TDS) and colloidal (total suspended solids, TSS)] and antimony (Sb). The former is present in most FDT and BWST wastewaters, while the Sb is primarily present in BWST waste streams. The reasons Co 58 can be elusive to granulated activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange (IX) demineralizers is that it forms submicron colloids as well as has a tendency to form metal complexes with chelating agents (e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, or EDTA). Such colloids and non-charged complexes will pass through the entire treatment skid. Antimony (Sb) on the other hand, has little or no ionic charge, and will, likewise, pass through both the filtration and de-min skids into the discharge tanks. While the latter will sometimes (the anionic vs. the cationic or neutral species) be removed on the anion bed(s), it will slough off (snow-plow effect) when a higher affinity anion (iodine slugs, etc.) comes along; thus causing effluents not meeting discharge criteria. The answer to these problems found in this study, during an actual

  3. Decomposition of zinc ferrite from waste streams of steelmaking

    Tauriainen, M. (Miia)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare different methods to decompose the zinc ferrite from the waste streams of steel making. The samples were acquired from SSAB Raahe blast furnace and converter flue gas scrubbers and Outokumpu Tornio Works bag filters EAF1, EAF3, AOD and CRK. Sludges and dusts contain significant amounts of zinc in form of zinc oxide and zinc ferrite. Zinc ferrite is highly stable compound which makes recovery of the zinc difficult. The zinc could be recovered and recycled ...

  4. Monitoring of plutonium-contaminated solid waste streams

    The fundamentals of the active neutron interrogation techniques are summarized. Design criteria for this techniques are numerically illustrated by one-dimensional one-group diffusion theory (plane geometry). Emphasis is given to the evaluation of the induced fission source in a neutron-irradiated sample. The concept and the mathematical model of a reference monitor are described. This model is based on the Nordheim method of heterogeneous neutron diffusion media. The apparatus consists of a cylindrical lead pile provided with two axial channels, one for adaptation of a (Sb - Be) neutron source and the other for placing of the sample (waste item). The radial and azimuthal distributions of source neutron flux around the sample are measured. From Fourier analysis of this flux distribution the spatial average of the source neutron flux in the sample is deduced. Induced fission neutrons are counted by energy biased detectors. This report is the fifth chapter of the guide: Monitoring of plutonium-contaminated solid waste streams

  5. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: ORNL; Y-12 Plant; K-25 Plant; Pantex Plant; Norfolk Naval Shipyard; Hanford Site; and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard

  6. Membrane systems to treat gaseous and nuclear industry waste streams

    Membranes are creating a revolution in the world separation technology. The applications of the membrane systems are recognised in water purification, removal of undesired waste constituents from the aqueous, organic liquids and gaseous streams. The systems named reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis are well known and have found applications in the above fields. Membranes have been known to common man for use only in filtration systems at the laboratory scale. Recent developments in gas separations have found applications in CO/sub 2/, So/sub 2), H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ stripping from the industrial and also nuclear gaseous effluents to save the environment from pollution and retain radioactivity in house. The supported liquid membrane based systems have been applied to recover metals from the industrial and radioactive liquid wastes. The status of the technology to treat the gaseous and liquid effluents have been described with the contributions for the development of immobilised liquid systems for the removal of some metal ions, which are present as radionuclides in the liquid wastes. Application of reverse osmosis to reduce the waste volume and the undesired radionuclides like /sup 54/Mn, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 110/Ag, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs have also been discussed. Membranes systems for gas purification have also been discussed to treat industrial effluents. (author)

  7. Control of aromatic-waste air streams by soil bioreactors

    Contamination of groundwater resources is a serious environmental problem which is continuing to increase in occurrence in the United States. It has been reported that leaking underground gasoline storage tanks may pose the most serious threat of all sources of groundwater contamination. Gasolines are comprised of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic portion consists primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX compounds). BTEX compounds are also among the most frequency identified substances at Superfund sites. Pump and treat well systems are the most common and frequently used technique for aquifer restoration. Treatment is often in the form of air stripping to remove the volatile components from the contaminated water. Additionally, soil ventilation processes have been used to remove volatile components from the vadose zone. Both air stripping and soil ventilation produce a waste gas stream containing volatile compounds which is normally treated by carbon adsorption or incineration. Both treatment processes require a substantial capital investment and continual operation and maintenance expenditures. The objective of the study was to examine the potential of using soil bioreactors to treat a waste gas stream produced by air stripping or soil ventilation process. Previous studies have shown that various hydrocarbons can be successfully treated with soils. The study examined the removal of BTEX compounds within soil columns and the influence of soil type, inlet concentration, and inlet flow rate on the removal efficiency

  8. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream

  9. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  10. Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment

    Prigg, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment produced by the North West Water Authority in 1985. This report forms part of a series on component biological investigations, identified by location or topic, within the acid rain project. Reporting of the Wastwater catchment data would not have been given priority ordinarily, but it has been brought forward to coincide with J. Robinson's reporting of his investigations of land use and liming in the catchment. Thi...

  11. Removal of styrene from waste gas stream using a biofilter

    B Bina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Styrene is produced in large quantities in the chemical industries and it has been listed among the 189 hazardous and toxic atmospheric contaminants under Clean Air Act Amendments, 1990, due to its adverse effects on human health. The biofiltration has been widely and efficiently applied during recent decades for the treatment of air streams contaminated by volatile organic compounds at low concentrations. Also this technology has been applied widely and efficiently in the removal of styrene from waste gas streams. Methods: Biofiltration of waste gas stream polluted by styrene vapor was investigated in a three-stage bench scale reactor. Yard waste compost using shredded hard plastics as a bulking agent in a 75:25 v/v mix of plastics:compost was used to packing biofilter. The system inoculation was achieved by adding thickened activated sludge obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant and the effects of loading rate, inlet concentration, and empty bed retention time variations on the performance and operation of biofilter were studied. Results: Microbial acclimation to styrene was achieved with inlet concentration of 65 ± 11 ppm and bed contact time of 360 s after 57 days of operation. Under steady state conditions experimental results showed equal average removal efficiency of about 84% at loading rates of 60 and 80 g m-3 h-1 with empty bed retention time of 60 s. Maximum elimination capacity was obtained up to 81 g m-3 h-1 with organic loading rate of about 120 g m-3 h-1. Reduction in performance was observed at inlet concentrations of upper than 650 ppm related to organic loading rates up to 160 g m-3 h-1 and then removal efficiency was decreased sharply. Evaluation of the concentration profile along the bed height of column indicated that the most value of elimination capacity occurred in the first section of biofilter. Elimination capacity also showed higher performance when empty bed retention time was reduced to 30 s

  12. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  13. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  14. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  15. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  16. Design of a static mixer reactor for copper recovery from waste streams

    Van Wageningen, W.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project was the development of a plug flow reactor for the reduction of heavy metals (Cu2+) from industrial waste streams. Potential application of the reduction process inside The Netherlands lies in the IC and galvanic industry, where small waste streams containing aqueous co

  17. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy's anticipated mixed waste streams

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE's waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE's mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters

  18. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Ogle, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  19. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to section 3021(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). DOE has prepared this report for submission to EPA and the States in which DOE stores, generates, or treats mixed wastes. As required by the FFCA, this report contains: a national inventory of all mixed wastes in the DOE system that are currently stored or will be generated over the next five years, including waste stream name, description, EPA waste codes, basis for characterization (i.e., sampling and analysis or process knowledge), effect of radionuclides on treatment, quantity stored that is subject to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) storage prohibition, quantity stored that is not subject to the LDRS, expected generation over the next five years, Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) used for developing the LDR requirements, and waste minimization activities; and a national inventory of mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies, including information such as the descriptions, capacities, and locations of all existing and proposed treatment facilities, explanations for not including certain existing facilities in capacity evaluations, information to support decisions on unavailability of treatment technologies for certain mixed wastes, and the planned technology development activities

  20. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  1. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  2. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE's waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ''best-in-class'' industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste: The elastic waste stream

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for disposal of greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). A recent DOE study projects that some 3,240 cubic meters of GTCC LLW will be generated through 2035. As important as the projection, however, are the caveats about the uncertainties involved in the projection. GTCC LLW is labeled the elastic waste stream, not because of characteristics of the waste, but because legal interpretations and regulatory policies will have a major affect on the volume of waste ultimately considered GTCC LLW. For the past several years, DOE has implemented a three-phase strategy for implementing its responsibilities for GTCC LLW. Under the strategy, DOE would provide for interim storage of GTCC LLW that poses a potential threat to public health and safety, would plan for a dedicated storage system that would accept GTCC LLW on a less restricted basis, and would plan for eventual disposal of the waste. Based on information developed by the GTCC LLW over the past several years, the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and the Idaho Operations Office have directed that the program reassess whether this is the most effective strategy to meet DOE's responsibilities under the Act

  4. Zirconium phosphate waste forms for low-temperature stabilization of cesium-137-containing waste streams

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes because volatiles are present in the wastes. A composite of zirconium-magnesium phosphate has been developed and shown to stabilize ash waste contaminated with a radioactive surrogate of 137Cs. Excellent retainment of cesium in the phosphate matrix system was observed in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests. This was attributed to the capture of cesium in the layered zirconium phosphate structure by intercalation ion-exchange reaction. But because zirconium phosphate has low strength, a novel zirconium/magnesium phosphate composite waste form system was developed. The performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfy the regulatory criteria. Test results indicate that zirconium-magnesium-phosphate-based final waste forms present a viable technology for treatment and solidification of cesium-contaminated wastes

  5. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development

    The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO3 etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO3 strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO3 and H2SO4 which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO3/sup /minus// to be displaced by SO4/sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO3 is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe. PMID:27067099

  7. Immobilization of nitrate waste streams containing small amounts of organic solvents

    The influence of organic solvents in nitrate waste streams is investigated concerning the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the full size waste forms when ordinary Portland cement is used as a binder matrix. Simulated waste streams containing sodium nitrate varying from 0 to about 26 wt %, including tributyl phosphate/dodecane, 30/70, as the organic phase varying from 0 to 10 wt %, were assayed. (author)

  8. Leaching of Electronic Waste Using Biometabolised Acids

    M. Saidan; B. Brown; M. Valix

    2012-01-01

    The revolution in information and communication technology has brought huge technical benefits and wealth, but has created a major global problem: the generation of vast amounts of electronic waste, or e-waste through product obsolesce. The challenge in managing e-waste will be in developing sustainable recycling tech- nologies that are able to address the volume and complexity of this waste using cost effective and ecologically sen-sitive methods. In this study, the capability or microorganism metabolic acids in dissolving the metallic tractions from waste printed circuit boards was examined. Several factors were considered in the examination of the activityof the acids-including secondary reactions, solution pH, temperature and the nature of ligands in solutions (or bioacid constituents). The leaching tests were cgnducted ex-situ, using synthetic organic acids. Leaching was performed for periods of up to 6 hat 70-90 ℃ and 1000 r-min-1.

  9. Sources of acidic storm flow in an Appalachian Headwater Stream

    Swistock, Bryan R.; Dewalle, David R.; Sharpe, William E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the source of increased dissolved aluminum concentrations during acidic storm flows on a small Pennsylvania stream. Data for six episodes during fall 1986 and spring 1987 showed depressions in stream pH and increases in sulfates, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved aluminum. Flow separation analyses were conducted using 18O as a tracer in a three-component mass balance tracer model. Results showed that soil water and groundwater are the dominant flow sources, accounting for approximately 20 and 75% of total flow during storms, respectively. Channel precipitation generally provided less than 5% of total flows. Hydrograph separation using aluminum agreed with 18O results, while other chemical parameters produced unsatisfactory results. The data support Hewlett's (1982) variable source area concept of storm flow generation with inputs of older, deep circulating groundwater from low-elevation source areas early in an event and later inputs of younger soil water and possibly shallow groundwater from expanding source areas at higher elevations. The results suggest that the most toxic runoff events for aquatic life occur during large storms when the greatest inputs of soil water cause elevated stream dissolved aluminum concentrations. Reductions in storm flow acidity and dissolved aluminum concentrations on this catchment will be most dependent upon changes in soil water and/or groundwater chemistry.

  10. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1–5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8 × 105 mg kg−1 As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5 × 104 mg kg−1 As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. - Highlights: • Stream sediments in a former mining area remain polluted with up to 25 g As per kg. • The main arsenic mineral in adjacent mine wastes appears to be scorodite. • Low solubility scorodite was inversely correlated with potentially mobile As. • Combining mineralogical and

  11. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK

    Rieuwerts, J.S., E-mail: jrieuwerts@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Mighanetara, K.; Braungardt, C.B. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rollinson, G.K. [Camborne School of Mines, CEMPS, University of Exeter, Tremough Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ (United Kingdom); Pirrie, D. [Helford Geoscience LLP, Menallack Farm, Treverva, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9BP (United Kingdom); Azizi, F. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1–5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8 × 10{sup 5} mg kg{sup −1} As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5 × 10{sup 4} mg kg{sup −1} As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. - Highlights: • Stream sediments in a former mining area remain polluted with up to 25 g As per kg. • The main arsenic mineral in adjacent mine wastes appears to be scorodite. • Low solubility scorodite was inversely correlated with potentially mobile As. • Combining

  12. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams during 1994 and 1995

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Facility Effluent Management Program characterized and monitored liquid waste streams from 300 Area buildings that are owned by the US Department of Energy and are operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The purpose of these measurements was to determine whether the waste streams would meet administrative controls that were put in place by the operators of the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. This report summarizes the data obtained between March 1994 and September 1995 on the following waters: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 325, 326, 327, 331, and 3,720; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe)

  13. Design of a static mixer reactor for copper recovery from waste streams

    Van Wageningen, W.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project was the development of a plug flow reactor for the reduction of heavy metals (Cu2+) from industrial waste streams. Potential application of the reduction process inside The Netherlands lies in the IC and galvanic industry, where small waste streams containing aqueous copper exist. Outside The Netherlands, the process could be applicable in the mining industry,e.g. in Chili or South Africa. The copper is reduced in the form of particles by soluble carbohydrates, wh...

  14. Categorisation of waste streams arising from the operation of a low active waste incinerator and justification of discharge practices

    Waste streams arising from the low active waste incinerator at Harwell are described, and the radiological impact of each exposure pathway discussed. The waste streams to be considered are: (i) discharge of scrubber liquors after effluent treatment to the river Thames; (ii) disposal of incinerator ash; and (iii) discharge of airborne gaseous effluents to the atmosphere. Doses to the collective population and critical groups as a result of the operation of the incinerator are assessed and an attempt made to justify the incineration practice by consideration of the radiological impact and monetary costs associated with alternative disposal methods. (author)

  15. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry.

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D

    2008-04-15

    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired. PMID:18258282

  16. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 106 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 108; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>4500stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N2) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO2stack was > 1.5 x 106 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  17. Recycle stream impacts on feed treatment flowsheets and glass formulation for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify high-level radioactive wastes stored on the Hanford site. The vitrification flowsheet is being developed to assure that low-level effluent streams will be sufficiently low in TRU and gamma activity to allow direct disposal in shallow land burial. To achieve this goal, the process is being designed to separate high activity components from off-gas treatment decontamination waste streams, thereby creating a recycle stream which must be combined with the plant food. The intent of this paper is to consider the impacts of such a recycle stream on glass formulation, melter operability, redox control upsets due to the recycle of nitrates, and the ability of a single composition frit to accommodate shifts in the recycle flowsheet

  18. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 1000C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 1000C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 1000C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters

  19. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  20. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  2. Evaluating and controlling the characteristics of the nuclear waste in the FWMS using waste stream analysis model

    The Waste Stream Analysis (WSA) Model is used by the Department of Energy to model the item and location dependent properties of the nuclear waste stream in the Federal Waste Managements System and at utility spent fuel storage facilities. WSA can simulate a wide variety of FWMS configurations and operating strategies and can select and sequence spent fuel for optimal efficiency in the FWMS while minimizing adverse impact on the utility sector. WSA tracks each assembly from the time of discharge to ultimate geologic disposal including all shipping cask and waste package loadings and both at-reactor and FWMS consolidation. WSA selects the highest capacity shipping cask or waste package that does not violate external dose rate or heat limitations for a group of spent fuel assemblies to be containerized. This paper presents an overview of the Waste Stream Analysis Model and a number of key results from a set of coordinated SIMS runs, which illustrates both the impact of waste characteristics on system performance and the ability to control waste characteristics by use of selection and sequencing strategies. 7 refs., 6 figs

  3. Quantification of Acidic Compounds in Complex Biomass-Derived Streams

    Karp, Eric M.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Deutch, Steve; Salvachua, Davinia; Cywar, Robin M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-09-07

    Biomass-derived streams that contain acidic compounds from the degradation of lignin and polysaccharides (e.g. black liquor, pyrolysis oil, pyrolytic lignin, etc.) are chemically complex solutions prone to instability and degradation during analysis, making quantification of compounds within them challenging. Here we present a robust analytical method to quantify acidic compounds in complex biomass-derived mixtures using ion exchange, sample reconstitution in pyridine and derivatization with BSTFA. The procedure is based on an earlier method originally reported for kraft black liquors and, in this work, is applied to identify and quantify a large slate of acidic compounds in corn stover derived alkaline pretreatment liquor (APL) as a function of pretreatment severity. Analysis of the samples is conducted with GCxGC-TOFMS to achieve good resolution of the components within the complex mixture. The results reveal the dominant low molecular weight components and their concentrations as a function of pretreatment severity. Application of this method is also demonstrated in the context of lignin conversion technologies by applying it to track the microbial conversion of an APL substrate. Here too excellent results are achieved, and the appearance and disappearance of compounds is observed in agreement with the known metabolic pathways of two bacteria, indicating the sample integrity was maintained throughout analysis. Finally, it is shown that this method applies more generally to lignin-rich materials by demonstrating its usefulness in analysis of pyrolysis oil and pyrolytic lignin.

  4. Removal of pertechnetate from simulated nuclear waste streams using supported zerovalent iron

    Darab, John

    2008-01-01

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4-) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy"s Hanford Site: (1) the di...

  5. Application of coals as sorbents for the removal of Cr from aqueous waste streams

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2001-09-01

    The study reported further understanding of how various electron transfer processes operate for Cr(VI) with a view to using coals for the removal of Cr(VI) from waste streams. Skye peat, Spanish and German lignites, UK high and low volatility bituminous coals and an activated carbon were used. After treatment to remove exchangeable cations, ion exchange experiments were conducted in 0.1 M acetic acid-sodium acetate (1:1) buffer and 0.05 M sulphuric acid solutions and the slurries were agitated once a day. The ion concentrations in the solutions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Cr(VI) renaming in solution was determined by the standard calorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide method. Peat and low rank (Spanish Mequinenza) coal exhibited a larger capacity for Cr(VI) removal than bituminous coal. Redox mechanisms are operative coupled with the oxidation of the coal and peat surfaces. Desorption of Cr(III) formed by reduction which occurs in strongly acidic media also needs to be considered. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  6. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program

  7. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  8. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  9. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  10. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  11. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a historic metal mining area in the UK.

    Rieuwerts, J S; Mighanetara, K; Braungardt, C B; Rollinson, G K; Pirrie, D; Azizi, F

    2014-02-15

    Mining generates large amounts of waste which may contain potentially toxic elements (PTE), which, if released into the wider environment, can cause air, water and soil pollution long after mining operations have ceased. The fate and toxicological impact of PTEs are determined by their partitioning and speciation and in this study, the concentrations and mineralogy of arsenic in mine wastes and stream sediments in a former metal mining area of the UK are investigated. Pseudo-total (aqua-regia extractable) arsenic concentrations in all samples from the mining area exceeded background and guideline values by 1-5 orders of magnitude, with a maximum concentration in mine wastes of 1.8×10(5)mgkg(-1) As and concentrations in stream sediments of up to 2.5×10(4)mgkg(-1) As, raising concerns over potential environmental impacts. Mineralogical analysis of the wastes and sediments was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated SEM-EDS based quantitative evaluation (QEMSCAN®). The main arsenic mineral in the mine waste was scorodite and this was significantly correlated with pseudo-total As concentrations and significantly inversely correlated with potentially mobile arsenic, as estimated from the sum of exchangeable, reducible and oxidisable arsenic fractions obtained from a sequential extraction procedure; these findings correspond with the low solubility of scorodite in acidic mine wastes. The work presented shows that the study area remains grossly polluted by historical mining and processing and illustrates the value of combining mineralogical data with acid and sequential extractions to increase our understanding of potential environmental threats. PMID:24295744

  13. Linking landscape characteristics, streamwater acidity and brown trout (Salmo trutta) distributions in a boreal stream network

    Buffam, Ishi

    2007-01-01

    Perturbations of stream ecosystems are often mediated by the terrestrial watershed, making the understanding of linkages between watersheds and streams essential. In this thesis I explore the connections between landscape characteristics, streamwater acidity and brown trout (Salmo trutta) distributions in Krycklan, a 67 km2 boreal stream network in northern Sweden. The study focuses on hydrochemical changes during the snowmelt-driven spring flood, a period of episodic acidity which is thought...

  14. Recycling ferrous and nonferrous waste streams with FASTMET

    McClelland, James M.; Metius, Gary E.

    2003-08-01

    In metals processing, residue streams are routinely generated containing recoverable metallic compounds. These metallics represent both valuable materials and potential disposal problems to the producer. Midrex, primarily involved in ferrous conversion for many years, has developed a variety of new processing techniques for ferrous and non-ferrous recovery. The processing technologies involve either shaft or rotary hearth furnaces, and can be both hydrocarbon or coal based. Recent developments have included conversion studies for ferrous and non-ferrous residual streams that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. The technologies to be presented, predominantly coal based, include FASTMET®, FASTMELT®, and Itmk3®.

  15. Recycling ferrous and nonferrous waste streams with FASTMET

    McClelland, J.M.; Metius, G.E. [Midrex Technology, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2003-08-01

    In metals processing, residue streams are routinely generated containing recoverable metallic compounds. These metallics represent both valuable materials and potential disposal problems to the producer. Midrex, primarily involved in ferrous conversion for many years, has developed a variety of new processing techniques for ferrous and non-ferrous recovery. The processing technologies involve either shaft or rotary hearth furnaces, and can be both hydrocarbon or coal based. Recent developments have included conversion studies for ferrous and non-ferrous residual streams that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. The technologies presented, predominantly coal based, include FASTMET, FASTMELT, and Itmk3.

  16. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  17. Detrital processing in streams exposed to acidic precipitation in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    Continuing high rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States may lead to long-term effects on stream communities, because sensitive catchments are continuing to lose anions and cations. A two-year study of the effects of pH and associated water chemistry variables on detrital processing in three streams with different bedrock geology in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia were investigated. Leaf pack processing rates and macroinvertebrate colonization and microbial biomass (ATP concentration) on the packs in the three stream were compared. It was found that macroinvertebrate and microbial communities differed both among streams that differed in their capacity to buffer the effects of acidic precipitation and among years in the same stream; these differences in biotic communities were not large enough to affect rates of leaf processing between the two years of the study, but they did significantly affect processing rates between acidic and circumneutral streams

  18. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  19. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum ''recipe'' for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600 C

  20. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  1. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  2. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  3. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  4. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  5. Classification of toxic chemical-waste streams from nuclear reactors

    The radiological and chemical constituents from light water reactors are identified, the methodology for comparing the hazards of various chemicals quantitatively with those of radioactive materials is presented, and the possible management basis of low-level waste (LLW) is considered

  6. Remediation of phosphorus from electric furnace waste streams

    Electrothermal production of elemental phosphorus (P4) generates substantial amounts of highly toxic phossy water sludge, slag and other gaseous wastes. Because of their high phosphorus content the sludges pose potential fire hazards. In the absence of a reliable processing technology, large amounts of these hazardous wastes are accumulated at an annual rate of 1.5-2.5 million tons from current and past operations. The accumulated sludges are stored in ponds or in special containment vessels in 30 locations in 18 states including Alabama, California, Tennessee, Idaho and Montana. Serious water pollution problems will result unless these wastes are given extensive treatment to remove the elemental phosphorus. Federal regulations prohibit permanent storage of flammable wastes. This paper reports that recently, researchers at the University of Alabama have developed a two-step method for the treatment of phosphorus sludge that includes bulk removal of phosphorus by physical separation techniques followed by remediation of the residual P4 in the sludge using a novel wet air oxidation technique known as HSAD

  7. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe the development of cementitious waste forms for evaporated Hanford waste waters from several sources. Basin 42 waste water and simulants of proposed Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary wastes and Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System secondary wastes were solidified in cementitious matrices termed ''dry cementitious formulation.'' Solidification of these brines was difficult to deal with because of high sulfate contents. Two approaches were explored. The first was based on compositions similar to sulphoaluminate-belite cements. The main component of these cements is 4CaO · 2Al2O3 · SO4. When hydrating in the presence of sulfate, these cements rapidly form ettringite. The goal was to consume the sulfate by rapidly forming ettringite. Forming ettringite before the mixture has filly set minimizes the potential for deleterious expansion at a later date. These formulations were developed based on mixtures of calcium-aluminate cement, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class F fly ash, and Portland cement. A second approach was based on using high alumina cement like ciment fondu. In this case the grout was a mixture of ciment fondu, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class f fly ash, and Portland cement. The literature shows that for concretes based on equal amounts of ciment fondu and blast furnace slag, cured at either 20 C or 38 C, the compressive strength increased continuously over a period of 1 year. In this second approach, enough reactive calcium aluminate was added to fully consume the sulfate at an early age. The results of this study will be presented. Included will be results for expansion and bleed water testing, adiabatic temperature rise, microstructure development, and the phase chemistry of the hydrated materials. The results of

  8. Screening of Phosphorus-Accumulating Fungi and Their Potential for Phosphorus Removal from Waste Streams.

    Ye, Yulin; Gan, Jing; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-01

    While bacteria have been primarily studied for phosphorus (P) removal in wastewater treatment, fungi and their ability to accumulate intracellular polyphosphate are less investigated. P-accumulating fungal strains were screened from soybean plants and surrounding soil by flask cultivation with potato dextrose broth and KH2PO4 in this study. Mucor circinelloides was selected for its high efficiency in P removal efficiency and high cellular P content. Neisser staining and growth-curve analysis confirmed that M. circinelloides stored polyphosphate intracellularly by luxury phosphate uptake. The effect of culture medium compositions on P removal efficiency and cellular P content was also investigated. Monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose) and organic nitrogen (N, such as urea, and peptone) promoted fungi growth and P accumulation. M. circinelloides also preferred organic phosphates. When glucose, urea, and phytic acid sodium salt were used as the carbon, N, and P source, respectively, the maximum utilization efficiency was 40.1% for P and 7.08% for cellular P content. In addition, the potential of M. circinelloides for P removal from waste streams was investigated. Compared with the non-inoculated control culture, inoculation with M. circinelloides improved the soluble P removal in treating wastewater centrate, screened manure, and digested manure. PMID:26280802

  9. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  10. Partial stream digestion of residual municipal solid waste.

    De Baere, L

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has become more important than the digestion of source separated biowaste. More than 52% of the capacity available in Europe was designed for digestion of residual municipal waste by the end of 2006, while this was only 13% in 1998. Partial digestion of residual waste organics, by which only a part of the organics is digested, has been implemented to reduce the need for dewatering and subsequent wastewater treatment. The digestate coming from part of the organics is immediately mixed with the non-digested organic fraction. This organic fraction is drier and still contains a lot of energy which can be used to dry the digestate during the aerobic composting of the mixture of digested and undigested organics. Such a MBT-plant has been operating for over a year whereby 2/3 of the organics (including sludge cake) are digested (25,000 t/year) and mixed after digestion with the remaining 1/3 of the organics. Biogas production averages 125.7 Nm2 per ton fed and contained 56.2% of methane. The mixture of digestate and non-digested organics is aerated in tunnels during 4 to 6 weeks. The stabilized end product is landfilled, meeting the stringent German standards for inert landfills. By using a dry fermentation able to produce a digestate at 35% solids, there is no need for dewatering the digestate so that no wastewater is produced. PMID:18441435

  11. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills. PMID:25106533

  12. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1998-10-26

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  13. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  14. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  15. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    Williams K.M.; Turner A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration ...

  16. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW [i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)] that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials [liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids], could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends

  17. Anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals and their influence on the structure of stream food webs

    We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food chains, less links) than those in naturally acidic, naturally high metal, and circumneutral streams. Food webs of naturally high metal streams were structurally similar to those in mining streams, lacking fish predators and having few species. Whereas, webs in naturally acidic streams differed very little from those in circumneutral streams due to strong similarities in community composition and diets of secondary and top consumers. The combined negative effects of acidity and metals on stream food webs are clear. However, elevated metal concentrations, regardless of source, appear to play a more important role than acidity in driving food web structure. - Highlights: ► Food webs in acid mine drainage impacted streams are small and extremely simplified. ► Conductivity explained differences in food web properties between streams. ► Number of links and web size accounted for much dissimilarity between food webs. ► Food web structure was comparable in naturally acidic and circumneutral streams. - Food web structure differs in streams with anthropogenic and natural sources of acidity and metals.

  18. Comparison of anion exchange resins for recovering plutonium from nitric acid waste

    Microreticular and macroreticular anion exchange resins were compared for their capability of recovering plutonium from nitric acid waste streams. Plutonium breakthrough capacity and elution behavior of the resins were determined as a function of resin properties. Small-bead microreticular resins with a polystyrene matrix containing 4% divinylbenzene cross-linkage showed the best performance. Of the 20- to 50-mesh resins, the macroreticular resin, Amberlite IRA-938, gave the highest plutonium breakthrough capacity and eluted plutonium the fastest

  19. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  20. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  1. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO's) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968

  2. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO`s) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968.

  3. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  4. CHEMICAL FLUX IN AN ACID-STRESSED STREAM

    The acidity of rain and snow falling on widely separated areas of the world has been increasing during the past 30 yr (refs 1-3). Acid rainfall consists of a dilute solution of sulphuric and nitric acids due to the oxidation and hydrolysis of airborne sulphur and nitrogen and fre...

  5. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment

  6. Waste and Lead Time Reduction in a Software Product Customization Process with Value Stream Maps

    Mujtaba, Shahid; Feldt, Robert; Petersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Custom-developed adaptations of software products are increasingly important to meet different and changing customer needs and heterogeneous system environments. Efficient software customization processes with short lead times are thus a priority for companies to stay competitive. The purpose of this case study is to identify waste-related problems in a software product customization process by using value stream maps (VSM). The study was conducted at the telecom company Ericsson AB; the empi...

  7. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  8. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Erminda Tsouko; Constantina Kourmentza; Dimitrios Ladakis; Nikolaos Kopsahelis; Ioanna Mandala; Seraphim Papanikolaou; Fotis Paloukis; Vitor Alves; Apostolis Koutinas

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L)...

  9. Large spill of mining wastes in Portelo stream: impacts on ecosystem integrity and on angling potential

    Ana Maria GERALDES; Elsa RAMALHOSA; Caetano, Miguel; Teixeira, Amílcar

    2013-01-01

    Streams located at Montesinho Natural Park (NE Portugal) have high potential for brown trout (Salmo trutta) angling . However, in this territory there are severa! abandoned mine sites. Therefore, the continuous drainage of fine grained tailings can be particularly problematic due to arsenic, copper, aluminium and zinc. However, until now no significant disturbance was detected in water quality and in biota. Nevertheless, there has never been such a large spill of mining wastes ...

  10. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors

  11. PERSISTENT EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF STREAMS LINKED TO ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON SOIL

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indic...

  12. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  13. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  15. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000

  16. Surrogate waste streams for use in MWFA funded research and development

    Researchers developing technologies for treatment of mixed (both hazardous and radioactive) wastes are strongly encouraged to test using materials representative of the wastes targeted by their processes. Using actual wastes is essential for treatability studies and demonstrations prior to implementation, but is excessively costly and impractical during development. Thus, it is a responsibility of the focus area to provide researchers with surrogate recipes for use in development. Data from tests with standardized recipes will also facilitate comparison of results for competing technologies by potential end users and industry. Due to the wide range of waste materials in the DOE inventory and the scope of technology covered by the focus area, no one surrogate will accurately represent all wastes in all applications. The surrogates described are based on generic base compositions representative of that class of wastes, with variable constituents to be added over a recommended test range. Not all of the additives must be tested for each technology; focus should be directed to the constituents and physical forms present in the waste streams targeted by the developer. Excluding some parameters, or reducing the parametric testing rather than using the full range of concentration recommended simply limits the scope of potential application when the data is considered by a potential user. Surrogates are described for debris, sludges, and caustic scrub solution. Soils are recognized as a fourth class, and are considered too complex to represent with a surrogate. Descriptive text is also included to explain how the recipes were developed, and why each test additive is prescribed

  17. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    The authors evaluated several calorimetric assays for ReO4-, and discovered that all were flawed. They evaluated atomic absorption spectroscopy as a technique to determine sub-millimolar concentrations of ReO4-, and discovered that it is not sensitive enough for their use. However, they discovered that ICP-AES can be used to determine concentrations of ReO4- down to 0.25 ppm. They next determined that ReO4- can be quickly extracted (10 minutes or less) from aqueous HNO3 using the commercial extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate diluted with 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Higher concentrations of extractant led to higher values of Kd (the distribution ratio). Kd was lower as the nitrate concentration of the medium increased, and was also lowered by increasing the acidity at constant nitrate ion concentration. The authors performed parallel studies with TcO4-, determining that Kd(ReO4-) and Kd(TcO4-) track similarly as the conditions are changed. An effort was made to prepare substituted pyridium nitrate salts that are soluble in organic solvents to be used as alternate extractants. However, in all cases but one, the salts were also soluble to some extent in the aqueous phase, significantly limiting their usefulness as extractants for these purposes. Many of the new extractant salts would partition between the organic solvent and water so that 10% of the extractant salt was in the aqueous phase. Only 1-methyl-3,5-didodecylpyridium nitrate did not show any measurable solubility in water. However, this compound was not as good an extractant as Aliquat-336. A considerable effort was also made to find suitable alternative solvents to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Several ketone solvents with flash points above 60 C were tested, and two of these, 2-nonanone and 3-nonanone, were superior to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene as a diluent

  18. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  19. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams

    Hughes, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macro-invertebrate taxa.

  20. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-09-30

    The authors evaluated several calorimetric assays for ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that all were flawed. They evaluated atomic absorption spectroscopy as a technique to determine sub-millimolar concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and discovered that it is not sensitive enough for their use. However, they discovered that ICP-AES can be used to determine concentrations of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} down to 0.25 ppm. They next determined that ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} can be quickly extracted (10 minutes or less) from aqueous HNO{sub 3} using the commercial extractant Aliquat-336 nitrate diluted with 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Higher concentrations of extractant led to higher values of K{sub d} (the distribution ratio). K{sub d} was lower as the nitrate concentration of the medium increased, and was also lowered by increasing the acidity at constant nitrate ion concentration. The authors performed parallel studies with TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, determining that K{sub d}(ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) and K{sub d}(TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) track similarly as the conditions are changed. An effort was made to prepare substituted pyridium nitrate salts that are soluble in organic solvents to be used as alternate extractants. However, in all cases but one, the salts were also soluble to some extent in the aqueous phase, significantly limiting their usefulness as extractants for these purposes. Many of the new extractant salts would partition between the organic solvent and water so that 10% of the extractant salt was in the aqueous phase. Only 1-methyl-3,5-didodecylpyridium nitrate did not show any measurable solubility in water. However, this compound was not as good an extractant as Aliquat-336. A considerable effort was also made to find suitable alternative solvents to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene. Several ketone solvents with flash points above 60 C were tested, and two of these, 2-nonanone and 3-nonanone, were superior to 1,3-diisopropylbenzene as a diluent.

  1. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary economic turnover of dangerous waste from different production branches. This gives possibility to produce construction products of recycled materials and at the same time to solve the problem of environmental protection. The article considers and analyzes scientific methodological approaches to creation of a model of a complex control system for the streams of building waste in frames of organizing uniform ecologically safe and economically effective complex system of waste treatment in country regions.

  2. Effects of acid mine drainage on southwestern Pennsylvania stream

    Moon, T.C.; Lucostic, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were studied in a small valley stream in southwestern Pennsylvania, where the pH value below a coal mine effluent discharge was 5.8-7.0. The major factor affecting the benthic community seemed to be ferric hydroxide. Certain taxa were abundant at station sites above the mine discharge, while only those taxa tolerant of polluted conditions, such as Chironomidae and Tubifex, were prevalent at the downstream station sites. An analysis of benthic populations demonstrated environmental stress within the aquatic ecosystem.

  3. Sequential destruction of acid and dissolved TBP and the electrodeposition of fission products in simulated Raffinate stream by electrolytic method

    The acidity of the 1st cycle raffinate produced from CORAL has to be reduced from 4N to 0.1N in order to reduce its volume by evaporation is achieved by electrolytically in the catholyte compartment. A simple and efficient electrolytic method developed for the sequential destruction of nitric acid and dissolved TBP and the electro-deposition of fission products in simulated raffinate waste streams of fast reactor fuel reprocessing in CORAL. In the present work, using platinum anode and titanium cathode, with applied potential of 2.6-3.7 volts and current density of 80 mA/cm2, it is achieved which in turn destroys the simulated solution of raffinate (first cycle HLW) containing 3.85 N nitric acid, and 250 ppm of dissolved TBP destructed to 49 ppm (confirmed by G.C.) and the 90 % of fission products are deposited in the cathode by electro-deposition which is confirmed after the analysis by ICP-OES and AAS technique. By this simple electrolytic method, the nitric acid is completely destroyed from 3.85 N to 0.6 N within 31-38 hrs at different temperatures with C.E. of 67 to 80%. Using this method of cathodic deposition by the separation of some of the fission products gives valuable solution to recover most of the fission products in the raffinate can easily converted to little amount of solid and the recovery of fission products from HLW raffinate stream is made easy and it can be converted to low level waste which proves efficient management of HLW and the Gamma dose could be brought down to workable levels

  4. Process Control for Simultaneous Vitrification of Two Mixed Waste Streams in the Transportable Vitrification System

    Cozzi, A.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jantzen, C.M.; Brown, K.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.

    1998-05-01

    Two highly variable mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste sludges were simultaneously vitrified in an EnVitCo Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) deployed at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The TVS was the result of a cooperative effort between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and EnVitCo to design and build a transportable melter capable of vitrifying a variety of mixed low level wastes.The two waste streams for the demonstration were the dried B and C Pond sludges at the K-25 site and waste water sludge produced in the Central Neutralization Facility from treatment of incinerator blowdown. Large variations occurred in the sodium, calcium, silicon, phosphorus, fluorine and iron content of the co- blended waste sludges: these elements have a significant effect on the process ability and performance of the final glass product. The waste sludges were highly reduced due to organics added during processing, coal-pile runoff (coal and sulfides), and other organics, including wood chips. A batch-by-batch process control model was developed to control glass viscosity, liquidus, and reduction/oxidation, assuming that the melter behaved as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor.

  5. Automated methodology for estimating waste streams generated from decommissioning contaminated facilities

    As part of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), a viable way to determine aggregate waste volumes, cost, and direct labor hours for decommissioning and decontaminating facilities is required. In this paper, a methodology is provided for determining waste streams, cost and direct labor hours from remediation of contaminated facilities. The method is developed utilizing U.S. facility remediation data and information from several decommissioning programs, including reactor decommissioning projects. The method provides for rapid, consistent analysis for many facility types. Three remediation scenarios are considered for facility D ampersand D: unrestricted land use, semi-restricted land use, and restricted land use. Unrestricted land use involves removing radioactive components, decontaminating the building surfaces, and demolishing the remaining structure. Semi-restricted land use involves removing transuranic contamination and immobilizing the contamination on-site. Restricted land use involves removing the transuranic contamination and leaving the building standing. In both semi-restricted and restricted land use scenarios, verification of containment with environmental monitoring is required. To use the methodology, facilities are placed in a building category depending upon the level of contamination, construction design, and function of the building. Unit volume and unit area waste generation factors are used to calculate waste volumes and estimate the amount of waste generated in each of the following classifications: low-level, transuranic, and hazardous waste. Unit factors for cost and labor hours are also applied to the result to estimate D ampersand D cost and labor hours

  6. Diatoms as biomonitors in two temporary streams affected by acid drainage from disused mines

    Diatoms are increasingly used as biomonitors of water quality in Australia, partly as an extension of the AUSRIVAS concept and partly through the increasing emphasis on biological/ecological monitoring of stream health that is acknowledged in the Australian and New Zealand water quality guidelines (ANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000). This work brings together the findings of three studies relating diatom populations to the water chemistry of two temporary streams affected by acid drainage. In the three studies reported, changes in the benthic diatom flora have been successfully used to: show the toxic effects of acid drainage from two mine sites; differentiate between nutrient and acid drainage pollution in a stream system affected by more than one pollutant and provide independent corroboration of the AQUARISK ecological risk assessment code

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle waste stream immobilization with cermets for improved thermal properties and waste consolidation

    Ortega, Luis H., E-mail: bertortega@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX (United States); Kaminski, Michael D., E-mail: kaminski@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL (United States); Zeng, Zuotao, E-mail: zeng@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL (United States); Cunnane, James, E-mail: cunnane@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In the pursuit of methods to improve nuclear waste form thermal properties and combine potential nuclear fuel cycle wastes, a bronze alloy was combined with an alkali, alkaline earth metal bearing ceramic to form a cermet. The alloy was prepared from copper and tin (10 mass%) powders. Pre-sintered ceramic consisting of cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium alumino-silicates was mixed with unalloyed bronze precursor powders and cold pressed to 300 × 10{sup 3} kPa, then sintered at 600 °C and 800 °C under hydrogen. Cermets were also prepared that incorporated molybdenum, which has a limited solubility in glass, under similar conditions. The cermet thermal conductivities were seven times that of the ceramic alone. These improved thermal properties can reduce thermal gradients within the waste forms thus lowering internal temperature gradients and thermal stresses, allowing for larger waste forms and higher waste loadings. These benefits can reduce the total number of waste packages necessary to immobilize a given amount of high level waste and immobilize troublesome elements.

  8. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  9. Environmental Implications of Radioactive Waste Disposal as Related to Stream Environments

    Increasing volumes of radioactive waste materials are being introduced into streams annually. These originate from the many laboratories in which radioactive materials are used for beneficial purposes, as well as from existing atomic energy facilities. To these amounts introduced directly into the river under essentially controlled conditions must be added those radioactive materials originating from fall-out and feeding into the stream through run-off or direct deposition. Since these same streams may serve a multiplicity of purposes, as for example, potable and industrial water, recreation, fishing, irrigation, and navigation, the effect of these discharges on each of these activities must be carefully evaluated. Present criteria do not provide a complete basis for determining permissible levels of discharge unless information is available on the amounts of specific radionuclides already present and the fate of these same nuclides in the downstream environment. Permissible levels of discharge will have to be modified in accordance with the above information and particularly in terms of the uses to which the downstream watercourse is put. Where several sources of discharge are to be permitted on a given water-course, allocation of maximum amounts of specific radionuclides must be established in accordance with downstream exposures of populations from all sources. Several suggested approaches to the handling-of this problem of waste management in relation to downstream uses are outlined and some of the difficulties associated with the application of each approach are considered. (author)

  10. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    Lawrence, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  11. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  12. Removal of Pertechnetate From Simulated Nuclear Waste Streams Using Supported Zerovalent Iron

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4#sup -#) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site: (1) the direct removal of pertechnetate from highly alkaline solutions, typical of those found in Hanford tank waste, and (2) the removal of dilute pertechnetate from near-neutral solutions, typical of the eluate streams from commercial organic ion-exchange resins that may be used to remediate Hanford tank wastes. It was envisioned that both applications would involve the subsequent encapsulation of the loaded sorbent material into a separate waste form. A high surface area (>200 m2/g) base-stable, nanocrystalline zirconia was used as a support for nanoiron for tests with highly alkaline solutions, while a silica gel support was used for tests with near-neutral solutions. It was shown that after 24 h of contact time, the high surface area zirconia supported nanoiron sorbent removed about 50% (Kd = 370 L/kg) of the pertechnetate from a pH 14 tank waste simulant containing 0.51 mM TcO4#sup -# and large concentrations of Na+, OH-, NO3#sup -#, and CO3#sup 2-# for a phase ratio of 360 L simulant per kg of sorbent. It was also shown that after 18 h of contact time, the silica-supported nanoiron removed >95% pertechnetate from a neutral pH eluate simulant containing 0.076 mM TcO4#sup -# for a phase ratio of 290 L/kg. It was determined that in all cases, nanoiron reduced the Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), or possibly to Tc(V), through a redox reaction. Finally, it was demonstrated that a mixture of 20 mass % of the solid reaction products obtained from contacting zirconia-supported nanoiron with an

  13. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Delva, Laurens, E-mail: Laurens.Delva@ugent.be; Ragaert, Kim, E-mail: Kim.Ragaert@ugent.be; Cardon, Ludwig, E-mail: Ludwig.Cardon@ugent.be [Centre for Polymer and Materials Technologies (CPMT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 915, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  14. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Delva, Laurens; Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  15. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation

  16. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)

  17. Paper Study Evaluations Of The Introduction Of Small Column Ion Exchange Waste Streams To The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb2O5, TiO2, and ZrO2, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8

  18. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is

  19. Study on recycle of materials and components from waste streams during decommissioning for heavy water research reactor

    The recycle of valuable materials from potential waste streams is one of important elements of waste minimization, and it can minimize the environment impact. The recycle of the arising was researched with taking the decommissioning of heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy as an example. By analyzing all the possible wastes that could generate during the decommissioning of HWRR, some amount of materials have potential values to recycle and may be used either directly or after appropriate treatment for other purposes. The research results show that in HWRR decommissioning at least tons of irons, 10 tons of aluminum and 5 tons of heavy water can be recycled by carrying out the waste minimization control measures (eg. waste classification and waste stream segregation), adopting appropriate decontamination technologies, and performing the requirements of clearance. (authors)

  20. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  1. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  2. Recovery of ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and bioenergy production via bipolar bioelectrodialysis

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia and sulfate, which are prevalent pollutants in agricultural and industrial wastewaters, can cause serious inhibition in several biological treatment processes, such as anaerobic digestion. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical approach termed bipolar bioelectrodialysis was developed to...... recover ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and thereby counteracting their toxicity during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were also accomplished. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, nitrogen and sulfate fluxes of 5.1 g View the MathML sourceNH4+-N/m2/d and...

  3. Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle. II. Recycle preparation for wastewater streams

    Recycle preparation methods were evaluated for secondary aqueous waste streams likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. Adsorption, reverse osmosis, and ozonization methods were evaluated on a laboratory scale for their application to the treatment of wastewater. Activated carbon, macroreticular resins, and polyurethanes were tested to determine their relative capabilities for removing detergents and corrosive anions from wastewater. Conceptual flow sheets were constructed for purifying wastewater by reverse osmosis. In addition, the application of ozonization techniques for water recycle preparation was examined briefly

  4. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for

  5. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES and H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES and H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction

  6. Feasibility Study on the Vitrification of Concentrated Boric Acid Waste

    Vitrification technology has been gradually recognized as one of effective solidification methods for concentrated boric acid wastes generated in PWR. Vitrification for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes has a large volume reduction and good durability for the final products. A feasibility study for the vitrification of concentrated boric acid wastes has been performed with developing the pre-treatment methods of powdered wastes, glass compositions using glass formulation and demonstration test. The pre-treatment method is pelletizing the powder type for stable feeding within cold crucible melter. The glass compositions should be developed considering molten glass are related with wastes reduction. High contents of sodium and boron within borate wastes give influence to waste loading. A variety of factors obtained from the demonstration test are reviewed, which is wastes feeding rate, off-gas characteristics on stack and glass characteristics of final products such as durability for implementing the wastes disposal requirement. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility of vitrification and review the solidification method for concentrated boric acid wastes and obtain the physicochemical characteristics of solidified glass.

  7. Personal Review: Sources of sulfide in waste streams and current biotechnologies for its removal

    MAHMOOD Qaisar; ZHENG Ping; CAI Jing; HAYAT Yousaf; HASSAN Muhammad Jaffar; WU Dong-lei; HU Bao-lan

    2007-01-01

    Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated by a number of industries. It is emitted into the environment as dissolved sulfide (S2- and HS-) in wastewaters and as H2S in waste gases. Due to its corrosive nature, biological hydrogen sulfide removal processes are being investigated to overcome the chemical and disposal costs associated with existing chemically based removal processes. The nitrogen and sulfur metabolism interacts at various levels of the wastewater treatment process. Hence, the sulfur cycle offers possibilities to integrate nitrogen removal in the treatment process, which needs to be further optimized by appropriate design of the reactor configuration, optimization of performance parameters, retention of biomass and optimization of biomass growth. The present paper reviews the biotechnological advances to remove sulfides from various environments.

  8. Removal of plutonium from low level Purex waste streams by Chitosan

    The low level waste solution generated from Purex process contains traces of Plutonium and Americium contributing alpha activity to the solution. Chitosan is it natural bio-polymer derived from Chitin. Successful studies were carried out using Chitosan to recover the uranium, thorium and americium from different waste streams. The studies were extended to find out its plutonium sorption characteristics. Chitosan was equilibrated with pure plutonium tracer solution at different pH, for 60 minutes with a Chitosan to aqueous ratio of 1:100 and the raffinates were filtered and analysed radio metrically. The results showed -95 % of plutonium could be recovered by Chitosan between pH 4 and 7. Elution study of loaded plutonium was also studied with 1M HNO3. (author)

  9. Manipulation of the ash flow temperature and viscosity of a carbonaceous Sasol waste stream

    J.C. van Dyk; M.J. Keyser; F.B. Waanders; M. Conradie [Syngas and Coal Technologies, Sasolburg (South Africa). Sasol Technology, R& amp; D Division

    2010-01-15

    In 2001 Sasol investigated selected the Lurgi Multi Purpose Gasification (MPG) process for converting a Sasol-Lurgi MK III fixed bed dry bottom coal gasifier at the former Sasolburg coal-to-liquids plant to a slagging gasification process. The MPG process was considered anoption suitable for the gasification of feedstocks which are difficult to manage. The most obvious differences between the feedstocks previously gasified, compared to the Sasol dusty tar, were found to be the viscosity and melting point of the dusty tar. The viscosity of the Sasol dusty tar mixture was higher than a factor of 10 ofpreviously used feedstocks. Another important feedstock property is the ash melting point of the feed within the gasifier. Ash particles fed with the tar melt in the high temperature zone of the flame. Molten ash particles which hit the gasifier wall will solidify and stick to the wall if the wall temperature is below the melting point of the ash. The melting point of the dusty tar ash is 1380{sup o}C and a fluxing agent has to be added to reduce the melting temperature below 1250{sup o}C to limit excessive wear of the refractory lining. It was concluded that the viscosity of dusty tar can be decreased with the addition of specific waste solvent streams. The ash fusion temperatures of dusty tar can be lowered by adding a fluxing agent. The addition of spent Fe-catalyst as fluxing agent was found to be less effective than limestone. The addition of Fe can cause the acid/base ratio to change so that the ash fusion temperature increases. The results show in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres the Fe-catalyst was transformed into the slag melt as either Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under oxidizing conditions and FeO under reducing conditions. The slag showed no sign of metallic Fe and was very homogeneous under oxidizing and reducing conditions. 17 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  11. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  12. Using fatty acids to fingerprint biofilm communities: a means to quickly and accurately assess stream quality.

    DeForest, Jared L; Drerup, Samuel A; Vis, Morgan L

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of lotic ecosystem quality plays an essential role to help determine the extent of environmental stress and the effectiveness of restoration activities. Methods that incorporate biological properties are considered ideal because they provide direct assessment of the end goal of a vigorous biological community. Our primary objective was to use biofilm lipids to develop an accurate biomonitoring tool that requires little expertise and time to facilitate assessment. A model was created of fatty acid biomarkers most associated with predetermined stream quality classification, exceptional warm water habitat (EWH), warm water habitat (WWH), and limited resource (LR-AMD), and validated along a gradient of known stream qualities. The fatty acid fingerprint of the biofilm community was statistically different (P = 0.03) and was generally unique to recognized stream quality. One striking difference was essential fatty acids (DHA, EPA, and ARA) were absent from LR-AMD and only recovered from WWH and EWH, 45 % more in EWH than WWH. Independently testing the model along a stream quality gradient, this model correctly categorized six of the seven sites, with no match due to low sample biomass. These results provide compelling evidence that biofilm fatty acid analysis can be a sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective biomonitoring tool. We conceive of future studies expanding this research to more in-depth studies of remediation efforts, determining the applicable geographic area for the method and the addition of multiple stressors with the possibility of distinguishing among stressors. PMID:27061804

  13. Partitioning and recovery of neptunium from high level waste streams of PUREX origin using 30% TBP

    237Np is one of the longest-lived nuclides among the actinides present in the high level waste solutions of reprocessing origin. Its separation, recovery and transmutation can reduce the problem of long term storage of the vitrified waste to a great extent. With this objective, the present work was initiated to study the extraction of neptunium into TBP under the conditions relevant to high level waste, along with uranium and plutonium by oxidising it to hexavalent state using potassium dichromate and subsequently recovering it by selective stripping. Three types of simulated HLW solutions namely sulphate bearing (SB), with an acidity of ∼ 0.3 M and non-sulphate wastes originating from the reprocessing of fuels from pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) with acidities of 3.0 M HNO3 were employed in these studies. The extraction of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) was very high for PHWR- and FBR-HLW solutions, whereas for the SB-HLW solution, these values were less but reasonably high. Quantitative recovery of neptunium and plutonium was achieved using a stripping solution containing 0.1 M H2O2 and 0.01 M ascorbic acid at an acidity of 2.0 M. Since, cerium present in the waste solutions is expected to undergo oxidation in presence of K2Cr2O7, its extraction behaviour was also studied under similar conditions. Based on the results, a scheme was formulated for the recovery of neptunium along with plutonium and was successfully applied to actual high level waste solution originating from the reprocessing of research reactor fuels. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  14. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  15. Acid digestion of chlorine-containing wastes, (2)

    In the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility, about 40% of the alpha-contaminated solid wastes contains organic chlorides, mainly PVC sheets and chloroprene rubber gloves. Acid digestion has been developed to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated wastes, while converting the wastes into stable nonreactive residue. Based on the results of the basic studies on the acid digestion for nonradioactive chlorine-containing wastes, a non-radioactive pilot plant equipped with a 200 l digester was designed and constructed to confirm the performance in scaled-up process and the engineering problems. The following matters are described: the pilot plant of nonradioactive acid digestion and the experiments performed with it to confirm the reproducibility of the results of basic studies and to verify the safety of the processes. Many useful results were able to be obtained for the nitric acid oxidation processes. (J.P.N.)

  16. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  17. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    Williams K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration benchmark. We sampled water chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish throughout the watershed during the spring and summer of 2011. Water chemistry results indicated that pH and total alkalinity increased post-restoration, while acidity, sulfate, and iron concentrations decreased. Watershed-level taxa richness, local taxa richness, biomass, diversity, and density of macroinvertebrates were significantly higher post-restoration; however, %EPT was not significantly different. Fish species richness, density, and brook trout density were all significantly higher post-restoration. These results provide clear evidence that both abiotic and biotic components of streams can recover from AMD pollution.

  18. Removal of BTEX vapours from waste gas streams using silica aerogels of different hydrophobicity.

    Standeker, Suzana; Novak, Zoran; Knez, Zeljko

    2009-06-15

    Silica aerogels are alternative adsorbents to activated carbon (AC) for the removal and the recovery of organic vapours from gas streams. The adsorption capacity measurements of different silica aerogels were done by mini-column method. Continuous adsorption measurements show that silica aerogels are excellent adsorbents of BTEX vapours from waste gas stream. Compared to the most used adsorbents, such as AC and silica gel, aerogels exhibit capacities which enormously exceed that of both commonly used adsorbents. By increasing the degree of hydrophobicity, aerogels become less effective, but they do not adsorb water vapour from gas stream. Silica monolith aerogels with different degrees of hydrophobicity by incorporating methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) or trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) in standard sol-gel synthesis were prepared. Excellent properties of aerogels, obtained with the sol-gel synthesis, were preserved with supercritical drying with CO(2). The degree of hydrophobicity of the aerogels was tested by measuring the contact angle (theta) of a water droplet with the aerogel surface. The aerogels were also characterised by FTIR, nitrogen sorption and DSC/TG measurements. PMID:19095355

  19. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels

  20. Environmental technology applications: fact file on toxic contaminants in industrial waste process streams

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1977-05-11

    This report is a compendium of facts related to chemical materials present in industrial waste process streams which have already been declared or are being evaluated as hazardous under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Since some 400 chemicals are presently covered by consensus standards, the substances reviewed are only those considered to be a major threat to public health and welfare by Federal and State regulatory agencies. For each hazardous material cited, the facts relate, where possible, to an identification of the stationary industrial sources, the kind of waste stream impacted, proposed regulations and established effluent standards, the volume of emissions produced each year, the volume of emissions per unit of industrial product produced, present clean-up capabilities, limitations, and costs. These data should be helpful in providing information for the assessment of potential problems, should be of use to the manufacturers of pollution control equipment or of chemicals for pollution control, should be of use to the operators or potential operators of processes which produce pollutants, and should help to define industry-wide emission practices and magnitudes.

  1. Removal of Contaminants from Waste Streams at Gas Evolving Flow-Through Porous Electrodes

    Electrochemical techniques have been used for the removal of inorganic and organic toxic materials from industrial waste streams. One of the most important branch of these electrochemical techniques is the flow-through porous electrode. Such systems allow for the continuous operation and hence continuous removal of the contaminants from waste streams at high rates and high efficiency. However, when there is an evolution of gas bubbles with the removal process, the treatment process needs a much different treatment of both the design and the mathematical treatment of the such these systems. The evolving gas bubbles within the electrode decrease the pore electrolyte conductivity of the porous electrodes, decrease the efficiency and make the current more non-uniform. This cause the under utilization of the reaction area and finally make the electrode inoperable. In this work the harmful effects of the gas bubbles on the performance of the porous electrode will be modeled. The model accounts for the effects of kinetic, mass transfer and gas bubbles resistance on the overall performance of the electrode. This will help in optimizing the operating conditions and the cell design

  2. Using liquid waste streams as the moisture source during the hydrothermal carbonization of municipal solid wastes.

    Li, Liang; Hale, McKenzie; Olsen, Petra; Berge, Nicole D

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process that can be an environmentally beneficial approach for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to value-added products. The influence of using activated sludge and landfill leachate as initial moisture sources during the carbonization of paper, food waste and yard waste over time at 250°C was evaluated. Results from batch experiments indicate that the use of activated sludge and landfill leachate are acceptable alternative supplemental liquid sources, ultimately imparting minimal impact on carbonization product characteristics and yields. Regression results indicate that the initial carbon content of the feedstock is more influential than any of the characteristics of the initial liquid source and is statistically significant when describing the relationship associated with all evaluated carbonization products. Initial liquid-phase characteristics are only statistically significant when describing the solids energy content and the mass of carbon in the gas-phase. The use of these alternative liquid sources has the potential to greatly increase the sustainability of the carbonization process. A life cycle assessment is required to quantify the benefits associated with using these alternative liquid sources. PMID:25074717

  3. Effects of acid mine drainage on a headwater stream ecosystem in Colorado

    The ecological effects of acid mine drainage were investigated during the summer of 1993 on St. Kevin Gulch, a headwater stream near Leadville, Colorado. The stream currently receives acidic water from an abandoned mine. The pH downstream of the mine is between 3.5 and 4.5, and several metals exceed concentrations toxic to aquatic organisms. Zinc is present at especially high concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) Furthermore, the stream bottom is covered with a thick layer of iron hydroxide precipitates. Effects on stream biota have been dramatic. Aquatic flora in the affected reach is limited to a green filamentous alga, Ulothrix subtilissima. Macroinvertebrate densities are significantly lower in the affected reach (mean = 99 indiv/m2; SD = 88 indiv/M2) compared to an upstream (pristine) reference reach (mean = 1,735 indiv/m2; SD = 652 indiv/M2). Functional processes were also studied in the stream. Net primary production (NPP) was measured during midday with recirculating chambers. Production was significantly lower in the affected reach (mean NPP 13.3 MgO2hr-1m-2; SD = 87 MgO2hr-1m-2) than the upstream reference reach (NPP = 64.1 MgO2hr-1m-2; SD = 27.7 MgO2hr-1m-2). Decomposition, measured with litter bags, was also lower in the affected reach than the upstream site. In 1994, St. Kevin Gulch is scheduled to undergo remediation that will treat the acidic water from the mine. Further studies on this stream will provide information on the recovery processes in lotic ecosystems

  4. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams

    Hughes, Robert M.

    1985-05-01

    Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macroinvertebrate taxa. These results revealed that: (a) chemical and physical habitats at the impacted sites were disrupted, (b) the presence of trout was an inadequate measure of ecological integrity for these sites, and (c) watershed classification based on a combination of mapped terrestrial characteristics provided a reasonable method to select control sites where potential control sites upstream and downstream were unsuitable.

  5. Composition, activity- and heat-inventory of different waste streams from LWR and FBR nuclear fuel cycles

    According to the German concept, spent reactor fuel elements are intended to be reprocessed. The resulting radioactive wastes are planned to be disposed of in a salt dome. Long-term safety analysis for the nuclear waste repository and the evaluation of waste treatment methods require detailed information about the composition, activity- and heat-inventory of the waste streams. In this report data are listed which were calculated for radioactive wastes from reprocessed fuel elements (high-level waste concentrate, medium-level waste concentrate, dissolver residues) and radioactive wastes from the fabrication of nuclear fuel elements. Data are given for the reprocessing and the fabrication of uranium dioxide and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel elements for light-water reactors. In addition the corresponding waste streams from a fast breeder reactor nuclear fuel cycle are characterized. For the calculations the KORIGEN-code was used with input data for reference-type reactors. The calculation of the time dependent radionuclide composition of the wastes was based on element separation factors which were experimentally determined. (orig.)

  6. An evaluation of the effects of acid rain on low conductivity headwater streams in Pennsylvania

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of water collected at 32 sites on headwater streams in Pennsylvania during low-flow conditions in 1970-80 were compared to pre-1971 data to evaluate whether acid rain had changed the chemistry of the streams in the previous decade. Most pH, alkalinity, and sulfate values of the samples collected in 1970-80 fell within the ranges of values for samples collected before 1971. The limited data indicate, however, that pH may have increased and alkalinity and sulfate may have decreased with time.

  7. Determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams by fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique

    A fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams. The developed method is simple, accurate and applicable to all ranges of nitric acid and heavy metal concentrations relevant to the purex process. The method is based on the formation of yellow colour with an acid-sensitive indicator such as chrome azurol s, the intensity of yellow colour is proportional to the acid concentration. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 455 nm in the range of acidity 1-10 M of nitric acid. The results obtained are reproducible with standard deviation 2% and relative error is less than 3%. The results obtained by the developed technique are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard procedure. This method is adaptable for remote operation and on-line monitoring. (author)

  8. System and process for capture of acid gasses at elevated pressure from gaseous process streams

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Linehan, John C.; Rainbolt, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zheng, Feng

    2016-09-06

    A system, method, and material that enables the pressure-activated reversible chemical capture of acid gasses such as CO.sub.2 from gas volumes such as streams, flows or any other volume. Once the acid gas is chemically captured, the resulting product typically a zwitterionic salt, can be subjected to a reduced pressure whereupon the resulting product will release the captures acid gas and the capture material will be regenerated. The invention includes this process as well as the materials and systems for carrying out and enabling this process.

  9. A study of the use of seeded ultrafiltration for the treatment of thorium-uranium mining waste streams

    The use of seeded ultrafiltration for the treatment of radioactive waste streams arising from the nuclear industry has demonstrated its high potential as an efficient process for the removal of radionuclides present in the rad waste streams. The experimental data on simulated mining streams has given indications on the suitability of this technique for the treatment of mining waste streams. The results also show that proper choice of absorbers can reduce not only the radioactivity level but also remove most of the products of both the thorium and uranium decay series. Decontamination factors (D F) for the system using manganese dioxide (Mn O2) are only slightly affected by the preparation method. On the contrary, the D F achieved using titanium hydroxide (HTiO) absorber was found to be dependent on the preparation method. The experimental data shows that total activity levels can be reduced to below to below detection limit (3 E-3 Bq/ml). The extent of decontamination of thorium containing waste streams was found to be dependent on the absorber used; in the order diuranate > HTiO> Fe(OH)3> Mn O2. The use of HTiO reduced the decay product activity of almost all the thorium daughters to nearly background levels. A D F of the order of 300 can easily be achieved using diuranate floe. 10 fig., 5 tab

  10. GLASSFORM-Version 1: A spreadsheet or an algorithm for generating preliminary glass formulations for waste streams

    GLASSFORM-Version 1, a spreadsheet or an algorithm software package, was developed for generating preliminary glass formulations for waste streams. A spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel 97 for Windows 95 was also developed for predicting key glass properties for laboratory scale vitrification studies of simulated waste streams. The algorithm version based on Modula 2, which can be run on Windows-95 or NT, was developed to plot the glass component ratios versus the waste loading. At this time the algorithm was not developed for predicting the key glass properties. The spreadsheet or the algorithm version is an effective tool for developing preliminary glasses with a potential to be chemically durable, dense for volume reduction, of low viscosity for glass pouring, redox controlled, and resistant to corrosion of melter components such as Inconel 690. For a given solid waste stream oxide composition in wt.% or in grams or in ppm and waste loading in wt.%, the spreadsheet or the algorithm calculates glass component ratios that provide an empirical indication of the quality of a candidate glass. In addition to the component ratios for glass quality indicators, glass property composition relationships for glass durability and processability were incorporated into the spreadsheet version. These spreadsheet or algorithm versions can also be used for studying the effects of such actions as varying waste loadings or of varying individual waste components on glass properties and glass component ratios, provided specific glass property models are incorporated. As an example, the software was applied to candidate phosphate-containing glasses at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, previously Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) and also the borosilicate glasses such as the Savannah River Laboratory Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, the Hanford standard (ARM-1) glass, and the French R7T7 glass. Application of the software to new waste streams such as at

  11. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  12. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ13CDIC) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ13CDIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe2+, alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ13CDIC. We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe2+ followed by Fe3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH)3(s). The extent of DIC decrease and 13C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO3- dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO3- or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe3+ hydrolysis for HCO3- dehydration. The 13C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe2+ was proportional to HCO3- concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO3- input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC in AMD impacted streams may have

  13. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been producing 99Mo since 1967 for medical use of its decay product 99mTe. This early generation development of fission product 99Mo uses low enriched 235U as dioxide, nitric acid dissolution of the irradiated pellets and recovery of molybdenum by adsorption onto alumina. Increasing production over this period since the late 1960's has led to the accumulation of stored liquid waste in specifically designed storage tanks. ANSTO investigated a number of options to treat this liquid waste culminating in the development, commissioning and operation of a two-stage evaporation process with an intervening chemical treatment step. The need for chemical destruction of the low level of contained ammonia, as nitrate, arose due to the past practice of incorporating a small volume of ammoniacal condensate with the acid waste. This ammoniacal waste is no longer added to the acidic waste, but the need to remove ammonia from the historic waste has led to the development of a novel technique to destroy the ammonia content in the liquid. The liquor is reduced to a crystalline solid with the elimination of water and acid that can be treated by conventional means. (author)

  14. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Zhang, Yifeng

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater......-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main...... efficiency were investigated. The effects of hydraulic retention time, external resistance, other ionic species in the groundwater and external nitrification on the system performance were also elucidated. Over 90% of nitrate was removed from groundwater without energy input, water pressure, draw solution...

  15. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  16. Cement encapsulation of low-level radwaste streams

    Low-level waste streams will be generated during the clean-up of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York. A study was conducted on several presently identified waste streams to develop cement encapsulation recipes with maximum waste loadings. First, jar scale tests were performed on simulated wastes to develop and evaluate cement encapsulation recipes. Using the most promising recipe, full-scale encapsulation tests were then performed. Recipes were developed and successfully tested on the following wastes: 39 and 53 weight percent supernatant (i.e., neutralized nitric acid waste), hydroxide and carbonate precipitated sludge, filter precoat sludge, granular weak-acid resin and granular strong-acid resin. One waste stream, dried supernatant, could not be encapsulated at the desired waste loading using the existing full-scale, high shear mixer

  17. Transuranic removal from neutralized current acid waste with pneumatic hydropulse filtration

    Neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) is generated by the solvent extraction portion of the PUREX process. It contains <20% solids by volume, and is currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. These solids contain the transuranic (TRU) elements and most of the fission products and will be converted to glass for permanent disposal. Because of the high cost of vitrification and repository disposal, there is a large economic incentive to minimize volume. Separation of the solids from the supernatant liquor provides a more concentrated high-level waste stream for vitrification, thereby reducing the cost. Removal of the solids will also provide an approximately TRU- free supernatant liquor which can be disposed of as grout in near-surface facilities. Allowing the solids to settle, then decanting (settle/decant) and filtering the supernatant are the principal unit operations used for TRU removal. These unit operations as shown will be used at the B Plant, an existing facility at the Hanford Site

  18. Radionuclides in process and waste streams at an operating uranium mill

    A survey was carried out at the Nabarlek uranium mill, located in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory of Australia, to determine the distribution of radium-226, thorium-230, lead-210 and polonium-210 in process and waste streams. Particular emphasis was placed on waste treatment processes. The survey showed that 20% of the 230Th and only small fractions of the 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po were mobilized in the leaching circuit. Neutralization of tailings/raffinate slurry to pH 8.5 removed over 99% of the 230Th, 210Pb and 210Po, but the concentration of dissolved 226Ra increased. The performance of barium chloride treatment circuits for the removal of 226Ra was examined. Under optimum conditions, more than 98% of the total radium was removed from decant tailings water containing 80 to 150 Bq 226Ra.L-1 by a mixing tank and a reactor-clarifier. Addition of barium chloride had only a small effect on the long-term concentration of 226Ra in the presence of tailings. (author)

  19. ANALISIS WASTE DALAM ALIRAN MATERIAL INTERNAL DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING PADA PT XYZ

    Ketut Gita Ayu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research is excess inventory and motion waste which commonly occur in warehouse and production floor. This research is carried out to minimize the average level and eliminate unnecessary motions, with consideration of electronic pull and traceability system characteristics. Product X, the highest-selling product, is the object of this research. To identify the current condition, the current state Value Stream Mapping (VSM is developed as the basis to arrange improvement plan to minimize the wastes. Safety stock is determined through average and maximum consumption difference; and reorder point is determined to comply with pull approach. Average inventory level is calculated using continuous review method. The simulation was conducted and it was shown that 8.29 minutes is the maximum lateness. Thus, safety stock and reorder point are adjusted accordingly to anticipate stockout due to lateness. The improvement of process cycle efficiency is shown to increase from 4.1 % to 5.1 % as projected in future state VSM.

  20. Biological technologies for the removal of sulfur containing compounds from waste streams: bioreactors and microbial characteristics.

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Jian; Liu, Junxin

    2015-10-01

    Waste gases containing sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, thioethers, and mercaptan, produced and emitted from industrial processes, wastewater treatment, and landfill waste may cause undesirable issues in adjacent areas and contribute to atmospheric pollution. Their control has been an area of concern and research for many years. As alternative to conventional physicochemical air pollution control technologies, biological treatment processes which can transform sulfur compounds to harmless products by microbial activity, have gained in popularity due to their efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental acceptability. This paper provides an overview of the current biological techniques used for the treatment of air streams contaminated with sulfur compounds as well as the advances made in the past year. The discussion focuses on bioreactor configuration and design, mechanism of operation, insights into the overall biological treatment process, and the characterization of the microbial species present in bioreactors, their populations and their interactions with the environment. Some bioreactor case studies are also introduced. Finally, the perspectives on future research and development needs in this research area were also highlighted. PMID:26250546

  1. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company

  2. The dissolution of kaolin by acidic fluoride wastes

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of kaolin as a lining material for the storage of acidic and acidic fluoride wastes is investigated, No significant changes are observed gravimetrically or structurally for kaolin soaked under acidic conditions down to pH 2 for periods up to 90 days, Some release of aluminium was...... noted with decreasing pH, Severe kaolin dissolution was apparent, however, when soaked in solutions less than pH 3 to 4 with a fluoride concentration of 0.05 M. Aluminium-oxygen bonding in kaolin appears to be substantially more prone to hydrofluoric acid attack than does silicon-oxygen bonding...

  3. Case study and presentation of the DOE treatability group concept for low-level and mixed waste streams

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an inventory report of its mixed waste and treatment capacities and technologies. Grouping waste streams according to technological requirements is the logical means of matching waste streams to treatment technologies, and streamlines the effort of identifying technology development needs. To provide consistency, DOE has developed a standard methodology for categorizing waste into treatability groups based on three characteristic parameters: radiological, bulk physical/chemical form, and regulated contaminant. Based on category and component definitions in the methodology, descriptive codes or strings of codes are assigned under each parameter, resulting in a waste characterization amenable to a computerized format for query and sort functions. By using only the applicable parameters, this methodology can be applied to all waste types generated within the DOE complex: radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary/municipal. Implementation of this methodology will assist the individual sites and DOE Headquarters in analyzing waste management technology and facility needs

  4. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  5. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program. PMID:25462673

  6. Material stream management of biomass wastes for the optimization of organic wastes utilization; Stoffstrommanagement von Biomasseabfaellen mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Verwertung organischer Abfaelle

    Knappe, Florian; Boess, Andreas; Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Vogt, Regine [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris; Wiegmann, Kirsten; Fritsche, Uwe [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The effective use of the valuable substances found in waste materials can make an important contribution to climate protection and the conservation of fossil and mineral resources. In order to harness the potential contribution of biomass waste streams, it is necessary to consider the potential of the waste in connection with that of the total biomass. In this project, relevant biogenous material streams in the forestry, the agriculture as well as in several industries are studied, and their optimization potentials are illustrated. Scenarios are then developed, while taking various other environmental impacts into considerations, to explore possible optimized utilization of biomass streams and biomass waste substances for the future. Straw that is not needed for humus production and currently left on the field can be used for its energy content. The realisation of this potential would be significant contribution towards climate protection. The energetic use of liquid manure without negatively influencing its application as commercial fertilizer can also be similarly successful because of its large volume. The results of our study also support an increased energetic use of saw residues as fuel (in form of pellets) in small furnaces. For household organic wastes, the report suggests the fermentation with optimized energy use and intensified marketing of the aerobically treated compost as peat substitution. While for waste cooking fat that is currently disposed in the residual waste, a separate collection and direct use in motors that are used as combined heat and power generation are recommended. For meat and bone meal and communal sludge that are not being used substantial currently or in the future, phosphorus can be recovered with promising success from the ash produced when the waste is burnt in mono incinerators. These technical options should however be tested against disposal standard. (orig.)

  7. Acid digestion of chlorine-containing wastes, (3)

    Along with the R and D efforts on the treatment of plutonium-contaminated waste materials for volume reduction and stabilization at PNC, studies have been conducted for the development of the technology related to the acid digestion treatment utilizing sulfuric acid and nitric acid. This report is described on the treatment capacity, the treatment of decomposed gas, and the properties of the reduced residues following the treatment. The process involves two steps; the decomposition employing sulfuric acid and the oxidation utilizing nitric acid. The treatment capacity during reaction is influenced by the foaming of the acid digestion solution for the H2SO4 decomposition process. A series of experiments were carried out on H2SO4 decomposition reaction by feeding the crushed samples of 10 mm size into hot sulfuric acid (250 degree C) continuously under a pressure of 100 mm aq. The foaming of the acid digestion solution is closely related to the concentration of solids such as carbon and inorganic materials. Addition of nitric acid to the H2SO4 decomposition process is effective for controlling the foaming of the acid digestion solution. The influence of initial nitric acid concentration upon sulfur oxide oxidation-absorption is very small when the nitric acid concentration is in the range from 14 to 32 percent. (Kato, T.)

  8. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics

  9. Hybrid sensor for metal grade measurement of a falling stream of solid waste particles.

    Abdur Rahman, Md; Bakker, M C M

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid sensor system for accurate detection of the metal grade of a stream of falling solid waste particles is investigated and experimentally verified. The system holds an infrared and an electromagnetic unit around a central tube and counts all the particles and only the metal particles, respectively. The count ratio together with the measured average particle mass ratio (k) of non-metal and metal particles is sufficient for calculation of grade. The performance of the system is accurately verified using synthetic mixtures of sand and metal particles. Towards an application a case study is performed using municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in size fractions 1-6mm, which presents a major challenge for nonferrous metal recovery. The particle count ratio was inherently accurate for particle feed rates up to 13 per second. The average value and spread of k for bottom ash was determined as 0.49 ± 0.07 and used to calculate grade within 2.4% from the manually analysed grade. At higher feed rates the sensors start missing particles which fall simultaneously through the central tube, but the hybrid system still counted highly repeatable. This allowed for implementation of a count correction ratio to eliminate the stationary error. In combination with averaging in measurement intervals for suppression of stochastic variations the hybrid system regained its accuracy for particle feed rates up to 143 per second. This performance and its special design, intended to render it insensitive to external interference and noise when applied in an eddy current separator, make the hybrid sensor suitable for applications such as quality control and sensor controlled separation. PMID:22498575

  10. Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage-contaminated stream

    Larson, Lance N.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Burgos, William

    2013-09-01

    Biological low-pH Fe(II)-oxidation creates terraced iron formations (TIFs) that remove Fe(III) from solution. TIFs can be used for remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), however, as sediment depth increases, Fe(III)-reduction in anoxic subsurface areas may compromise treatment effectiveness. In this study we used near-surface electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and in situ pore-water samplers to spatially resolve bulk conductivity changes within a TIF formed in a stream emanating from a large abandoned deep clay mine in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, USA. Because of the high fluid electrical conductivity of the emergent AMD (1860 μS), fresh water (42 μS) was added as a dilution tracer to visualize the spatial and temporal extent of hyporheic exchange and to characterize subsurface flow paths. Distinct hydrogeochemical niches were identified in the shallow subsurface beneath the stream by overlaying relative groundwater velocities (derived from ERI) with pore-water chemistry profiles. Niches were classified based on relatively “fast” versus “slow” rates of hyporheic exchange and oxic versus anoxic conditions. Pore-water concentrations and speciation of iron, pH, and redox potential differed between subsurface flow regimes. The greatest extent of hyporheic exchange was beneath the center of the stream, where a shallower (70 cm) Fe(II)-oxidizing zone. At these locations, relatively slower groundwater exchange may promote biotic Fe(II)-oxidation and improve the long-term stability of Fe sequestered in TIFs.

  11. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  12. Recovery of nitric acid from simulated acidic high level radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

    Acidic waste is generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle. The waste contains minor amounts of actinides (241Am, Pu, Np) along with large number of long-lived radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 106Ru etc. Before disposal or storage, the overall activity of the waste needs to be reduced. Along with this, the high amount of acid present in the waste needs to be removed. In this study, DD has been used to recover nitric acid from acidic solutions with compositions similar to radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

  13. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    Letricia Barbosa-Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1, similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1 was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6% as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. The dissolution of kaolin by acidic fluoride wastes

    Kau, P. M. H.; Smith, D. W.; Binning, Philip John

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of kaolin as a lining material for the storage of acidic and acidic fluoride wastes is investigated, No significant changes are observed gravimetrically or structurally for kaolin soaked under acidic conditions down to pH 2 for periods up to 90 days, Some release of aluminium was...... noted with decreasing pH, Severe kaolin dissolution was apparent, however, when soaked in solutions less than pH 3 to 4 with a fluoride concentration of 0.05 M. Aluminium-oxygen bonding in kaolin appears to be substantially more prone to hydrofluoric acid attack than does silicon-oxygen bonding......, resulting in a preferential release of aluminium over silicon into solution. The solution pH was found to decrease with the dissolution reaction as fluorosilicic acid was produced during the kaolin breakdown....

  15. Evaluation of the capabilities of the Hanford Reservation and Envirocare of Utah for disposal of potentially problematic mixed low-level waste streams

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area is developing a program to address and resolve issues associated with final waste form performance in treating and disposing of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) inventory. A key issue for the program is identifying MLLW streams that may be problematic for disposal. Previous reports have quantified and qualified the capabilities of fifteen DOE sites for MLLW disposal and provided volume and radionuclide concentration estimates for treated MLLW based on the DOE inventory. Scoping-level analyses indicated that 101 waste streams identified in this report (approximately 6,250 m3 of the estimated total treated MLLW) had radionuclide concentrations that may make their disposal problematic. The radionuclide concentrations of these waste streams were compared with the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for a DOE disposal facility at Hanford and for Envirocare's commercial disposal facility for MLLW in Utah. Of the treated MLLW volume identified as potentially problematic, about 100 m3 exceeds the WAC for disposal at Hanford, and about 4,500 m3 exceeds the WAC for disposal at Envirocare. Approximately 7% of DOE's total MLLW inventory has not been sufficiently characterized to identify a treatment process for the waste and was not included in the analysis. In addition, of the total treated MLLW volume, about 30% was associated with waste streams that did not have radionuclide concentration data and could not be included in the determination of potentially problematic waste streams

  16. Impact of changing DOC concentrations on the potential distribution of acid sensitive biota in a boreal stream network

    H. Laudon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DOC concentrations have increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the past few decades. As DOC exudes a strong influence on pH this DOC increase could have detrimental effects on acid sensitive biota in many streams and lakes. To investigate the potential implications of changes in the DOC concentration on stream water biota, we have used a mesoscale boreal stream network in northern Sweden as a case study. The network was sampled for stream water chemistry at 60 locations during both winter base flow and spring flood periods, representing the extremes experienced annually in these streams both in terms of discharge and acidity. The effect of changing DOC on pH was modeled for all sampling locations using an organic acid model, with input DOC concentrations for different scenarios adjusted by between −30% and +50% from measured present concentrations. The resulting effect on pH was then used to quantify the proportion of stream length in the catchment with pH below the acid thresholds of pH 5.5 and pH 5.0. The results suggest that a change in stream water DOC during base flow would have only a limited effect on pH and hence on the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. During the spring flood on the other hand a change in DOC would strongly influence pH and the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. For example an increase in DOC concentration of 30% at all sites would increase the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.5 from 37% to 65%, and the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.0 would increase from 18% to 27%. The results suggest that in high DOC waters, even a marginal change in the DOC concentration could impact acid sensitive biota in a large portion of the aquatic landscape.

  17. Impact of changing DOC concentrations on the potential distribution of acid sensitive biota in a boreal stream network

    H. Laudon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DOC concentrations have increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the past few decades. As DOC exerts a strong influence on pH this DOC increase could have detrimental effects on acid sensitive biota in many streams and lakes. To investigate the potential implications of changes in the DOC concentration on stream water biota, we have used a mesoscale boreal stream network in northern Sweden as a case study. The network was sampled for stream water chemistry at 60 locations during both winter base flow and spring flood periods, representing the extremes experienced annually in these streams both in terms of discharge and acidity. The effect of changing DOC on pH was modeled for all sampling locations using an organic acid model, with input DOC concentrations for different scenarios adjusted by between –30% and +50% from measured present concentrations. The resulting effect on pH was then used to quantify the proportion of stream length in the catchment with pH below the acid thresholds of pH 5.5 and pH 5.0. The results suggest that a change in stream water DOC during base flow would have only a limited effect on pH and hence on the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. During the spring flood on the other hand a change in DOC would strongly influence pH and the stream length with pH below the acid thresholds. For example an increase in DOC concentration of 30% at all sites would increase the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.5 from 37% to 65%, and the proportion of stream length with pH below 5.0 would increase from 18% to 27%. The results suggest that in poorly-buffered high DOC waters, even a marginal change in the DOC concentration could impact acid sensitive biota in a large portion of the aquatic landscape.

  18. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems. PMID:24507146

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  20. Influence of the contaminated wastes/soils on the geochemical characteristics of the Bodelhão stream waters and sediments from Panasqueira mine area, Portugal

    Abreu, Maria Manuela; Godinho, Berta; Magalhães, Maria Clara F.; Anjos, Carla; Santos, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Panasqueira is a famous Portuguese tin-tungsten mine operating more or less continuously since the end of the nineteenth century. This mine is located in the Central Iberian Zone, northwest of Castelo Branco, about 35 km from Fundão, being the greatest producer of tungsten in Europe. Panasqueira mine also produces copper and tin. The ore exploitation has caused huge local visual and chemical impact from the large waste tailings, together with water drainage from mine galleries, seepage and effluents from water plant treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the contaminated wastes and soils on the water and sediments characteristics of the Bodelhão stream. This stream crosses the mine area at the bottom of the main tailings, receiving sediments, seepage and drainage waters from wastes and/or soils developed on the waste materials which cover the host rocks (schists), and also from the water treatment plant. Waste materials contain different levels of hazardous chemical elements depending on their age and degree of weathering (mg/kg - As: 466-632; Cd: 2.6-4.2; Cu: 264-457; Zn: 340-456; W: 40-1310). Soils developed on old wastes (60-80 years old) are mainly silty loam, acidic (except one soil (pH 8.2) developed on waste materials covered by leakage mud from a pipe conducting effluent to a pond), with relatively high concentration of organic carbon (median 48.6 g/kg). The majority of soils are heavily contaminated in As (158-7790 mg/kg), Cd (0.6-138 mg/kg), Cu (51-4081 mg/kg), W (19-1450 mg/kg), and Zn (142-12300 mg/kg). The fraction of these elements extracted with DTPA solution, relatively to total concentration, varies from low to As (plant are less acidic (pH: 5.6-6.5) than those collected upper stream (pH 4.9) and showed high electric conductivity (up to 1.5 mS/cm), high concentrations of sulfate (618-1030 mg/L), and hazardous elements: up to 12.4 µg As/L; 83.7 µg Cd/L; 210 µg Cu/L; 5.8 mg Zn/L. The highest concentrations of

  1. Leaf Associated Microbial Activities in a Stream Affected by Acid Mine Drainage

    Schlief, Jeanette

    2004-11-01

    Microbial activity was assessed on birch leaves and plastic strips during 140 days of exposure at three sites in an acidic stream of the Lusatian post-mining landscape, Germany. The sites differed in their degrees of ochre deposition and acidification. The aim of the study was (1) to follow the microbial activities during leaf colonization, (2) to compare the effect of different environmental conditions on leaf associated microbial activities, and (3) to test the microbial availability of leaf litter in acidic mining waters. The activity peaked after 49 days and subsequently decreased gradually at all sites. A formation of iron plaques on leaf surfaces influenced associated microbial activity. It seemed that these plaques inhibit the microbial availability of leaf litter and serve as a microbial habitat by itself. (

  2. Performance of an open limestone channel for treating a stream affected by acid rock drainage (León, Spain).

    Santofimia, Esther; López-Pamo, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    higher acidity than the inflow into the system due to the discharge of ARDs (mainly from the tunnel) that is received and to the existence of a natural stream, which is affected by a waste-rock pile. The predictions and calculations necessary for the design of any remediation/attenuation techniques are quite difficult. Despite the fact that the selected design is the most adequate one for this valley and type of passive treatment system (including adequate slopes), we must admit that the physicochemical characteristics of the ARD were not the most appropriate according to the literature. Moreover, during the design, engineers were unaware of the existence of the inflow from two highly polluting sources, which have rendered the passive treatment system ineffective and which therefore suggest that certain improvement measures could be considered. PMID:27068908

  3. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.

  4. Recovery of fish communities in receiving streams after improvements in waste water treatment at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities

    Biological monitoring programs have documented recovery of fish communities in four receiving streams associated with three DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Since 1985, twice-yearly electrofishing surveys have been conducted at sites immediately downstream of each facility. These surveys indicated that increases in abundance and species richness of fish communities were associated with the implementation of various remedial actions such as new waste water treatment facilities, closure of waste disposal ponds, and waste stream dechlorination. Increased abundance was the initial indicator of fish community recovery. Density increased from 0--0.1 fish/m2 to 3.0--29.7 fish/m2 at the four stream sites. Species richness also increased from 0--5 species per sample to 4--12 species per sample at the four sites. The increases in species number involved only fish species that were not sensitive to environmental disturbance. Fish community responses corresponded with treatment start-up dates; the responses generally were incremental, as increments of treatment occurred. Although recovery was evident at each site, the extent of recovery varied and did not match density and species richness patterns in the fish communities of suitable upstream or offsite reference sites

  5. Model of truly closed circuit of waste stream flow in metallurgical enterprise

    Gajdzik, B.; E. Michlowicz; Zwolińska, B.; P. Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    The publication presents flows of metallurgical waste in manufacturing metallurgical enterprise. On the basis of analysis the structure of waste flows and the way of waste management within the enterprise or outside it were described. In the observation of the metallurgical waste flow a universal model of waste flow structure was created. It may be used in waste management of a metallurgical enterprise with full production cycle (from raw materials processes, through steel production up to fi...

  6. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Mixed TRU Waste Streams: SR-W026-221F-HET-A through D

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-10-02

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for the heterogeneous debris mixed transuranic waste streams generated in the FB-Line after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997.

  7. Extraction of zirconium from simulated acidic nitrate waste using liquid membrane in hollow fiber contactor

    The acidic waste raffinate stream of zirconium (Zr) purification plant contains about 2 gpl of Zr in about 2M free nitric acid. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry, is not suitable for the extraction of Zr from this lean solution as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In house synthesized Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) is a potential extractant for Zr from this lean stream. Intensification of this process for recovery of Zr has been attempted through use of efficient contactor, namely, hollow fiber module and efficient process, namely, simultaneous extraction and stripping across liquid membrane containing MAPO. Based on batch equilibrium studies selection of suitable concentration of extractant, composition of diluent, selection and concentration of strippant for the proposed liquid membrane system was made. The selected organic and strippant concentration was used to study suitability of application of Dispersion Liquid Membrane (DLM) in hollow fiber contactor for recovery Zr from solution simulated to Zr plant raffinate. Challenges related to stable operation of the liquid membrane system like stability of the organic phase in the micropores of lumen and stability of the dispersion during the pertraction were addressed through pressure balance across the lumen and choice of adequate dispersion condition respectively. (author)

  8. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of streams with and without acid mine drainage impacts: A paired catchment study in karst geology, SW China

    Sun, Jing; Tang, Changyuan; Wu, Pan; Strosnider, William H. J.; Han, Zhiwei

    2013-11-01

    A paired catchment study was used to assess karst hydrogeochemistry of two streams.Chemistry of streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) was very different.The observation was supported by PHREEQC modeling of equilibrium conditions.Ionic fluxes of AMD-impacted water were higher than that of non-AMD-impacted water.The higher ionic fluxes were predominantly controlled by the oxidation of pyrite.

  9. Benthic Communities of Low-Order Streams Affected by Acid Mine Drainages: A Case Study from Central Europe

    Marek Svitok; Milan Novikmec; Peter Bitušík; Branislav Máša; Jozef Oboňa; Miroslav Očadlík; Eva Michalková

    2014-01-01

    Only little attention has been paid to the impact of acid mine drainages (AMD) on aquatic ecosystems in Central Europe. In this study, we investigate the physico-chemical properties of low-order streams and the response of benthic invertebrates to AMD pollution in the Banská Štiavnica mining region (Slovakia). The studied streams showed typical signs of mine drainage pollution: higher conductivity, elevated iron, aluminum, zinc and copper loads and accumulations of ferric precipitates. Elect...

  10. Accumulation of aluminium and iron by bryophytes in streams affected by acid-mine drainage

    Engleman, C.J.; McDiffett, W.F. [Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the accumulation of two heavy metals (Al and Fe) by bryophytes in a northern Pennsylvania stream system affected by acid-mine drainage. Four sites within one watershed were selected on the basis of their pH and dissolved metal concentrations. Significant differences among sites were found with regard to bioaccumulation of Al an Fe. A negative relationship between pH and Fe concentrations in bryophyte tissues was found, with the highest accumulation of Fe observed at the most acidic site (pH 3.5), whereas accumulation of Al was highest at a site with an intermediate pH of 5.2. Bryophytes transplanted from a circum-neutral site to acidic sites showed highly significant increases in Fe and Al concentrations in tissues after 6 weeks, and transplants from more acidic sites to a circum-neutral site generally showed highly significant declines in Fe and Al concentration in tissues after the incubation period.