WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid volumizing filler

  1. The evolving role of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial volume restoration and contouring: a Canadian overview

    Muhn C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Channy Muhn,1 Nathan Rosen,1 Nowell Solish,2 Vince Bertucci,2 Mark Lupin,3 Alain Dansereau,4 Fred Weksberg,5 B Kent Remington,6 Arthur Swift71Division of Dermatology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, 2Division of Dermatology, New Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, 3Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, 4Private Practice, Repentigny, Québec, 5Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, 6Private Practice, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 7St Mary's Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, CanadaAbstract: Recent advancements, including more versatile facial fillers, refined injection techniques and the adoption of a global facial approach, have contributed to improved patient outcome and increased patient satisfaction. Nine Canadian specialists (eight dermatologists, one plastic surgeon collaborated to develop an overview on volume restoration and contouring based on published literature and their collective clinical experience. The specialists concurred that optimal results in volume restoration and contouring depend on correcting deficiencies at various layers of the facial envelope. This includes creating a foundation for deep structural support in the supraperiosteal or submuscular plane; volume repletion of subcutaneous fat compartments; and the reestablishment of dermal and subdermal support to minimize cutaneous rhytids, grooves and furrows. It was also agreed that volume restoration and contouring using a global facial approach is essential to create a natural, youthful appearance in facial aesthetics. A comprehensive non-surgical approach should therefore incorporate combining fillers such as high-viscosity, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA for structural support and hyaluronic acid (HA for lines, grooves and furrows with neuromodulators, lasers and energy devices.Keywords: hyaluronic acid filler, volumizing, facial

  2. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  3. Advances and Refinement in Hyaluronic Acid Facial Fillers.

    Costa, Christopher R; Kordestani, Reza; Small, Kevin H; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-08-01

    Fillers temporarily augment deflated or ptotic facial compartments to restore a youthful appearance. Hyaluronic acids predominate the fillers market because of their focal volumization, duration of effect, low incidence of adverse reactions, and reversibility. Being able to properly perform these in-office procedures will ensure safety for patients and provide aesthetically optimal results. This communication provides the senior author's (R.J.R.) stepwise approach to facial aging and deflation with soft-tissue injectable fillers. PMID:27465184

  4. Efficacy and safety of a hyaluronic acid filler in subjects treated for correction of midface volume deficiency: a 24 month study

    Callan P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Callan,1 Greg J Goodman,2 Ian Carlisle,3 Steven Liew,4 Peter Muzikants,5 Terrence Scamp,6 Michael B Halstead,7 John D Rogers71Peter Callan Plastic Surgery, Geelong, VIC, 2Dermatology Institute of Victoria, South Yarra, VIC, 3Erase Skin Rejuvenation Specialists, Malvern, VIC, 4Shape Clinic and Medispa, Darlinghurst, NSW, 5Ada Cosmetic Medicine, Glebe, NSW, 6Esteem Beauty and Day Spa, Main Beach, QLD, 7Allergan Medical Affairs, Gordon, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Hyaluronic acid (HA fillers are an established intervention for correcting facial volume deficiency. Few studies have evaluated treatment outcomes for longer than 6 months. The purpose of this study was to determine the durability of an HA filler in the correction of midface volume deficiency over 24 months, as independently evaluated by physician investigators and subjects.Methods: Subjects received treatment with Juvéderm™ Voluma™ to the malar area, based on the investigators' determination of baseline severity and aesthetic goals. The treatment was administered in one or two sessions over an initial 4-week period. Supplementary treatment was permissible at week 78, based on protocol-defined criteria. A clinically meaningful response was predefined as at least a one-point improvement on the MidFace Volume Deficit Scale (MFVDS and on the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS.Results: Of the 103 subjects enrolled, 84% had moderate or significant volume deficiency at baseline. At the first post-treatment evaluation (week 8, 96% were documented to be MFVDS responders, with 98% and 100% graded as GAIS responders when assessed by the subjects and investigators, respectively. At week 78, 81.7% of subjects were still MFVDS responders, with 73.2% and 78.1% being GAIS responders, respectively. Seventy-two subjects completed the 24-month study, of whom 45 did not receive supplementary Voluma™ at week 78. Forty-three of the 45 (95.6% subjects were MFVDS responders, with 82.2% and 91

  5. Injectable Filler Techniques for Facial Rejuvenation, Volumization, and Augmentation.

    Bass, Lawrence S

    2015-11-01

    Multiple fillers are available: various hyaluronic acid products, calcium hydroxylapatite, and a few others that are biocompatible with good duration and a variety of mechanical properties allowing intradermal, subdermal, and supraperiosteal injection. Facial features can be reshaped with great control using these fillers. Aging changes, including facial volume loss, can be well-corrected. These treatments have become a mainstay of rejuvenation in the early facial aging patient. Injection technique is critical to obtaining excellent results. Threading, fanning, cross-hatching, bleb, and pillar techniques must be mastered. Technical execution can only measure up to, but not exceed, the quality of the aesthetic analysis. PMID:26505544

  6. Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging

    Fredric S Brandt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fredric S Brandt1, Alex Cazzaniga21Private Practice in Coral Gables, Florida, USA and Manhattan, NY, USA, and Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, Florida, USAAbstract: Time affects facial aging by producing cellular and anatomical changes resulting in the consequential loss of soft tissue volume. With the advent of new technologies, the physician has the opportunity of addressing these changes with the utilization of dermal fillers. Hyaluronic acid (HA dermal fillers are the most popular, non-permanent injectable materials available to physicians today for the correction of soft tissue defects of the face. This material provides an effective, non invasive, non surgical alternative for correction of the contour defects of the face due to its enormous ability to bind water and easiness of implantation. HA dermal fillers are safe and effective. The baby-boomer generation, and their desire of turning back the clock while enjoying an active lifestyle, has expanded the popularity of these fillers. In the US, there are currently eight HA dermal fillers approved for commercialization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. This article reviews the innate properties of FDA-approved HA fillers and provides an insight on future HA products and their utilization for the management of the aging face.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, aging face, dermal filler, wrinkles, Restylane, Perlane, Juvéderm

  7. The Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: Current Understanding of the Tissue Device Interface.

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Sidle, Douglas M

    2015-11-01

    The article is a detailed update regarding cosmetic injectable fillers, specifically focusing on hyaluronic acid fillers. Hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are used extensively for soft tissue volumizing and contouring. Many different hyaluronic acid-injectable fillers are available on the market and differ in terms of hyaluronic acid concentration, particle size, cross-linking density, requisite needle size, duration, stiffness, hydration, presence of lidocaine, type of cross-linking technology, and cost. Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of many soft tissues, is identical across species minimizing immunogenicity has been linked to wound healing and skin regeneration, and is currently actively being studied for tissue engineering purposes. The biomechanical and biochemical effects of HA on the local microenvironment of the injected site are key to its success as a soft tissue filler. Knowledge of the tissue-device interface will help guide the facial practitioner and lead to optimal outcomes for patients. PMID:26505539

  8. ACID-BASE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN POLYMERS AND FILLERS

    WANG Qingguo; CHEN Fute; HUANG Yuanfu; ZHOU Qingli

    1987-01-01

    Inverse gas chromatography(IGC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques were applied to determining the relative acid-base strength of polymers and coupling agents. The acid-base characteristics of fillers such as CaCO3 could be altered by treatment with different coupling agents. It was shown that some mechanical properties of filled polymers were obviously associated with acid-base interactions between polymers and fillers.

  9. Semipermanent Volumization by an Absorbable Filler: Onlay Injection Technique to the Bone

    Takanobu Mashiko, MD; Harushi Mori, MD; Harunosuke Kato, MD; Kentaro Doi, MD; Shinichiro Kuno, MD; Kahori Kinoshita, MD; Akira Kunimatsu, MD; Kuni Ohtomo, MD, PhD; Kotaro Yoshimura, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have become the most popular tool for wrinkle treatment and volumization, although HA is generally absorbed within 6–12 months and requires repeated treatments to maintain the effects. Methods: HA was injected onto the bone for volumization with a small 30-gauge needle to examine the long-lasting effects. Of the 63 Japanese patients with 97 treated sites followed up more than 12 months, 51 had HA injections for cosmetic purposes and 12 were treated ...

  10. STYLAGE®: a range of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers containing mannitol. Physical properties and review of the literature

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Fonteles, Lívia Arcanjo; Lagalhard, Cecília Schubert Xavier; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula Cercal

    2013-01-01

    Dermatological procedures which are considered as being minimally invasive, such as those using injectable fillers based on hyaluronic acid, revolutionized aging treatment, especially of the face. By promoting the replacement of lost volume and attenuating grooves and wrinkles, they ensure a more youthful appearance and certain functional recovery of facial aesthetics. The authors review some of the main physicochemical characteristics of these dermal fillers, highlighting the product line St...

  11. Key importance of compression properties in the biophysical characteristics of hyaluronic acid soft-tissue fillers.

    Gavard Molliard, Samuel; Albert, Séverine; Mondon, Karine

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) soft-tissue fillers are the most popular degradable injectable products used for correcting skin depressions and restoring facial volume loss. From a rheological perspective, HA fillers are commonly characterised through their viscoelastic properties under shear-stress. However, despite the continuous mechanical pressure that the skin applies on the fillers, compression properties in static and dynamic modes are rarely considered. In this article, three different rheological tests (shear-stress test and compression tests in static and dynamic mode) were carried out on nine CE-marked cross-linked HA fillers. Corresponding shear-stress (G', tanδ) and compression (E', tanδc, normal force FN) parameters were measured. We show here that the tested products behave differently under shear-stress and under compression even though they are used for the same indications. G' showed the expected influence on the tissue volumising capacity, and the same influence was also observed for the compression parameters E'. In conclusion, HA soft-tissue fillers exhibit widely different biophysical characteristics and many variables contribute to their overall performance. The elastic modulus G' is not the only critical parameter to consider amongst the rheological properties: the compression parameters E' and FN also provide key information, which should be taken into account for a better prediction of clinical outcomes, especially for predicting the volumising capacity and probably the ability to stimulate collagen production by fibroblasts. PMID:27093589

  12. Upper face rejuvenation using botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers

    Soni Nanda; Shikha Bansal

    2013-01-01

    The demand for facial rejuvenation is increasing, with each passing day, in all age groups. A number of procedures like chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser and light therapies, and minimally invasive procedures like botulinum toxin injections (BTX A) and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are being extensively used by the dermatologist and plastic surgeons to meet this growing demand. A good knowledge of use of these techniques is becoming imperative for the dermatologist. In the present artic...

  13. MODIFICATION OF PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLER USING SODIUM SILICATE/ZINC CHLORIDE BASED MODIFIERS TO IMPROVE ACID-RESISTANCE AND USE OF THE MODIFIED FILLER IN PAPERMAKING

    Jing Shen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the acid-resistant property of papermaking grade precipitated calcium carbonate filler and to obtain modified filler in powder form, sodium silicate/zinc chloride based modifiers were used in filler modification, and the use of modified filler in papermaking of deinked pulp derived from recycled newspaper was also preliminarily investigated. Under the preliminarily optimized experimental conditions, when sodium silicate, zinc chloride, sodium hexametaphosphate, and phosphoric acid with dosages of 10 wt%, 3 wt%, 1 wt% and 0.2 wt%, respectively, were used as modifiers, and when the temperature, aging time, and PCC concentration during the filler modification process was 70 oC, 7 h and 9.1 wt%, respectively, the acid-resistant property of filler was significantly improved after modification, as evaluated using alum consumption and pH methods. The use of modified precipitated calcium carbonate filler prepared under the optimized conditions provided considerably more brightness and light scattering improvement in comparison to unmodified filler, and filler modification was found to have only negligible influence on tensile and burst strength of the paper, air permeability of the paper, and retention performance of the filler. Surface analysis of the modified filler using XPS and SEM confirmed the occurring of surface encapsulation and modification of precipitated calcium carbonate filler when the relevant modifiers were used in filler modification. The encapsulating effect of modifiers on filler was thought to be favorable to improvement in acid-resistant property, and optical properties of the filled paper.

  14. Perpendicular Strut Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Deep Wrinkles.

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Kinoshita, Kahori; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-11-01

    Although various injection techniques of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler for facial rejuvenation have been developed, correction of deep wrinkles/grooves, such as the nasolabial fold (NLF), with intradermal or subdermal injections remains difficult. We tested the intradermal HA injection method to place multiple HA struts by (1) inserting a small needle perpendicularly to the wrinkle and (2) injecting HA as intradermal struts with the skin fully stretched by the practitioner's fingers. The results of both NLFs in 10 patients suggest that this technique improves NLFs and maintain the effects more consistently than conventional techniques, although the effects of both methods were almost lost after 6 months. Selective and/or combined application of this technique may enhance the current approach to facial rejuvenation with dermal fillers. PMID:26893992

  15. Filler modification for papermaking with starch/oleic acid complexes with the aid of calcium ions.

    Huang, Xiujie; Shen, Jing; Qian, Xueren

    2013-10-15

    To mitigate the negative effect of filler addition on paper strength and improve filler retention, filler modification with hydrogen bonding polymers (e.g., starch) or their composites is an interesting research topic. Differing from previous reports, the concept related to the deposition of starch/oleic acid complexes on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) with the aid of calcium ions was demonstrated. The introduction of calcium ions resulted in effective starch deposition. As a result of filler modification, filler retention and the tensile strength of the filled paper were simultaneously improved essentially due to the aggregation of PCC particles in filler modification process as well as improved filler bondability. The concept demonstrated in this brief study may provide an alternative approach to filler bondability enhancement for improved papermaking performances. PMID:23987430

  16. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  17. STYLAGE®: a range of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers containing mannitol. Physical properties and review of the literature

    Ramos-e-Silva M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marcia Ramos-e-Silva, Lívia Arcanjo Fonteles, Cecília Schubert Xavier Lagalhard, Ana Paula Cercal Fucci-da-CostaSector of Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Dermatological procedures which are considered as being minimally invasive, such as those using injectable fillers based on hyaluronic acid, revolutionized aging treatment, especially of the face. By promoting the replacement of lost volume and attenuating grooves and wrinkles, they ensure a more youthful appearance and certain functional recovery of facial aesthetics. The authors review some of the main physicochemical characteristics of these dermal fillers, highlighting the product line Stylage®, the manufacture of which includes mannitol.Keywords: fillers, hyaluronic acid, mannitol, facial aging, wrinkles, stylage®

  18. Treatment of glabella skin necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid filler using platelet-rich plasma.

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Kang, In Jung; Jeong, Ki Heon; Shin, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. However, there can be various complications following HA filler injection. Skin necrosis is rare but one of the most disastrous side effects that, if not treated promptly and effectively, can result in permanent and potentially disfiguring scarring. Thus, early proper management is important. Herein we report a patient who experienced tissue necrosis of the glabellar area after receiving filler injections that was successfully treated using platelet-rich plasma and provide full follow-up clinical photographs. PMID:26052808

  19. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler

    Moon, Du Geon; Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effec...

  20. Severe Acute Local Reactions to a Hyaluronic Acid-derived Dermal Filler

    Dyke, Susan Van; Hays, Geoffrey P.; Caglia, Anthony E.; Caglia, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Injectable fillers are normally well tolerated by patients with little or no adverse effects. The most common side effects include swelling, redness, bruising, and pain at the injection site. This report describes three cases in which patients injected with a hyaluronic acid-derived injectable filler that is premixed with lidocaine developed adverse reactions including persistent swelling, pain, and nodule formation. Two of the three patients' abscesses were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic...

  1. 3D photography in the objective analysis of volume augmentation including fat augmentation and dermal fillers.

    Meier, Jason D; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    The authors present quantitative and objective 3D data from their studies showing long-term results with facial volume augmentation. The first study analyzes fat grafting of the midface and the second study presents augmentation of the tear trough with hyaluronic filler. Surgeons using 3D quantitative analysis can learn the duration of results and the optimal amount to inject, as well as showing patients results that are not demonstrable with standard, 2D photography. PMID:22004863

  2. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF ACID-TOLERANT PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLERS IN PAPERMAKING OF DEINKED PULP DERIVED FROM RECYCLED NEWSPAPER

    Jing Shen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of acid-tolerant precipitated calcium carbonate fillers, including phosphoric acid/sodium hexametaphosphate modified precipitated CaCO3 filler, and sodium silicate/phosphoric acid/sodium hexametaphos-phate modified precipitated CaCO3 filler in papermaking of deinked pulp derived from recycled newspaper was explored. These two acid-tolerant fillers provided considerably more brightness improvement in papers in comparison the unmodified filler, presumably indicating alleviated pulp darkening achieved as a result of better acid-resistant properties. The addition of acid-tolerant fillers into the furnish slurries gave lower system pH as compared with unmodified filler. Among the three fillers used in this work, the effect on retention of modification of the filler with sodium silicate/phosphoric acid/sodium hexametaphosphate was probably the best, as evaluated from ash content measurements. For air permeability of the paper, the use of acid-tolerant fillers provided slightly more improvement in comparison to the unmodified filler. For tensile and burst strength of the paper, the use of sodium silicate/phosphoric acid/sodium hexameta-phosphate modified precipitated calcium carbonate filler gave better results as compared with the other two fillers. Additionally, the improving effect of acid-tolerant fillers on furnish static drainage was found to be slightly weaker than that of unmodified filler.

  3. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler.

    Moon, Du Geon; Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-08-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  4. Glans Penis Augmentation Using Hyaluronic Acid Gel as an Injectable Filler

    Kwak, Tae Il; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Glans penis augmentation (GPA) has received little attention from experts despite the existence of a subset of patients who may be dissatisfied with a small glans or poor tumescence of the glans during erection. Recently, GPA using an injectable filler or implantation of a graft or filler has been developed. Despite a demanding injection technique and inevitable uneven undulation of the glandular surface, GPA using injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a novel and useful therapy and an effective and safe procedure for soft tissue enhancement. For long-term presence of implants, timed supplementation can be used similar to that for fascial plasty. In complications such as mucosal necrosis of the glans penis, most cases occur from the use of non-HA gel or an unpurified form and misunderstanding of the management protocol for immediate side effects. Currently, GPA using injectable HA gel is not recommended in the International Society for Sexual Medicine guideline due to possible sensory loss. In a 5-year long-term follow-up of GPA by subcutaneous injection of HA gel, the residual volume of implants decreased by 15% of the maximal glandular circumference, but was still effective for alleviating the hypersensitivity of the glans penis in premature ejaculation patients. For efficacy in premature ejaculation, selection of appropriate candidates is the most important factor for success. GPA does not harm erectile function and is less invasive and irreversible compared to dorsal neurectomy. To refine the procedure, more interest and well-designed studies are required for the establishment of the procedure. PMID:26331121

  5. Effect of different carbon fillers and dopant acids on electrical properties of polyaniline nanocomposites

    E Johny Jelmy; S Ramakrishnan; Murali Rangarajan; Nikhil K Kothurkar

    2013-02-01

    Electrically conducting nanocomposites of polyaniline (PANI) with carbon-based fillers have evinced considerable interest for various applications such as rechargeable batteries, microelectronics, sensors, electrochromic displays and light-emitting and photovoltaic devices. The nature of both the carbon filler and the dopant acid can significantly influence the conductivity of these nanocomposites. This paper describes the effects of carbon fillers like carbon black (CB), graphite (GR) and muti-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and of dopant acids like methane sulfonic acid (MSA), camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on the electrical conductivity of PANI. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of neat PANI and carbon–PANI nanocomposites were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), UV–Vis spectroscopy and the four-point probe technique, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were also conducted for different PANI composites. The results show that PANI and carbon–PANI composites with organic acid dopants show good thermal stability and higher electrical conductivity than those with inorganic acid dopants. Also, carbon–PANI composites generally show higher electrical conductivity than neat PANI, with highest conductivities for PANI–CNT composites. Thus, in essence, PANI–CNT composites prepared using organic acid dopants are most suitable for conducting applications.

  6. POLY(LACTIC ACID) GREEN COMPOSITES USING OILSEED COPRODUCTS AS FILLERS

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer made from renewable resources with similar mechanical properties to polypropylene. PLA is more expensive than petroleum-based plastics, and the use of low-cost fillers as extenders is desirable. Agricultural co-products of the alternative oilseed ...

  7. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid

    Xingxun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  8. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    Basora, Jose F.; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens ...

  9. Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging

    Brandt, Fredric S; Alex Cazzaniga

    2008-01-01

    Fredric S Brandt1, Alex Cazzaniga21Private Practice in Coral Gables, Florida, USA and Manhattan, NY, USA, and Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Research Institute, Coral Gables, Florida, USAAbstract: Time affects facial aging by producing cellular and anatomical changes resulting in the consequential loss of soft tissue volume. With the advent of new technologies, the physician has the opportunity of addressing these changes with the utilization of dermal fil...

  10. Wrinkle Fillers

    ... rays and may obscure underlying features. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA): PLLA is a biodegradable, biocompatible man-made ... when considering soft tissue fillers that contain hyaluronic acid material derived from bacteria fermentation). You have joint, tendon, or vascular disease ...

  11. The Efficacy, Longevity, and Safety of Combined Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Skin Rejuvenation

    Kim, Hyuk; Park, Kui Young; Choi, Sun Young; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Park, Sun-Young; Park, Won-Seok; Bae, Il-Hong; Kim, Beom Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers and radiofrequency (RF) devices have been made in the context of skin rejuvenation and cosmetic surgery. Moreover, combination regimens with both techniques are currently being developed. Objective The present study was designed to examine the clinical and histologic effects of a new needle that incorporates an RF device for HA injections. Methods A new intradermal needle RF device (INNOfill; Pacific Pharma, Korea) was assessed in the...

  12. Barrier Properties of Polylactic Acid in Cellulose Based Packages Using Montmorillonite as Filler

    Daniela Sánchez Aldana; Eduardo Duarte Villa; Miguel De Dios Hernández; Guillermo González Sánchez; Quintín Rascón Cruz; Sergio Flores Gallardo; Hilda Piñon Castillo; Lourdes Ballinas Casarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and montmorillonite (CB) as filler were studied as coatings for cellulose based packages. Amorphous (AM) and semi crystalline (SC) PLA were used at different concentrations according to a 2 × 6 × 3 full factorial experimental design. CB loading was three concentrations and coating was performed by casting. Contact angle (CA), water vapor (WVP) and grease permeabilities were measured for each resultant package and were compared to commercial materials (Glassine Paper, Gre...

  13. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin

    Hannah E John, Richard D Price

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hannah E John, Richard D PriceDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (she would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, filler injection, nonsurgical procedures, technique

  14. Duration of wrinkle correction following repeat treatment with Juvéderm hyaluronic acid fillers

    Smith, Stacy R.; Jones, Derek; Thomas, Jane A.; Murphy, Diane K.; Beddingfield, Frederick C.

    2010-01-01

    Many patients elect to have repeat treatments with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers to maintain wrinkle correction, but the clinical performance of these products after repeat treatments has not been formally assessed. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Juvéderm injectable gel (Juvéderm Ultra, Juvéderm Ultra Plus, and Juvéderm 30) through 1 year after repeat treatment of nasolabial folds (NLFs) that were previously treated with Juvéderm or Zyplast 6–9 month...

  15. Clinical Performance of a Dermal Filler Containing Natural Glycolic Acid and a Polylactic Acid Polymer: Results of a Clinical Trial in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Subjects with Facial Lipoatrophy

    Tagle, Jorge M.; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.1–3 Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in t...

  16. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin.

    John, Hannah E; Price, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures performed; in the USA, there was a 48% growth from 2000 to 2008 in nonsurgical treatments undertaken by women, and 64% in men and while the average surgeon might perform 60 blepharoplasty operations in 2007, (s)he would also undertake 375 botulinum injections, and almost 200 filler injections of varying sorts. Clearly there is enthusiasm for nonsurgical treatments, and this trend appears to be rising. With this in mind, we present an overview of the commonest filler injection material, hyaluronic acid. We present the mechanism of action, the purported risks and benefits, and briefly discuss technique. PMID:19936165

  17. Determination of the Molar Volume of Hydrogen from the Metal-Acid Reaction: An Experimental Alternative.

    de Berg, Kevin; Chapman, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Describes an alternative technique for determining the molar volume of hydrogen from the metal-acid reaction in which the metal sample is encased in a specially prepared cage and a pipette filler is used to fill an inverted burette with water. Eliminates some difficulties encountered with the conventional technique. (JRH)

  18. An Open-Label Uncontrolled, Multicenter Study for the Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of the Dermal Filler Princess VOLUME in the Treatment of Nasolabial Folds

    Daisy Kopera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dermal filler Princess VOLUME is a highly cross-linked, viscoelastic hyaluronic acid injectable gel implant used for aesthetic treatment. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Princess VOLUME in the treatment of nasolabial folds, an open-label uncontrolled, multicenter study was conducted. Forty-eight subjects were recruited who had moderate to deep wrinkles, according to the Modified Fitzpatrick Wrinkle Scale (MFWS. Subjects received Princess VOLUME in both nasolabial folds at Day 0. Nasolabial fold severity was evaluated at 30, 90, 180, and 270 days after treatment, using the MFWS and the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS. Adverse events and treatment site reactions were recorded. Among the 48 subjects, 93.8% were female with a median age of 52 years. There were significant improvements (P<0.0001 in the MFWS scores at 30, 180, and 270 days after treatment compared with those at baseline, with a mean decrease of 1.484 (±0.408, 1.309 (±0.373, and 1.223 (±0.401, respectively; hence the primary endpoint was achieved and clinical efficacy demonstrated. Princess VOLUME was well tolerated, and most adverse events were injection site reactions of mild to moderate severity. Subject satisfaction (97.9%, subject recommendation of the treatment (93.6%, and investigators GAIS scores (97.9% improvement were high.

  19. Barrier Properties of Polylactic Acid in Cellulose Based Packages Using Montmorillonite as Filler

    Daniela Sánchez Aldana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA and montmorillonite (CB as filler were studied as coatings for cellulose based packages. Amorphous (AM and semi crystalline (SC PLA were used at different concentrations according to a 2 × 6 × 3 full factorial experimental design. CB loading was three concentrations and coating was performed by casting. Contact angle (CA, water vapor (WVP and grease permeabilities were measured for each resultant package and were compared to commercial materials (Glassine Paper, Grease Proof Papers 1 and 2 produced commercially. Significant differences were found and the main factors were the type and concentration of PLA. The best values were: for grease penetration, +1800 s; WVP from 161.36 to 237.8 g·µm·kPa−1·m−2·d−1 and CA from 69° to 73° for PLA–AM 0.5% and CB variable. These parameters are comparable to commercial packages used in the food industry. DSC revealed three different thermal events for PLA–SC and just Tg for PLA–AM. Crystallinity was also verified, obtaining a ΔHcrys of 3.7 J·g−1 for PLA–SC and 14 J·g−1 for PLA–SC–BC, evidencing clay interaction as a crystal nucleating agent. Differences found were explained on terms of the properties measured, where structural and chemical arrays of the coatings play a fundamental role for the barrier properties.

  20. PIM-1 mixed matrix membranes for gas separations using cost-effective hypercrosslinked nanoparticle fillers.

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Bhavsar, Rupesh S; Adams, Dave J; Budd, Peter M; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-12

    High-free-volume glassy polymers, such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and poly(trimethylsilylpropyne), have attracted attention as membrane materials due to their high permeability. However, loss of free volume over time, or aging, limits their applicability. Introduction of a secondary filler phase can reduce this aging but either cost or instability rules out scale up for many fillers. Here, we report a cheap, acid-tolerant, nanoparticulate hypercrosslinked polymer 'sponge' as an alternative filler. On adding the filler, permeability is enhanced and aging is strongly retarded. This is accompanied by a CO2/N2 selectivity that increases over time, surpassing the Robeson upper bound. PMID:27026034

  1. STYLAGE®: a range of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers containing mannitol. Physical properties and review of the literature

    Ramos-e-Silva M; Fonteles LA; Lagalhard CSX; Fucci-da-Costa APC

    2013-01-01

    Marcia Ramos-e-Silva, Lívia Arcanjo Fonteles, Cecília Schubert Xavier Lagalhard, Ana Paula Cercal Fucci-da-CostaSector of Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Dermatological procedures which are considered as being minimally invasive, such as those using injectable fillers based on hyaluronic acid, revolutionized aging treatment, especially of the face. By promoting the replacement of lost ...

  2. STYLAGE®: a range of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers containing mannitol. Physical properties and review of the literature

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Marcia Ramos-e-Silva, Lívia Arcanjo Fonteles, Cecília Schubert Xavier Lagalhard, Ana Paula Cercal Fucci-da-CostaSector of Dermatology, University Hospital and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Dermatological procedures which are considered as being minimally invasive, such as those using injectable fillers based on hyaluronic acid, revolutionized aging treatment, especially of the face. By promoting the replacement ...

  3. Delayed immune mediated adverse effects to hyaluronic acid fillers: report of five cases and review of the literature

    Ora Bitterman-Deutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA fillers in cosmetic medicine have been considered relatively safe, though fillers used in European countries and throughout the world are not necessarily approved by the Food and Drug Administration. As their use continues to expand worldwide, physicians in a wide range of medical specialties are authorized to perform HA injections, including general medicine practitioners and even dentists. An increasing number of reports have appeared regarding side effects to these products. It is now known that reactions to Hyaluronic acid are related not only to technical faults of the injections, but also to immune responses, including delayed hypersensitivity and granulomatous reactions. Herein, we describe five cases treated by a variety of treatment modalities, all with delayed reactions to different brands of hyaluronic acid fillers. As there is currently no standardization of treatment options of adverse effects, these cases accentuate the debate regarding the approach to the individual patient and the possible need for pre-testing in patients with an atopic tendency.

  4. Review of long-term adverse effects associated with the use of chemically-modified animal and nonanimal source hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    Paul C Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Edwards1, John E Fantasia21Associate Professor (Clinical, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Pathology and Oncology, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor MI, USA; 2Chief, Division of Oral Pathology, Department of Dental Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: Although only recently introduced, chemically-modified hyaluronic acid dermal fillers have gained widespread acceptance as “redefining” dermal fillers in the fields of dermatology and cosmetic facial surgery. Although hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers have a low overall incidence of long term side effects, occasional adverse outcomes, ranging from chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory reactions to classic foreign body-type granulomatous reactions have been documented. These long-term adverse events are reviewed.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, Restylane®, Hylaform®, injectable dermal filler, foreign body reaction, granuloma

  5. Effect of an acid filler on hydrolysis and biodegradation of poly-lactic acid (PLA)

    Iozzino, Valentina; Speranza, Vito; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers is certainly an excellent strategy to solve many of the problems related to the disposal of the traditional polymers, whose accumulation in the environment is harmful and damaging. In order to optimize the use of biodegradable polymers, it is very important to understand and control the transformation processes, the structures and the morphologies resulting from the process conditions used to produce the articles and, not least, the biodegradation. The latter is strictly dependent on the just mentioned variables. The poly-lactic acid, PLA, is a biodegradable polymer. Many studies have been carried out on the degradation process of this polymer. In the course of this work we performed degradation tests on the PLA, with a specific D-isomer content, having amorphous structure, and in particular of biodegradation and hydrolysis. An acid chemical, fumaric acid, was added to PLA with the objective of controlling the rate of hydrolysis and of biodegradation. The hydrolysis process was followed, as function of time, by means of different techniques: pH variation, variation of weight of samples and variation of crystallinity degree and glass transition temperature using DSC analysis. The samples were also analyzed in terms of biodegradability by means of a homemade respirometer apparatus, in controlled composting conditions.

  6. Semipermanent Volumization by an Absorbable Filler: Onlay Injection Technique to the Bone

    Takanobu Mashiko, MD

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Semipermanent volumizing effects can be achieved by HA injection if the target area has an underlying bony floor. Periosteal stem cells may be activated by HA injection and may contribute to persistent volumizing effects. This treatment may be a much less invasive alternative to fat or bone grafting.

  7. Brighter eyes: combined upper cheek and tear trough augmentation: a systematic approach utilizing two complementary hyaluronic acid fillers.

    Tung, Rebecca; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Park, Kelly; Sato, Mauricio; Dubina, Meghan; Alam, Murad

    2012-09-01

    Non-surgical rejuvenation of the periorbital-cheek complex can be effectively and safely accomplished using a combination of two hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers with distinct viscosities. We present a series of 21 patients with mild to moderate tear trough deformities who were treated with concomitant injection of two dermal fillers (Restylane® and Perlane®). Procedural technique entailed micro-depot injections of the finer viscosity HA into the sub-muscular plane along the orbital rim followed by manual massage. Secondly, injections of the thicker, more firm HA were placed in the sub-muscular and/or deep dermal spaces in the upper malar and lateral zygomatic areas and in the medial aspect of the temporal fossa. On average 0.5 mL Restylane and 0.5 mL Perlane were used per side. Statistically significant improvement in modified Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale scores was seen at 20 weeks. Overall improvement in modified Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores occurred in 20 out of 21 patients. Mean patient satisfaction scores increased by 2 grades relative to baseline. Patients' self-reported overall mean improvement was 2.23, indicating moderate (26% to 50%) to good (51% to 75%) improvement. Side effects were limited to transient bruising and swelling. No patients required dissolution of injectant with hyaluronidase. Overall, this combination filler procedure was found to produce both statistically significant and clinically apparent improvement and was associated with an extremely high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:23135653

  8. A prospective, open-label, multicenter, observational, postmarket study of the use of a 15 mg/mL hyaluronic acid dermal filler in the lips

    Philipp-Dormston, Wolfgang G; Hilton, Said; Nathan, Myooran

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based injectable fillers three-dimensionally restore the natural contours of the lips and perioral area, thereby reducing some signs of aging lips. To evaluate the short-term aesthetic impact of treatment with the HA dermal filler Juvéderm® VOLBELLA® with Lidocaine, formulated utilizing VYCROSS™ technology, for enhancement or correction of asymmetry of the lips, evaluated using a patient-centric approach. Sixty-two subjects were enrolled in this study, conducted at two si...

  9. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin

    Wortsman, X.; Wortsman, J.; Orlandi, C.;

    2012-01-01

    Fillers are recognizable on ultrasound and generate different patterns of echogenicity and posterior acoustic artefacts. Cosmetic fillers were identified in 118 dermatological patients; most commonly hyaluronic acid among degradable agents and silicone oil among non-degradable. Fillers deposits were...

  10. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  11. Safety and persistence of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid fillers for nasolabial folds correction in 30 Indian patients

    Shehnaz Z Arsiwala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of nasolabial creases through minimally invasive procedures is increasingly being sought by patients. Injecting non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid filler is a highly effective method to achieve an optimal and persistent cosmetic result. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, persistence and safety of Restylane and Perlane (Q-Med, Sweden for correction of nasolabial folds in Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty Indian patients with mild, moderate and severe nasolabial folds (based on Wrinkle Assessment Scale were recruited in the study after informed consent for correction of their folds with Restylane or Perlane or both. Injections were administered in a single sitting after global assessment of the patient′s face using Wrinkle assessment scale (WAS.Optimal filling was performed by using appropriate techniques and its safety and efficacy assessed independently by the investigator as well as by patients at immediately, 3, 6 and 9 months post-procedure. Any adverse reactions were noted. Results: Twenty two females and 8 males (age range 45-55 years, mean age 52 years were recruited in the study. An optimum cosmetic correction was obtained in all patients. The efficacy increased with time and was greatest at 3 months after the treatment. Grade 2 improvement was maintained at 9 months in mild and moderate folds, and grade 3 improvement for severe folds. Minor post injection side effects like erythema at puncture site, needle marks and bruising were seen. Conclusion: Restylane and Perlane are safe and effective dermal fillers for correction of nasolabial creases and offer immediate effect.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of a Hyaluronic Acid Filler to Correct Aesthetically Detracting or Deficient Features of the Asian Nose: A Prospective, Open-Label, Long-Term Study

    Liew, Steven; Scamp, Terrence; de Maio, Mauricio; Halstead, Michael; Johnston, Nicole; Silberberg, Michael; Rogers, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest among patients and plastic surgeons for alternatives to rhinoplasty, a common surgical procedure performed in Asia. Objectives To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and longevity of a hyaluronic acid filler in the correction of aesthetically detracting or deficient features of the Asian nose. Methods Twenty-nine carefully screened Asian patients had their noses corrected with the study filler (Juvéderm VOLUMA [Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland] with lidocaine injectable gel), reflecting individualized treatment goals and utilizing a standardized injection procedure, and were followed for over 12 months. Results A clinically meaningful correction (≥1 grade improvement on the Assessment of Aesthetic Improvement Scale) was achieved in 27 (93.1%) patients at the first follow-up visit. This was maintained in 28 (96.6%) patients at the final visit, based on the independent assessments of a central non-injecting physician and the patients. At this final visit, 23 (79.3%) patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the study filler and 25 (86.2%) would recommend it to others. In this small series of patients, there were no serious adverse events (AEs), with all treatment-related AEs being mild to moderate, transient injection site reactions, unrelated to the study filler. Conclusions Using specific eligibility criteria, individualized treatment goals, and a standardized injection procedure, the study filler corrected aesthetically detracting or deficient features of the Asian nose, with the therapeutic effects lasting for over 12 months, consistent with a high degree of patient satisfaction. This study supports the safety and efficacy of this HA filler for specific nose augmentation procedures in selected Asian patients. Level of Evidence: 3 Therapeutic PMID:27301371

  13. Radiation modified filler for dental restorative composites

    Gamma-radiation was utilized to graft acrylic acid in the vapor phase to the surface of glass fibers and quartz particles. This treatment improved the wettability of the filler with the polymeric matrix and enhanced the mechanical properties of the composite. Samples were prepared from the unfilled dental resin, and from composites containing untreated, silane treated and polyacrylic acid-grafted fillers. These composites contained 30, 45 and 69 vol.% filler in each category. The composites containing grafted filler were superior in hardness and compressive strength, and equivalent in abrasion resistance to those with silane treated fillers. However, both treatments showed at least a 50% improvement in compressive strength and a 300% reduction in wear over composites with untreated filler. This improvement was even more substantial when glass fibers were used as the filler material. (author)

  14. MODIFICATION OF PAPERMAKING GRADE FILLERS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Jing Shen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of fillers in paper products can provide cost and energy savings, improved paper properties, increased productivities, and specifically desired paper functionalities. There are many problems associated with the use of fillers, such as unsuitability of calcium carbonate fillers in acid papermaking, negative effects of filler loading on paper strength, sizing, and retention, and tendencies of fillers to cause abrasion and dusting. In order to solve these problems and to make better use of fillers, many methods have been proposed, among which filler modification has been a hot topic. The available technologies of filler modification mainly include modification with inorganic substances, modification with natural polymers or their derivatives, modification with water-soluble synthetic polymers, modification with surfactants, modification with polymer latexes, hydrophobic modification, cationic modification, surface nano-structuring, physical modification by compressing, calcination or grinding, and modification for use in functional papers. The methods of filler modification can provide improved acid tolerant and optical properties of fillers, enhanced fiber-filler bonding, improved filler retention and filler sizabilities, alleviated filler abrasiveness, improved filler dispersability, and functionalization of filled papers. Filler modification has been an indispensable way to accelerate the development of high filler technology in papermaking, which is likely to create additional benefits to papermaking industry in the future.

  15. The histological aspects of fillers complications.

    Zimmermann, Ute S; Clerici, Thierry J

    2004-12-01

    The histological aspects of resorbable heterologous fillers (bovine collagen, acid hyaluronique), autologous fillers (lipofilling, dermis-fat graft), biodegradable fillers (New-Fill), and permanent fillers (silicone, Artecoll, Evolution, Aquamid, DermaLive, DermaDeep, Bioplastique, Paraffin) are described. This article relates the morphological aspect of these materials, the normal tissue reaction after injection, and its chronological evolution as the morphological aspects from the different side effects, more frequently observed for the permanent fillers. They mainly consist of granulomatous reactions which may appear long after injection. PMID:15745233

  16. Application of novel catalytic-ceramic-filler in a coupled system for long-chain dicarboxylic acids manufacturing wastewater treatment.

    Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Fan, Chunzhen; He, Shengbing; Dai, Bibo; Huang, Jungchen; Zhou, Weili; Gao, Lei

    2016-02-01

    To gain systematic technology for long-chain dicarboxylic acids (LDCA) manufacturing wastewater treatment, catalytic micro-electrolysis (CME) coupling with adsorption-biodegradation sludge (AB) process was studied. Firstly, novel catalytic-ceramic-filler was prepared from scrap iron, clay and copper sulfate solution and packed in the CME reactor. To remove residual n-alkane and LDCA, the CME reactor was utilized for LDCA wastewater pretreatment. The results revealed that about 94% of n-alkane, 98% of LDCA and 84% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed by the aerated CME reactor at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.0 h. In this process, catalysis from Cu and montmorillonites played an important role in improving the contaminants removal. Secondly, to remove residual COD in the wastewater, AB process was designed for the secondary biological treatment, about 90% of the influent COD could be removed by biosorption, bio-flocculation and biodegradation effects. Finally, the effluent COD (about 150 mg L(-1)) discharged from the coupled CME-AB system met the requirement of the national discharged standard (COD ≤ 300 mg L(-1)). All of these results suggest that the coupled CME-AB system is a promising technology due to its high-efficient performance, and has the potential to be applied for the real LDCA wastewater treatment. PMID:26619310

  17. Review of long-term adverse effects associated with the use of chemically-modified animal and nonanimal source hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    Edwards, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Paul C Edwards1, John E Fantasia21Associate Professor (Clinical), Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Pathology and Oncology, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor MI, USA; 2Chief, Division of Oral Pathology, Department of Dental Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: Although only recently introduced, chemically-modified hyaluronic acid dermal fillers have gained widespread acceptance as “redefining” dermal f...

  18. Review of long-term adverse effects associated with the use of chemically-modified animal and nonanimal source hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    Edwards, Paul C.; John E Fantasia

    2007-01-01

    Paul C Edwards1, John E Fantasia21Associate Professor (Clinical), Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Pathology and Oncology, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor MI, USA; 2Chief, Division of Oral Pathology, Department of Dental Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: Although only recently introduced, chemically-modified hyaluronic acid dermal fillers have gained widespread acceptance as “redefining” dermal f...

  19. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  20. Soy-based fillers for thermoset composites

    Watt, Paula

    Considerable work has been done with bio-based fillers in thermoplastics. Wood dust has been used for decades in wood plastic composites in conjunction with recycled high HDPE and PET. In recent years rapidly renewable fillers derived from dried distillery grains and from wood have been introduced commercially for thermoset polymers. These fillers provide bio-content and weight reduction to thermoset molding compounds but issues with moisture absorption and polymerization inhibition have limited their commercial acceptance. The intent of this research was to develop a bio-based filler suitable for thermoset composites. This filler would provide a low density alternative to mined mineral filler, such as CaCO3 or clay. Composites made with these fillers would be lighter in weight, which is desirable for many markets, particularly transportation. Cost parity to the mineral fillers, on a volume basis, was desirable and the use of green chemistry principles was a key objective of the project. This work provides a basis from which further development of modified soy flours as fillers for thermoset composites will continue. Biomass has been evaluated as fillers for thermoset composites since the early 1980s but failed to gain commercial acceptance due to excessive water absorption and inhibition issues with free radical curing. Biomass, with a large percentage of carbohydrates, are very hydrophilic due to their abundance of hydroxyl groups, while biomass, high in lignin, resulted in inhibition of the free radical cure of the unsaturated styrenated polyester matrix systems. Generally protein use as a filler is not desirable due to its food value. Torrefaction has proved to be a good, cost effective, process to reduce hydrophilicity of high cellulose feedstock. Surprising, however, some levels of torrefaction were found to induce the inhibition effect of the filler. Scientific inquiry into this problem proved that aromatics form during the torrefaction process and can

  1. Intraoral approach: A newer technique for filler injection

    Chytra V Anand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Filler injections are the most common aesthetic procedures used for volume correction. Various techniques have been described in the use of fillers. This article reviews the available literature on a new technique using the intraoral approach for injection of fillers.

  2. Clinical comparison between two hyaluronic acid-derived fillers in the treatment of nasolabial folds in Chinese subjects: BioHyalux versus Restylane.

    Wu, Yan; Sun, Nan; Xu, Yue; Liu, Huixian; Zhong, Shaomin; Chen, Liyang; Li, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid fillers are used to improve the appearance of nasolabial folds (NLF). This study aimed to compare the efficacy, safety, and durability of a new hyaluronic acid gel (BioHyalux) versus Restylane for the correction of NLF. This was a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial involving 88 subjects with moderate to severe NLF. Subjects were randomized to BioHyalux and Restylane on either sides of the NLF. NLF was assessed before and right after injection, and at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months. Patients were followed up for 13-15 months to evaluate the durability and long-term safety. A clinically meaningful response was predefined as at least one-point improvement on the Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale, which is a five-point scale. At 6 months, the response rate of BioHyalux was not inferior to that of Restylane (P  0.05) at all time points. At 6 months, 100 % reported improvements on both side; at 13-15 months, 60 % of subjects reported improvements with BioHyalux versus 64 % with Restylane. Adverse events were transient and predominantly mild or moderate in severity including injection site swelling, pain, itching, bruising, and tenderness. BioHyalux had reliable safety and tolerance, and could be an effective injectable filler for correcting NLF. PMID:26924549

  3. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid.

    Yamauchi, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. PMID:25336982

  4. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    Yamauchi, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. PMID:25336982

  5. A Randomized, Evaluator-Blinded, Split-Face Comparison Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Mannitol Containing Monophasic Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Nasolabial Folds

    Kim, Byung Wook; Moon, Ik Jun; Yun, Woo Jin; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Sang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background Mannitol containing monophasic filler with higher crosslinking has not been well studied for moderate and severe nasolabial fold (NLF) correction. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel mannitol containing hyaluronic acid (HA) filler (HA-G) with biphasic HA filler (HA-P) for moderate and severe NLF correction. Methods Thirteen subjects with symmetric moderate to severe NLF received HA-G (in one NLF) and HA-P (in other NLF) and were evaluated for 24 weeks. Results At both 12 and 24 weeks, the mean improvement in Genzyme 6-point grading scale from baseline was significantly greater in the side of face that was treated with HA-G than HA-P (1.96±0.91 vs. 1.54±0.73 at week 12; p=0.044, 1.88±0.78 vs. 1.3±0.79 at week 24; p=0.027, respectively). At 12 weeks, the mean Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale score was 2.92±0.93 for HA-G and 2.31±0.95 for HA-P (p=0.008). Both fillers were well tolerated. Conclusion The HA filler HA-G provides better efficacy and similar local tolerability compared with HA-P in 6 months following treatment for moderate and severe NLF. PMID:27274627

  6. Facial rejuvenation with fillers: The dual plane technique

    Giovanni Salti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy "dual plane". A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects.

  7. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  8. Body Shaping and Volume Restoration: The Role of Hyaluronic Acid

    Hedén, Per; Sellman, Gabriella; von Wachenfeldt, Mats; Olenius, Michael; Fagrell, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the rising popularity of minimally invasive techniques, the demand for cosmetic procedures is increasing. Cosmetic body-shaping procedures can be categorized into those that remove tissue and those that add volume. This review focuses on the latter of these categories, particularly on the use of resorbable hyaluronic acid gels specifically developed for minimally invasive volume enhancement. Pilot studies of hyaluronic acid involving its injection to contour various body deformities...

  9. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    Yamauchi PS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul S Yamauchi1,2 1Dermatology Institute and Skin Care Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 2Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of the face as well as other parts of the body such as the dorsum of the hands through volumization and contouring. The extensive long-term safety outcomes reported with fillers and the ease with which they are administered make them an ideal choice to correct rhytides and to contour the face. However, as with any cosmetic procedure, in order to ensure high patient satisfaction and a safe outcome, proper training in injection techniques, the choice of the proper candidate, and awareness of potential adverse events are essential. This review article focuses on the permanent filler, Aquamid, which is composed of polyacrylamide hydrogel. Keywords: Aquamid, rejuvenation, skin aging, soft tissue fillers, polyacrylamide

  10. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay in low volume.

    Bainor, Anthony; Chang, Lyra; McQuade, Thomas J; Webb, Brian; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2011-03-15

    The BCA assay is a colorimetric method for estimating protein concentration. In 96-well plates, the relationship between protein content and absorbance is nearly linear over a wide range; however, performance is reduced in lower volume. To overcome this limitation, we performed the BCA assays in opaque, white 384-well plates. These plates emit fluorescence between 450-600 nm when excited at 430 nm; thus, their fluorescence is quenched by the BCA chromophore (λ(max) 562 nm). This arrangement allowed accurate determination of protein content using only 2 μL of sample. Moreover, soluble flourescein could replace the white plates, creating a homogenous format. PMID:21078286

  11. FILLER ENGINEERING FOR PAPERMAKING: COMPARISION WITH FIBER ENGINEERING AND SOME IMPORTANT RESEARCH TOPICS

    Jing Shen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibers and fillers are important raw materials for the preparation of paper products. Similar to fiber engineering, filler engineering for papermaking has become an active research area. There are similarities as well as differences between engineering involving each of these classes of materials. There are differences in such aspects as the nature of materials to be engineered, applicable engineering methods, and engineerablity of the material surfaces. The co-development of fiber engineering and filler engineering can potentially provide many benefits to the papermaking industry. For filler engineering, the relevant research topics broadly can include fibrous filler engineering, hollow/porous filler engineering, acid-stabilization of calcium carbonate fillers, surface encapsulation of naturally occurring polymers or their derivatives, preflocculation, precoagulation, cationic modification, filler/size hybrid formation, organic filler engineering, using combinations of different types of available fillers, multilayer deposition modification, modification with polymer latexes or dispersants, physical modification, mechanical modification, surface functionalization, fines-filler composite/hybrids or fiber-filler composite/ hybrid formation, in-situ polymerization modification, surface grafting, physical treatment in the presence of polymeric additives, filler precipitation, and core-shell composite filler engineering.

  12. Modification of montmorillonite fillers by ionizing radiation

    The mineral fillers can be modified by using unsaturated compounds: styrene, methacrylic acid and maleic anhydride (MA), following by irradiation with high energy electron beam. In presented paper the authors have used this method to change properties of bentonite Specjal, containing about 70% of pure montmorillonite. It has been shown that: (a) the particles obtained in this process can be good fillers for the production of composites; (b) maleic anhydride reacts via anhydride group with active ionic sites of bentonite, forming a salt-like compound. Irradiation with electron beam leads to the breakage of double bond in maleic anhydride and to the production of new organic phases

  13. Standard guidelines for the use of dermal fillers

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently used fillers vary greatly in their sources, efficacy duration and site of deposition; detailed knowledge of these properties is essential for administering them. Indications for fillers include facial lines (wrinkles, folds, lip enhancement, facial deformities, depressed scars, periocular melanoses, sunken eyes, dermatological diseases-angular cheilitis, scleroderma, AIDS lipoatrophy, earlobe plumping, earring ptosis, hand, neck, dιcolletι rejuvenation. Physicians′ qualifications : Any qualified dermatologist may use fillers after receiving adequate training in the field. This may be obtained either during postgraduation or at any workshop dedicated to the subject of fillers. The physicians should have a thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the area designated to receive an injection of fillers and the aesthetic principles involved. They should also have a thorough knowledge of the chemical nature of the material of the filler, its longevity, injection techniques, and any possible side effects. Facility: Fillers can be administered in the dermatologist′s minor procedure room. Preoperative counseling and informed consent: Detailed counseling with respect to the treatment, desired effects, and longevity of the filler should be discussed with the patient. Patients should be given brochures to study and adequate opportunity to seek information. Detailed consent forms need to be completed by the patients. A consent form should include the type of filler, longevity expected and possible postoperative complications. Preoperative photography should be carried out. Choice of the filler depends on the site, type of defect, results needed, and the physician′s experience. Injection technique and volume depend on the filler and the physician′s preference, as outlined in these guidelines.

  14. Chemistry of tributyl phosphate and nitric acid at constant volume

    This paper addresses the reaction of tributyl phosphate (TBP) with nitric acid (HNO3). The reaction pressure of TBP/HNO3 mixtures as a function of time was measured under constant volume. A simplified model, which parametrically includes autocatalysis, was used to plot the total gas production of the reaction as a function of time. Comparison of the functions shows a rough equivalence in the induction time, reaction time, and total gas production. Predictions of the amounts of reaction products as a function of time were made based on assumptions regarding autocatalysis and using rate constants from experimental data. The derived reaction mechanisms and experimental results have several implications. Tests with a large amount of venting and high surface to volume ratio will show very different behavior than tests with increasing confinement and low surface to volume ratios. The amount alkyl nitrate, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen that reacts within the organic phase is limited by their solubilities and volatilities. The overall yield of both heat and gas per mol of nitric acid or TBP will vary significantly depending on the amount of solution, free volume, and vessel vent capacity

  15. Temperature dependence of conductivity enhancement induced by nanoceramic fillers in polymer electrolytes

    Gao, S.; Yan, X. L.; Zhong, J.; Xue, G. B.; Wang, B.

    2013-04-01

    The microstructure and ionic conductivity of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes doped with ZnO have been systematically studied. Compared with the undoped one, a less crystalline phase, a restrained main chain movement, a reduced symmetry in the configuration of ethylene oxide/lithium ion, and an at least five-fold increase in conductivity were observed for the filler incorporated electrolyte. Lewis acid-base interactions are determining in causing these changes. The temperature dependence of conductivity is explained by the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation based on the free volume theory. The mechanism of temperature dependent conductivity enhancement is interpreted by a modeling function proposed.

  16. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity characteristic leach ing

  17. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity

  18. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  19. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  20. The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation.

    Hahnel, Sebastian

    2012-04-01

    To explore experimental RBCs derived from a successful commercially available RBC (Grandio) to investigate resin monomer blend and filler parameters (volume fraction, density and diameter) on RBC performance.

  1. Injectable Cartilage Shaving: An Autologous and Long Lasting Filler Material for Correction of Minor Contour Deformities in Rhinoplasty

    Manafi, Ali; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Manafi, Amir; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Rajaee, Ahmadreza; Manafi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Filler materials are gaining popularity in nonsurgical rhinoplasty the major advantages are the ability to camouflage the surface deformities, and also the soft and malleable consistency; while the major drawback of the safe fillers such as hyaluronic acid is short durability. In this study, we evaluated the injectable cartilage shaving as an autologous filler material for correction of minor contour deformities in rhinoplasty. METHODS Injectable cartilage shaving was used for corr...

  2. [Advantages of combined therapies in cosmetic medicine for the treatment of face aging: botulinum toxin, fillers and mesotherapy].

    Braccini, F; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-01-01

    Non surgical cosmetic medicine procedures for the face are developing considerably, as they deliver good results using simple, non invasive, atraumatic and reproducible techniques. Aesthetic mesotherapy, also known as anti-aging mesotherapy, uses intra-dermal injections of a nutritive and moisturizing solution to improve brightness, skin hydration and tonus, and also smooth out superficial wrinkles. Subcutaneous filler injections enable to fill wrinkles and folds; by using high density products it is also able to provide genuine facial volumetric reconstruction. Finally, botulinum toxin acts by reducing certain muscle contractions to smooth out expression lines and folds induced by facial dynamics. In this article, we explore the concept of combined therapy and describe our experience associating anti-aging mesotherapy (NCTF-135HA, Filorga, Paris, France), hyaluronic acid based fillers (X-HA3 and X-HA-Volume, Filorga, Paris, France) and botulinum toxin (Vistabel, Allergan, Irvine CA, USA). A therapy combining anti-aging mesotherapy, botulinum toxin and filler injections, offers full treatment of the 3 biological levels of the covering tissues. This non-invasive therapeutic strategy brings patient satisfaction through a global approach to facial aging. PMID:21284223

  3. Fillers in dermatology: from past to present.

    Chacon, Anna H

    2015-11-01

    Injectable fillers were introduced in dermatology as a method for reconstructing facial deformities and restoring the aging face. Although fillers have become a popular option among cosmetic patients, clinical experience has shown that fillers must be used with caution, as complications can occur. This article provides a brief review of the history of filler agents currently available for soft tissue augmentation. Although no single filler is ideal for all patients, indications, and situations, residents should be aware of the properties and characteristics that make each product unique. PMID:26682563

  4. Filler/ Polycarbosilane Systems as CMC Matrix Precursors

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrolytic conversion of polymeric precursors to ceramics is accompanied by loss of volatiles and large volume changes. Infiltration of a low viscosity polymer into a fiber preform will fill small spaces within fiber tows by capillary forces, but create large matrix cracks within large, intertow areas. One approach to minimizing shrinkage and reducing the number of required infiltration cycles is to use particulate fillers. In this study, Starfire allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS) was blended with a silicon carbide powder, with and without dispersant, using shear mixing. The polymer and polymer/particle interactions were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and rheometry. Polymer/particulate slurries and suspensions were used to infiltrate a figidized preform of an eight ply five harness satin CG Nicalon fiber having a dual layer BN/SiC interface coating, and the resulting composites characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  5. RESEARCH OF WASTE MARBLE DUST USABILITY AS A FILLER MATERIAL IN CONCRETE WITH GLASS FIBRE

    Oğuzhan KELEŞTEMUR; YILDIZ, Servet

    2011-01-01

    During this study, mechanical and physical properties of the obtained sample are examined as a conclusion of waste marble dust addition as a filler material into the glass fibre included concrete. For this purpose, during the production of the concrete sample which was 300 and 350 dosages prepared, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg/m3 ratio clipped glass fibre added to the mixture besides filler material and %25, 50, 75 and 100 volume ratio waste marble dust which can be used in place of filler material. P...

  6. Effects of Preoperative Anxiety on Gastric Fluid Acidity and Volume

    Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Oh, Jong In

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative anxiety on the gastric pH and volume. We studied 96 female patients aged 16-60 yr who underwent elective gynecological surgery. We classified the subjects into 2 groups, those presenting preoperative anxiety scores using visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-10) less than 5 (L-group, n=59), and those with 5 and more (H-group, n=37). Immediately after tracheal intubation, gastric contents were aspirated using a 14-F multiorifice nasogast...

  7. Skin fillers%皮肤填充剂

    赵华; 李恒进

    2010-01-01

    Now, more and more people choose skin fillers to rejuvenate aging face, which contributes to the increase in variety of skin fillers. Up to now, United States Food and Drug Administration has approved human collagen, bovine collagen, hyaluronic acid, poly-L-lactic acid and calcium hydroxyapatite as skin fillers for age-related facial wrinkles and fat atrophy. These fillers have different indications, advantages,disadvantages and durability, but they are far from ideal. Doctors should consider the specific condition of patients before selecting the optimal fillers to product satisfactory cosmetic results.%现在越来越多求美者选择皮肤填充剂来修复面部老化,这使得市面上皮肤填充剂种类日益增多.到目前为止,美国食品药品管理局批准人胶原、牛胶原、透明质酸、左旋聚乳酸、钙羟磷灰石作为皮肤填充剂用于恢复年龄相关性面部皱纹及脂肪萎缩.这些皮肤填充剂具有各自不同的适应证、优缺点和维持时间,但这些填充剂仍不是最理想的皮肤填充剂.临床医师应结合求美者的具体情况加以考虑,选择适合的填充剂以达到满意的美容效果.

  8. Emerging permanent filler technologies: focus on Aquamid

    Yamauchi PS

    2014-01-01

    Paul S Yamauchi1,2 1Dermatology Institute and Skin Care Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 2Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: A plethora of soft tissue fillers have been developed within the past decade to correct the cutaneous changes that occur with photoaging. Such fillers, whether nonpermanent, semipermanent, or permanent, are widely used to fill undesired facial rhytides. In addition, fillers are employed to correct atrophy of t...

  9. Effect of waste rubber powder as filler for plywood application

    Ong Huei Ruey; Khan Maksudur R.; Yousuf Abu; Jeyaratnam Nitthiyah; Prasad D.M. Reddy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the suitability of waste rubber powder (WRP) use as filler in adhesive formulation for plywood application. Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) was employed as resin for formulating the wood adhesive. To improve chemical properties and bonding quality of adhesive, WRP was treated by different chemicals like 20% nitric acid, 30% hydrogen peroxide and acetone solution. The treated WRP were analysed by XRD and it showed that inorganic compounds were removed and carbon was rem...

  10. Review of non-FDA-approved fillers.

    Ellis, David A F; Segall, Lorne

    2007-05-01

    The number of commercially available injectable soft tissue fillers has increased dramatically worldwide over the past decade. In the United States, a variety of temporary non-collagen-based fillers have been approved. However, no permanent soft tissue injectable fillers are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This article discusses some of the more popular soft tissue fillers, such as Restylane Fine Line, Restylane SQ, Perlane, Artecoll, Dermalive, Dermadeep, Bioalcamid, Bioplastique, Evolution, Outline, Argiform, and Aquamid, which are all available outside of the United States. PMID:17544940

  11. Increase of the filler content by using a silica-coated PCC filler

    Lourenço, A.F.; Gamelas, J.A.F.; Ferreira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The increase of filler content in paper without significantly sacrificing the paper mechanical resistances is of high interest for papermakers. In this work, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) modified with silica was used as filler for papermaking. Handsheets based on a eucalyptus kraft pulp furnish with different amounts of the modified filler, ranging from 16 to 40%, were produced. For similar levels of filler content it was found that the strength properties of the handsheets produce...

  12. Hybrid Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Colloidal Gels are Injectable Fillers for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Wang, Qun; Gu, Zhen; Jamal, Syed; Detamore, Michael S.; Berkland, Cory

    2013-01-01

    Injectable bone fillers have emerged as an alternative to the invasive surgery often required to treat bone defects. Current bone fillers may benefit from improvements in dynamic properties such as shear thinning during injection and recovery of material stiffness after placement. Negatively charged inorganic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled with positively charged organic poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs to create a cohesive colloidal gel. This material is ...

  13. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  14. Filler for solidifying radioactive waste

    In an existent filler for solidifying radioactive wastes, fine powders generated upon pulverizing concrete waste materials and recovering coarse aggregates and fine aggregates are used as substitutes for a portion of cements and/or at least a portion of sands. Namely, the concrete waste materials are crushed by a crusher, and sieved to recover grains having a grain size of not less than 5mm as regenerated aggregate materials. Further, grains having a grain size of not more than 5mm are selectively collected as fine aggregate materials. Since a large quantity of fine powders and mortar are contained in the fine aggregate materials, they are cleaned by a recovering device. In this case, grains having a grain size of about 0.3mm are separately recovered as fine powders. Since the fine powders are porous and have good water retainability, fillers for radioactive wastes highly flowable and having excellent material-solidifying resistance can be obtained by using the fine powders. Further, they can also contribute with a view point of recycling of sources. (T.M.)

  15. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  16. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. PMID:27067462

  17. Rheology of cement mixtures with dolomite filler

    Martínez de la Cuesta, P. J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental program has studied the behavior of fresh paste made up from cements mixed with dolomite filler. Through prior experiments the starting point is obtained for the designs 22 and 23 factorials. With these designs the governing equations are established that influence the specific surface of the filler, the filler percentage and the ratio water/(cement + filler, used as objective functions: test probe penetration, flow on table and shear stress in viscometer. Also the type of rheological conduct is determined and the influence over initial and final setting is observed.

    Este programa experimental estudia el comportamiento de las pastas frescas fabricadas a partir de cementos mezclados con filler dolomítico. En los experimentos previos se obtiene el punto central para los diseños 22 y 23 factoriales. Con estos diseños se establecen las ecuaciones que rigen la influencia de la superficie específica del filler, el porcentaje de filler y la relación agua/(cemento + filler, utilizando como funciones objetivos la penetración de sonda, la mesa de sacudidas y la tensión de corte en el viscosímetro. También se determina el tipo de conducta reológica y la influencia sobre el principio y fin de fraguado.

  18. FILLERS AND THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PAPERMAKING

    Jing Shen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in paper’s carbon footprint. However, the negative effect of filler addition on paper recycling, and the energy consumption associated with the production, processing, and treatment of fillers, will contribute to the carbon footprint. On balance, it can be considered that filler addition in reasonable amounts is likely to lower the paper’s carbon footprint. Certain research work is still needed to better understand the relationship between filler addition and the carbon footprint of papermaking.

  19. Polymer mixing equipment and its applications to mixing filler compounds; Porima konren sochi to fuira kongo eno oyo

    Inoue, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    As rubber of plastics materials(polymers) are sometimes used singly, most of them are used after mixing with fillers under an aim of their mechanical property improvement or increasing volume. Mixing carbon black and silica into rubber, calcium carbonate and talc into plastics, and so forth are representative. And, to add inflammability to them and reduce exotherm at their combustion, sometimes a lot of fillers are blended. In order to add a lot of fillers to polymer effectively to establish high grade of dispersion, it is necessary to conduct some devices to using method of polymer mixing apparatus, and sometimes to improve the mixing apparatus itself. In order to mix and disperse the fillers into polymers effectively, it is important to promote kneading the fillers into polymers and to degas a lot of air formed at that times not so as to obstacle supply of the materials. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Injectable carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels for soft tissue filler applications.

    Varma, Devika M; Gold, Gittel T; Taub, Peter J; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-12-01

    Disease, trauma and aging all lead to deficits in soft tissue. As a result, there is a need to develop materials that safely and effectively restore areas of deficiency. While autogenous fat is the current gold standard, hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers are commonly used. However, the animal and bacterial origin of HA-based materials can induce adverse reactions in patients. With the aim of developing a safer and more affordable alternative, this study characterized the properties of a plant-derived, injectable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soft tissue filler. Specifically, methacrylated CMC was synthesized and crosslinked to form stable hydrogels at varying macromer concentrations (2-4% w/v) using an ammonium persulfate and ascorbic acid redox initiation system. The equilibrium Young's modulus was shown to vary with macromer concentration (ranging from ∼2 to 9.25kPa), comparable to values of native soft tissue and current surgical fillers. The swelling properties were similarly affected by macromer concentration, with 4% gels exhibiting the lowest swelling ratio and mesh size, and highest crosslinking density. Rheological analysis was performed to determine gelation onset and completion, and was measured to be within the ISO standard for injectable materials. In addition, hydrolytic degradation of these gels was sensitive to macromer concentration, while selective removal using enzymatic treatment was also demonstrated. Moreover, favorable cytocompatibility of the CMC hydrogels was exhibited by co-culture with human dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the tunability of redox-crosslinked CMC hydrogels by varying fabrication parameters, making them a versatile platform for soft tissue filler applications. PMID:25152355

  1. Effects of Al2O3 Particulates on the Thickness of Reaction Layer of Al2O3 Joints Brazed with Al2O3-Particulate-Contained Composite Filler Materials

    Jianguo YANG; Jingwei WU; Hongyuan FANG

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the rate-controlling process for the interfacial layer growth of brazing joints brazed with activecomposite filler materials, the thickness of brazing joints brazed with conventional active filler metal and activecomposite filler materials with different volume fraction of Al2O3 particulate was studied. The experimental resultsindicate although there are Al2O3 particulates added into active filler metals, the time dependence of interfacial layergrowth is t2 as described by Fickian law for the joints brazed with conventional active filler metal. It also shows thatthe key factor affecting the interfacial layer growth is the volume fraction of alumina in the composite filler materialcompared with the titanium weight fraction in the filler material.

  2. Diffusivity and Transient Localization of Filler Particles in Polymer Melts and Crosslinked Systems

    Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    Building on recent progress in describing the microscopic equilibrium structure of polymer nanocomposites (PRISM theory), as well as the naïve mode coupling and nonlinear Langevin equation approaches for predicting localization and activated barrier hopping, we have initiated the study of dynamical phenomena in nanocomposites at finite filler loading. A colloidal suspension perspective is adopted whereby the polymer dynamics are assumed to remain unperturbed by fillers. Both entangled polymer melts and crosslinked systems are studied. The long time behavior of a tagged nanoparticle (localization and diffusivity) is calculated for various melt (tube diameter, polymer radius of gyration) and nanoparticle (filler size and volume fraction, polymer-filler attraction strength) parameters. For transiently localized particles, a dynamic free energy is constructed and employed to compute the nanoparticle localization length, mean barrier hopping time, and self-diffusion constant. The influence of filler-filler interactions on the Stokes-Einstein violation phenomenon in entangled melts is established. In addition, the influence of nanocomposite statistical structure (e.g., in the depletion, steric stabilization, or bridging regimes) on slow dynamics and localization is investigated.

  3. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    Funt D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance.Methods: Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided.Results: Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique.Conclusion: For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.Keywords: aesthetic medicine, complications

  4. Effect of intraarticular osmic acid on synovial membrane volume and inflammation, determined by magnetic resonance imaging

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoltenberg, M; Gideon, P;

    1995-01-01

    The changes in MR-determined synovial membrane volume, early synovial enhancement, and cartilage and bone erosions after osmic acid knee synovectomy were studied. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 knees with persistent arthritis was performed before and 1 month after...... treatment. The synovial membrane volume was significantly reduced (median -52%) in all 9 patients brought into clinical remission (p < 0.01), while no significant change was found in patients with clinical relapse. The early synovial enhancement was not significantly changed. MRI revealed progressive...

  5. An overview of permanent and semipermanent fillers.

    Broder, Kevin W; Cohen, Steven R

    2006-09-01

    The demand for safe, effective, long-lasting, biocompatible dermal filler materials is increasing. Many products that include synthetic polymers and autologous tissue have emerged that attempt to meet these criteria. An overview of injectable permanent fillers, including ArteFill, Aquamid, and silicone, and semipermanent fillers, including Radiesse, Sculptra, and autologous fat, is presented. A discussion of their composition, histologic characteristics, antigenicity, U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval status, indications for use, efficacy, injection technique, and adverse effects is provided. PMID:16936539

  6. Lymphedema fat graft: an ideal filler for facial rejuvenation.

    Nicoli, Fabio; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Lazzeri, Davide; Sze Wei, Matthew Yeo; Ciudad, Pedro; Nicoli, Marzia; Lim, Seong Yoon; Chen, Pei-Yu; Constantinides, Joannis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2014-09-01

    Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF). We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research. PMID:25276654

  7. Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder–associated biomarker

    te Vruchte, Danielle; Speak, Anneliese O; Wallom, Kerri L.; Al Eisa, Nada; Smith, David A.; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Simmons, Louise; Lachmann, Robin H.; Cousins, Alison; Hartung, Ralf; Mengel, Eugen; Runz, Heiko; Beck, Michael; Amraoui, Yasmina; Imrie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal bioma...

  8. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Soyun; Lee, So-Hyoun; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM) and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM), compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group). The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (%) of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields. PMID:26633376

  9. Temperature and composition effect on the volumic masses of uranium and plutonium nitric acid solutions

    With an oscillating U-tube densimeter, we measured at different temperatures the volumic masses of uranium, plutonium and nitric acid solutions. By multiple linear regression analysis we found the representative equation of the different parameters in fluence on the volumic mass. We have obtained from the tabulated data the representative equation of the pure water between 15 and 400C with a better precision than 2.10-5g.cm-3. From our own results we have obtained the equations concerning the nitric acid between 0 and 8 M at 200C, then between 15 and 400C. The agreement with our experimental results and with the tabulated data at 200C is in some 10-4g.cm-3 range. At last the general equation which comprises the above found terms is in concordance with the experimental results in +- 1,2.10-3g.cm-3 bracket in the scanned range (200C 0C - 2 M 3] -1 -1 - 1 gl-1 -1). Nevertheless we are not able to explain the difference of 2,3.10-3 g.cm-3 between the constant term of this equation and the choosed origin (the volumic mass of the pure water at 200C). The variations observed between our results and these determined in other laboratories for two constituents systems may be explain by errors in free acidity measurements where these is still no complete agreement between laboratories

  10. Filler metal development for Hastelloy alloy XR

    In order to develop the filler metal for Hastelloy alloy XR structure with thick wall, the weldability and high temperature strength properties of Hastelloy alloy XR weldment were investigated using the filler metals, which were alloy-designed on the basis of multiple regression analysis. The former was examined through the chemical analysis in the deposited metal, bend test, FISCO cracking test, optical microscopy and hardness measurement. The latter was investigated by means of tensile and creep test. It was found from these results that the crack susceptibility in the weldment was apparent to be lowered without degrading the high temperature strength properties. Therefore, it is concluded that these filler metals possess excellent performance as the filler metal for Hastelloy alloy XR structure with thick wall. (author)

  11. New Manufacturing Method for Paper filler and Fiber Material

    Doelle, Klaus

    2011-11-22

    The study compares commercial available filler products with a new developed “Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material” and how main structural, optical and strength properties are affected by increasing the filler content of at least 5% over commercial values. The study consists of: (i) an overview of paper filler materials used in the paper production process, (ii) discusses the manufacturing technology of lime based filler materials for paper applications, (iii) gives an overview of new emerging paper filler technologies, (iv) discusses a filler evaluation of commercial available digital printing paper products, (v) reports from a detailed handsheet study and 12” pilot plant paper machine trial runs with the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material, and (vi) evaluates and compares commercial filler products and the new Hybrid Fiber Filler Composite Material with a life cycle analyses that explains manufacturing, economic and environmental benefits as they are applied to uncoated digital printing papers.

  12. Metaanalysis of filler materials in periapical surgery

    Fernández-Yáñez Sánchez, Ángela; Leco Berrocal, María Isabel; Martínez González, José María

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the success and failure, apical sealing and biocompatibility of silver amalgam, IRM®, SuperEBA® and MTA as retrograde filler materials. A metaanalysis was made of filler materials in periapical surgery, evaluating a total of 30 articles published in recent years. Percentage success with silver amalgam was 76.5% and slightly inferior to that afforded by IRM®. Performance in turn increased considerably when the materials used were SuperEBA® or MTA. As regards margina...

  13. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. PMID:26491364

  14. Waste-Wood-Derived Fillers for Plastics

    English, Brent; Clemons, Craig M.; Stark, Nicole; Schneider, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper fiber, are also effective as fillers. The goal of this project was to generate commercial interest in using waste-wood–paper-...

  15. Influence of addition of filler on thermal stability of ptfe

    Thermo-oxidative stability of PTFE without additive have been assessed by weight loss measurement. Thermo-oxidative stability of filled PTFE has been examined. Filler used was asbestos found that filler enhanced the thermal stability of PTFE. Thermal stability continues to in crease with the addition of filler till it reaches a maximum value and on further addition of filler thermal stability declines i.e., filler acts as a diluents. The optimum value is 7.5%. (author)

  16. The Effect of Particle Size of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating

    Zia-ul-Mustafa M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent Fire retardant coatings (IFRC’s are one of the simplest ways to protect substrates exposed to fire. In this study, Wollastonite (W filler of two different particle sizes were used to determine the fire performance of intumescent fire retardant coating. The basic ingredients of the coating were ammonium poly-phosphate (APP as acid source, expandable graphite (EG as carbon source, melamine (MEL as blowing agent in epoxy binder, boric acid as additive and hardener as curing agent. A series of coating formulations were developed by using different weight percentages of both sized Wollastonite fillers. The coated steel substrate samples were tested for fire performance using Bunsen burner and char expansion was measured using furnace fire test. A Comparison of the coatings thermal performance was determined. Wollastonite containing filler particle size 10 μm showed better thermal performance than formulations containing filler’s particle size 44 μm.

  17. A study of partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid in water and binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol at various temperatures

    M L Parmar; R K Awasthi; M K Guleria

    2004-01-01

    Partial molar volumes of citric acid and tartaric acid have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of ethanol (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight of ethanol) at different temperatures and acid concentrations from the solution density measurements. The data have been evaluated by using Masson equation and the obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The partial molar volumes vary with temperature as a power series of temperature. Structure making/breaking capacities of the organic acids have been inferred from the sign of [2$\\phi^{0}_{v}$/2], i.e. secondderivative of partial molar volume with respect to temperature at constant pressure. Both the organic acids behave as structure breakers in water and water + ethanol.

  18. Plasma uric acid and tumor volume are highly predictive of outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    The combined predictive value of plasma uric acid and primary tumor volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has not yet been determined. In this retrospective study, plasma uric acid level was measured after treatment in 130 histologically-proven NPC patients treated with IMRT. Tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning CT scans. Overall (OS), progression-free (PFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test, and Cox multivariate and univariate regression models were created. Patients with a small tumor volume (<27 mL) had a significantly better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a large tumor volume. Patients with a high post-treatment plasma uric acid level (>301 μmol/L) had a better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a low post-treatment plasma uric acid level. Patients with a small tumor volume and high post-treatment plasma uric acid level had a favorable prognosis compared to patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level (7-year overall OS, 100% vs. 48.7%, P <0.001 and PFS, 100% vs. 69.5%, P <0.001). Post-treatment plasma uric acid level and pre-treatment tumor volume have predictive value for outcome in NPC patients receiving IMRT. NPC patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level may benefit from additional aggressive treatment after IMRT

  19. In situ measurement of reaction volume and calculation of pH of weak acid buffer solutions under high pressure.

    Min, Stephen K; Samaranayake, Chaminda P; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2011-05-26

    Direct measurements of reaction volume, so far, have been limited to atmospheric pressure. This study describes a method for in situ reaction volume measurements under pressure using a variable volume piezometer. Reaction volumes for protonic ionization of weak acid buffering agents (MES, citric acid, sulfanilic acid, and phosphoric acid) were measured in situ under pressure up to 400 MPa at 25 °C. The methodology involved initial separation of buffering agents within the piezometer using gelatin capsules. Under pressure, the volume of the reactants was measured at 25 °C, and the contents were heated to 40 °C to dissolve the gelatin and allow the reaction to occur, and cooled to 25 °C, where the volume of products was measured. Reaction volumes were used to calculate pH of the buffer solutions as a function of pressure. The results show that the measured reaction volumes as well as the calculated pH values generally quite agree with their respective theoretically predicted values up to 100 MPa. The results of this study highlight the need for a comprehensive theory to describe the pressure behavior of ionization reactions in realistic systems especially at higher pressures. PMID:21542618

  20. Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy

    Nikhil Gupta; Balraj Singh Brar; Eyassu Woldesenbet

    2001-04-01

    Flyash is incorporated in glass fibre reinforced epoxies to study their response to the filler addition. Low cost of flyash can reduce the overall cost of the component. Only very low volume fractions of filler are investigated in the present study. To obtain further clarification of the observed phenomenon, another abundantly available low cost material, calcium carbonate is incorporated in one set of the specimens. Compressive strength of the material is found to decrease, whereas steep increase in impact strength is observed by introduction of very small quantity of fillers. Specimens containing calcium carbonate are tested for impact properties only. Effect of specimen aspect ratio on the compressive strength values is also studied by testing specimens of three different aspect ratios. Scanning electron microscopic observations are taken to develop a better understanding of the phenomena taking place in the material system at microscopic level.

  1. The effect of wood filler behaviour on structure and fracture of polyethylene

    W. Dziadur

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of wood filler additions on the microstructure, fractographic features and cracking mechanism of low density polyethylene (LPDE.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, waste polyethylene from industrial and common films and Lignocel CB 120 wood fibers have been used. Three types of compositions (composites with 10, 20 and 30% of wood flour have been prepared for the tests. To evaluate the role of used filler conducted it’s quantitative analysis by linear method. Parameters like volume fraction of the filler, the number particles of wood flour per surface area and mean wood fiber diameter, were determinated.Findings: The results of microscopic observations of the etched sections and fractures obtained at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature indicate good matching between the filler particles and the structure of basic polymer, due mainly to bonding of the individual lamellae in spherulites. The reinforced polymer reveals a cracking micromechanism which is called crazing.Research limitations/implications: The further research are required to solve the problem of the filler contrast.Practical implications: From practical point of view, this research can be used to project composites (wood flour – polyethylene.Originality/value: Originality of this work is the fact that stereological measurements shown usefulness this method to estimate filler’s influence of forming microstructure and properties of the investigated composite.

  2. Host Tissue Interaction, Fate, and Risks of Degradable and Nondegradable Gel Fillers

    Christensen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND A constantly increasing number of gel fillers for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes have been introduced during the last 20 years. Most of the new ones are modified versions of the original collagen and hyaluronic acid gels. They have been reconstructed, often by adding cross...

  3. A Numerical Study on Electrical Percolation of Polymer-Matrix Composites with Hybrid Fillers of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Yuli Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical percolation of polymer-matrix composites (PMCs containing hybrid fillers of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and carbon black (CB is estimated by studying the connection possibility of the fillers using Monte Carlo simulation. The 3D simulation model of CB-CNT hybrid filler is established, in which CNTs are modeled by slender capped cylinders and CB groups are modeled by hypothetical spheres with interspaces because CB particles are always agglomerated. The observation on the effects of CB and CNT volume fractions and dimensions on the electrical percolation threshold of hybrid filled composites is then carried out. It is found that the composite electrical percolation threshold can be reduced by increasing CNT aspect ratio, as well as increasing the diameter ratio of CB groups to CNTs. And adding CB into CNT composites can decrease the CNT volume needed to convert the composite conductivity, especially when the CNT volume fraction is close to the threshold of PMCs with only CNT filler. Different from previous linear assumption, the nonlinear relation between CB and CNT volume fractions at composite percolation threshold is revealed, which is consistent with the synergistic effect observed in experiments. Based on the nonlinear relation, the estimating equation for the electrical percolation threshold of the PMCs containing CB-CNT hybrid fillers is established.

  4. Understanding, Avoiding, and Managing Severe Filler Complications.

    Rzany, Berthold; DeLorenzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Any injectable filler may elicit moderate-to-severe adverse events, ranging from nodules to abscesses to vascular occlusion. Fortunately, severe adverse events are uncommon for the majority of fillers currently on the market. Because these are rare events, it is difficult to identify the relevant risk factors and to design the most efficacious treatment strategies. Poor aesthetic outcomes are far more common than severe adverse events. These in contrast should be easily avoidable by ensuring that colleagues receive proper training and follow best practices. PMID:26441099

  5. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  6. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fund...

  7. 46 CFR 56.75-5 - Filler metal.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metal. 56.75-5 Section 56.75-5 Shipping COAST... Brazing § 56.75-5 Filler metal. (a) The filler metal used in brazing must be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting point above 1,000 °F. and below that of the metal being joined. The filler metal...

  8. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    De Boulle, Koenraad; Heydenrych, Izolda

    2015-01-01

    While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. PMID:25926750

  9. 46 CFR 57.02-5 - Filler metals.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filler metals. 57.02-5 Section 57.02-5 Shipping COAST... Requirements § 57.02-5 Filler metals. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, when filler metal is used in a welded fabrication that is required to meet the requirements of this part the...

  10. On Fillers and Their Possible Functions

    Loredana Frăţilă

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has its departure point in ten interviews conducted by the famous journalist Larry King on the CNN. It sets out to demonstrate that fillers, words and phrases that may carry a negligible if not void semantic load, may, nevertheless, play an important functional role in communication, as discourse markers and interactional signals.

  11. Filler metal development for hastelloy alloy XR

    A method of alloy designing has been proposed and validated to develop the filler metal for Hastelloy alloy XR(nuclear reactor grade of Hastelloy alloy X), which is the candidate material for high temperature structure of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the filler metal development for Hastelloy alloy XR, materials of two heats were melted and fabricated with special emphasis placed on manufacturing process. One is the trial products (alloy termed 'C') designed by using multiple regression analysis in the range of the chemical composition specified as Hastelloy alloy X. The other is filler metal (alloy termed 'D') with optimum boron content in the same chemical composition as Hastelloy alloy XR. The results of the tests on several key items may be summarized as follows: (1) Weldments with alloy'C' showed higher strength and ductility at elevated temperatures than those of alloy'D'. (2) Weldments with alloy'D' had more excellent strength characteristics at elevated temperatures than those of the other conventional filler metals. (3) As for weldability, the crater cracks were slightly observed in the FISCO cracking test, but those were out of the problem in the degree of cracking from the viewpoint of practical application. The results of qualification tests on weldability showed good performance for all welding conditions of the present experiments. On the other hand, the mechanism of hot cracking initiation and the controlling factors in hot cracking susceptibility with relation to boron content have been clarified for Hastelloy alloy XR base metal. (author)

  12. Thermally conductive polyamide 6/carbon filler composites based on a hybrid filler system

    Ha, Sung Min; Kwon, O. Hwan; Gyeong Oh, Yu; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Sung-Goo; Won, Jong Chan; Cho, Kwang Soo; Gak Kim, Byoung; Yoo, Youngjae

    2015-12-01

    We explored the use of a hybrid filler consisting of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polyamide 6 (PA 6) matrix. The composites containing PA 6, powdered GNP, and SWCNT were melt-processed and the effect of filler content in the single filler and hybrid filler systems on the thermal conductivity of the composites was examined. The thermal diffusivities of the composites were measured by the standard laser flash method. Composites containing the hybrid filler system showed enhanced thermal conductivity with values as high as 8.8 W (m · K)-1, which is a 35-fold increase compared to the thermal conductivity of pure PA 6. Thermographic images of heat conduction and heat release behaviors were consistent with the thermal conductivity results, and showed rapid temperature jumps and drops, respectively, for the composites. A composite model based on the Lewis-Nielsen theory was developed to treat GNP and SWCNT as two separate types of fillers. Two approaches, the additive and multiplicative approaches, give rather good quantitative agreement between the predicted values of thermal conductivity and those measured experimentally.

  13. Dermal fillers: Do′s and Dont′s

    Maya Vedamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fillers are an important tool in the armamentarium of an aesthetic dermatologist in the management of ageing skin. A surge in the use of fillers has been witnessed due to increasing awareness among people, easy availability of fillers and increased enthusiasm amongst the dermatologists and plastic surgeons to use this modality. In this era of evidence-based medicine and litigations against doctors, Dermatologists should be vigilant about different acts of omission and commission in the use of fillers. This article briefly discusses the dos and don′ts with respect to dermal fillers.

  14. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.

  15. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM, compared with hyaluronic acid (HA filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group. The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (% of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001, which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%. The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001. DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields.

  16. Poly(p-Phenylene Sulfonic Acids). PEMs with frozen-in free volume

    Litt, Morton [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Early work with rigid rod aromatic polyelectrolytes implied that steric hindrance in packing of the rigid rods left unoccupied volumes that could absorb and hold water molecules strongly. We called this “frozen in free volume). It is illustrated and contrasted with the packing of flexible backbone polyelectrolytes (Reference 5 of this report). This was quantified for poly(biphenylene disulfonic acid) (PBDSA) and poly(phenylene disulfonic acid) (PPDSA). We found that PPDSA held three water molecules per acid group down to 11% relative humidity (RH) and had very high conductivity even at these low RHs. (Reference 1 of report.) The frozen-in free volume was calculated to be equivalent to a λ of 3.5. The work reported below concentrated on studying these polymers and their copolymers with biphenylene disulfonic acid. As expected, the polyelectrolytes are water soluble. Several approaches towards making water stable films were studied. Grafting alkyl benzene substituents on sulfonic acid groups had worked for PBPDSA (1) so it was tried with PPDSA and a 20%/80% copolymer of BPDSA and PDSA (B20P80). T-butyl, n-octyl and n-dodecyl benzene were grafted. Good films could be made. Water absorption and conductivity were studied as a function of RH and temperature (Reference 2). When less than 20% of the sulfonic acid groups were grafted, conductivity was much higher than that of Nafion NR212 at all RHs. At low graft levels, conductivity was ten times higher. Mechanical properties and swelling were acceptable below 90% RH. However, all the films were unstable in water and slowly disintegrated. The proposed explanation was that the molecules formed nano-aggregates in solution held together by hydrophobic bonding. Their cast films disintegrated when placed in water since hydrophobic bonding between the nano-aggregates was poor. We then shifted to crosslinking as a method to produce water stable films (References 3 and 4). Biphenyl could easily be reacted with the polymer

  17. Dermal fillers for tissue augmentation: an overview

    Zeplin, Philip H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Treatments with dermal fillers for tissue augmentation constitute the majority of all non-surgical procedures in plastic surgery. Newly developed products get launched and the market grows continuously, but the “ideal” substance has yet not been found. The substances used these days are high molecular compounds. They have substantial differences in their physicochemical properties and are suspended in complex matrices. This overview describes the latest history of dermal fillers and the commonly used substances of different origin and formalizes the need for the development of systematic procedures of standardized pre-clinical tests with subsequent certification as well as the establishment of interdisciplinary clinical guidelines to ensure custumer’s safety.

  18. USING CALCIUM CARBONATE WHISKERS AS PAPERMAKING FILLER

    Xiaoyu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whiskers, having large length/diameter ratio, are fiber-shaped single crystals. The technical possibility of using calcium carbonate whiskers as papermaking filler to replace conventional powder-like calcium carbonate was investigated. The results showed that it may be feasible to use calcium carbonate whisker as papermaking filler. Compared with conventional precipitated calcium carbonate, calcium carbonate whisker had higher retention efficiency. The use of calcium carbonate whisker also favorably affected the strength properties of paper sheets. A model was proposed to suggest the mechanism for paper strength improvement. The whiskers filled in paper sheets could increase the friction between fibers, thus increasing bonding strength. Moreover, the strength properties of paper were further improved because calcium carbonate whiskers were partly embedded in pulp fiber walls.

  19. FILLERS AND THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PAPERMAKING

    Jing Shen; Zhanqian Song; Xueren Qian; Wenxia Liu; Fei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in pap...

  20. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    Wollina, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Uwe Wollina,1 Alberto Goldman2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore...

  1. Lip Augmentation Dermal Filler Reactions, Histopathologic Features

    Eversole, Roy; Tran, Khahn; Hansen, Doyle; Campbell, John

    2013-01-01

    Instances of perioral and labial foreign body reactions to a variety of injectable dermal fillers were selected from the oral and maxillofacial pathology and dermatopathology archives at Pacific Pathology Laboratory of San Diego with the objective being to engender a compilation of histopathologic characteristics that allow the pathologist to identify the inciting materials. All cases of foreign body reactions located in the lips and perioral regions were reviewed by four pathologists, retain...

  2. Effect of Fibers and Filler Types on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    Saeed K. Rejeb* , Majid Kh . N. Ayad A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete, by using three types of filler (silica fume, clinker powder & lime stone powder, and two types of fibers (steel & glass fibers with volume fractions of (0.5% and (0.1% respectively. For each type of fillers, the fresh properties are measured by using Slump test, J- ring and V- funnel, while hardened properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. The results show that adding fibers to the self-compacting concrete (SCC well reduces the workability and improves the hardened properties. Also, the study concluded that better workability is obtained by using (lime stone, silica fume and clinker powder as fillers, respectively. While the higher hardened properties are gained by using silica fume were rather than those of other types of fillers 

  3. Weldability testing of Inconel trademark filler metals

    This paper presents the findings of a research program aimed at quantifying the weld solidification cracking susceptibility and weld metal liquation cracking susceptibility of Inconel trademark filler materials 52, 82, 152 and 182 deposited on a variety of materials intended for pressurized water reactor applications. A cursory investigation on the repair weldability of Filler Metal 52 using the Gleeble trademark thermo-mechanical simulation technique is also included. The brittle temperature range (BTR) in the fusion zone and HAZ was determined using the longitudinal-Varestraint test and spot-Varestraint test, respectively, and used as a weldability index for quantification of susceptibility to weld solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking. Results from this study showed that Filler Metals 52 exhibited the best resistance to both weld solidification cracking and weld metal liquation cracking followed by 82, 152 and 182 for the base metal combinations tested in this study. Repair weldability study suggested that the resistance to weld metal liquation cracking of 52 all weld metal would not be significantly reduced after ten times of weld simulation at peak temperatures of 900 C and 1,300 C

  4. Dual-domain microchip-based process for volume reduction solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples.

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Strachan, Briony C; Higginson, Joshua J; Bienvenue, Joan M; Greenspoon, Susan A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-07-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to carry out integrated volume reduction and purification of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples commonly encountered in forensic genetic analysis. The dual-phase device seamlessly integrates two orthogonal solid-phase extraction (SPE) processes, a silica solid phase using chaotrope-driven binding and an ion exchange phase using totally aqueous chemistry (chitosan phase), providing the unique capability of removing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors used in silica-based extractions (guanidine and isopropanol). Nucleic acids from a large volume sample are shown to undergo a substantial volume reduction on the silica phase, followed by a more stringent extraction on the chitosan phase. The key to interfacing the two steps is mixing of the eluted nucleic acids from the first phase with loading buffer which is facilitated by flow-mediated mixing over a herringbone mixing region in the device. The complete aqueous chemistry associated with the second purification step yields a highly concentrated PCR-ready eluate of nucleic acids devoid of PCR inhibitors that are reagent-based (isopropanol) and sample-based (indigo dye), both of which are shown to be successfully removed using the dual-phase device but not by the traditional microfluidic SPE (muSPE). The utility of the device for purifying DNA was demonstrated with dilute whole blood, dilute semen, a semen stain, and a blood sample inhibited with indigo dye, with the resultant DNA from all shown to be PCR amplifiable. The same samples purified using muSPE were not all PCR amplifiable due to a smaller concentration of the DNA and the lack of PCR-compatible aqueous chemistry in the extraction method. The utility of the device for the purification of RNA was also demonstrated, by the extraction of RNA from a dilute semen sample, with the resulting RNA amplified using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The vrSPE-SPE device reliably yields a volume reduction for

  5. Filler metals for containers holding irradiated fuel bundles

    One of the procedures being considered for the disposal of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) irradiated fuel bundles is to place the bundles in containers, fill the containers with metal, and place them underground. This investigation deals with the selection of the filler metal with particular reference to the reaction rate with, and bonding of the filler metal to, the fuel sheathing (Zircaloy 4) and potential container materials. Lead, zinc, and aluminium alloys were examined as potential filler metals. (U.K.)

  6. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Byong Chol Bai; Dae-Wook Park; Hai Viet Vo; Samer Dessouky; Ji Sun Im

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal pro...

  7. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period. PMID:27248026

  8. Phenolic rigid organic filler/isotactic polypropylene composites. I. Preparation

    Dongming QI; Lei YANG; Minghua WU; Heming LIN; Kohhei NITTA

    2008-01-01

    A novel phenolic rigid organic filler (KT) was melt-mixed with an isotactic polypropylene (iPP) to pre-pare a series of PP/KT composites,with or without maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP)/as compatili-zer.The evolution of filler morphology during melt-mix-ing and melt-pressure processes was monitored by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarized optical microscope (POM).The influences of shear force,pressure time,filler content and MAPP concentration on the final filler dispersion were studied.We found that this rigid organic filler readily melted and dispersed homoge-nously into the iPP matrix through a fission-fusion pro-cess during the melt-mixing process.Thus a balanced dispersion,which was closely related to shear force and MAPP concentration,can be achieved.During the melt-pressure process,parts of the filler particles combined gradually through a coalescence process.However,the incorporation of MAPP can effectively inhibit the tend-ency to coalesce and refine the filler particles sizes into nanoscale.Thus,a series of PP/KT composites with con-trollable filler particles size and narrow size distribution can be obtained just by adjusting process conditions and MAPP concentration.In addition,due to the in-situ formation mechanism,the filler phase possessed a typical solid true-spherical shape.

  9. New Filler Material for Reference Free Part Encapsulation Fixture

    LI Bei-zhi; YANG Jian-guo; ZHOU Hu

    2002-01-01

    Reference free part encapsulation (RFPE) is a nontraditional universal fixturing technique. In this paper,new filler material-a lower melting point alloy for RFPE technique is introduced. Based on experiment, the shrinlkage and expansion rate, the effect of filler on workpiece drift and the effect of filler thickness on cutting distortion are studied. The alloy has a good mechanical and physical performance and the need of RFPE fixturing can be perfectly satisfied. The result shows that if the formula and process parameters of filler material are properly selected, it can obviously improve the quality of the workpiece, enhance the machining efficiency and reduce the manufacturing cost.

  10. Effects of Ammi visnaga (Bisnaga) Extract on the Volume and Acidity of Stimulated Gastric Secretion in Fasting Rabbits

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of extract of Ammi visnaga on volume and acidity of stimulated gastric secretion in rabbits and also its safety on liver and kidney function. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacology Department, Saidu Medical College, Swat, in the years 2008-9. Methodology: Thirty rabbits weighing 1 - 1.5 kg were divided into groups A, B and C each having 10 animals. After fasting for 48 hours, pylorus of animals of group A and B was ligated. Group A was administered Carbachol and group B was given extracts of Ammi visnaga followed by Carbachol after 15 minutes intraperitoneally. After 4 hours, stomach contents were measured for volume and then centrifuged and estimated for acidity. The extract was also administered to group C animals for 45 days to observe its effects on liver and kidney function. Results: In group B, reduction in volume, free and total acidity of gastric juice was highly significant when the mean values were compared with group A. In group C, mean values of liver and kidney function test compared with pre-treated values, were found statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Ammi visnaga extract can be used effectively and safely in the treatment of hyper acidity conditions and peptic ulcer after evaluation of its effects in human being. (author)

  11. Design and fabrication of a miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector for the determination of acidity of some fruit juice

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-01-01

    A miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector was designed and fabricated for the determination of acidity of some Thai citrus fruit juices collected in the northern area of Thailand. The method was based on on-line potentiometric titration of the acid contents with sodium hydroxide. Conditions such as volume of fruit juice sample, volume and concentration of potassium chloride used as supporting electrolyte and flow rate of titrant were optimize...

  12. Effect of cylindrical filler aggregation on the electrical conductivity of composites

    Silva, Jaime [Centre/Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Institute for Polymers and Composites – IPC/I3N, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Lanceros-Mendez, S., E-mail: lanceros@fisica.uminho.pt [Centre/Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Simoes, R. [Institute for Polymers and Composites – IPC/I3N, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); School of Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, Campus do IPCA, 4750-810 Barcelos (Portugal)

    2014-08-14

    This work reports on the effect of carbon nanotube aggregation on the electrical conductivity and other network properties of polymer/carbon nanotube composites by modeling the carbon nanotubes as hard-core cylinders. It is shown that the conductivity decreases for increasing filler aggregation, and that this effect is more significant for higher cylinder volume fractions. It is also demonstrated, for volume fractions at which the giant component is present, that increasing the fraction of cylinders within clusters leads to a break of the giant component and the formation of a set of finite clusters. The decrease of the giant component with the increase of the fraction of cylinders within the cluster can be related to a decrease of the spanning probability due to a decrease of the number of cylinders between the clusters. Finally, it is demonstrated that the effect of aggregation can be understood by employing the network theory. - Highlights: • The effect of filler aggregation on the electrical conductivity of composites is studied. • It is shown that the conductivity decreases for increasing filler aggregation. • Increasing the clusters size leads to a break of the giant component. • The effect of aggregation can be understood by employing the network theory.

  13. Effects of trace fillers on the radiation-induced crosslinking of polyethylene

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the properties of polymer-filler systems have been observed for many years and, with one notable exception, are reasonably well understood. The exception is a Russian paper reporting an unusual phenomenon [V.P. Gordiyenko et al., Vysokomolekulyarnyye Soyedineniya, 17, 8, 1737 (1975) Moscow]. This work describes the effect of low concentrations of SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on the radiation induced crosslinking of polyethylene. The principal results are summarized in a figure taken from their work. It shows that the gel fraction of a low density polyethylene sheet irradiated with a dose of 5 megarads is increased by 60% by the addition of 0.2 volume percent of finely divided SiO2 (0.02 μm particles) or 0.5 volume percent of coarse TiO2 (1 μm). Thus almost trace quantities of either additive can reduce substantially the dose required to achieve gel contents of industrial interest. The cost of radiation energy is high (approximately $1/kWh). Thus if these results are readily reproducible, the cost of some industrial radiation processes, particularly the manufacturing of insulation and heat shrinkable packaging, could be cut significantly by the addition of small amounts of an inexpensive inert filler. Experiments are reported representing attempts to confirm and extend the results of the work by Gordieynko et al

  14. Influence of Ultraviolet/Ozonolysis Treatment of Nanocarbon Filler on the Electrical Resistivity of Epoxy Composites.

    Perets, Yulia; Matzui, Lyudmila; Vovchenko, Lyudmila; Ovsiienko, Irina; Yakovenko, Olena; Lazarenko, Oleksandra; Zhuravkov, Alexander; Brusylovets, Oleksii

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we have investigated concentration and temperature dependences of electrical conductivity of graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composites. The content of nanocarbon filler is varied from 0.01 to 0.05 volume fraction. Before incorporation into the epoxy resin, the graphite nanoplatelets were subjected to ultraviolet ozone treatment at 20-min ultraviolet exposure. The electric resistance of the samples was measured by two- or four-probe method and teraohmmeter E6-13. Several characterization techniques were employed to identify the mechanisms behind the improvements in the electrical properties, including SEM and FTIR spectrum analysis.It is established that the changes of the relative intensities of the bands in FTIR spectra indicate the destruction of the carboxyl group -COOH and group -OH. Electrical conductivity of composites has percolation character and graphite nanoplatelets (ultraviolet ozone treatment for 20 min) addition which leads to a decrease of percolation threshold 0.005 volume fraction and increase values of electrical conductivity (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) above the percolation threshold in comparison with composite materials-graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy resin. The changes of the value and behavior of temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity of epoxy composites with ultraviolet/ozone-treated graphite nanoparticles have been analyzed within the model of effective electrical conductivity. The model takes into account the own electrical conductivity of the filler and the value of contact electric resistance between the filler particles of the formation of continuous conductive pathways. PMID:27550050

  15. Effect of cylindrical filler aggregation on the electrical conductivity of composites

    This work reports on the effect of carbon nanotube aggregation on the electrical conductivity and other network properties of polymer/carbon nanotube composites by modeling the carbon nanotubes as hard-core cylinders. It is shown that the conductivity decreases for increasing filler aggregation, and that this effect is more significant for higher cylinder volume fractions. It is also demonstrated, for volume fractions at which the giant component is present, that increasing the fraction of cylinders within clusters leads to a break of the giant component and the formation of a set of finite clusters. The decrease of the giant component with the increase of the fraction of cylinders within the cluster can be related to a decrease of the spanning probability due to a decrease of the number of cylinders between the clusters. Finally, it is demonstrated that the effect of aggregation can be understood by employing the network theory. - Highlights: • The effect of filler aggregation on the electrical conductivity of composites is studied. • It is shown that the conductivity decreases for increasing filler aggregation. • Increasing the clusters size leads to a break of the giant component. • The effect of aggregation can be understood by employing the network theory

  16. Effect of Fillers on E-Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Sudeep Deshpande

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an investigation was carried out on E-glass fiber/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites filled with varying concentrations of bone and coconut shell powder. The composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique and the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, inter laminar shear strength (ILSS, tensile modulus, impact strength and hardness of the fabricated composites were tested. The test results of these were compared with unfilled HFRP composites. From the results it was found that the mechanical properties of the composites increased with the increase in filler content. Composites filled with 15% volume coconut shell powder exhibited maximum flexural strength, inter laminar shear strength (ILSS, tensile modulus and hardness. Maximum impact strength was achieved by addition of filler (15% Vol. of bone powder.

  17. Evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of composite polymers by considering the filler size distribution law

    Sorin HOLOTESCU; Floriana D.STOIAN

    2009-01-01

    We present an empirical model for the effective thermal conductivity(ETC)of a polymer composite that includes dependency on the filler size distribution-chosen as the Rosin-Rammler distribution.The ETC is determined based on certain hypotheses that connect the behavior of a real composite matefial A.to that of a model composite material B,filled with mono-dimensional filler.The application of these hypotheses to the Maxwell model for ETC is presented.The validation of the new model and its characteristic equation was carried out using experimental data from the reference.The comparison showed that by using the size distribution law a very good fit between the equation of the new model(the size distribution model for the ETC)and the reference experimental results is obtained,even for high volume fractions,up to about 50%.

  18. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs

  19. Study on mechanism behind of tissue necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid filler%透明质酸注射后组织坏死机制的实验研究

    黄明欢; 宋建星; 杜振峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of tissue necrosis following injection of hyaluronic acid. Methods Twenty New Zealand white rabbits (40 ears) were used to establish ear complex tissue flap models with blood supply only from the central pair of artery and vein by ligating the anterior pair and other branches. Then the animal models were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group A, B and C were injected with 0. 2 ml hyaluronic acid into the periphery of the root portion of the central artery, central vein and central artery, respectively! Group D received cutting and ligation of the central artery (control group). The visual findings, microcirculation changes, skin temperature and percutaneous oxygen saturation were examined at 1, 7, and 14 days after injection. The animals were sacrificed on the 14th day and the ears were studied pathologically. Results All the groups showed different degrees of tissue ischemia. In Group A and D the skin temperature and oxygen saturation were not significantly different before and after injection of hyaluronic acid. The skin temperature and oxygen saturation were decreased one day after injection in Group B, and they gradually increased thereafter (P<0. 05). All the ears in Group A, B and D survived. The skin temperature and oxygen saturation in Group C were significantly decreased after injection of hyaluronic acid (P < 0. 05), and all the ears in Group C developed skin ulceration and necrosis after 7 days. Conclusion Injection of hyaluronic acid into the artery can cause obstruction of distal arterioles and microcirculation disorder, which might be the main cause of skin tissue necrosis.%目的 探讨透明质酸注射治疗后发生组织坏死的机制.方法 采用新西兰白兔20只(40只兔耳),结扎耳郭前动静脉和其他旁支动静脉,制成以耳中央动脉、静脉为主要血供的兔耳复合组织瓣模型.把兔耳组织瓣模型随机分为A、B、C、D组.A、B、C组分别将透明质酸0.2 ml注射入

  20. PVC mixtures’ mechanical properties with the addition of modified calcite as filler

    Vučinić Dušica R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties of PVC mixtures (PVC, stabilizer, lubricant, filler such as tensile strength, tensile elongation, breaking strength, and breaking elongation were investigated. Unmodified calcite, as well as calcite modified by stearic acid, were used as fillers in wet and dry processes. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet procedure have better mechanical properties compared to those with the calcite modified by the dry process. Tensile and breaking strength of the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with 1.5% stearic acid using wet process, are higher for 2.8% and 5.2%, respectively, compared to the PVC mixture containing the calcite modified with the same amount of acid used in the dry process. The tensile strength difference between the mixtures increases with the increase of the concentration of used stearic acid up to 3%. The strength of PVC mixture with the calcite modified by wet process is 3.1% higher compared to the mixture containing calcite modified by dry process. The results showed that the bonding strength between calcite and the adsorbed organic component affected tensile strength, tensile elongation and breaking strength of the PVC mixtures. The best filler was obtained by wet modification using 1.5% stearic acid solution that provided the formation of a stearate monolayer chemisorbed on calcite. The PVC mixtures containing the calcite modified by wet process using 1.5% stearic acid solution exhibited the best mechanical properties. This calcite was completely hydrophobic with dominant chemically adsorbed surfactant, which means that stearate chemisorbed on calcite provided stronger interaction in the calcite-stearic acid-PVC system.

  1. High filler concrete using fly ash: Chloride penetration and microstructure

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  2. High filler concrete using fly ash. Chloride penetration and microstructure

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  3. Slot-Filler Categories as Memory Organizers for Young Children.

    Lucariello, Joan; Nelson, Katherine

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that scripts (event schemas) provide a basis for categorical structures in semantic memory. Significantly better memory and organization were achieved on slot-filler lists than on either taxonomic or complementary lists, suggesting that slot-filler categories are more available in preschoolers' semantic…

  4. 7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filler and packaging equipment. 58.229 Section 58.229....229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary... equipment should comply with the 3-A Sanitary Standards for equipment for Packaging Dry Milk and Dry...

  5. Thermal conductivity enhancement with different fillers for epoxy resin adhesives

    Heat dissipation is an important issue for electronic devices. In the present work, we prepared eight kinds of thermal adhesives by filling the epoxy resin with natural graphite, copper, aluminum, zinc oxide, boron nitride, aluminum oxide, diamond and silver powders, and measured the thermal conductivity of all samples. The results show the eight fillers can efficiently improve the thermal conductivity of the epoxy resin. Meanwhile, we found the layer-shape filler is more favorable than the ball-shape filler and the sharp-corner-shape filler to enhance the thermal conductivity of epoxy resin, and the low price layer-shape natural graphite-epoxy adhesive had the highest thermal conductivity up to 1.68 W m−1 K−1 at weight 44.3% of the eight thermal adhesives. All the fillers and the cross sections of thermal adhesives morphologies images were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the thermal conductivities of all the samples were measured by Hot Disk TPS-2500 thermal constants analyzer. - Highlights: •Thermal conductive adhesives with 8 different fillers were tested. •The layer-shape filler is beneficial to form the heat pathways. •The sharp-corner-shape filler is most difficult to achieve the heat pathways. •The adhesive filled with the natural graphite has higher thermal conductivity

  6. The Application of Fillers in Cosmetic Injections%注射填充材料的应用

    邱加恩(综述); 李青峰(审校)

    2015-01-01

    注射美容已有百余年的历史,目前注射材料和技术发生了极大的变化,透明质酸等众多新型注射填充材料已获得广泛使用。本文对历年来被应用的各类软组织填充材料进行综述。%[Summary] Cosmetic injections have a history of over one hundred years. Nowadays, many new fillers such as hyaluronic acid are widely used. With the development of science and technology, fillers and injection technologies are undergoing rapid improvement. In this paper, various soft tissue fillers and related study progress were reviewed.

  7. Managing complications of fillers: Rare and not-so-rare

    Eckart Haneke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fillers belong to the most frequently used beautifying products. They are generally well tolerated, but any one of them may occasionally produce adverse side effects. Adverse effects usually last as long as the filler is in the skin, which means that short-lived fillers have short-term side effects and permanent fillers may induce life-long adverse effects. The main goal is to prevent them, however, this is not always possible. Utmost care has to be given to the prevention of infections and the injection technique has to be perfect. Treatment of adverse effects is often with hyaluronidase or steroid injections and in some cases together with 5-fluorouracil plus allopurinol orally. Histological examination of biopsy specimens often helps to identify the responsible filler allowing a specific treatment to be adapted.

  8. Effect of Natural Fillers on Mechanical Properties of GFRP Composites

    Vikas Dhawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs have replaced conventional engineering materials in many areas, especially in the field of automobiles and household applications. With the increasing demand, various modifications are being incorporated in the conventional FRPs for specific applications in order to reduce costs and achieve the quality standards. The present research endeavor is an attempt to study the effect of natural fillers on the mechanical characteristics of FRPs. Rice husk, wheat husk, and coconut coir have been used as natural fillers in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs. In order to study the effect of matrix on the properties of GFRPs, polyester and epoxy resins have been used. It has been found that natural fillers provide better results in polyester-based composites. Amongst the natural fillers, in general, the composites with coconut coir have better mechanical properties as compared to the other fillers in glass/epoxy composites.

  9. Managing Complications of Fillers: Rare and Not-So-Rare.

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Fillers belong to the most frequently used beautifying products. They are generally well tolerated, but any one of them may occasionally produce adverse side effects. Adverse effects usually last as long as the filler is in the skin, which means that short-lived fillers have short-term side effects and permanent fillers may induce life-long adverse effects. The main goal is to prevent them, however, this is not always possible. Utmost care has to be given to the prevention of infections and the injection technique has to be perfect. Treatment of adverse effects is often with hyaluronidase or steroid injections and in some cases together with 5-fluorouracil plus allopurinol orally. Histological examination of biopsy specimens often helps to identify the responsible filler allowing a specific treatment to be adapted. PMID:26865784

  10. EFFECT OF RICE HUSKS AS FILLER IN POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES

    K. Hardinnawirda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rice husk-filled polyester composites were produced with rice husks (RH as the filler and unsaturated polyester resin (UPR as the matrix. Several percentages of filler loadings were used (10, 15, 20 and 25 wt % in order to gain insights into the effect of filler content on the mechanical properties and water intake of the composites. The tensile strength of the RH-filled UPR composites was found to decrease as the filler loading increased; however, as it reached 25 wt %, the strength showed a moderate increase. The Young’s modulus showed a remarkable increase for 15 wt % of RH but decreased as the RH percentage increased further to 25 wt %. A water absorption test was conducted and the results showed that the composites absorb more water as the percentage weight of RH increased, which is attributed to the ability of the RH filler to absorb water.

  11. Clinical observation of large-gel-particle hyaluronic acid injectable fillers for rhinoplasty%大颗粒透明质酸钠凝胶注射隆鼻的临床观察

    娄焕民; 付杰; 邱晓东; 宫昔愿

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大颗粒透明质酸钠凝胶(hyaluronic acid,HA)用于注射隆鼻的临床效果.方法:整理笔者所在医院2013年8月-2014年6月应用大颗粒透明质酸钠凝胶注射隆鼻63例,分析术后即刻、术后3个月、6个月及9个月时患者满意度及并发症情况.结果:术后即刻患者满意度评分为4.8,术后3个月、6个月、9个月随访满意度为:4.5、4.2、3.6.术后描述胀疼(10例)、注射点瘀斑(4例),均在注射后1~2周内自行缓解.注射物明显吸收时间平均为术后27.2周.结论:大颗粒HA注射隆鼻效果满意,外形维持时间延长,并发症无增加,是值得推广的非手术隆鼻方法之一.

  12. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Jia Ying Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% using the twin screw extrusion method. Maleic acid polyethylene (MAPE was added as a coupling agent. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties improved with increasing RH loading. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the RH loading increased. SEM micrographs revealed good interfacial bonding between the fiber and polymer matrix.

  13. Human histology and persistence of various injectable filler substances for soft tissue augmentation.

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Morhenn, Vera; Charrier, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of soft tissue filler substances have been introduced to the beauty market outside the U.S. which lack experimental and clinical data in support of their claim. Ten commercially available filler substances were examined for biocompatibility and durability: 0.1 cc of each substance was injected deep intradermally into the volar forearm of one of the authors and observed for clinical reaction and permanence. At 1, 3, 6, and 9 months the test sites were excised, histologically examined, and graded according to foreign body reactions classification. Collagen (Zyplast) was phagocytosed at 6 months and hyaluronic acid (Restylane) at 9 months. PMMA microspheres (Artecoll) had encapsulated with connective tissue, macrophages, and sporadic giant cells. Silicone oil (PMS 350) was clinically inconspicuous but dissipated into the tissue, causing a chronic foreign body reaction. Polylactic acid microspheres (New-Fill) induced a mild inflammatory response and had disappeared clinically at 4 months. Dextran microspheres (Reviderm intra) induced a pronounced foreign body reaction and had disappeared at 6 months. Polymethylacrylate particles (Dermalive) induced the lowest cellular reaction but had disappeared clinically at 6 months. Polyacrylamide (Aquamid) was well tolerated and remained palpable to a lessening degree over the entire testing period. Histologically, it dissipated more slowly and was kept in place through fine fibrous capsules. Polyvinylhydroxide microspheres suspended in acrylamide (Evolution) were well tolerated, slowly diminishing over 9 months. Calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres (Radiance FN) induced almost no foreign body reaction but were absorbed by the skin at 12 months. Host defense mechanisms react differently to the various filler materials, but all substances-resorbable or nonresorbable-appeared to be clinically and histologically safe, although all exhibit undesirable side effects. Since the mechanism of late inflammation or

  14. Inhibition of enamel demineralization by buffering effect of S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant.

    Kaga, Masayuki; Kakuda, Shinichi; Ida, Yusuke; Toshima, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Masanori; Endo, Kazuhiko; Sano, Hidehiko

    2014-02-01

    The buffering capacity and inhibitory effects on enamel demineralization of two commercially available dental sealants were evaluated in this study. The effects of filler particles were also examined. Disks of enamel and cured sealant materials of BeautiSealant (silica or S-PRG filler) or Teethmate F-1 were incubated in lactic acid solutions (pH 4.0) for 1-6 d. The pH changes and amounts of ions released in the solutions were assessed, and enamel surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The pH of the solution with BeautiSealant (S-PRG filler) was neutralized from pH 4.0 to pH 6.1 (after incubation for 1 d) and from pH 4.0 to pH 6.7 (after incubation for 6 d). In addition, no release of calcium ions was detected and the enamel surface was morphologically intact in scanning electron microscopy images. However, the pH of the solution with Teethmate F-1 remained below pH 4.0 during incubation from days 1 to 6. Calcium release was increased in solutions up to and after 6 d of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the structures of hydroxyapatite rods were exposed at the specimen surfaces as a result of demineralization. Ions released from S-PRG filler-containing dental sealant rapidly buffered the lactic acid solution and inhibited enamel demineralization. PMID:24372898

  15. Hyaluronan: More than just a wrinkle filler.

    Maytin, Edward V

    2016-06-01

    Dermatology is a field that strives not only to alleviate skin disease (therapeutics) but also to improve the perception of wellness (cosmetics). Thus, in this special issue of Glycobiology, it seems appropriate to discuss the biology of a glycosaminoglycan, called hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, or HA), that has become the most popular agent today for intradermal injections to improve wrinkles and other cosmetic defects. HA is a simple linear polymer in which a simple disaccharide is repeated thousands of time, thereby creating a huge hydrophilic molecule that confers a large volume of hydration and contributes to the turgor and flexibility of healthy skin. Beyond cosmetic considerations, however, HA also has important biological and physiological functions that were largely under-appreciated until recently. New research has confirmed that HA is dynamically produced by most skin cells, not only fibroblasts (the cells that make most of the skin's extracellular matrix) but also by keratinocytes in the outer protective layer (epidermis). For both fibroblasts and keratinocytes, HA plays a regulatory role in controlling cell physiology through interaction of extracellular HA with a major cell-surface receptor, CD44. This interaction mediates intracellular signaling both directly and indirectly, through CD44 interactions with the cytoskeleton and with EGF and TGFβ receptors. Furthermore, degradation of HA by specific hyaluronidase enzymes produces HA fragments that can help to regulate inflammatory processes. In this review, current knowledge about the role of HA in skin inflammation and wound healing are reviewed and possible future applications of such knowledge discussed. PMID:26964566

  16. Adverse reactions to injectable fillers for cosmetic purposes%注射填充美容的不良反应

    文翔; 李咏; 蒋献

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,there has been a rapid progress in dermal fillers for multiple cosmetic purposes.Dermal fillers can increase facial volume to create a younger-looking appearance.Although dermal fillers are generally regarded as safe soft-tissue fillers,all of them may cause potential adverse reactions.Most adverse reactions are related to injection techniques,and some are associated with the filler itself.Different filler materials have different properties with different risks and requirements for different injection techniques.Hence,suitable materials and proper injection techniques should be cautiously selected at clinics.%近年来用于多种美容用途的皮肤填充剂发展迅速,注射填充技术可以增加面部容量,达到年轻化的外观.虽然普遍认为,皮肤填充剂是一种安全的软组织填充物,但所有填充剂均有可能引起不良反应.大多数不良反应的发生与注射技术有关,也有部分和产品本身有关.不同注射材料的特性、相关注射风险以及注射要求均不同,临床上应选择合适的材料并进行正确的注射.

  17. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites

    This paper presents the tensile and flexural properties of composites made from coconut shell filler particles and epoxy resin. The tensile and flexural tests of composites based on coconut shell filler particles at three different filler contents viz., 5%, 0% and 15%were carried out using universal tensile testing machine according to ASTM D 3039/D M-95a and ASTM D790-90 tensile respectively and their results were presented. Experimental results showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composites increased with the increase of the filler particle content. The composite materials demonstrate somewhat linear behavior and sharp structure for tensile and slight nonlinear behavior and sharp fracture of flexural testing. The relation between stress and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests were found to b linear with correlation factors of 0.9929 and 0.9973 respectively. Concerning the relation between the modulus and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests, it was found to be a quadratic relation with the same correlation factor approximated to 1. The same behavior was observed for the strain versus percentage of filler tensile and flexural tests, with the same correlation factor. (author)

  18. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  19. Structural dynamics and interfacial properties of filler-reinforced elastomers

    The combined effect of filler networking and reduced chain mobility close to the filler interface is analyzed based on investigations of the relaxation dynamics of a solution of styrene butadiene rubber filled with different loadings and types of nanostructured carbon blacks. Dynamic-mechanical and dielectric spectra are studied in a wide frequency and temperature range. By referring to a tunneling process of charge carriers over nanoscopic gaps between adjacent carbon black particles the gap distance is evaluated from the dielectric spectra. This distance corresponds to the length of glassy-like polymer bridges forming flexible bonds between adjacent filler particles of the filler network. It is found that the gap distance decreases with increasing filler loading and specific surface area which correlates with an increase of the apparent activation energy of the filler network evaluated from dynamic-mechanical data. Due to the thermal activation of glassy-like polymer bridges the time-temperature superposition principle is not fulfilled for filled elastomers and the introduction of vertical shift factors is necessary to obtain viscoelastic master curves. The change in the low frequency viscoelastic properties by the incorporation of fillers is shown to be related to the superimposed dynamics of the filler network governed by the viscoelastic response of the glassy-like polymer bridges. This effect is distinguished from the reduced chain mobility close to the filler surface which results in a broadening of the glass transition on the high temperature or low frequency side. The microstructure-based interpretation of viscoelastic data is supported by an analysis of the relaxation time spectra.

  20. Structure analyses of rubber-filler systems by using contrast variation SANA

    Rubber-filler systems have been one of the most successful composite materials and have been widely used in industry such as tire and belts so on. Fillers reinforce rubbers by compounding and improve the mechanical and barrier properties of the rubber compounds. We need to explore the adsorption of rubber around filler particles in terms of structure analyses to clarify the correlation between the mechanical properties and the structures for rubberfiller systems. In this study, the polymer layers absorbed on silica particles in rubber-silica systems have investigated with contrast variation SANS method. Specimens were swollen by the solvents having various scattering length densities and measured their SANS intensity. We calculated the partial scattering functions by using singular value decomposition: the scattering function for polymer-polymer correlation SPP(q), the scattering function for silica- silica correlation SSS(q), and the scattering function for polymersilica correlation SPS(q) as shown in Fig.1. The analyses of SPS(q) and SSS(q) explored the existence of dense polymer layers around silica aggregates. SSS(q) reflects hierarchical structures formed by silica particles. To characterize the adsorption layer quantitatively, we calculated the scattering functions for the model consisting of the aggregation of Silica particles, the adsorption layers on the silica particles and the matrix region. We use the mass fractal model having upper limit for the aggregation of Silica particles, and object with sharp interface for the regions adsorption layers and silica aggregates to calculate the partial scattering functions. The model can well express the experimental partial scattering functions and several characteristic parameters are estimated from the analyses, such as the size of aggregates, the thickness of layers, the volume fractions of polymer of layers and matrix, and the correlation length of the matrix network. The contrast variation SANS is found to be

  1. Partial molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of arginine in aqueous glucose, sucrose and L-ascorbic acid solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Densities and viscosities of arginine in (glucose + water), (sucrose + water) and (L-ascorbic acid + water) mixed solvents have been measured at T 298.15 K by an oscillating-tube densimeter and viscometer. Standard-state partial molar volume, hydration number and viscosity B-coefficients of arginine have been calculated. The transfer volumes from water to (sugar + water) or (L-ascorbic acid + water) mixed solvents have been obtained and discussed in terms of the structural hydration interaction model. The results indicate that the partial molar volumes of transfer and viscosity B-coefficients of arginine increase with increasing the mass concentration of sugar or L-ascorbic acid, and the hydration number of arginine decreases owing to the interaction of sugar or L-ascorbic acid and the zwitterionic groups. It is concluded that the magnitude of the enhancement effect on volume and hydration number is related to the number of OH groups and the structure of mixture solvent

  2. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    Liang, Shenyong, E-mail: s_y_liang@126.com; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-15

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y–M–O and TiC), submicron particles (Y–M–O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  3. Research on Alkaline Filler Flame-Retarded Asphalt Pavement

    HU Shuguang; ZHANG Houji; WANG Jiaolan

    2006-01-01

    Used as flame retardant of tunnel asphalt pavement, organic bromides produce a large amount of poisons and smoke in construction and flame retardation stage. The alkaline filler was found to replace mineral filler, and the flame-retarded asphalt mixtures were produced. Experimental results show that these asphalt mixtures are smoke restrained; the performances and construction technology of asphalt pavement are not influenced; also the alkaline filler is of low-price. So this kind of flame-retarded asphalt mixtures is suitable for tunnel pavement.

  4. Do you know where your fillers go? An ultrastructural investigation of the lips

    Vent J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Vent,1 Florian Lefarth,2 Thomas Massing,3 Wolfgang Angerstein2 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Heidelberg Medical Center at Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany; 2Department of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, University of Düsseldorf Medical Center, Düsseldorf, Germany; 3Research Laboratory for Medical Acoustics and Audiology, Department of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, University of Düsseldorf Medical Center, Düsseldorf, Germany Aim: To investigate the exact location and position of hyaluronic acid fillers in the perioral region by ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. Introduction: To date, there are few in vivo investigations in humans on the exact positioning of injectable hyaluronic acid fillers, and severe complications such as hematoma and thromboembolism are rarely addressed. Materials and methods: There were nine female patients investigated in this pilot study. All of them were periorally injected with hyaluronic acid. The exact product, amount, and locations, as well as the injection techniques, were recorded and compared. Before, immediately after, and 18 days after injection, photo documentation as well as high-resolution ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography of the lip surface were performed. Results: Minor bruising occurred, which resolved within 7 to 9 days. On day 18, no more hemorrhage could be detected. Injected material distributed well in the tissue, and no embolism or thrombosis occurred. However, the injected material came close (up to 1 mm to important structures such as blood vessels. Lip wrinkles improved, and the lip surface was smoother and more even. Conclusion: Hyaluronic acid injections can improve aesthetics and reduce fine wrinkles of the lips. In the patients investigated in this study, compression of structures such as vessels and nerve fibers did not occur, nor did any severe complications result from injection. However, one must be aware of serious

  5. Shrinkage reduction of dental composites by addition of expandable zirconia filler

    Skovgaard, M.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Sørensen, Bent F.;

    2011-01-01

    A problem with dental resin composites is the polymerization shrinkage, which makes the filling loosen from the tooth or induces crack formation. We have developed an expandable metastable tetragonal zirconia filler, which upon reaction with water, is able to counter the polymer shrinkage....... The shrinkage of the composite was calculated from density measurements using Archimedes method. The rate of the phase transformation in resin was measured by determining the volume fraction of monoclinic zirconia (vm). The composite had a vm of 0.5 after 8 h of water storage. The overall shrinkage...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of polymer matrix composite material with combination of ZnO filler and nata de coco fiber as a candidate of semiconductor material

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Anindita, Hana Nabila

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of semiconductor composite using acrylic matrix filled with ZnO and nata de coco fiber has been conducted in this research. The purpose of this research is to obtain semiconductor composite material that has a good mechanical strength and thermal resistance. In situ polymerization method is used in this research and the composites are ready to be characterized after 12 hours. The main parameter that is characterized is the electric conductivity of the composite. Additional parameters are also characterized such as composite's elastic modulus and glass transition temperature. The composites that has been made in this research can be classified as semiconductor material because the conductivity is in the range of 10-8-103 S/cm. In general the addition of ZnO and nata de coco filler can increase the conductivity of the composite. The highest semiconductor characteristic in acrylic/ZnO composite is obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 3.4 x 10-7 S/cm. Similar with acrylic/ZnO composite, in acrylic/nata de coco fiber composite the highest semiconductor characteristic is also obtained from 30% volume filler that reach 1.15 x 10-7 S/cm. Combination of 20% volume of ZnO, 10% volume of nata de coco, and 70% volume of acrylic resulting in composite with electric conductivity of 1.92 x 10-7 S/cm. In addition, combination of ZnO and nata de coco fiber as filler in composite can also improve the characteristic of composite where composite with 20% volume of ZnO filler and 10% volume of nata de coco fiber resulting in composite with elastic modulus of 1.79 GPa and glass transition temperature of 175.73°C which is higher than those in acrylic/ZnO composite.

  7. Study of apparent molal volume and viscosity of mutual citric acid and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous systems

    Man Singh

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental properties, density () and viscosity (), of citric acid (CA) and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSP) at various strengths were obtained at different temperatures. The and values were used to determine apparent molal volumes and viscosity of systems. The , and values were regressed against molality for ρ0, 0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f, the limiting constants at infinite dilution ( → 0) forionic and molecular interactions. The ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f of aq. acids are higher than those of aq. DSP and the viscosity of DSP is higher than that of aq. CA. Examination of ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$ functions indicates that mutual compositions of CA and DSP counterbalance concentration and temperature effects on pH in bioprocesses.

  8. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe2O3) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers

  9. Identification and Complications of Cosmetic Fillers: Sonography First.

    Wortsman, Ximena

    2015-07-01

    Cosmetic fillers are frequently used these days for enhancing beauty and to treat wrinkles or sagging skin. However, information on the history of injections may be difficult to obtain, and there is a growing number of reports on complications with these agents. In contrast to other imaging techniques, sonography has been successfully used for detecting and identifying common types of cosmetic fillers and has become the first-line imaging modality to deal with these exogenous components. PMID:26112618

  10. Surface modification of nanosilica fillers for the preparation of silica/epoxy nanocomposites: Površinska modifikacija nanodelcev silicijevega dioksida za pripravo nanokompozitov SiO spodaj 2-epoksi:

    Conradi, Marjetka; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Zorko, Milena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the preparation of the epoxy resin Epikote 828LVEL reinforced with nanosilica. Epoxy composites containing 130-nm spherical silica nanoparticles were prepared at a fixed volume fraction (phi = 0.5 %). To prevent agglomeration the silica fillers were initially pre-treated with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Due to the low content of silica fillers their inclusion in the matrix was confirmed by the increased roughness of the fracture surface compared to the smooth su...

  11. Dental Procedures: Is it a Risk Factor for Injectable Dermal Fillers?

    Ramzi, Abbas Al; Kassim, Maysoun; George, Joju V.; Amin, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Dental procedures done in the vicinity of dermal fillers may result in complications of the dermal fillers such as infections which may mimic a dental infection. These infections of dermal fillers must be differentiated from facial cellulitis or from dental infection as treatment for infection from dermal fillers may be prolonged with repeated use of antibiotics, incision and drainage or removal of the filler material itself. Dental surgeons need to be aware of this potential risk in order to...

  12. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fundamental engineering properties as defined by Marshall properties , index of retained strength , indirect tensile strength , permanent deformation characteristics , and fatigue resistance .A typical dense graded mixture employed in construction of surface course pavement in Iraq in accordance with SCRB specifications was used .The materials used in this study included mineral aggregate materials (coarse and fine sizes were originally obtained from Najaf Sea quarries and two grades of asphalt cements produced from Daurah refinery which are D47 and D66 . The physical properties , stiffness modulus and chemical composition are evaluated for the recovered asphalt cement from prepared asphalt mixes containing various filler types .The paper results indicated that the addition of hydrated lime as mineral filler improved the permanent deformation characteristics and fatigue life and the use of hydrated lime will decrease the moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures.

  13. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nano Filler Polyester Composites

    Bonnia Noor Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focusing on mechanical and morphological properties of unsaturated polyester (UP reinforced with two different types of filler which is nano size clay Cloisite 30B (C30B and Carbon Black (CB. Samples were fabricated via hand lay-up and open molding technique. Percentages of Cloisite 30B & Carbon Black (CB used vary from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%. The mechanical properties were evaluated by impact, flexural and hardness testing. Result shows that the mechanical strength of C30B was better compare to CB filled composite. The combination of UP with C30B helps to improve the properties due to the high surface area of nanosize filler in the matrix. The result shows that increasing of filler content had increased mechanical properties of composites. Optimum percentage represent good mechanical properties are 4% for both fillers. SEM images showed that rough surface image indicate to agglomeration of filler in the matrix for CB sample and smooth surface image on C30B sample indicate to homogenous blending between filler and matrix polyester. SEM images proved that mechanical properties result indicate that C30B polyester composite is a good reinforcement compare to CB polyester composite.

  14. Coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules as a basis for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper production.

    Li, Ting; Fan, Jun; Chen, Wensen; Shu, Jiayan; Qian, Xueren; Wei, Haifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Shen, Jing

    2016-09-20

    The sustainable, efficient use of renewable bio-based additives in the production of various materials fits well into the concept of sustainability. Here, the concept of coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper-based cellulosic networks is presented. Coaggregation of precipitated calcium carbonate filler particles and uncooked, unmodified corn starch granules by cationic polyacrylamide (a cationic high molecular weight polymer flocculant) in combination with bentonite (an anionic microparticle) prior to addition to cellulosic fiber slurry delivered enhanced filler bondability with cellulosic fibers. For instance, under the conditions studied, preaggregation resulted in an increase in filler bondability factor from 9.24 to 15.21 at starch dosage of 1% (on the basis of the dry weight of papermaking stock). The swelling and gelatinization of the starch granules in starch-filler preaggregates or hybrids enabled the "bridging" of the gaps in cellulosic networks, leading to structural consolidation and strength enhancement. PMID:27261726

  15. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age

  16. Waste oyster shell as a kind of active filler to treat the combined wastewater at an estuary.

    Luo, Hongbing; Huang, Gu; Fu, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Daocai; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Huang, Bo; Fan, Liangqian; Chen, Fenghui; Sun, Xiubo

    2013-10-01

    Estuaries have been described as one of the most difficult environments on Earth. It is difficult to know how to treat the combined wastewater in tidal rivers at the estuary, where the situation is very different from ordinary fresh water rivers. Waste oyster shell was used as the active filler in this study in a bio-contact oxidation tank to treat the combined wastewater at the Fengtang Tidal River. With a middle-experimental scale of 360 m3/day, the average removal efficiency of COD, BOD, NH3-N, TP and TSS was 80.05%, 85.02%, 86.59%, 50.58% and 85.32%, respectively, in this bio-contact oxidation process. The living microbes in the biofilms on the waste oyster shell in this bio-contact oxidation tank, which were mainly composed of zoogloea, protozoa and micro-metazoa species, revealed that waste oyster shell as the filler was suitable material for combined wastewater degradation. This treatment method using waste oyster shell as active filler was then applied in a mangrove demonstration area for water quality improvement near the experiment area, with a treatment volume of 5 x 10(3) m3/day. Another project was also successfully applied in a constructed wetland, with a wastewater treatment volume of 1 x 10(3) m3/day. This technology is therefore feasible and can easily be applied on a larger scale. PMID:24494491

  17. Common Loon (Gavia immer) eggshell thickness and egg volume vary with acidity of nest lake in northern Wisconsin

    Pollentier, C.D.; Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental acidification has been associated with factors that may negatively affect reproduction in many waterbirds. Declines in lake pH can lead to reductions in food availability and quality, or result in the altered availability of toxic metals, such as mercury. A recent laboratory study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources indicated that Common Loon (Gavia immer) chicks hatched from eggs collected on acidic lakes in northern Wisconsin may be less responsive to stimuli and exhibit reduced growth compared to chicks from neutral-pH lakes. Here we report on the relation between Common Loon egg characteristics (eggshell thickness and egg volume) and lake pH, as well as eggshell methylmercury content. Eggs (N = 84) and lake pH measurements were obtained from a four county region of northern Wisconsin. Egg-shells were 3-4% thinner on lakes with pH ??? 6.3 than on neutral-pH lakes and this relation was linear across the pH range investigated (P 0.05, n.s.) or lake pH. Results suggest that low lake pH may be associated with thinner eggshells and reduced egg volume in Common Loons. We speculate on the mechanisms that may lead to this phenomeno.

  18. Effect of synthesized zinc stearate on the properties of natural rubber vulcanizates in the absence and presence of some fillers

    Research highlights: → The mechanical properties of NR were enhanced through partial and complete replacement of zinc stearate. → The effect of adding different concentrations of zinc stearate on the physic-mechanical and SEM properties has been investigated. → Zinc stearate was found to play dual role, it reinforces the matrix blow its melting point and higher temperature it plasticizers the system. → Zinc stearate can be used as activator for sulfur vulcanization process of rubber instead of ZnO and stearic acid; in absence and presence of fillers. -- Abstract: Zinc stearate was synthesized by precipitation method through two steps; neutralization of stearic acid by sodium hydroxide then double decomposition using zinc sulphate to precipitate zinc stearate. Mass balances of the two steps were calculated and the physical properties of the prepared zinc stearate were measured and compared to standard. It was characterized and incorporated it into natural rubber in the absence and presence of some filler through mixing process of rubber. The vulcanization process was carried out at 142 oC. The rheological properties of natural rubber mixes were measured using oscillating disc rheometer. The plysico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates were determined using tensile testing machine. It was found that, partial and complete replacement of synthesized zinc stearate instead of the conventional zinc oxide and stearic acid; enhanced the physico-mechanical properties of natural rubber. The measured reinforcing parameter value αf can be arranged according to the type of filler as follows: HAF>Hisil>CaCO3>Ca3(PO4)2>BaSO4>Talc The highest value of αf represents the strength of filler and consequently the reinforcing effect of carbon black (HAF) filler while the lowest value of αf was observed for Talc which show moderate reinforcing effect of Talc. The scanning electron microscope study showed high surface homogenity and good dispersion of zinc stearate through

  19. A high-volume-efficiency process for solidification of boric acid wastes

    A novel process for the solidification of radioactive liquid borate wastes is currently under development in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). The process using a special-recipe powder as the solidifying agent is very useful for solidifying liquid borate wastes generated in PWR nuclear power plants. Under some unique conditions, the blending of the solidifying agent and the liquid borate waste is a highly fluidy slurry, which sets quickly within about 30 minutes forming a solidified product of high strength. Retardation such that occurred in the solidification of borate waste with cement is not observed in this process. The volume efficiency of the process is about 5-10 times that of the conventional cementation process. Characterization showed that the solidified product has qualities far superior to the acceptance criteria of the US NRC regulation. Simplicity being the other feature of the process results in a low operating cost and a considerable decrease of the capital investment when the process is used. Possible uses of the process to solidify other radioactive wastes generated in BWR nuclear power plants are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. Advanced Laser Techniques for Filler-Induced Complications

    Cassuto, D.; Marangoni, O.; Santis, G. De;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The increasing use of injectable fillers has been increasing the occurrence of disfiguring anaerobic infection or granulomas. This study presents two types of laser-assisted evacuation of filler material and inflammatory and necrotic tissue that were used to treat disfiguring facial...... nodules after different types of gel fillers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Infectious lesions after hydrogels were drained using a lithium triborate laser at 532 nm, with subsequent removal of infected gel and pus (laser assisted evacuation). Granuloma after gels containing microparticles were treated using...... an 808-nm diode laser using intralesional laser technique. The latter melted and liquefied the organic and synthetic components of the granulomas, facilitating subsequent evacuation. Both lasers had an easily controllable thin laser beam, which enabled the physician to control tissue damage and minimize...

  1. Comparative study of filler influence on polylactide photooxidation

    S. Bocchini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA based nanocomposites of organically modified montmorillonite and micro-talc based microcomposites were prepared with different compositions and were UV-light irradiated under artificial accelerated conditions representative of solar irradiation. The chemical modifications resulting from photo-oxidation were followed by infrared (IR and ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopies. The infrared analysis of PLA photooxidation shows the formation of a band at 1847 cm–1 due to the formation of anhydrides. The filler addition provokes an increase of anhydride formation rate dependent on filler nature, amount and dispersion degree on the matrix. The main factors that influence oxidation rate are the total extension of polymer/filler interfacial area and the presence of transition metal impurities of clays.

  2. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C

  3. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  4. Silver migration from nanosilver and a commercially available zeolite filler polyethylene composites to food simulants.

    Cushen, M; Kerry, J; Morris, M; Cruz-Romero, M; Cummins, E

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene composites containing Agion(TM) commercial silver ion filler at three different percentage fill rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2% w/w) and polyethylene composites containing laboratory produced silver nanoparticles (Agnps) at two different percentage fill rates (0.1 and 0.5% w/w) underwent migration tests according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migrated silver in the two simulants (acidified water with 3% acetic acid and distilled water) was quantified using two techniques: inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Hach Lange spectroscopy. The former had higher sensitivity with mean silver migration from Agion composites (n = 12) ranging from agglomeration) before and after migration. PE composites containing 0.5% Agion, simulating contact with non-acidic foods, was the only scenario that did not exceed the permitted migration level of non-authorised substances given in EU 10/2011. This study illustrates the need for careful engineering of the composite filler system to conform to limits with cognisance of food pH and percentage fill rate. PMID:24646448

  5. The Influence of Modified Sodium Montmorillonite as Filler on the Performance of Glass Polyalkenoate Cement

    Modification of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) to aluminium montmorillonite (Al-MMT) and octadecylamine montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was done by ion exchange process. These MMTs were added as filler to glass polyalkenoate cement (GPC) formulation. The compressive strength and setting reaction of the GPCs were studied. Aluminosilicate glass powder with polyacrylic acid, water and MMT were mixed together with weight ratio of 5:1:1:(1.5 wt % powder). The setting reaction was studied from FTIR by monitoring the conversion of COOH in polyacrylic acid to crosslink with metal ions from the glass to form COO-M+ at different aging time. The addition of Al-MMT slightly sped up the setting reaction of GPCs as early as 3 minutes and recorded significant increment in compressive strength at early aging time. While GPC+ODA-MMT only showed increment in compressive strength at early aging time. However, GPC+Na-MMT had shown the slowest performance in GPCs setting reaction and lowest value of the compressive strength. Although the compressive strength for these GPCs was different at early aging time, all cements recorded almost similar compressive strength at day 28. The study highlighted the potential of modified Na-MMT as filler to enhance the performance of GPCs as posterior filling material. (author)

  6. Influence of anodization parameters on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide formed in mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids

    Kao, Tzung-Ta; Chang, Yao-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The growth of anodic alumina oxide was conducted in the mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids. The influence of anodizing voltage, electrolyte temperature, and concentration of phosphoric and oxalic acids on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide has been investigated. Either anodizing parameter is chosen to its full extent of range that allows the anodization process to be conducted without electric breakdown and to explore the highest possible volume expansion factor. The volume expansion factors were found to vary between 1.25 and 1.9 depending on the anodizing parameters. The variation is explained in connection with electric field, ion transport number, temperature effect, concentration, and activity of acids. The formation of anodic porous alumina at anodizing voltage 160 V in 1.1 M phosphoric acid mixed with 0.14 M oxalic acid at 2 °C showed the peak volume expansion factor of 1.9 and the corresponding moderate growth rate of 168 nm/min.

  7. Photoluminescence of porous silicon with liquid crystalline fillers

    Luminescence spectra of both pure porous silicon and filled with liquid crystals 5CB and H109 which emit radiation in violet spectral region are investigated. It is shown that there are bands of both porous silicon and a liquid crystal in the luminescence spectrum of porous silicon with liquid crystall filler. Thus the intensity of the band corresponding to porous silicon increases several times in comparison with a luminescence of pure porous silicon without filler. Experimental results are explained by internal no radiating swapping of energy from a liquid crystal to porous silicon

  8. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 1: Mine drainage -- SP 06A-94

    Volume 1 of these proceedings is divided into the following sections: Modeling mine water quality; Water treatment with wetlands; Predicting mine water quality; Water treatment--Chemical; Control of acid mine drainage--Wet covers; Site characterization monitoring; Control of acid mine drainage--Alkaline addition; and Mine water geochemistry. Papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Effect of precipitated calcium carbonate--Cellulose nanofibrils composite filler on paper properties.

    He, Ming; Cho, Byoung-Uk; Won, Jong Myoung

    2016-01-20

    A new concept of composite filler was developed by using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and cationic starch (C-starch). In this study, cellulose nanofibrils were utilized in two different ways: a PCC-CNF composite filler and a papermaking additive in sheet forming. The aim was to elucidate their effects on flocculation, filler retention and the strength and optical properties of handsheets. The highest filler retention was obtained by using the PCC-CNF composite filler in paper sheets. The paper filled with the composite fillers had much higher bursting and tensile strengths than conventional PCC loading. It was also found that the paper prepared with PCC-CNF composite fillers became denser with increasing the filler content of paper. PMID:26572417

  10. Effect of Waste Derived Fillers on the Properties of Biodegradable Polylactide Composites

    Vīksne, A; Rence, L; Gulbe, K; Bērziņa, R; Vancoviča, I

    2009-01-01

    Use of natural fillers of different origin (hemp and flax shivers, Tetra Pak carton cellulose fibers, cotton fibers) as low cost fillers of PLA to produce composites with mechanical properties comparable with similar PP composites

  11. Partial molar volume and partial molar compressibility of four homologous {alpha}-amino acids in aqueous sodium fluoride solutions at different temperatures

    Rajagopal, K., E-mail: krpal25@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Government College of Engg., Tirunelveli 627 007, Tamilnadu (India); Edwin Gladson, S., E-mail: aseg_win@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, St. Xavier' s Catholic College of Engg., Chunkankadai 629 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: Partial molar volume indicates strong solute-cosolute interaction in the NaF solution. Partial molar compressibility results compliment partial molar volume results. Hydration number proves that sodium fluoride has dehydration effect on amino acids. Interactions between sodium fluoride and (NH{sub 3}{sup +},COO{sup -}) group of amino acid are stronger. - Abstract: Density and ultrasonic speed of four amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine) in aqueous sodium fluoride solutions {l_brace}(0.1 to 0.5) M{r_brace} have been measured at T = (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. Apparent molar volumes (V{sub {phi}}), partial molar volumes (V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}), transfer volumes ({Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}) and hydration number (n{sub H}) are evaluated using density data. Adiabatic compressibility ({beta}{sub s}), change ({Delta}{beta}{sub s}), and relative change in compressibility ({Delta}{beta}{sub s}/{beta}{sub 0}), apparent molar compressibility (K{sub {phi}}), partial molar compressibility (K{sub {phi}}{sup 0}), transfer compressibility ({Delta}K{sub {phi}}{sup 0}), and hydration number (n{sub H}) have been calculated using ultrasonic speed data. The linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0},{Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0},K{sub {phi}}{sup 0} and {Delta}K{sub {phi}}{sup 0} for a homologous series of amino acids have been used utilised to calculate the contribution of charged end groups (NH{sub 3}{sup +}, COO{sup -}), CH{sub 2} group and other alkyl chain of the amino acids. The analysis shows that the ion-ion interactions are much stronger than ion-hydrophobic interactions over the entire concentration range of sodium fluoride. It is observed that sodium fluoride has a strong dehydration effect on amino acids.

  12. Improving Filler Dispersion And Physical Properties Of Epoxidized Natural Rubber/ Silica Compound By Using Dual fillers And Coupling Agent In Mixing Process

    Since the introduction of Green Tyre concept, in the early 90s, the use of silica as reinforcing fillers has spread and grown worldwide. The general advantages of silica as reinforcing filler over carbon black filler are better rolling resistance by achieving at least equal wet traction while tread wear should not be adversely affected. In general, high filler loading in ENR attributes poor dispersion and lack of adhesion to the rubber matrix which in turn affect the processability and physical properties of the rubber compounds. In this work, effect of dual fillers (silica and carbon black) and coupling agent in ENR/ silica compound was studied respectively. The mixing was done in a Banbury® BR 1600 internal mixer and the filler dispersion and physical properties were analysed. The carbon black filler was varied from 5 phr to 20 phr, where the total filler was fixed at 60 phr for truck tyre tread compound. The coupling agent was mixed in the mixing at two different stages which is first stage and finalizing stage of mixing. The rheological properties test was conducted by using Mooney Viscometer. The hardness, abrasion and tensile strength for physical properties evaluation were also conducted in this study. In addition, the filler dispersion property was determined by using disperGraderTM. The results showed that some of ENR/silica compound properties such as tensile, hardness, filler dispersion and abrasion resistance were slightly improved as compared to control compound. (author)

  13. Effect of mineral filler type on autogenous shrinkage of self-compacting concrete

    Craeye, Bart; De Schutter, Geert; Desmet, Bram; Vantomme, John; Heirman, Gert; Vandewalle, Lucie; Cizer, Özlem; AGGOUN, S.; E. H. Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Based on an experimental programme, including autogenous shrinkage tests on concrete, ultrasonic monitoring of fresh concrete, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, the influence of the filler type on the autogenous shrinkage of self-compacting concrete has been investigated. The onset of percolating structure formation (time zero) is influenced by the filler type due to a possible accelerating effect of the filler on the cement hydration. Limestone filler accelerates the hydration process, and ...

  14. Slot-Filler and Conventional Category Organisation in Young Korean Children.

    Yu, Younoak; Nelson, Katherine

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments, five year olds produced more instances in slot-filler categories than taxonomic categories, and eight year olds produced more instances in taxonomic categories than slot-filler categories; for five year olds, slot-filler categories led to superior recall and shorter response latencies than did taxonomic categories. (BB)

  15. Multipass electron beam narrow-gap welding using filler wire

    The use of a filler wire in electron beam welding offers the possibility of a multipass narrow-gap welding up to 100 mm plate thickness with a beam power of 6 kW. Describing the major principles of this method, the report considers the mechanical and metallurgical properties of multipass weldments, and the spiking phenomenon is also discussed. (orig./IHOE)

  16. Development of modified alloy 52 filler metal for weldability

    Alloy 690 was developed to improve resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) compared with conventional Alloy 600. Alloy 690 weld metal (Alloy 52 filler metal) is also used in PWR nuclear power plants for welding of dissimilar-metal joints, such as safe-end welds of reactor vessels. Alloy 52, however, tends to be inferior to Alloy 600 weld metal (Alloy 82 filler metal) in terms of weldability due to its large amount of oxide scale generation on the weld bead surfaces. In this study, the effects of alloying elements on hot-cracking susceptibility and oxide scale generation were investigated in Alloy 52 filler metals. By means of cracking tests and cladding tests, investigation results were obtained as follows; 1) Increase of Nb and S contents increase hot-cracking susceptibility, although Ta dose not influence hot-cracking susceptibility. 2) Al and Ti contents influences amount of oxide scale generation. Modified Alloy 52 filler metal, which was developed based on the investigation results, showed improvements in suppression of oxide scale generation and hot cracking susceptibility. (author)

  17. Impact of fillers on dissolution kinetic of fenofibrate dry foams.

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Sprunk, Angela; Kleinebudde, Peter; Page, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Dry foam technology reveals the opportunity to improve the dissolution behavior of poorly soluble drugs tending to agglomeration due to micronization. In this study, the impact of fillers on the manufacturability, the properties of dry foams and granules as well as the dissolution kinetics of dry foam tablets was investigated using fenofibrate as a model compound. Different maltodextrins and dried glucose syrups, a maltodextrin-phosphatidylcholine complex, isomalt and a 1:1 mixture of mannitol/glucose syrup were used as filler. Within the group of maltodextrins and glucose syrups, the influences of dextrose equivalent (DE), particle morphology and botanical source of starch were investigated. Comparable macroscopic foam structures were obtained with maltodextrins and glucose syrups whereas different foam morphologies were obtained for the other fillers tested. Regarding the maltodextrins and glucose syrups, different physicochemical and particle properties had a minor impact on granule characteristics and tablet dissolution. Using the maltodextrin-phosphatidylcholine complex resulted in a low specific surface area of the granules and a slow tablet dissolution caused by a slow disintegration. In contrast, a high specific surface area and a fast release were obtained with isomalt and glucose syrup/mannitol mixture indicating that high soluble low molecular weight fillers enable the development of fast dissolving dry foam tablets. PMID:24901031

  18. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  19. Design and fabrication of a miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector for the determination of acidity of some fruit juice

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector was designed and fabricated for the determination of acidity of some Thai citrus fruit juices collected in the northern area of Thailand. The method was based on on-line potentiometric titration of the acid contents with sodium hydroxide. Conditions such as volume of fruit juice sample, volume and concentration of potassium chloride used as supporting electrolyte and flow rate of titrant were optimized by using univariate optimization. A sample throughput of 83 samples h-1 at 0.28 mL/min was achieved with satisfactory results. The results obtained by the proposed method agreed with those obtained by using the standard classical titration method.

  20. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2013-08-25

    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  1. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 2: Physician-Directed-Neuromodulators and Fillers.

    Dickey, Ryan M; Louis, Matthew R; Cox, Joshua A; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I; Nigro, Marjory G

    2016-08-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin as well as rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the second in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors discuss neuromodulators and fillers in detail, focusing on indications for use, techniques, and common side effects. PMID:27478422

  2. Autonomous Slat-Cove-Filler Device for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated with Aircraft Systems

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor); Lockard, David P (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Weber, Douglas Leo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A slat cove filler is utilized to reduce airframe noise resulting from deployment of a leading edge slat of an aircraft wing. The slat cove filler is preferably made of a super elastic shape memory alloy, and the slat cove filler shifts between stowed and deployed shapes as the slat is deployed. The slat cove filler may be configured such that a separate powered actuator is not required to change the shape of the slat cove filler from its deployed shape to its stowed shape and vice-versa. The outer contour of the slat cove filler preferably follows a profile designed to maintain accelerating flow in the gap between the slat cove filler and wing leading edge to provide for noise reduction.

  3. Biocompatibility and tissue interactions of a new filler material for medical use.

    Zarini, Elena; Supino, Rosanna; Pratesi, Graziella; Laccabue, Diletta; Tortoreto, Monica; Scanziani, Eugenio; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Tunesi, Gianfranco; Nava, Maurizio

    2004-09-15

    Filler materials for medical use present limits, such as the induction of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the search for synthetic materials with improved biocompatible properties, a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, Aquamid (Contura SA, Montreux, Switzerland), has been investigated in preclinical systems. In cell cultures (endothelial cells and fibroblast), no or only transient biological effects were associated with 10% Aquamid exposure. The Aquamid-host interactions were examined in mice (10 mice per group) implanted subcutaneously or in the mammary fat pad with a very large volume (1.5 ml) of the material. Blood analysis, performed after 15 and 94 days (five mice per time for each group) to detect acute or late manifestations of toxicity, did not reveal relevant abnormalities in either group of Aquamid-bearing mice compared with control mice, except for a transient thrombocytopenia and a mild leukocytosis. Histological analysis of the pellet showed the presence of a thin, poorly vascularized cyst wall in implants. Only mild mesenchymal reparative and inflammatory processes were observed, even at longer observation times (more than 400 days). No alterations in any organ were detected. Despite the large volume implanted (approximately 5 percent of mouse body weight), the Aquamid pellet maintained its original size and shape without spreading or sticking to surrounding tissues. In conclusion, the study indicated a good tolerability of the new biopolymer in preclinical systems. The clinical utility of this new compound, if confirmed by clinical randomized trials showing its atoxic properties, could be in the field of aesthetic plastic surgery as a filler material for body contouring and in reconstructive surgery and above all in cancer patients to restore surgical defects. PMID:15468401

  4. Evaluation of Fillers Dispersion Degree in Elastomeric Magnetic Composites

    Ján Kruželák

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastomeric magnetic composites were prepared by incorporation of strontium ferrite into polymer matrices based on natural as well as butadiene rubber. Besides the rubber and ferrite, or the combinations of ferrite and carbon black (in case of natural rubber, the model rubber compounds contained only ingredients which support curing process. The study was dedicated to the observation of fillers dispersion degree in the rubber matrices and investigation of physical-mechanical and magnetic properties of prepared composites. The results indicate that the dispersion degree of ferrite in the rubber matrices is not very high, but it can be positively influenced by the addition of carbon black. Despite of the fact that ferrite exhibits only low reinforcing effect on cross-linked elastomeric materials, physical-mechanical properties can be also positively influenced by the mutual change in combinations of both fillers (ferrite and carbon black. The prepared materials seem to have suitable magnetic and elastic properties.

  5. Laser brazing with filler wire for galvanized steel sheets

    Feng Xiaosong; Li Liqun; Chen Yanbin; Zhou Shanbao

    2005-01-01

    The process properties and interface behavior of CO2 laser brazing with automatic wire feed for galvanized steel sheets were investigated , in which the brazing filler metal was CuSi3 and no flux was used. As to the appearance quality of the brazing seams, the roles of the processing parameters, such as brazing speed, wire feeding rate, inclination and feeding direction of the wire, laser power, spot diameter and heating position, were assessed. The further investigation indicates that the behavior of the active elements Si, Mn and Zn are significantly influenced by energy input. At the interface, the microstructure of the base metal was composed of columnar crystals and the acicalar α solid solution was found on the filler metal side.

  6. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers

    Mariusz Oleksy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  7. Laser Transmission Welding of CFRTP Using Filler Material

    Berger, Stefan; Schmidt, Michael

    In the automotive industry the increasing environmental awareness is reflected through consistent lightweight construction. Especially the use of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) plays an increasingly important role. Accordingto the material substitution, the demand for adequate joining technologies is growing. Therefore, laser transmission welding with filler material provides a way to combine two opaque joining partners by using process specific advantages of the laser transmission welding process. After introducing the new processing variant and the used experimental setup, this paper investigates the process itselfand conditions for a stable process. The influence of the used process parameters on weld quality and process stability is characterized by tensile shear tests. The successfully performed joining of PA 6 CF 42 organic sheets using natural PA 6 as filler material underlines the potential of the described joining method for lightweight design and other industrial applications.

  8. Filler segmentation of SEM paper images based on mathematical morphology.

    Ait Kbir, M; Benslimane, Rachid; Princi, Elisabetta; Vicini, Silvia; Pedemonte, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy and image processing have made digital measurements on high-resolution images of fibrous materials possible. This helps to gain a better understanding of the structure and other properties of the material at micro level. In this paper SEM image segmentation based on mathematical morphology is proposed. In fact, paper models images (Whatman, Murillo, Watercolor, Newsprint paper) selected in the context of the Euro Mediterranean PaperTech Project have different distributions of fibers and fillers, caused by the presence of SiAl and CaCO3 particles. It is a microscopy challenge to make filler particles in the sheet distinguishable from the other components of the paper surface. This objectif is reached here by using switable strutural elements and mathematical morphology operators. PMID:17867540

  9. Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials

    M. F. Abdelkarim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and mechanical properties of polymer composite materials are investigated through the determination of resistivity and hardness for composites samples. Epoxy composite samples have been prepared with different concentrations of certain inorganic fillers such as; Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Silica (SiO2, of various size (micro, nano and hybrid to study the electrical and mechanical behavior. The volume resistivity reaches 3.23×1014 ohm.cm for the micro silica composite. Surface of composite material has been mechanically examined by hardness test. The results show that the resistivity of microcomposites and nanocmposites are increased with the decrease of filler concentration. But the resistivity of hybrid composites is increased with the increase of filler concentration. Maximum hardness value was obtained from hybrid silica composite with 0.1% filler concentration.

  10. Evaluation of Fillers Dispersion Degree in Elastomeric Magnetic Composites

    Ján Kruželák; Sybill Ilisch; Ivan Hudec; Rastislav Dosoudil

    2012-01-01

    Elastomeric magnetic composites were prepared by incorporation of strontium ferrite into polymer matrices based on natural as well as butadiene rubber. Besides the rubber and ferrite, or the combinations of ferrite and carbon black (in case of natural rubber), the model rubber compounds contained only ingredients which support curing process. The study was dedicated to the observation of fillers dispersion degree in the rubber matrices and investigation of physical-mechanical and magnetic pro...

  11. Effect of Natural Fillers on Mechanical Properties of GFRP Composites

    Vikas Dhawan; Sehijpal Singh; Inderdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) have replaced conventional engineering materials in many areas, especially in the field of automobiles and household applications. With the increasing demand, various modifications are being incorporated in the conventional FRPs for specific applications in order to reduce costs and achieve the quality standards. The present research endeavor is an attempt to study the effect of natural fillers on the mechanical characteristics of FRPs. Rice husk, wheat husk, ...

  12. Functional and Microstructural Effects of Fillers in Comminuted Meat Products

    Comer, Frederick W.; Allan-Wojtas, Paula

    1988-01-01

    Fillers are used in comminuted meat products such as wieners to increase yield, improve stability, and modify textural properties. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that comminutred meat products are mechanical mixtures in which the microstructural features of starch and insoluble protein ingredients are largely retained. The water absorption and gelation properties of these ingredients contribute to the stability and textural firmness....

  13. Hard coal modified with silanes as polyamide filler

    M. Rojek; J. Stabik; Ł. Suchoń

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper shows the influence of coupling agents, especially silanes, on mechanical properties of polyamide 6 filled with hard coal dust.Design/methodology/approach: Before preparing compositions, pulverised filler surface was modified with coupling agents. Then, it was compounded using a twin-screw extruder composite consisting of modified hard coal and polyamide 6. A blend was granulated later and test samples were subjected to injection moulding. Afterwards, mechanical properties...

  14. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  15. Cladding of pressure vessel steel with corrosion resistant filler material

    Pressure vessels are often on the inside clad with corrosion resistant material. Of the various cladding processes surfacing by welding has proved to be most useful, especially for large thick-walled pressure vessels. Submerged arc welding with strip electrode is the most common method. Rather promising results have also been obtained by plasma hot wire welding. In general, Nb-alloyed austenitic stainless steel, over-alloyed with Cr and Ni, is used as filler material. Henceforth, also nickel alloys, e.g. Inconel 600, are used. The surfacing is made in one or several layers, following the requirements on the clad surface and the welding process used. The most dangerous welding defects in the surface are various types of cracks. The corrosion resistance of the cladding can show rather high local variations, depending on the composition of the filler material and various welding process factors. It is proved that the surface layer comparises areas with low chromium martensite. To ensure the corrosion resistance of the cladding, the generation of low-chromium martensite must be prevented by using suitable welding parameters, welding equipment and filler metal. It is also possible to eliminate the negative influence on the corrosion resistance from the low-chromium martensite, e.g. by welding in two layers. In the case of the high demands on quality a welding procedure test should always be made prior to production welding.(author)

  16. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  17. Braze welding of cobalt with a silver–copper filler

    Everett M. Criss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of joining cobalt by braze-welding it with a silver–copper filler was developed in order to better understand the residual stresses in beryllium–aluminum/silicon weldments which are problematic to investigate because of the high toxicity of Be. The base and filler metals of this new welding system were selected to replicate the physical properties, crystal structures, and chemical behavior of the Be–AlSi welds. Welding parameters of this surrogate Co–AgCu system were determined by experimentation combining 4-point bending tests and microscopy. Final welds are 5 pass manual TIG (tungsten inert gas, with He top gas and Ar back gas. Control of the welding process produces welds with full penetration melting of the cobalt base. Microscopy indicates that cracking is minimal, and not through thickness, whereas 4-point bending shows failure is not by base-filler delamination. These welds improve upon the original Be–AlSi welds, which do not possess full penetration, and have considerable porosity. We propose that utilization of our welding methods will increase the strength of the Be–AlSi weldments. The specialized welding techniques developed for this study may be applicable not only for the parent Be–AlSi welds, but to braze welds and welds utilizing brittle materials in general. This concept of surrogacy may prove useful in the study of many different types of exotic welds.

  18. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G.; de Sousa, A. M. F.

    2014-05-01

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety).

  19. Carbon materials as fillers for polymer matrix composites

    J. Stabik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents different types of carbon materials used as modifiers for polymer matrix composites. The article contains summary description of the available varieties of carbon materials from brown and hard coal to the carbon nanotubes and fullerenes.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the publication is to present different forms of carbon materials, their origins and ways of creation. Paper summarizes also basic properties and possible applications of carbon materials as components of engineering polymeric composites.Findings: Paper especially focuses on types of hard coal (mine coal as potential fillers for polymers. These materials and their properties and applications were studied in detail by the authors in previous researches.Research limitations/implications: Analysis of the literature and authors’ own research results indicate that carbon materials as fillers can essentially improve many different properties of polymer matrix composites but still have to be extensively searched to fully evaluate their characteristics and possible applications.Practical implications: Particular attention should be directed to the use of mined coal as a properties modifier of polymers because of its interesting properties, low prize and availability in Poland.Originality/value: New types of carbon materials as polymer fillers, their properties and application possibilities are presented.

  20. Hard coal modified with silanes as polyamide filler

    M. Rojek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper shows the influence of coupling agents, especially silanes, on mechanical properties of polyamide 6 filled with hard coal dust.Design/methodology/approach: Before preparing compositions, pulverised filler surface was modified with coupling agents. Then, it was compounded using a twin-screw extruder composite consisting of modified hard coal and polyamide 6. A blend was granulated later and test samples were subjected to injection moulding. Afterwards, mechanical properties were evaluated. These properties have essential meaning for applications of new composites as structural materials.Findings: Tests demonstrated that modification of powdered hard coal surface with coupling agents had not significant effect on mechanical properties of polyamide/hard coal composites.Research limitations/implications: Applied compounding procedure did not allow to achieve good compositions homogenisation. A new method to be applied is planned in future research. Simultaneously, it is necessary to investigate composites with other coupling agents which will improve filler’s adhesion to a polymer. Long-term test are also planned.Practical implications: Hard coal, cheap and widely available filler, used to modify thermoplastic polymers, enable to obtain new materials with attractive properties and many applications.Originality/value: Paper represents innovative polymer filler and methods to modify it.

  1. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    Fernandes, M. R. S., E-mail: monica.fernandes@lanxess.com [Lanxess Elastômeros do Brasil S.A., Brasil and Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Furtado, C. R. G., E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de, E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  2. Hybrid Composites from Wheat Straw, Inorganic Filler, and Recycled Polypropylene: Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    Min Yu; Runzhou Huang; Chunxia He; Qinglin Wu; Xueni Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing effect of hybrid filler including wheat straw (WS) and inorganic filler (heavy calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, and fly ash) in recycled polypropylene (R-PP) has been investigated. The effects of individual filler (WS) and combined fillers (WS and inorganic filler) on morphological, mechanical, and thermal expansion and water absorption properties of hybrid composites were investigated. The flexural modulus and flexural strength were both reduced when reinforced with three kind...

  3. Poly(methyl methacrylate) inorganic filler composites: understanding the role of matrix structure in presence of adhering filler

    Dušková, Miroslava; Dušek, Karel; Zelenka, J.

    Plzeň : Dům techniky Plzeň, spol. s.r.o, 2007, s. 181-187. ISBN 978-80-239-8857-4. [International Conference on Reinforced Plastics /24./. Karlovy Vary (CZ), 22.05.2007-24.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer composite * crosslinked polymer matrix * particulate filler Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  4. EFFECT OF FILLER LOADING ON PHYSICAL AND FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED STEM/PP COMPOSITES

    Seyed Majid Zabihzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new filler for the production of natural filler thermoplastic composites using the waste rapeseed stalks. The long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behaviors and flexural properties of rapeseed filled polypropylene (PP composites were investigated. Three different contents of filler were tested: 30, 45, and 60 wt%. Results of long-term hygroscopic tests indicated that by the increase in filler content from 30% to 60%, water diffusion absorption and thickness swelling rate parameter increased. A swelling model developed by Shi and Gardner can be used to quantify the swelling rate. The increasing of filler content reduced the flexural strength of the rapeseed/PP composites significantly. In contrast to the flexural strength, the flexural modulus improved with increasing the filler content. The flexural properties of these composites were decreased after the water uptake, due to the effect of the water molecules.

  5. Increasing the wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by adding solid lubricating fillers

    In order to compare effectiveness of adding solid lubricating fillers for polymeric composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene, their tribotechnical characteristics under dry friction, boundary lubrication and abrasive wearing were investigated. The optimal weight fractions of fillers in terms of improving wear resistance have been determined. The supramolecular structure and topography of wear track surfaces of UHMWPE-based composites with different content of fillers have been studied

  6. Perceptual salience of language-specific acoustic differences in autonomous fillers across eight languages

    Vasilescu, Ioana; Candea, Maria; Adda-Decker, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Are acoustic differences in autonomous fillers salient for the human perception ? Acoustic measurements have been carried out on autonomous fillers from eight languages (Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, French, German, Italian, European Portuguese, American English and Latin American Spanish). They exhibit timbre differences of the support vowel of autonomous fillers across languages. In order to evaluate their salience for human perception, two discrimination experiments have been conducted, French...

  7. Effect of three filler types on mechanical properties of dental composite

    Pahlavan A.; Ataei M; Zandi-Nejad AA

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Despite the improvements achieved in the field of dental composites, their strength, longevity, and service life specially in high stress areas is not confirmed. Finding better fillers can be a promising step in this task. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the filler type on the mechanical properties of a new experimental dental composite and compare these with the properties of composite containing conventional glass filler. Materials a...

  8. Effects of Rare Earths on Properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni Base Brazing Filler Alloys

    Ma Tianjun; Kang Hui; Wu Yongqin; Qu Ping

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the addition of rare earths on the properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni base brazing filler alloys and the mechanical microstructure and properties were studied for the brazed-joints in the vacuum brazing of TC4 by comparing synthetical properties of two kinds of filler metals.The results indicate that the filler metals added with rare earths have lower melting point, better wettability and higher mechanical properties in the brazing joints.

  9. Novel high chromium containing braze filler metals for heat exchanger applications

    Rangaswamy, S.; Fortuna, D. [Sulzer Metco, Troy (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new family of boron-free, high chromium containing braze filler metal compositions were developed (Amdry 105, Amdry 108, Amdry 805). Filler metal properties including metallurgical phases, melting range, flow, corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance are reported. Additionally, the technical and economical advantages of using these new filler metals in fabricating flat plate type of heat exchangers and metallic catalytic converters is discussed. (orig.)

  10. An Overview of Vascular Adverse Events Associated With Facial Soft Tissue Fillers: Recognition, Prevention, and Treatment.

    Ferneini, Elie M; Ferneini, Antoine M

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive facial cosmetic surgery procedures have seen an exponential increase in numbers over the past decade. The most commonly performed procedures are neuromodulator and soft tissue filler procedures. Although soft tissue fillers have a high safety and predictability profile, these procedures recently have been associated with serious and dire adverse events. This article will discuss some of the vascular complications associated with facial soft tissue fillers. Management and prevention of these adverse events also will be discussed. PMID:27067061

  11. Increasing the wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by adding solid lubricating fillers

    Panin, S. V., E-mail: svp@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kornienko, L. A.; Poltaranin, M. A.; Ivanova, L. R. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Suan, T. Nguen [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    In order to compare effectiveness of adding solid lubricating fillers for polymeric composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene, their tribotechnical characteristics under dry friction, boundary lubrication and abrasive wearing were investigated. The optimal weight fractions of fillers in terms of improving wear resistance have been determined. The supramolecular structure and topography of wear track surfaces of UHMWPE-based composites with different content of fillers have been studied.

  12. Brazing of zirconia to titanium using Ag-Cu and Au-Ni filler alloys

    Jean S. Pimenta; Augusto J. A. Buschinelli; Rubens M. do Nascimento; Augusto E. Martinelli; Joseph Remmel

    2013-01-01

    Advanced ceramic is usually joined to metal by the well-known direct brazing process, where costly active filler alloys can be considered a limitation. Brazing using active-metal-free filler alloy as insert between the joint components is an attempt to overcome it. The active metal diffusion from the titanium member through the bulk of molten filler to the ceramic was responsible to produce an active filler alloy in loco and promote reduction of the zirconium oxide to improve wetting on the c...

  13. Stress-Strain Relation of Tire Rubber Consist of Entangled Polymers, Fillers and Crosslink

    Hagita, Katsumi; Bito, Y.; Minagawa, Y.; Omiya, M.; Morita, H.; Doi, M.; Takano, H.

    2009-03-01

    We presented a preliminary result of large scale coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under an uni-axial deformation by using the Kremer-Grest Model. The size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 66nm to consider length of entangled polymer chains, size and structure of fillers, and non-uniform distribution of crosslink. We put 640 polymer chains of 1024 particles and 32 fillers into the PBC box. Each filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles. Here, the particles of the fillers are chosen to be the same as the particles of the polymers and the diameter of the filler is about 15nm. The distribution of the fillers used in this simulation is provided by the result of 2d pattern RMC analysis for 2D-USAXS experiments at SPring-8. Sulfur crosslink are randomly distributed in the system. It is found that stress-strain curves estimated by applying a certain uni-axial deformation to the system in simulations are in good agreement with those in experiments. It is successful to show difference on the S-S curve between existence / absence of fillers and qualitative dependence of attractive force between polymer and filler.

  14. Fish communities in lakes in Subregion 2B (Upper Peninsula of Michigan) in relation to lake acidity. Volume 1 and Volume 2: Appendices. Data tape documentation

    The research described in the document represents one component of Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey (ELS-II), a part of the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS). Surveys of fish community status were conducted in summer 1987 in 49 lakes in ELS Subregion 2B, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Subregion 2B was selected because of its (1) high proportion of acidic and low-pH lakes, (2) relative lack of existin data on fish communities in lakes, and (3) diverse geological and hydrological conditions allowing optimal evaluation of the association between lake characteristics and fish community status. A companion study dealing with regional patterns in fish mercury content in Subregion 2B was conducted concurrently; results from the study will be presented in a subsequent report

  15. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  16. Effect of three filler types on mechanical properties of dental composite

    Pahlavan A.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Despite the improvements achieved in the field of dental composites, their strength, longevity, and service life specially in high stress areas is not confirmed. Finding better fillers can be a promising step in this task. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the filler type on the mechanical properties of a new experimental dental composite and compare these with the properties of composite containing conventional glass filler. Materials and Methods: Experimental composites were prepared by mixing silane-treated fillers with monomers, composed of 70% Bis-GMA and 30% TEGDMA by weight. Fillers were different among the groups. Glass, leucite ceramic and lithium disilicate were prepared as different filler types. All three groups contained 73% wt filler. Comphorquinone and amines were chosen as photo initiator system. Post curing was done for all groups. Diametral tensile strength (DTS, flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured and compared among groups. Data were analyzed with SPSS package using one-way ANOVA test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The results showed that the stronger ceramic fillers have positive effect on the flexural strength. Ceramic fillers increased the flexural strength significantly. No significant differences could be determined in DTS among the groups. Flexural modulus can be affected and increased by using ceramic fillers. Conclusion: Flexural strength is one of the most significant properties of restorative dental materials. The higher flexural strength and flexural modulus can be achieved by stronger ceramic fillers. Any further investigation in this field would be beneficial in the development of restorative dental materials.

  17. New-generation filler based on cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose: study of 350 patients with 3-year follow-up

    Leonardis M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Leonardis,1 Andrea Palange2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Salvator Mundi International Hospital, 2Department of Aesthetic Medicine, Fisiobios Clinic, Rome, Italy Purpose: In recent years there has been a growing interest in nonsurgical procedures for facial rejuvenation. Hyaluronic acid is currently the most widely used dermal filler for the treatment of facial wrinkles. However, new products with interesting features are being introduced into the market. Cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose is one of these and represents a new alternative for the correction of wrinkles and facial defects.Patients and methods: The retrospective, multicenter, open-label study on nasolabial folds reported here was carried out between January 2010 and April 2014 on 350 subjects between 22 and 67 years of age for a 36-month follow-up period in order to consistently and extensively assess the safety and performance of this treatment.Results: The study revealed effective and durable correction of nasolabial wrinkles for periods of 9–12 months. Product reapplication over a 36-month period did not lead to an increase in adverse effects, which always remained rare and of little clinical significance, usually consisting of bruising and redness.Conclusion: Cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to the resorbable products currently on the market. Keywords: dermal fillers, nasolabial fold, hyaluronic acids, facial aging, patient satisfaction

  18. Radiological impact of the use of calcium hydroxylapatite dermal fillers

    Aim: To report a case series in which the radiological features of the subcutaneous use of calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHa) dermal fillers are described for the first time. Materials and methods: Five patients with facial hyperattenuating hypermetabolic subcutaneous lesions were identified on 2- [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), who gave a history of facial injections to augment physical appearance. Correlation with additional imaging studies was performed. Results: All cases had subcutaneous high attenuation material on CT (range 280-700 HU), which was FDG avid on PET, with a standardized uptake value (SUV) range of 2.9-13.4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity subcutaneous lesion with enhancement post-gadolinium in one case. Conclusions: CaHa dermal filler is hyperattenuating on CT, hypermetabolic on FDG-PET imaging, of intermediate signal intensity on MRI, and is a potential cause of a false-positive imaging study.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Nano-filler Blends

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.; Working, Dennis C.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Sun, Y. P.; Lin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, Elvax 260 was compounded with three carbon based nano-fillers. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNF) and expanded graphite (EG) were investigated. In an attempt to improve compatibility between the Elvax and nanofillers, MWCNTs and EGs were modified through non covalent and covalent attachment of alkyl groups. Ribbons were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned, and samples were also fabricated by compression molding in which the nano-fillers were randomly oriented. The thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and TGA, and mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Thermal conductivity measurements were performed using a Nanoflash technique. The thermal conductivity of the samples was measured in both the direction of alignment as well as perpendicular to that direction. The results of this study will be presented.

  20. Technical Note: Filler and superplasticizer usage on high strength concrete

    Sümer, M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of filler (rock-dust usage on high strength concrete have been investigated through lab experiments and some results have been obtained. The experiments involved three series of concrete with different cement proportions of 375 kg/m3, 400 kg/m3, and 425 kg/m3. For each series of concrete, three different groups of samples have been prepared, the first one being the reference concrete which contained 0% chemical admixture and 0% filler, the second one contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 0% filler and finally the last group contained 1.5% chemical admixture and 5% filler to the weight of cement used. The chemical admixture used was a type of Super plasticizer with a brand name of “DARACEM 190”, and the cement used was Ordinary Portland Cement of target compressive strength 42.5 N/mm2, obtained from Nuh Cement Plant. For each batch, Slump Tests and Unit Weight Tests were performed. For each stage and group, two 15 cm cubic samples have been tested for Compressive Strength after being cured in water at 20 ± 2 °C for ages of 3 days, 7 days, 28 and 60 days. The total number of samples was 72. As a result, filler usage was found to reduce the porosity of Concrete, increase the Unit Weight of Concrete, increase the need for water and improve the Compressive Strength Properties of Concrete.En el presente trabajo se estudia la influencia de la utilización de un “filler” (polvo mineral en el comportamiento del hormigón de altas prestaciones. Para ello, se realizan ensayos de laboratorio en los que se emplean tres series de hormigón, cada una con una dosificación de cemento distinta, de 375, 400 y 425 kg/m3. Se preparan tres grupos de probetas de cada serie, el primero o de referencia con 0% de aditivo químico y 0% de “filler”, el segundo con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y 0% de “filler” y el tercero con un 1,5% del aditivo químico y un 5% de “filler” en peso del cemento. Como aditivo se

  1. Mathematical modeling of kinetics of volume condensation of water and sulfuric acid vapors during electron-beam purification of power plant flue gases

    The kinetic equations system, describing the volume condensation process of water and purification of power plant flue gases is developed. The role of water and sulfuric acid vapors nucleation, the drops growth on the account of H2O and H2SO4 molecule condensation thereon and drops coagulation due to their Brownian movement in the summary process is analyzed. It is shown that dissolution of other gaseous compounds (SO2, NH3, etc.) in the molecule drops may be considered in the approximation of the gas-liquid quasi-equilibrium

  2. Study on chemical and volume control system design improvement of pressurized water reactor to use the enriched boric acid

    This study analyzes and determines the technical and economic feasibility of conversion from natural boric acid to enriched boric acid based on YGN 1,2 for existing plants and UCN 5,6 for new plants. The use of enriched boric acid may result in lower plant radiation exposure, lower stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600, and the improvement of the water chemistry operation for PWR plants, since it is viewed as possibly a safer way of proceeding with an increase in RCS pH with less LiOH. The conversion of enriched boric acid would not affect core design, safety analysis licensing, etc.. The economic analysis shows that for the higher B-10 concentration, the existing power plants are more economical than new plants. It is expected that information and technology gained from this study would be utilized for the optimized CVCS design of the future nuclear power plants. It is also expected that the utilization of the enriched boric acid would become favourable for extended fuel cycle and especially MOX (Mixed Oxide) nuclear fuel because high boric acid concentration should be maintained for the beginning of the fuel cycle. 19 tabs., 20 figs., 20 refs. (Author)

  3. Measurement and COrrelation on Viscosity and Apparent Molar Volume of Ternary System for L—ascorbic Acid in Aqueous D—Glucose and Sucrose Solutions

    赵长伟; 马沛生

    2003-01-01

    Visosities and densities at ,several temperatures from 293.15 K to 313.15K are reported for L-ascorbic acid in aqueous glucose and sucrose solutions at different concentrations.The parameters of density,Viscosity coefficient B and partial molar volume are calculated by regression.The experimental results show that densities and viscositis decrease as temperature increases at the same solute and solvent (glucose and sucrose aueous solution)concentrations,and increase with concentration of glucose and sucrose at the same solute concentration and temperature,B increases with concentration of glucose and sucrose and temaperature,L-ascorbic acid is sturcture-breaker or structure-making for the glucose and sucrose aqueous solutions ,Furthermore,the solute-solvent interactions in ternary systems of water-glucose-electrolyte and water-sucrose-electrolyte are discussed.

  4. Perspectives for Titanium-Derived Fillers Usage on Denture Base Composite Construction: A Review Article

    Nidal W. Elshereksi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA is an extensively used material in dentistry because of its aesthetics, processability, and reparability. However, PMMA is still far from being ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements of prosthesis. PMMA-based denture base polymers exhibit low fracture resistance and radiopacity behavior. Efforts to improve the mechanical and radiopacity properties of denture base materials through inclusion of silica-based fillers are ongoing. Although silane-treated siliceous fillers are commonly used, they are not sufficiently strong. They also exhibit cracks, which either cut through the glass fillers or propagate around the filler particles. This defect occurs when the dental composites are placed in aqueous oral environment because of the hydrolytic degradation of silica-based fillers and silane-coupling agents. The clinical problem of using silanes in adhesion promotion is bond degradation over time in oral environment. In addition, silanes do not bond effectively to nonsilica-based dental restorative materials. This review presents titanium-derived fillers as alternatives to siliceous fillers. Titanate-coupling agents are found to be effective couplers in treating Ti-based fillers because of their chemical compatibility and relatively high stability in aqueous environment.

  5. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Wheat Starch Co-filler

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  6. THE QUANTUM – MECHANICAL MODEL OF FORMING CONTACT AREAS IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH SPHERICAL FILLER

    E. V. Suhovaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of the composites having Fe-C-B-Р binders alloyed with molybdenum and strengthened by the W-C quickly-cooled filler were investigated in this work. The model based on quantum mechanics principles explaining the dependencies of contact interaction zones width on filler diameter was suggested.

  7. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Starch Co-filler

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  8. Effects of fillers on the properties of liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs)

    Yu, Liyun; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin;

    low viscosities, which is favorable for loading of inorganic fillers [5]. In this study, commercially available fillers, such as fumed silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), barium titanate (BaTiO3), copper calcium titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12, CCTO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added into...

  9. Fracture resistance of rubbers with MWCNT, organoclay, silica and carbon black fillers as assessed by the J-integral: Effects of rubber type and filler concentration

    T. Ricco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The fracture resistance of different rubbers containing various nanofillers, such as multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT, organoclay, silica and carbon black (CB, was determined by the J-integral making use of the single edge notched tensile loaded (SEN-T single specimen approach. The elastomeric matrices were natural (NR, ethylene propylene diene (EPDM and hydrogenated nitrile rubbers (HNBR. Moreover, the strain softening (Payne effect of selected rubbers with 30 part per hundred rubber (phr filler content was also investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA in shear mode. DMTA results indicated that the Payne effect follows the ranking: MWCNT(fibrous > organoclay(platy > silica(spherical. J-resistance (JR curves were constructed by plotting the J value as a function of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD*, monitored during loading. CTOD* = 0.1 mm was considered as crack initiation threshold and thus assigned to the critical value JIc. JIc increased with increasing filler loading, whereby MWCNT outperformed both silica and CB. On the other hand, JIc did not change with filler loading for the NR/organoclay systems that was traced to straininduced crystallization effect in NR. The tearing modulus (TJ also increased with increasing filler loading. The related increase strongly depended on both rubber and filler types. Nonetheless, the most prominent improvement in TJ among the fillers studied was noticed for the fibrous MWCNT.

  10. Whisker-reinforced bioactive composites containing calcium phosphate cement fillers: effects of filler ratio and surface treatments on mechanical properties.

    Xu, H H; Quinn, J B

    2001-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets to form microporous solid hydroxyapatite with excellent osteoconductivity, but its brittleness and low strength prohibit use in stress-bearing locations. The aim of this study was to incorporate prehardened CPC particles and ceramic whiskers in a resin matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance, and to investigate the effects of key microstructural variables on composite mechanical properties. Two types of whiskers were used: silicon nitride, and silicon carbide. The whiskers were surface-treated by fusing with silica and by silanization. The CPC particle fillers were either silanized or not silanized. Seven mass ratios of whisker-silica/CPC were mixed: 0:1 (no whisker-silica), 1:5, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 5:1, and 1:0 (no CPC). Each powder was blended with a bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate-based resin to harden in 2 x 2 x 25 mm molds by two-part chemical curing. The specimens were tested in three-point flexure to measure strength, work-of-fracture (toughness), and elastic modulus. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data, and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine specimen fracture surfaces. The whisker-silica/CPC ratio had significant effects on composite properties (p particles without whiskers. The composite properties were determined by whisker-to-CPC ratio and filler surface treatments. PMID:11484178

  11. The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using a micromanipulation technique.

    Curtis, Andrew R

    2009-02-01

    To assess the mechanical properties of discrete filler particles representative of several inorganic fillers in modern dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to assess the validity of a novel micromanipulation technique.

  12. Influence of carbon fillers on the thermal conductivity of Poly (methyl methacrylate)/carbon composites

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-04-01

    In the present research on carbon polymer composites, the effects of variation of the concentration of conductive fillers on the thermal conductivity of the resultant composite were studied. Carbon powders in the form of Carbon Fibers (CF) (200µm), Carbon Black (CB) (30-100 nm) and Graphite (75-100µm) were being considered as conductive fillers in the Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. Nielsen model was found to be the best proposed model that incorporated geometric configuration comprising of both the orientation and shape of fillers. It was established that the calculated values of thermal conductivity of PMMA composites with single fillers of CF were higher than those of CB followed by Graphite. Furthermore, a visible synergy was observed between the combinations of these fillers such as Graphite and CF, Graphite and CB, CF and CB, as well as CB and CF.

  13. Effect of fillers and fire retardant compounds on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene based insulators

    S. D. Kakade

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethane compositions have been formulated using hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene as polymeric binder and carbon black as a major filler. Various binder-to-filler ratios of the formulations were evaluated to get calendered sheets. The formulations have been characterised for pot-life and rollability and the calendered sheets for mechanical and thermal properties, bUm rate, glass transition temperature, shore hardness and density . The different fillers tried were varieties of carbon black as a major filler; metal oxides, silicates and organic compounds; and fire retardants, such as zinc borate, sodium metaborate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and antimony trioxide. The structure and morphology of the fillers have been correlated with the properties. The optimised composition has been evaluated in an end-burning motor, as an insulator for case-bonded application, using a typical composite propellant. The results of interface bonding between the propellant and the insulator have also been presented.

  14. Silica-filled elastomers polymer chain and filler characterization by a SANS-SAXS approach

    Botti, A; Richter, D; Urban, V; Ipns, A 6 4; Kohlbrecher, J; Straube, E

    2002-01-01

    A study of composites based upon commercially available silica fillers and networks of blends of protonated and deuterated anionically prepared polyisoprene is presented. The extraction of the single chain structure factor for SANS in the polymeric soft phase in isotropic and deformed state has been performed for the first time. The quasi three-component system could not be compositionally matched due to the internal structures of the activated fillers. For this, a parallel SAXS investigation provided the neccessary information on the filler structure which was lacking in the SANS analysis. Whereas mechanically clear reinforcement at low strains and filler-networking can be observed, the microscopic characterization of the chain deformation in the framework of the network tube model agrees with the estimates for hydrodynamic reinforcement of fractal fillers. (orig.)

  15. Correlation of Electrical and Swelling Properties with Nano Free Volume Structure of Conductive Silicone Rubber Composites

    The present study focuses on finding a correlation between the positron annihilation parameters in silicone rubber based on Poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) composites loaded with different conductive fillers and their swelling and electrical properties. Four types of conductive fillers have been used in this study: carbon black, graphite, copper, and nickel powders. The maximum degree of swelling Qm %, the penetration rate, P, as well as the diffusion coefficient, D, decrease with increasing the filler content due to the reduction of the size of free volume, as observed through a decrease of the probability of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) formation I3 and the o-Ps lifetime Τ3, representing the size of free volume measured by the positron annihilation lifetime technique (PAL). The electrical conductivity ln (Σ) is positively correlated with the probability of free annihilation of positrons at interfaces I2, thus suggesting an increase in the electron density with the filler content. The activation energy of conduction, Ea, is found to decrease with the increase in the loading of conductive filler and the particle size of the filler. A correlation between the free-volume Vf, and the d.c. electrical conductivity ln (Σ) is found to be in accordance with Miyamoto and Shibayma model of ion conduction.

  16. Evaluation of Polymer-Filler Interaction Characteristics by Force Microscopy

    Ratto, T; Saab, A

    2007-04-23

    Silicone polymers are frequently used as cushions and inserts between load bearing parts. In this capacity, they must act to position their associated parts and distribute mechanical force as appropriate. One type of failure is specific to silicones that are filled with high surface area particulates for purposes of tailoring the polymer compressive properties. Additives such as fumed silicon oxide are presumed to have a high degree of surface interaction with the polymer matrix, thus causing the polymer to stiffen and to display greater dimensional stability as a function of temperature. However, it has been observed that the compressive behavior of these materials is not always invariant over long times. There is evidence that suggests changes in humidity and temperature can irreversibly alter the silicone-filler interaction, thereby changing the overall characteristics of parts made from such materials. As before, changes in compressive or shear stability can have serious effects on the ability of these materials to effectively position precision parts or distribute high mechanical loads. We approach the analysis of the filled systems by creating controlled layers of silicone polymers attached to silicon oxide substrates. Straight chain vinyl-silicone polymers identical to those used in the formulation of pads for stockpile systems are chemically appended to a substrate surface, and cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. This type of structure serves as a model of silicone polymer coating a silicon oxide filler particle. We study these model systems first by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to image the samples with nanometer resolution, and then by measuring the forces of interactions between single model silica filler particles and polymer-coated surfaces. We use normal longitudinal force AFM to measure adhesion, and a relatively newly developed technique, lateral force AFM, to determine the frictional forces between the silica particles and the

  17. Complications and management of breast enhancement using hyaluronic acid

    Ishii, Hidenori; Sakata, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of injectable fillers for breast enhancement has offered women several advantages, such as local anesthesia and short recovery times, among others, and the opportunity to more specifically choose breast size. Some fillers, however, have been associated with high complication rates and can be difficult to remove. This article describes the authors’ experience with a commercially available alternative technology that was initially developed for wrinkles and volume restoration, and...

  18. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  19. Foreign body reaction due to skin filler: a case report.

    Kawamura, Juliana Y; Domaneschi, Carina; Migliari, Dante A; Sousa, Suzana Orsini Machado de

    2006-04-01

    Aquamid represents a new generation of soft-tissue fillers for aesthetic facial correction and reconstruction due to its reduced quantity of particles (2.5% of polyacrylamide) and high concentration of water (97.5%). It is a biocompatible, atoxic, homogeneous, and stable product. Additionally, it has good viscosity and elasticity, and it is very simple to use. Although reported in less than 1% of the cases, adverse effects such as pain, swelling, and erythema may occur, which may be the result of inappropriate injection procedure. This article reports the first case of an intraoral foreign body reaction resulting from Aquamid application in the nasolabial fold. Possible causes for this reaction, the chemical composition of the product, and the histopathologic aspects are discussed. PMID:16545711

  20. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  1. Development of Filler Structure in Colloidal Silica-Polymer Nanocomposites

    Meth, Jeffrey S; Zane, Stephen G; Chi, Changzai; Londono, J David; Wood, Barbara A; Cotts, Patricia; Keating, Mimi; Guise, William; Weigand, Steven [NWU; (Dupont)

    2012-02-07

    The realization of the full potential for polymeric nanocomposites to manifest their entitled property improvements relies, for some properties, on the ability to achieve maximum particle-matrix interfacial area. Well-dispersed nanocomposites incorporating colloidal silica as the filler can be realized in both polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices by exploiting the charge stabilized nature of silica in nonaqueous solvents which act as Bronsted bases. We demonstrate that dispersions of colloidal silica in dimethylformamide are charge stabilized, regardless of organosilyl surface functionalization. When formulated with polymer solutions, the charge stabilized structure is maintained during drying until the charged double layer collapses. Although particles are free to diffuse and cluster after this neutralization, increased matrix viscosity retards the kinetics. We demonstrate how high molecular weight polymers assist in immobilizing the structure of the silica to produce well-dispersed composites. The glass transition temperatures of these composites do not vary, even at loadings up to 50 vol %.

  2. Design and fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites with conducting fillers as electronic nanomaterials

    Mushibe, Eliud Kizito

    The growing demand for small, portable and high performance electronic devices has resulted in research activity for embedded electronic components. This offers prospects for the development of flexible electronic components that combines the use of organic and inorganic materials and can be produced on a roll-to-roll process. This dissertation presents advances in the fabrication and characterization of flexible polymeric nanocomposite thin films. Inorganic and synthetic metal nanostructures with high electrical and dielectric properties were employed as filler materials. The processability of these functional filler materials was achieved by dispersion in conventional polymer matrices such as polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) to afford electroactive polymeric composite materials. In the fabrication of inorganic nanostructures, a Tubes by Fiber Template technique was employed to afford submicron metal and metal oxide tubes. Silver and copper nanostructures were fabricated by electroless deposition on electrospun fiber templates. To obtain hollow, submicron tubes, the sacrificial polymer template materials were removed by a combination of solvent dissolution and thermal degradation under an inert atmosphere. Polyaniline thin film deposited on the fiber template was used as a binding interface to enhance uniform and continuous deposition of the metal. This was instrumental in fabricating tubes with varied wall thicknesses ranging from 50 to 300 nm obtained as a function of plating time. By doping electrically conducting polymers such as polyaniline, the conductivity can be modified. We describe the fabrication of highly conducting polyaniline nanostructures via template free synthesis. A novel approach that involves a combination of hydrochloric acid and camphorsulfonic acid dopant at low concentrations was adopted. This approach afforded nanofibers with diameters of 150 ± 50 nm and high electrical conductivity of 4.2

  3. The influence of reaction temperatures and volume of oleic acid to synthesis SnS nanocrystals by using thermal decomposition method

    We report synthesis of SnS nanocrystals and their size variation with the reaction temperature, and volume of the oleic acid (OA) solvent. These nanocrystals were synthesized by using a tin precursor, Sn(OA)x prepared by tin oxide (SnO) with different moles of oleic acid and a mixture of sulfur and oleylamine (OLA) was injected into the solution at different temperatures under argon atmosphere by using thermal decomposition method. The SnS nanocrystals show orthorhombic crystal structure, and the average particle size is increased from 20 nm to 50 nm and finally 200 nm with an increase in temperature from 150 °C to 180 °C and to 210 °C. Careful observations indicate a gradual change in the shape of these nanocrystals from spherical to sheet like structure with the increase of the volume of oleic acid (2–5 mmol). The tin sulfide (SnS) films were grown by spin-coating method and subsequently the film was applied as an absorber for solar cells. The as-prepared SnS samples and films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the structure, phase composition, surface morphology and microstructure. The optical properties of SnS films were studied by using UV–visible spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Synthesis of SnS nanocrystals by using tin oxide (SnO) and sulfur powder as source is not reported before. • The SnS crystals obtained are in nanosizes with different morphologies. • This synthesized material is a potential for solar cell application

  4. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    interest. This study estimates cellular quantitative changes in the utricular macula of mice following systemic treatment with kanamycin alone or in combination with DHB. The animals were injected with either saline, kanamycin or kanamycin+DHB for 15 days and perfusion fixed three weeks after last...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells was...

  5. In situ, high-pressure differential thermal analysis and ionic conductance of PMMA-based gels with and without TiO2 nano-particle filler

    The transition behaviours of PMMA-based gels with and without nano-particle filler have been investigated at elevated pressures up to 0.9 GPa and in the temperature range 220-310 K. Both gels had molar ratios of 53.9:22:5.2:18.9 of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate, PMMA, and one gel contained 8 wt.% TiO2 nano-particles. The results show a sluggish transition between a low-pressure (high temperature) state and a high-pressure (low temperature) state. The nano-particle filler facilitates the kinetics of the transition, yielding a significantly lower transition pressure as well as a better homogeneity in the sample after a transition back to the low-pressure state. These results can be explained by a filler-induced increase of the nucleation rate, which yields smaller crystallites. The transition is observed also by differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy at ambient pressure and is likely associated with crystallization of the EC-PC solvent. The logarithmic pressure derivative of the conductance and, consequently, the activation volume changes a factor of 3 as a result of the transition

  6. Development of novel multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers

    Leung, Siu N.; Ghaffari, Shahriar; Naguib, Hani E.

    2013-04-01

    Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary approach to promote the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable. The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications, and thereby to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts. In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of multifunctional biobased polymer composites with promoted thermal conductivity. For instance, such composite can be used as a heat management material in the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structure-toproperty relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the PLA matrix. The use of hybrid filler system, with optimized material formulation, was found to promote the composite's effective thermal conductivity by 10-folded over neat PLA. This was achieved by promoting the development of an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers. The thermally conductive composite is expected to afford unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  7. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  8. Influence of inert fillers on shrinkage cracking of meta-kaolin geo-polymers

    Geo-polymers contain a network of tetrahedral coordinated aluminate and silicate, and are potential materials to immobilize/encapsulate nuclear wastes. They can exhibit shrinkage cracking when water is removed by drying, and in order to use geo-polymers for waste encapsulation this effect needs to be investigated and controlled. In this study, six different fillers were mixed with meta-kaolin and sodium silicate solution at high pH to form geo-polymers, and the influence of filler addition on mechanical properties has been determined. The fillers used were Fe2O3, Al2O3, CaCO3, sand, glass and rubber and these do not react during geo-polymerisation reactions. Geo-polymers were prepared containing 30 weight percent of filler. The mechanical properties of the geo-polymers were influenced by the type of filler, with low density fillers increasing mortar viscosity. Geo-polymer samples containing fine filler particles exhibited shrinkage cracking on drying. This was not observed when coarser particles were added and these samples also had significantly improved mechanical properties. (authors)

  9. Use of Aquamid as a filler for facial rejuvenation in orientals.

    Yagi, Yoichi; Kato, Kentaro; Murakami, Daisuke; Misaki, Kojiro; Ota, Mitsuya; Kataoka, Jiro; Yukawa, Naoki

    2009-10-01

    We used Aquamid as a filler for facial augmentation and rejuvenation in Orientals. This article introduces the injection techniques, effects, adequate dosage and complications of this filler, especially about rejuvenation of nasolabial fold and nasojugal groove. From December 2002 to June 2007, 5676 patients were treated in our clinic group. Complications were relatively minimal (0.082%) in comparison to other fillers and long-term effects were revealed. This is the first report concerning Aquamid use in facial rejuvenation of the Orientals. PMID:19303835

  10. Effects of fillers on the properties of liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs)

    Yu, Liyun; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Dielectric electro active polymers (DEAPs) change their shape and size under a high voltage or reversibly generate a high voltage when deformed [1,2]. One prominent method to make DEAPs performances more efficient is by adding suitable fillers [3,4]. Liquid silicone rubbers (LSRs) have relatively...... low viscosities, which is favorable for loading of inorganic fillers [5]. In this study, commercially available fillers, such as fumed silica (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), barium titanate (BaTiO3), copper calcium titanate (CaCu3Ti4O12, CCTO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added into...

  11. THE STUDY OF MODIFIED TALC POWDER ON FILLER RETENTION IN PAPERMAKING

    HaitaoZhang; YunzhanZhang; RunanYang

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the study of modified filler gradetalc powder on filler retention. A1203" 3H20 alone orA1203~ 3H20 and P205 in combination have been usedto modify talc powder. It is concluded that theoptimum retention effect of talc can be achieved bycovering it with 5% A1203 ~ 3H20. Adding 30% filler,the retention from 2.5% P205, 2.5% A1203 "3H20covered talc powder is higher than that of 5% A1203~3H20 covered talc powder, which are 29.76% and11.35% higher than that of the unmodified talcpowder respectively.

  12. Optimization of Filler Metals Consumption in the Production of Welded Steel Structures

    Pańcikiewicz K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the some aspects of the optimization of filler metals consumption in the production of welded steel structures. Correct choice of beveling method can allow to decrease cost of production and increase quality. The review of calculation methods of filler metal consumption at the design stage was carried out. Moreover, the practical examples of amount of filler metals calculation were presented and analyzed. The article also contain examples of mobile apps which are makes it easy to see welding costs in just a few seconds. Apps as well as simple excel spreadsheets with correct mathematic equations allows to optimize welding process.

  13. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  14. Ti3C2Tx Filler Effect on the Proton Conduction Property of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane.

    Liu, Yahua; Zhang, Jiakui; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Yifan; Wang, Jingtao

    2016-08-10

    Conductive polymer electrolyte membranes are increasingly attractive for a wide range of applications in hydrogen-relevant devices, for instance hydrogen fuel cells. In this study, two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx, a typical representative of the recently developed MXene family, is synthesized and employed as a universal filler for its features of large specific surface area, high aspect ratio, and sufficient terminated -OH groups. The Ti3C2Tx is incorporated into polymer matrix to explore its function on membrane microstructure and proton conduction property. Both phase-separated (acidic Nafion and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) and non-phase-separated (basic chitosan) polymers are utilized as membrane matrixes. The microstructures, physicochemical properties, and proton conduction properties of the membranes are extensively investigated. It is demonstrated that Ti3C2Tx generates significant promotion effect on proton conduction of the composite membrane by facilitating both vehicle-type and Grotthuss-type proton transfer, yielding several times increased proton conductivity for every polymer-based composite membrane under various conditions, and the composite membrane achieves elevated hydrogen fuel cell performance. The stable Ti3C2Tx also reinforces the thermal and mechanical stabilities of these composite membranes. Since the MXene family includes more than 70 members, this exploration is expected to open up new perspectives for expanding their applications, especially as membrane modifiers and proton conductors. PMID:27430190

  15. Actualización en microimplantes de relleno perioral atendiendo a su permanencia Update on facial filler microimplants and their durability

    Elena Aced Jiménez

    2013-06-01

    filling materials for the correction of wrinkles, folds and other faults is increasingly demanded by our patients. They are materials that on having been infiltrated lead to an increase in volume. These products can be classified depending on the time of they remain in the body and as temporary or biodegradable (between 4 and 8 months, semi-permanent (between 12 and 18 months and permanent (not biodegradable. The aim of this work is to review the facial filling materials that are currently approved by the Spanish Medicines and Health Devices Agency (AEMPS in September, 2010. Material and methods: The official web page of the AEMPS was searched for facial filling materials approved in September, 2010. A review was then made of the most recent scientific literature on these materials. Results: The temporary materials used are hyaluronic acid, collagen and agarose gel, with polylactic acid, calcium hydroxyapatite, and polycaprolactone as semi-permanent materials, and polymethyl methacrylate and the acrylamides in the group of the permanent materials. Discussion: The ideal characteristics for a facial filler are that it should be biocompatible, non-carcinogenic, non-teratogenic, non-migratory, and have satisfactory results with permanence. These types of materials are health products and must comply with the regulations of the AEMPS. Therefore, they must only be used by qualified professionals specifically trained in this area. Conclusions: The temporary face fillers are those that are most used for aesthetic purposes. Nevertheless, knowledge is required on the nature of every material, its indications, and the possible complications that can appear after his use, to be able to achieve the maximum benefits and obtain the best possible results.

  16. Distribution, thickness, and volume of fine-grained sediment from precipitation of metals from acid-mine waters in Keswick Reservoir, Shasta County, California

    Bruns, Terry R.; Alpers, Charles N.; Carlson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In February 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired high-resolution seismic-reflection data to map the distribution and thickness of fine-grained sediments associated with acid-mine drainage in Keswick Reservoir on the Sacramento River, near Redding, California. In the Spring Creek Arm of Keswick Reservoir, the sediments occurred in three distinct accumulations; thicknesses are greater than 2 meters (m) in the western accumulation, greater than 5 m in the central accumulation, and up to 8 m in the eastern accumulation. In Keswick Reservoir, fine-grained sediments related to acid-mine drainage were present from slightly north of the Spring Creek Arm downstream to the Keswick Dam. Sediment thickness varies from about 3 m opposite the mouth of the Spring Creek Arm to less than 1 m near Keswick Dam. Our estimate for the total volume of fine-grained sediments in the Spring Creek Arm at the time of the geophysical survey in February 1993 is about 152,000 cubic meters in three sediment accumulations, with about 14,000, 32,000, and 105,000 cubic meters respectively in the western, central, and eastern accumulations. We interpreted that an additional 110, 000 cubic meters of material was present in the main part of Keswick Reservoir. At the time of data collection, we therefore estimate that the total volume of fine-grained sediment was 260,000 cubic meters. In the main part of Keswick Reservoir, 42% to 50% of the reservoir area contiguous to Spring Creek Arm had mappable fine-grained sediments. Decreasing sediment supply down-reservoir meant that mappable sediment covered only about 35% of the reservoir in the area to the south, decreasing to about 12% near Keswick Dam. Much of the reservoir bottom below the Spring Creek Arm could have had a thin (less than 20-30 cm) cover of fine-grained sediment that was not mappable using the seismic-reflection data.

  17. SIFAT MEKANIK KOMPOSIT COKELAT BATANG DENGAN FILLER BIJI METE

    P A Wiguna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bahan komposit yang banyak dijumpai di masyarakat umumnya terbuat dari material berat seperti, logam, keramik, atau polimer. Pada bahan pangan terdapat pula yang termasuk ke dalam kategori material komposit, diantaranya adalah cracker, cookie, kue pie, chasew chocolate, dan lain sebagianya. Diantara komposit bahan pangan tersebut yang paling banyak digemari sebagai makanan camilan adalah  cokelat. Hal menarik yang dikaji pada studi ini berkaitan dengan sifat mekanik komposit cokelat yaitu kekuatan tekan dari komposit tersebut. Komposit ini terbuat dari bahan makanan cokelat dengan variasi  fraksi massa mete sebagai filler yaitu 13 %, 17%, 20%, 23%, 26 %, dan 29%. Matriks yang digunakan adalah cokelat jenis dark chocolate. Sifat mekanik yang dikaji adalah kuat tekan pada komposit cokelat batang. Parameter ini diukur untuk mengetahui ukuran maksimum beban yang dapat diterima komposit tersebut. Komposit yang memiliki kekuatan tekan terbesar ada pada cokelat batang dengan fraksi massa mete 29 % yaitu sebesar 2,81 MPa. Hal ini menunjukkan  bahwa variasi fraksi massa mete berpengaruh pada sifat mekanik material komposit karena berkaitan dengan perilaku distribusi partikel. Kuat tekan komposit cokelat teramati meningkat dengan kenaikan jumlah biji mete pada cokelat batang.Generally, the composite materials found in the civilization are made from heavy materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, and polymers. In fact, the composite material also found in food, such as crackers, cookies, pies, and cashew chocolates. Cashew chocolates usually consumed as the most favourite snack. The most interesting object from this study is related with the mechanical composite characteristic of the chocolate, i.e. compressive strength. Chocolate composite is made from chocolate with variety of cashew mass fraction as the filler, i.e. 13 %, 17%, 20%, 23%, 26 %, and 29%. In this study, the composite matrix was a dark chocolate, whereas the mechanical characteristic determined

  18. Stability Enhancement of Polymeric Sensing Films Using Fillers

    Lin, Brian; Shevade, Abhijit; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Kisor, Adam; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Manatt, Kenneth; Homer, Margie; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown the stability enhancement of polymeric sensing films on mixing the polymer with colloidal filler particles (submicron-sized) of carbon black, silver, titanium dioxide, and fumed silicon dioxide. The polymer films are candidates for potential use as sensing media in micro/nano chemical sensor devices. The need for stability enhancement of polymer sensing films arises because such films have been found to exhibit unpredictable changes in sensing activity over time, which could result in a possible failure of the sensor device. The changes in the physical properties of a polymer sensing film caused by the sorption of a target molecule can be measured by any of several established transduction techniques: electrochemical, optical, calorimetric, or piezoelectric, for example. The transduction technique used in the current polymer stability experiments is based on piezoelectric principles using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). The surface of the QCM is coated with the polymer, and the mass uptake by the polymer film causes a change in the oscillating frequency of the quartz crystal. The polymer used for the current study is ethyl cellulose. The polymer/ polymer composite solutions were prepared in 1,3 dioxolane solvent. The filler concentration was fixed at 10 weight percent for the composites. The polymer or polymer composite solutions were cast on the quartz crystal having a fundamental frequency of about 6 MHz. The coated crystal was subjected to a multistage drying process to remove all measurable traces of the solvent. In each experiment, the frequency of oscillation was measured while the QCM was exposed to clean, dry, flowing air for about 30 minutes, then to air containing a known concentration of isopropanol for about 30 minutes, then again to clean dry air for about 30 minutes, and so forth. This cycle of measurements for varying isopropanol concentrations was repeated at intervals for several months. The figure depicts some of the

  19. Multiplexing spheroid volume, resazurin and acid phosphatase viability assays for high-throughput screening of tumour spheroids and stem cell neurospheres.

    Delyan P Ivanov

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money.

  20. A comparative study of the thermal interface materials with graphene and boron nitride fillers

    Kargar, F.; Salgado, R.; Legedza, S.; Renteria, J.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of an experimental study that compares the performance of graphene and boron nitride flakes as fillers in the thermal interface materials. The thickness of both fillers varied from a single atomic plane to about a hundred. The measurements have been conducted using a standard TIM tester. Our results show that the addition of a small fraction of graphene (f=4 wt%) to a commercial thermal interface material increases the resulting apparent thermal conductivity substantially stronger than the addition of boron nitride. The obtained data suggest that graphene and fewlayer graphene flakes couple better to the matrix materials than the boron nitride fillers. A combination of both fillers can be used to increase the thermal conductivity while controlling the electrical conduction.

  1. Review of positron annihilation spectroscopy studies of rubber with carbon black filler

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra have been measured for rubber polymers with carbon black (CB) fillers as a function of temperature, sulfur concentration, type of CB fillers and type of polymer. The purpose of the study is to understand how the CB fillers and other components of the vulcanized composite affect the positron lifetime in polymer materials. The polymer samples to be studied include natural rubber (NR) with different sulfur concentration, Sn-SSBR either unloaded or loaded with CB N115 or N762, both vulcanized and unvulcanized Duradene 706 samples. The results show that CB fillers have no effect on the ortho-positronium lifetime but decrease the intensity of ortho-positronium; and the decrease in intensity depends on the type of CB. On the other hand both ortho-positronium lifetime and intensity decrease as a function of sulfur concentration

  2. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    Mazurek, Piotr; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L.

    2014-03-01

    The research on soft elastomers with high dielectric permittivity for the use as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) has grown substantially within the last decade. The approaches to enhance the dielectric permittivity can be categorized into three main classes: 1) Mixing or blending in high permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content as for the traditionally applied thermoplastic encapsulation. The properties of the elastomers are investigated as function of the filler content and type. The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, conductivity, storage modulus as well as viscous loss are compared to elastomers with the same amounts of high permittivity fillers blended into the elastomer, and it is found that the encapsulation provides a technique to enhance some of these properties.

  3. Visibly transparent and radiopaque inorganic organic composites from flame-made mixed-oxide fillers

    Radiopaque composites have been produced from flame-made ytterbium/silica mixed oxide within a crosslinked methacrylate resin matrix. The refractive index of the filler powder increased with ytterbium oxide loading. A high transparency was achieved for a matching refractive index of the filler powder and the polymer in comparison to commercial materials with 52 wt% ceramic filling. It was demonstrated that powder homogeneity with regard to particle morphology and distribution of the individual metal atoms is essential to obtain a highly transparent composite. In contrast, segregation of crystalline single-oxide phases drastically decreased the composite transparency despite similar specific surface areas, refractive indices and overall composition. The superior physical strength, transparency and radiopacity compared to composites made from conventional silica based-fillers makes the flame-made mixed-oxide fillers especially attractive for dental restoration materials

  4. A simple method for fabrication of filler-free stretchable polydimethylsiloxane surfaces

    Bacharouche, Jalal; Kunemann, Philippe; Fioux, Philippe; Vallat, Marie-France; Lalevée, Jacques [Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, IS2M – C.N.R.S., LRC 7228 – UHA, 15, Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Hemmerlé, Joseph [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, I.N.S.E.R.M. – Unite 595, 11, Rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Roucoules, Vincent, E-mail: Vincent.Roucoules@uha.fr [Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, IS2M – C.N.R.S., LRC 7228 – UHA, 15, Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2013-04-01

    We propose a simple method to elaborate a filler-free stretchable PDMS surface strong enough to resist to successive elongation/retraction cycles even at high degree of stretching. It consists in creating free radicals on a filler-containing PDMS surface by argon plasma exposure and reacting them with a filler-free PDMS resin during the crosslinking step. Changes of physical and chemical properties upon plasma modification are monitored by FTIR and XPS spectroscopies, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is used to identify the nature of radicals involved in interfacial bonding. Although a brittle silica-like layer is created on the filler-containing PDMS surface after plasma treatment, an increase in the PDMS/PDMS interfacial strength is observed and a high interfacial resistance has been found under elongation/retraction (stretching/relaxation) cycles.

  5. Brazeability of a 3003 Aluminum alloy with Al-Si-Cu-based filler metals

    Tsao, L. C.; Weng, W. P.; Cheng, M. D.; Tsao, C. W.; Chuang, T. H.

    2002-08-01

    Al-Si-Cu-based filler metals have been used successfully for brazing 6061 aluminum alloy as reported in the authors’ previous studies. For application in heat exchangers during manufacturing, the brazeability of 3003 aluminum alloy with these filler metals is herein further evaluated. Experimental results show that even at such a low temperature as 550 °C, the 3003 alloys can be brazed with the Al-Si-Cu fillers and display bonding strengths that are higher than 77 MPa as well. An optimized 3003 joint is attained in the brazements with the innovative Al-7Si-20Cu-2Sn-1Mg filler metal at 575 °C for 30 min, which reveals a bonding strength capping the 3003 Al matrix.

  6. Investigation of mineral filler effects on the aging process of asphalt mastics

    Moraes, Raquel

    Aging of asphalt binders is induced by chemical and/or physicochemical changes during production of pavement and throughout its service life. Although binder aging in pavement always occurs while binder is in contact with aggregates and mineral filler, in most laboratory aging studies, and in current specifications, asphalt binders are individually aged without accounting for aggregate induced interactions. Past research has had conflicting findings, attributing both mitigating and/or catalytic effects to the presence of mineral filler in asphalt binder with regards to oxidative aging. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that evaluation of asphalt oxidative aging without regard to interactive effect of the presence of mineral filler is inadequate as a specification tool. Effects of mineral fillers on oxidative aging of asphalt is investigated by means of accelerated aging of mastics (asphalt and fillers) in Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV). Testing matrix included aging evaluation of mastics containing different fillers content, mineralogy, and surface area. Results showed that low-temperature behavior of aged mastic can be modified by controlling filler concentration and type. Fillers acts as an agent adsorbing heavy fractions of asphalt binder, therefore reducing stiffness and changing glass-transition temperature. Also, during oxidative aging of asphalt binders and mastics, both diffusion and adsorption mechanisms play a role in the rate of aging of asphaltic material. A method to characterize the behavior of mastics with aging was also developed by monitoring the mastics |G*| aging index (ratio of complex modulus before and after aging). Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) testing results supported mentioned findings regarding |G*| changes, as the presence of mineral filler appears to decelerate the rate of production of larger molecular size oxidation products in the binder phase of mastics. Implication of the findings is that change in molecular size

  7. STARCH-SODIUM STEARATE COMPLEX MODIFIED PCC FILLER AND ITS APPLICATION IN PAPERMAKING

    Huiming Fan,; Daoxuan Wang,; Wenrui Bai,; Jianan Liu

    2012-01-01

    The use of fillers tends to reduce paper strength, which can limit their application. Therefore research on filler modification is of significant importance in order to overcome this limitation. In this paper, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) was modified by starch, sodium stearate, and the starch cross-linking agent sodium hexametaphosphate. The purpose of this research is to provide useful references to the industrial application of modified precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Modifie...

  8. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    Yasini E.; Ataei M; Amini M

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6) and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interv...

  9. Justification of radiation protection fillers based composite materials fosfogipsum binding materials

    Голов, Константин Сергеевич; Иванов, Валерий Анатолиевич; Мисовец, Юрий Викторович

    2012-01-01

    The results of comparative experimental studies of the effect of various radiation protection (RP) fillers of composite materials based on their fosfogipsum binding properties of RP From the analysis of results of experimental studies of the effect of various rare-earth filling of composite materials based on their binding fosfogipsum protective properties may be concluded. Barium sulfate as the RE filler plaster matrix displays technological instability in the manufacturing process of the co...

  10. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    E. Surojo; Jamasri; V. Malau; M.N. Ilman

    2015-01-01

    Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount ...

  11. A Review on Potentiality of Nano Filler/Natural Fiber Filled Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Naheed Saba; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohammad Jawaid

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for greener and biodegradable materials leading to the satisfaction of society requires a compelling towards the advancement of nano-materials science. The polymeric matrix materials with suitable and proper filler, better filler/matrix interaction together with advanced and new methods or approaches are able to develop polymeric composites which shows great prospective applications in constructions and buildings, automotive, aerospace and packaging industries. The biode...

  12. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Jia Ying Tong; Nishata Royan Rajendran Royan; Yong Chuen Ng; Mohd Hafizuddin Ab Ghani; Sahrim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH) filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE) composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 1...

  13. 粉末涂料中颜填料的配方设计及其调色方法%Recipe design and color matching for pigments and fillers in powder coating

    孙永泰

    2015-01-01

    Pigment and filler/binder (pigment/binder ratio), pigment and fillers volume concentration(PVC value)are very important when design the amount of pigment and fillers in powder coating formulation. According to the color board or color card requirement from the consumer, color matching has done quickly and accurately with the choice of appropriate pigment/binder ratio and PVC value and usage of pigments and fillers in powder coating.%在设计粉末涂料配方的颜填料用量时,颜填料/基料(简称颜基比)、颜填料体积浓度(简称PVC值)是很重要的。选择合适的颜基比和PVC值,在粉末涂料配方中使用颜填料,依据客户色板或色卡要求,快速、准确地调配颜色。

  14. Surface Treated Natural Fibres as Filler in Biocomposites

    Schwarzova, I.; Stevulova, N.; Singovszka, E.; Terpakova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Biocomposites based on natural fibres as organic filler have been studied for several years because traditional building materials such as concrete are increasingly being replaced by advanced composite materials. Natural fibres are a potential replacement of glass fibres in composite materials. Inherent advantages such as low density, biodegradability and comparable specific mechanical properties make natural fibres an attractive option. However, limitations such as poor thermal stability, moisture absorption and poor compatibility with matrix are challenges that need to be resolved. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of surface treatment on properties of hemp hurds like a natural lignocellulosic material and composites made thereof. Industrial hemp fibre is the one of the most suitable fibres for use in composite materials because of its good specific properties, as well as it being biologically degradable and CO2 neutral. Improving interfacial bonding between fibres and matrix is an important factor in using hemp fibres as reinforcement in composites. In order to improve interfacial bonding, modifications can be made to the hemp fibres to remove non- cellulosic compounds, separate hemp fibres from their bundles, and modify the fibre surface. This paper contains the comparison of FTIR spectra caused by combination of physical and chemical treatment of hemp material with unmodified sample. Modification of hemp hurds was carried out by NaOH solution and by ultrasonic treatment (deionized water and NaOH solution were used as the cleaning mediums).

  15. Magnetic and viscoelastic response of elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    Magnetic elastomers (MEs) based on a silicone matrix and magnetically hard NdFeB particles have been synthesized and their magnetic and viscoelastic properties have been studied depending on the size and concentration of magnetic particles and the magnetizing field. It has been shown that magnetic particles can rotate in soft polymer matrix under applied magnetic field, this fact leading to some features in both magnetic and viscoelastic properties. In the maximum magnetic field used magnetization of MEs with smaller particles is larger while the coercivity is smaller due to higher mobility of the particles within the polymer matrix. Viscoelastic behavior is characterized by long relaxation times due to restructuring of the magnetic filler under the influence of an applied mechanical force and magnetic interactions. The storage and loss moduli of magnetically hard elastomers grow significantly with magnetizing field. The magnetic response of the magnetized samples depends on the mutual orientation of the external magnetic field and the internal sample magnetization. Due to the particle rotation within the polymer matrix, the loss factor increases abruptly when the magnetic field is turned on in the opposite direction to the sample magnetization, further decreasing with time. Moduli versus field dependences have minimum at non-zero field and are characterized by a high asymmetry with respect to the field direction. (paper)

  16. Effects of conductive fillers on temperature distribution of asphalt pavements

    The sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy. Solar cells have been used to capture this energy and generate electricity. A more useful form of the solar cell would be asphalt pavements, which get heated up by solar radiation. Graphite powders are utilized as thermal conductive fillers to make an asphalt collector conductive so as to improve the efficiency of the asphalt collector. Accounting for the important application conditions and evaluating the effects of the heat conductive materials and the solar energy absorbability of the conductive asphalt collector, a finite element model has been developed to predict temperature distributions in the conductive asphalt solar collector. In this study, an experimental validation exercise was conducted using the measured data taken from full-depth asphalt slabs. Validation results showed that the model can satisfactorily predict the temperature distributions in asphalt concrete slabs. The optimal depth is 25-50 mm for placing pipes that serve as the heat exchanger. Meanwhile, the effect of the surroundings on the solar energy potential of the asphalt collector was noticeable.

  17. Brazing of zirconia to titanium using Ag-Cu and Au-Ni filler alloys

    Jean S. Pimenta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramic is usually joined to metal by the well-known direct brazing process, where costly active filler alloys can be considered a limitation. Brazing using active-metal-free filler alloy as insert between the joint components is an attempt to overcome it. The active metal diffusion from the titanium member through the bulk of molten filler to the ceramic was responsible to produce an active filler alloy in loco and promote reduction of the zirconium oxide to improve wetting on the ceramic surface. Unalloyed titanium was joined in a high-vacuum furnace (<3x10-5 mbar to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycristals (Y-TZP and zirconia partially stabilized with magnesia (Mg-PSZ, where commercial fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni with respective thermal cycles were evaluated. Helium gas leak detection test was performed at the ceramic/metal interface at room temperature; samples from reliable vacuum tight joints were examined by microstructural analysis techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at the joint cross-section. Tight joints were produced with eutectic Ag-Cu filler, revealing an intermetallic layer and a dark reaction layer near the ceramic surface; titanium diffusion was efficient for superficial chemical interactions between individual components. Brazing joints were also tested using three-point flexure testing.

  18. Plasma-modified graphene nanoplatelets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes as fillers for advanced rubber composites

    Sicinski, M.; Gozdek, T.; Bielinski, D. M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kleczewska, J.; Piatkowska, A.

    2015-07-01

    In modern rubber industry, there still is a room for new fillers, which can improve the mechanical properties of the composites, or introduce a new function to the material. Modern fillers like carbon nanotubes or graphene nanoplatelets (GnP), are increasingly applied in advanced polymer composites technology. However, it might be hard to obtain a well dispersed system for such systems. The polymer matrix often exhibits higher surface free energy (SFE) level with the filler, which can cause problems with polymer-filler interphase adhesion. Filler particles are not wet properly by the polymer, and thus are easier to agglomerate. As a consequence, improvement in the mechanical properties is lower than expected. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and GnP surface were modified with low-temperature plasma. Attempts were made to graft some functionalizing species on plasma-activated filler surface. The analysis of virgin and modified fillers’ SFE was carried out. MWCNT and GnP rubber composites were produced, and ultimately, their morphology and mechanical properties were studied.

  19. Nanoparticle fillers obtained from wood processing wastes for reinforcing of paper

    Laka, Marianna; Vikele, Laura; Rozenberga, Linda; Janceva, Sarmite

    2016-05-01

    Paper sheets were produced from bleached kraft pulp, and office and newsprint waste paper. Nanoparticles from black alder bark, grey alder bark and pine bark as well as birch sawdust were obtained for using them as reinforcing fillers in paper. Non-extracted bark and that extracted in biorefinery were used. For producing nanoparticles, the materials were destructed using the thermocatalytic destruction method and then dispersed in water medium in a ball mill. At a sufficient concentration, gel-like dispersions were obtained, which contained nanoparticles with the size ~300 nm. The dispersions were introduced in paper furnish in different amounts. It has been established that all the nanoparticle fillers increase the tensile index and burst index in dry and wet states. The nanoparticle fillers from extracted bark increase the mechanical indices to a higher extent. At 20% filler content, tensile index in a dry state increases in the case of non-extracted grey alder bark, black alder bark and pine bark by 28, 30 and 15%, and in the case of extracted ones - by 44, 40 and 30%, respectively; the burst index increases by 78, 19 and 4%, and 91, 25 and 14%, respectively. The nanoparticle filler from birch sawdust increases the tensile strength in a dry state by 9% and burst index by 20%. The obtained nanoparticle fillers slightly improve also the water resistance of paper.

  20. Lysophosphatidylcholines containing polyunsaturated fatty acids were found as Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitors in acutely volume-expanded hog

    Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitors activities against the specific binding of ouabain to Na+,K+-ATPase and 86Rb uptake into hog erythrocytes have been purified from the plasma of acutely saline-infused hog. The purifications were performed by a combination of Amberlite XAD-2 adsorption chromatography and four steps of high-performance liquid chromatography with four different types of columns. Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass and proton NMR spectrometric studies identified the purified substances as γ-arachidoyl- [LPCA(γ), 34%], β-arachidoyl- [LPCA(β), 4%], γ-linoleoyl- (LPCL, 33%), and γ-oleoyl- (LPCO, 25%) lysophosphatidylcholine, expressed in molar ratio in the plasma. Small amounts of γ-docosapentaenoyl-, γ-eicosatrienoyl-, and γpalmitoyllysophosphatidylcholine were also detected by both FAB mass and 1H NMR spectrometric studies. The inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity due to these compounds was always more sensitive than that of both ouabain-binding and 86Rb uptake activities. The ouabain-displacing activity in plasma due to these compounds increased with time during saline infusion. The maximal plasma level was approximately 10 times higher than that in the preinfusion plasma sample. Although these results suggest that γ-acyl-LPC's with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are not simple competitive inhibitors to Na+,K+-ATPase, these compounds could be implicated in the pathogenesis of the circulation abnormality through the modulation of membrane enzyme

  1. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  2. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 and KMnO4 based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors

  3. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    Maio, A.; Fucarino, R.; Khatibi, R.; Botta, L.; Rosselli, S.; Bruno, M.; Scaffaro, R.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 and KMnO4 based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors.

  4. Effect of three surface conditioning methods to improve bond strength of particulate filler resin composites.

    Ozcan, M; Alander, P; Vallittu, P K; Huysmans, M-C; Kalk, W

    2005-01-01

    The use of resin-based composite materials in operative dentistry is increasing, including applications in stress-bearing areas. However, composite restorations, in common with all restorations, suffer from deterioration and degradation in clinical service. Durable repair alternatives by layering a new composite onto such failed composite restorations, will eliminate unnecessary loss of tooth tissue and repeated insults to the pulp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the repair bond strength of a particulate filler resin-composite (PFC) to 5 PFC substrates. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following surface conditioning methods: (1) Hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel (9.5%) etching, (2) Air-borne particle abrasion (50 microm Al2O3), (3) Silica coating (30 microm SiOx, CoJet-Sand). After each conditioning method, a silane coupling agent was applied. Adhesive resin was then applied in a thin layer and light polymerized. The low-viscosity diacrylate resin composite was bonded to the conditioned substrates in polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested in dry and thermocycled (6.000, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s) conditions. One-way ANOVA showed significant influence of the surface conditioning methods (p < 0.001), and the PFC types (p < 0.0001) on the shear bond strength values. Significant differences were observed in bond strength values between the acid etched specimens (5.7-14.3 MPa) and those treated with either air-borne particle abrasion (13.0-22.5 MPa) or silica coating (25.5-41.8 MPa) in dry conditions (ANOVA, p < 0.001). After thermocycling, the silica coating process resulted in the highest bond values in all material groups (17.2-30.3 MPa). PMID:15754140

  5. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    Maio, A. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128, Palermo, Italy and STEBICEF, Section of Biology and Chemistry, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans (Italy); Fucarino, R.; Khatibi, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128, Palermo (Italy); Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128, Palermo (Italy); Rosselli, S.; Bruno, M. [STEBICEF, Section of Biology and Chemistry, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans II, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and KMnO{sub 4} based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors.

  6. Low temperature method for the production of calcium phosphate fillers

    Nastro Alfonso

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium phosphate manufactured samples, prepared with hydroxyapatite, are used as either spacers or fillers in orthopedic surgery, but these implants have never been used under conditions of mechanical stress. Similar conditions also apply with cements. Many authors have postulated that cements are a useful substitute material when implanted in vivo. The aim of this research is to develop a low cristalline material similar to bone in porosity and cristallinity. Methods Commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp and monetite (M powders are mixed with water and compacted to produce cylindrical samples. The material is processed at a temperature of 37–120 degrees C in saturated steam to obtain samples that are osteoconductive. The samples are studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Vickers hardness test (HV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and porosity evaluation. Results The X-ray diffractions of powders from the samples show patterns typical of HAp and M powders. After thermal treatment, no new crystal phase is formed and no increase of the relative intensity of the peaks is obtained. Vicker hardness data do not show any relationship with treatment temperature. The total porosity decreases by 50–60% according to the specific thermal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces of the samples with either HAp 80%-M 20% (c or Hap 50%-M 50% (f, show cohesion of the powder grains. Conclusions The dissolution-reprecipitation process is more intesive in manufactured samples (c and (f, according to Vickers hardness data. The process occurs in a steam saturated environment between 37 degrees and 120 degrees C. (c (f manufactured samples show pore dimension distributions useful to cellular repopulation in living tissues.

  7. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin. PMID:27252000

  8. Influence of different fillers on the properties of an experimental vinyl polysiloxane

    Débora Könzgen MEINCKE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of different fillers on an experimental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS at two different concentrations, 20% and 40%. Different fillers were added to an experimental VPS. The study was developed in two stages: (i incorporation of fillers in different concentrations: (a 20 wt% fillers, and (b 40 wt%. The fillers were added to experimental VPS and mixed with a speed mixer; (ii characterization of experimental VPS; after the base paste and catalyst paste were mixed, the experimental VPS was used to make specimens specifically for each test, which were stored at 23°C for 24 hours. The tests were designed according to the specific standardization for the analysis of tensile strength, detail reproduction, Shore A hardness, and elastic recovery. For analysis of filler size pattern, scanning electron microscopy at 1500× magnification was used. The aerosil OX-50 40% (AE, and pure aluminum hydroxide 40% (PAH groups presented the highest tensile strength and Shore A hardness values. However, those were the only groups that did not present continuous detail reproduction of an intersection of 20 μm line. The elastic recovery was not statistically significant. The undesirable characteristics of VPS (lowest Shore A hardness and tensile strength were observed when it was added to the composition of acrylic polymer (AP and fiberglass (FG in both concentrations, 20% and 40%. In groups AE and PAH, agglomerates of nanofillers were shown in SEM micrography, while the other groups presented different shapes and fillers sizes.

  9. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  10. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    Imran Hafeez; MUMTAZ AHMED KAMAL

    2010-01-01

    Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200) sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt) ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4%) in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design ...

  11. POSSIBLE TRENDS OF RENEWABLE ORGANIC FILLERS AND PIGMENTS DERIVED FROM NATURAL RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Jing Shen; Zhanqian Song; Xueren Qian

    2010-01-01

    The use of traditional inorganic fillers and pigments for both filling and coating applications in papermaking may have certain limitations in such aspects as recyclability and combustibility. Novel renewable organic fillers and pigments derived from natural resources can possibly be completely recyclable, combustible, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly, and they can potentially be used as substitutes for inorganic fillers and pigments to improve the recyclability and other propertie...

  12. A high-fat meal enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid reduces postprandial arterial stiffness measured by digital volume pulse analysis in healthy men.

    Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Katie A; Sanders, Thomas A B; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] are associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but postprandial effects on vascular function are unknown. We investigated whether an EPA-enriched high-fat meal could improve postprandial vascular function. Seventeen healthy men ingested 2 test meals (51 g fat), 1 wk apart, in random order: 5 g EPA plus high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS) vs. HOS only. A second high-fat meal (44 g fat), the same on both study days, was provided 4 h later. Blood pressure and arterial function were measured using digital volume pulse (DVP) to derive a stiffness index (DVP-SI) and reflection index in fasting subjects at 3 and 6 h following the test meal. Blood samples were taken following the test meal for plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOx), glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid analysis. The plasma EPA concentration (mean +/- SD) reached a peak of 2.10 +/- 0.99 mmol/L following the EPA meal (5 h) and did not rise above 0.27 +/- 0.16 mmol/L 1 h following the placebo meal. DeltaDVP-SI did not differ between the 2 test meals at 3 h but was greater at 6 h following EPA (6 h -0.65 +/- 0.65 m/s) compared with placebo (6 h -0.33 +/- 1.26 m/s). Plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha concentrations increased by 48% at 6 h compared with baseline following the EPA meal and plasma NOx decreased following both meals, with no differences between the meals in the changes. Changes in other variables measured also did not differ after subjects consumed the 2 meals. In conclusion, adding EPA to a high-fat meal results in acute changes in vascular tone, independent of changes in oxidative stress. PMID:18203893

  13. POSSIBLE TRENDS OF RENEWABLE ORGANIC FILLERS AND PIGMENTS DERIVED FROM NATURAL RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Jing Shen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional inorganic fillers and pigments for both filling and coating applications in papermaking may have certain limitations in such aspects as recyclability and combustibility. Novel renewable organic fillers and pigments derived from natural resources can possibly be completely recyclable, combustible, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly, and they can potentially be used as substitutes for inorganic fillers and pigments to improve the recyclability and other properties of the paper products. Although there are still challenges lying ahead, the strategic significance of the use of renewable organic fillers and pigments for the sustainable development of papermaking industry is an indisputable and demonstrable fact.

  14. Characterization of green composites from biobased epoxy matrices and bio-fillers derived from seashell wastes

    Highlights: • Calcium carbonate from seashell is an attractive bio-filler in polymeric industry. • We examine composition and thermal properties of calcium carbonate from seashell. • Used with eco-friendly epoxy matrices provides a high renewable content material. • Addition of 30 wt.% of seashell bio-filler increase of over 50% in flexural modulus. • Calcium carbonate from seashell leads higher thermal stability materials. - Abstract: The seashells, a serious environmental hazard, are composed mainly by calcium carbonate, which can be used as filler in polymer matrix. The main objective of this work is the use of calcium carbonate from seashells as a bio-filler in combination with eco-friendly epoxy matrices thus leading to high renewable contents materials. Previously obtaining calcium carbonate, the seashells were washed and grinded. The powder obtained and the resin was characterized by DSC, TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and rheology plate-plate. The results show that addition of 30 wt.% of seashell bio-filler increase mechanical properties as flexural modulus (over 50%) and hardness Shore D (over 6%) and thermal properties as an increase around 13% in glass transitions temperature. The results show that the addition of calcium carbonate from seashells is an effective method to increase mechanical properties of bio-composite and to reduce the residue of seashells from industrial production

  15. Prevention of microcracking by REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal in laser clad welds

    Effect of REM addition to alloy 690 filler metal on microcracking prevention was verified in laser clad welding. Laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal or type 316L stainless steel was conducted using the five different filler metals of alloy 690 varying the La content. Ductility-dip crack occurred in laser clad welding when La-free alloy 690 filler metal was applied. Solidification and liquation cracks occurred contrarily in the laser cladding weld metal when the 0.07mass%La containing filler metal was applied. In case of laser clad welding on alloy 132 weld metal and type 316L stainless steel, the ductility-dip cracking susceptibility decreased, and solidification/liquation cracking susceptibilities increased with increasing the La content in the weld metal. The relation among the microcracking susceptibility, the (P+S) and La contents in every weld pass of the laser clad welding was investigated. Ductility-dip cracks occurred in the compositional range (atomic ratio) of La/(P+S) 0.99(on alloy 132 weld metal), >0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel), while any cracks did not occur at La/(P+S) being between 0.21-0.99 (on alloy 132 weld metal) 0.10-0.90 (on type 316L stainless steel). Laser clad welding test on type 316L stainless steel using alloy 690 filler metal containing the optimum La content verified that any microcracks did not occurred in the laser clad welding metal. (author)

  16. MRI in the evaluation of facial dermal fillers in normal and complicated cases

    Di Girolamo, Marco [Rome Univ. (Italy). Radiology Unit; Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology - Sant' Andrea Hospital; Mattei, Mauro [Rome Univ. (Italy). Radiology Unit; Signore, Alberto [Rome Univ. (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Grippaudo, Francesca Romana [Rome Univ. (Italy). Plastic Surgery Unit

    2015-05-01

    To ascertain by MRI the presence of filler injected into facial soft tissue and characterize complications by contrast enhancement. Nineteen volunteers without complications were initially investigated to study the MRI features of facial fillers. We then studied another 26 patients with clinically diagnosed filler-related complications using contrast-enhanced MRI. TSE-T1-weighted, TSE-T2-weighted, fat-saturated TSE-T2-weighted, and TIRM axial and coronal scans were performed in all patients, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed TSE-T1-weighted scans were performed in complicated patients, who were then treated with antibiotics. Patients with soft-tissue enhancement and those without enhancement but who did not respond to therapy underwent skin biopsy. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. MRI identified and quantified the extent of fillers. Contrast enhancement was detected in 9/26 patients, and skin biopsy consistently showed inflammatory granulomatous reaction, whereas in 5/17 patients without contrast enhancement, biopsy showed no granulomas. Fisher's exact test showed significant correlation (p < 0.001) between subcutaneous contrast enhancement and granulomatous reaction. Cervical lymph node enlargement (longitudinal axis >10 mm) was found in 16 complicated patients (65 %; levels IA/IB/IIA/IIB). MRI is a useful non-invasive tool for anatomical localization of facial dermal filler; IV gadolinium administration is advised in complicated cases for characterization of granulomatous reaction. (orig.)

  17. A facile approach to spinning multifunctional conductive elastomer fibres with nanocarbon fillers

    Seyedin, Shayan; Razal, Joselito M.; Innis, Peter C.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2016-03-01

    Electrically conductive elastomeric fibres prepared using a wet-spinning process are promising materials for intelligent textiles, in particular as a strain sensing component of the fabric. However, these fibres, when reinforced with conducting fillers, typically result in a compromise between mechanical and electrical properties and, ultimately, in the strain sensing functionality. Here we investigate the wet-spinning of polyurethane (PU) fibres with a range of conducting fillers such as carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and chemically converted graphene. We show that the electrical and mechanical properties of the composite fibres were strongly dependent on the aspect ratio of the filler and the interaction between the filler and the elastomer. The high aspect ratio SWCNT filler resulted in fibres with the highest electrical properties and reinforcement, while the fibres produced from the low aspect ratio CB had the highest stretchability. Furthermore, PU/SWCNT fibres presented the largest sensing range (up to 60% applied strain) and the most consistent and stable cyclic sensing behaviour. This work provides an understanding of the important factors that influence the production of conductive elastomer fibres by wet-spinning, which can be woven or knitted into textiles for the development of wearable strain sensors.

  18. MRI in the evaluation of facial dermal fillers in normal and complicated cases

    To ascertain by MRI the presence of filler injected into facial soft tissue and characterize complications by contrast enhancement. Nineteen volunteers without complications were initially investigated to study the MRI features of facial fillers. We then studied another 26 patients with clinically diagnosed filler-related complications using contrast-enhanced MRI. TSE-T1-weighted, TSE-T2-weighted, fat-saturated TSE-T2-weighted, and TIRM axial and coronal scans were performed in all patients, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed TSE-T1-weighted scans were performed in complicated patients, who were then treated with antibiotics. Patients with soft-tissue enhancement and those without enhancement but who did not respond to therapy underwent skin biopsy. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. MRI identified and quantified the extent of fillers. Contrast enhancement was detected in 9/26 patients, and skin biopsy consistently showed inflammatory granulomatous reaction, whereas in 5/17 patients without contrast enhancement, biopsy showed no granulomas. Fisher's exact test showed significant correlation (p < 0.001) between subcutaneous contrast enhancement and granulomatous reaction. Cervical lymph node enlargement (longitudinal axis >10 mm) was found in 16 complicated patients (65 %; levels IA/IB/IIA/IIB). MRI is a useful non-invasive tool for anatomical localization of facial dermal filler; IV gadolinium administration is advised in complicated cases for characterization of granulomatous reaction. (orig.)

  19. Agro biomass by-products to multifunctional ingredients, chemicals and fillers - AgroBio

    Willfoer, S.; Manelius, R. (Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland), Lab. of Wood and Paper Chemistry), e-mail: swillfor@abo.fi, e-mail: rmanelius@abo.fi; Faulds, C; Sibakov, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: craig.faulds@vtt.fi, e-mail: juhani.sibakov@vtt.fi

    2011-11-15

    The AgroBio project started in August 2010 and now initial tests and analyses have been performed. At the moment, larger raw material amounts are collected so that proper materials tests can be done. The main objective of the project is to develop cost-effective and sustainable technologies to produce tailor- made filler particles from agricultural by-products. More specific scientific and technological goals of the project are to: Acquire by-products and to study the demand of their pre-processing (WP1), Develop the technology for agro by-product conversion and tailoring to desired filler particles by chemical and enzymatic means, and to characterize the produced filler particles (WP2 and WP3), Evaluate the behaviour of filler particles in selected industrial processes and their market potential (WP4), Estimate the economical and business feasibility of the concept and compare it with the currently used filler materials (WP 5). To date, the agro-industrial by-products have been mainly characterized and the first trials on particle size reduction and their food and paper applications have been tested. Additionally, a first round of feasibility interviews have been conducted with participating companies. (orig.)

  20. Bio-based polyurethane composite foams with inorganic fillers studied by thermogravimetry

    Bio-based polyurethane (PU) composite foams filled with various inorganic fillers, such as barium sulfate (BaSO4), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and talc were prepared using polyols, such as diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol (molecular weight ca. 200) containing molasses and lignin. Reactive hydroxyl groups in plant components and above polyols were used as reaction sites. Morphological observation of fracture surface of composites was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal properties of bio-based PU composites were examined by thermogravimetry. It was found that the above composites decompose in two stages reflecting decomposition of organic components. Decomposition temperature increased with increasing filler content, when plant components were homogenously mixed with inorganic fillers. Activation energy calculated by Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method was ca. 150 kJ mol-1. The durability of composites was predicted using kinetic data. Calculated values indicate that composites with fillers are more durable than that of those without fillers at a moderate temperature region

  1. Science of Hyaluronic Acid Beyond Filling: Fibroblasts and Their Response to the Extracellular Matrix.

    Landau, Marina; Fagien, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Loss of viscoelasticity is one of the primarily signs of skin aging, followed by appearance of visible wrinkles. Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are widely used to fill wrinkles and compensate for volume loss. Recent clinical observations demonstrate persistence of the filling effect longer than the biological availability of the filler. Stimulation of new collagen by cross-linked HA and up-regulation of elastin have been suggested as possible explanation to this observation and have been supported experimentally. Cross-linked HA substitutes for fragmented collagen in restoring extracellular matrix required for normal activity of fibroblasts, such as collagen and elastin production. To restore extracellular matrix efficiently, serial monthly treatments are required. Boosting of facial and nonfacial skin through fibroblast activation is a new indication for HA-based products. Injectable HA has also been recently registered in Europe as agents specific for the improvement of skin quality (Restylane Skinboosters). Further explanation of the possible mechanisms supported by long-term clinical examples is presented herein. PMID:26441098

  2. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05. Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus.

  3. Optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler

    Tribioli, J. T.; Jacomassi, D.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Pratavieira, S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Kurachi, C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of composite resins for restorative procedure in anterior and posterior cavities is highly common in Dentistry due to its mechanical and aesthetic properties that are compatible with the remaining dental structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the optical characterization of one dental composite resin using bovine enamel as reinforcing filler. The same organic matrix of the commercially available resins was used for this experimental resin. The reinforcing filler was obtained after the gridding of bovine enamel fragments and a superficial treatment was performed to allow the adhesion of the filler particles with the organic matrix. Different optical images as fluorescence and reflectance were performed to compare the experimental composite with the human teeth. The present experimental resin shows similar optical properties compared with human teeth.

  4. Polyurethane foam with multi walled carbon nanotubes/magnesium hybrid filler

    Adnan, Sinar Arzuria; Zainuddin, Firuz; Zaidi, Nur Hidayah Ahmad; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Ahmad, Sahrim

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/magnesium (Mg) hybrid filler in polyurethane (PU) foams with different weight percentages (0.5 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%). The PU/MWCNTs/Mg foam composites were formed by reaction of based palm oil polyol (POP) with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with ratio 1:1.1 by weight. The foam properties were evaluated in density, morphology and compressive strength. The addition of 2.5 wt.% hybrid filler showed the higher density in 59.72 kg/m3 and thus contribute to the highest compressive strength at 1.76 MPa. The morphology show cell in closed structure and addition hybrid filler showed uneven structure.

  5. Interactive effects between carbon allotrope fillers on the mechanical reinforcement of polyisoprene based nanocomposites

    M. Galimberti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive effects of carbon allotropes on the mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites were investigated. Carbon nanotubes (CNT and nano-graphite with high shape anisotropy (nanoG were melt blended with poly(1,4-cis-isoprene, as the only fillers or in combination with carbon black (CB, measuring the shear modulus at low strain amplitudes for peroxide crosslinked composites. The nanofiller was found to increase the low amplitude storage modulus of the matrix, with or without CB, by a factor depending on nanofiller type and content. This factor, fingerprint of the nanofiller, was higher for CNT than for nanoG. The filler-polymer interfacial area was able to correlate modulus data of composites with CNT, CB and with the hybrid filler system, leading to the construction of a common master curve.

  6. Effects of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ashes as filler on the performances of asphalt

    Qin Li; Hui Xu; Xiaoru Fu; Chen Chen; Jianping Zhai [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse

    2009-03-15

    This work investigated the potential of utilizing circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ashes (CFAs) as alternative filler, substituting mineral powders (MPs) that are widely used in asphalt concrete. Physico-chemical characteristics of the CFAs and MPs, as well as effects of different mix designs of CFAs and asphalt on asphalt performances were examined, including moisture susceptibility, viscosity, ductility, softening point, penetration, and antiaging performances. The results of the study show that generally the CFAs have greater effects than the MPs on improving the performances of asphalt, and that the specific surface area (SSA), free CaO (f-CaO), morphology, and mineralogical phases of the CFAs are more favorable than those of the MPs respectively, while the alkaline values, hydrophilic coefficients, particle size distributions (PSDs), and water contents of the two fillers are similar. It is suggested that CFAs may be more suitable than MPs for the use as asphalt concrete filler.

  7. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content as for the......The research on soft elastomers with high dielectric permittivity for the use as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) has grown substantially within the last decade. The approaches to enhance the dielectric permittivity can be categorized into three main classes: 1) Mixing or blending in high...... permittivity fillers blended into the elastomer, and it is found that the encapsulation provides a technique to enhance some of these properties....

  8. Influence of carbon fillers nature on the structural and morphological properties of polyurethane-based composites

    Melentyev, S. V.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Pavlov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying structural and morphological properties of the resistive composite materials based on the polyurethane binder. The paper shows the influence of nature, size, shape, concentration of conductive carbon fillers (channel black K-163, graphite element GE-3, colloidal-graphite preparation C-1) and the method of their introduction into the binder to form the electrical conductivity of composites. Experimentally it was found out that a homogeneous composite structure reaches dispersive mixing filler and binder within 120 min. The analysis of the morphological pattern surfaces and chipping resistance materials has demonstrated that composites with colloidal-graphite preparation C-1 are more unimodal with the same concentrations of the investigated fillers.

  9. Continuous non contacting control of the degree of admission of filler rods

    In laboratory tests a method was found to control continuously and non-contacting the degree of admission of filler rods. Behind the filling station the absorption of the ionizing radiation of a 90Sr beta source is measured. After successful tests with the laboratory equipment on the manufacturing machine of filler rods a prototype plant was constructed. The calibration is made by setting the measuring value of the empty filler rod equal to 0% and the measuring value of the optimum degree of admission equal to 100%. Between these two joints a scale is calculated so that to each measuring value a degree of admission can be assigned. The measuring time is 1 s. The limits of the allowable degrees of admission are freely adjustable. The construction of the plant is described. (authors)

  10. Polymer-filler derived M{sub O{sub 2}}C ceramics

    Kaindl, A.; Lehner, W.; Greil, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Mater. Sci.; Kim, D.J. [Sung Kyun Kwan University, Department of Materials Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Manufacturing, microstructure and properties of novel reaction bonded Mo{sub 2}C materials derived from polymer/reactive filler mixtures were investigated. Mo powder was used as a filler to react with carbon bearing decomposition products of poly(methyl- and phenysiloxanes) during pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere. Microcrystalline composites with the filler reaction products Mo{sub 3}C, Mo{sub 3}Si, Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} embedded in a silicon oxycarbide glass matrix could be formed with complex geometry owing to near net shape polymer/ceramic conversion. Depending on the precursor composition and pyrolysis conditions, ceramic hard materials with a density up to 97% theoretical density, a hardness of 10 GPa, a Young`s Modulus of 250 GPa, a fracture toughness of 5 MPam{sup 1/2} and a flexural strength of 330 MPa were obtained. (orig.) 16 refs.

  11. On the weldability of grey cast iron using nickel based filler metal

    Shielded metal arc welding process using nickel based filler metal was used to join grey cast iron. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the microstructure and hardness was studied. PWHT included heating up to 870 oC, holding for 1 h at 870 oC and then furnace cooling. By using nickel based filler metal, formation of hard brittle phase (e.g. carbides and martensite) in the fusion zone is prevented. Before PWHT, heat affected zone exhibited martensitic structure and partially melted zone exhibited white cast iron structure plus martensite. Applied PWHT resulted in the dissolution of martensite in heat affected zone and graphitization and in turn the reduction of partially melted zone hardness. Results showed that welding of grey cast iron with nickel based filler metal and applying PWHT can serve as a solution for cast iron welding problems.

  12. Bacterial biofilm formation and treatment in soft tissue fillers

    Alhede, Morten; Er, Ozge; Eickhardt, Steffen;

    2014-01-01

    fraction these. We developed a novel mouse model and evaluated hyaluronic acid gel, calcium hydroxyl apatite microspheres and polyacrylamide hydrogel for their potential for sustaining bacterial infections and their possible treatments. We were able to culture Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus...

  13. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury in rats is greater after acid instillation than after sepsis-induced acute lung injury, but does not increase systemic inflammation: an experimental study

    Kuiper Jan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Methods Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV with either a low tidal volume (Vt of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis or with a high Vt of 15 mL/kg and no PEEP (HVt acid, HVt sepsis. Rats sacrificed immediately after acid instillation and non-ventilated septic animals served as controls. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were monitored. After 4 h, lung wet to dry (W/D weight ratios, histological lung injury and plasma mediator concentrations were measured. Results Oxygenation and lung compliance decreased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. Additionally, W/D weight ratios and histological lung injury scores increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. MV increased W/D weight ratio and lung injury score, however this effect was mainly attributable to HVt ventilation after acid instillation. Similarly, effects of HVt on oxygenation were only observed after acid instillation. HVt during sepsis did not further affect oxygenation, compliance, W/D weight ratio or lung injury score. Plasma interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations were increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis, but plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration increased during sepsis only. In contrast to lung injury parameters, no additional effects of HVt MV after acid instillation on plasma mediator concentrations were observed. Conclusions During MV more severe lung injury develops after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. HVt causes VILI after acid instillation, but not during sepsis. However, this differential effect was not observed in the systemic release of

  14. Use of bottom ash from thermal power plant and lime as filler in bituminous mixtures

    López-López, E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash (PCC-BA and determining the mechanical characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA using PCC-BA and hydrated lime (HL as filler. Physical and chemical characterization of the bottom ash was carried out to evaluate its eventual reutilization as filler substitute. The materials tested in this study were made using 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% and 100% of PCC-BA combined with HL. HMA mixes were evaluated in terms of their engineering properties, namely: air voids in the mixes, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus, performance in wheel tracking test and fatigue resistance. The results obtained indicate that HMA mixes with a filler blend of 70% PCC-BA and 30% HL fulfil European standards and are suitable for light traffic or small infrastructures.Este estudio se centra en la caracterización de las cenizas de fondo (PCC-BA y la determinación de las características mecánicas de mezclas bituminosas en caliente (HMA, utilizando cenizas de fondo y la cal hidratada (HL como filler. Se realizó la caracterización física y química de las cenizas de fondo para evaluar su empleo como sustituto de filler. Las mezclas ensayadas en este estudio se realizaron utilizando 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% y 100% de cenizas de fondo combinadas con cal hidratada. Se evaluaron propiedades ingenieriles de las mezclas bituminosas, tales como los huecos de aire en las mezclas, la sensibilidad al agua, el módulo de rigidez, el ensayo de pista y la resistencia a la fatiga. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con una combinación de filler del 70% de cenizas de fondo y el 30% cal hidratada, cumplen con las normas europeas y son adecuados para su aplicación con tráficos ligeros o en pequeñas infraestructuras.

  15. Pembuatan Papan Komposit dari Plastik Daur Ulang dan Serbuk Kayu serta Jerami Sebagai Filler

    Farid Mulana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of composites was done by mixing the filler and matrix. The common matrix used to produce composite is plastic ore with types of poly propylene, poly ethylene and others. To know the characteristics of composite boards made from recycled plastic type poly ethylene so this research was conducted. This research aims to create a composite board made of solid waste sawdust and straw as a filler and recycled plastics as the matrix and to find out more details of the influence of variable solid waste types and ratio of solid waste weight and plastic toward the quality of the composite board product. Composite board manufacturing process was carried out by hot press method at a temperature of 145 oC for 20 minutes. The composite board products are tested on value of hardness, tensile strength, and thermal value. The results showed that the use of sawdust as a filler resulted the composite hardness value that is better (R79,5 compared with straw (R67 at a ratio of filler composition: matrix of 80:20 respectively. The use of sawdust also gives the value of tensile strength of 6.86 MPa that is better than the using a straw that valued of 3.62 MPa at composition ratio of filler: to matrix (60:40. Largest amount of heat needed to melt the composite boards are 31.19 J/g and 14.02 J/g at composition ratio sawdust: recycled plastics of 80:20 and at composition ratio straw: recycled plastics of 80:20, respectively. Visually composite board with a composition of sawdust:plastic HDPE 50:50 looks better with bright colors and shiny. Keywords: Composite, Solid waste, Plastic, Matrix, Filler,  Poly ethylene

  16. Biomechanical characteristics of polymeric UHMWPE composites with hybrid matrix and dispersed fillers

    Panin, Sergey; Kornienko, Lyudmila; Shilko, Sergey; Thuc, Nguyen Xuan; Korchagin, Mikhail; Chaikina, Marina

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop artificial joint implants some biomechanical properties of composites with UHMWPE and hybrid (polymer-polymeric) "UHMWPE+PTFE" matrix with dispersed fillers were studied. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of adding hydroxyapatite micron- and nanopowders as a biocompatible filler was carried out. It was shown that under dry sliding friction the wear rate of nanocomposites with the hybrid matrix is lower as compared with composites with the non-hybrid one. Mechanical activation of components further enhances the durability of nano- and microcomposites to almost double it without any significant reduction in the strength characteristics.

  17. Pembuatan Papan Komposit dari Plastik Daur Ulang dan Serbuk Kayu serta Jerami Sebagai Filler

    Farid Mulana; Hisbullah Hisbullah; Iskandar Iskandar

    2011-01-01

    Production of composites was done by mixing the filler and matrix. The common matrix used to produce composite is plastic ore with types of poly propylene, poly ethylene and others. To know the characteristics of composite boards made from recycled plastic type poly ethylene so this research was conducted. This research aims to create a composite board made of solid waste sawdust and straw as a filler and recycled plastics as the matrix and to find out more details of the influence of variabl...

  18. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of CNT/HDPE nanocomposite using MMT as secondary filler

    Ali Mohsin, M. E.; Arsad, Agus; Fouad, H.; Jawaid, M.; Alothman, Othman Y.

    2014-05-01

    This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and XRD properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites.

  19. 3.6. Mechanical synthesis of fillers for fireproof concretes obtained from secondary mineral deposits

    This article is devoted to mechanical synthesis of fillers for fireproof concretes obtained from secondary mineral deposits. The possibility of obtaining of mullite ceramics and fillers of fireproof concretes from secondary mineral deposits by mechanical chemical activation of mixtures and their further annealing at 200-300degC was studied in this work. The results of chemical analysis of obtained materials are presented in this work. New composite fireproof material - mullite-silicon carbide was obtained from synthesized mullite. The diffraction pattern of synthesized mullite-silicon carbide is presented as well.

  20. "Uh," "Um," and Autism: Filler Disfluencies as Pragmatic Markers in Adolescents with Optimal Outcomes from Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Irvine, Christina A.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Fein, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Filler disfluencies--"uh" and "um"--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" (OO), as well as in peers with typical…

  1. Characterization of electron-beam-modified surface coated clay fillers and their influence on physical properties of rubbers

    A novel process of surface modification of clay filler has been developed by coating this with an acrylate monomer, trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or a silane coupling agent, triethoxy vinyl silane (TEVS) followed by electron beam irradiation. Characterization of these surface modified fillers has been carried out by Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), wettability by dynamic wicking method measuring the rise of a liquid through a filler-packed capillary tube and water flotation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Presence of the acrylate and the silane coupling agent on the modified fillers has been confirmed from FTIR, ESCA, and EDX studies, which has also been supported by TGA studies. The contact angle measurement by dynamic wicking method suggests improvement in hydrophobicity of the treated fillers, which is supported by water flotation test especially in the case of silanized clay. However, XRD studies demonstrate that the entire modification process does not affect the bulk properties of the fillers. Finally, both unmodified and modified clay fillers have been incorporated in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and nitrile rubber (NBR). Rheometric and mechanical properties reveal that there is a definite improvement using these modified fillers specially in the case of silanized clay compared to the control sample, probably due to successful enhancement in interaction between the treated clay and the base polymer

  2. Aesthetic breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid: imaging findings and implications for radiological assessment

    Divanei Aparecida Bottaro Criado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid have recently been employed as a non-surgical alternative to implants such as silicone for aesthetic breast enhancement. Although their utilization is not yet widespread in Brazil, radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings in this context and of the implications of the presence of this filler for the radiological evaluation in the screening for breast cancer.

  3. Aesthetic breast augmentation with hyaluronic acid: imaging findings and implications for radiological assessment

    Divanei Aparecida Bottaro Criado; Fernanda Del Campo Braojos; Ulysses dos Santos Torres; Marcos Pontes Muniz

    2012-01-01

    New injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid have recently been employed as a non-surgical alternative to implants such as silicone for aesthetic breast enhancement. Although their utilization is not yet widespread in Brazil, radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings in this context and of the implications of the presence of this filler for the radiological evaluation in the screening for breast cancer.

  4. Nasal Alar Necrosis Following Hyaluronic Acid Injection into Nasolabial Folds: A Case Report

    Manafi, Ali; Barikbin, Behrooz; Manafi, Amir; Hamedi, Zahra Sadat; Ahmadi Moghadam, Shokoofeh

    2015-01-01

    Injection of synthetic fillers for soft tissue augmentation is increasing over the last decade. One of the most common materials used is hyaluronic acid (HA) that is safe and temporary filler for soft tissue augmentation. We present a case of 54-year-old female who experienced vascular occlusion and nasal alar necrosis following HA injection to the nasolabial folds. She suffered from pain, necrosis, infection, and alar loss that finally required a reconstructive surgery for cosmetic appearanc...

  5. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury in rats is greater after acid instillation than after sepsis-induced acute lung injury, but does not increase systemic inflammation: an experimental study

    Kuiper Jan; Plötz Frans B; Groeneveld AB Johan; Haitsma Jack J; Jothy Serge; Vaschetto Rosanna; Zhang Haibo; Slutsky Arthur S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Methods Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV) with either a low tidal volume (Vt) of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis) or with a high Vt of 15 ...

  6. Biophysical and biological characterization of a new line of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers: A scientific rationale to specific clinical indications.

    La Gatta, Annalisa; De Rosa, Mario; Frezza, Maria Assunta; Catalano, Claudia; Meloni, Marisa; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Chemico-physical and biological characterization of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers is of key importance to differentiate between numerous available products and to optimize their use. These studies on fillers are nowadays perceived as a reliable approach to predict their performance in vivo. The object of this paper is a recent line of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based dermal fillers, Aliaxin®, available in different formulations that claim a complete facial restoration. The aim of the study is to provide biophysical and biological data that may support the clinical indications and allow to predict performance possibly with respect to similar available products. Aliaxin® formulations were tested for their content in soluble HA, water uptake capacity, rheological behavior, stability to enzymatic degradation, and for in vitro capacity to stimulate extracellular matrix components production. The formulations were found to contain a low amount of soluble HA and were equivalent to each other regarding insoluble hydrogel concentration. The different crosslinking degree declared by the producer was consistent with the trend in water uptake capacity, rigidity, viscosity. No significant differences in stability to enzymatic hydrolysis were found. In vitro experiments, using a full thickness skin model, showed an increase in collagen production in the dermoepidermal junction. Results support the claims of different clinical indications, the classification of products regarding hydro-, lift-action and the specifically suggested needle gauge for the delivery. The biological outcomes also support products effectiveness in skin structure restoration. These data predicted a better performance regarding hydro-action, tissue integration, clinical management during delivery, and a high durability of the aesthetic effect when compared to data on marketed similar products. PMID:27524055

  7. Influences of soil volume and an elevated CO[sub 2] level on growth and CO[sub 2] exchange for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica

    Nobel, P.S.; Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Luo, Y. (UCLA-DOE Lab., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO[sub 2] partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO[sub 2] exchange were determined for opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2600, 6500 and 26000 cm[sup 3]), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO[sub 2] level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO[sub 2] level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO-2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO[sub 2] during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO[sub 2] level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO[sub 2]. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO[sub 2] level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations. (au) (30 refs.)

  8. Multifunctional polymer composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel low-cost carbonaceous fillers

    Wu, Hongchao

    Advanced polymer nanocomposites/composites containing inorganic nanoparticles and novel carbonaceous fillers were processed and evaluated for the multifunctional purposes. To prepare the high performance conformal coating materials for microelectronic industries, epoxy resin was incorporated with zirconium tungstate (ZrW 2O8) nanoparticles synthesized from hydrothermal reaction to alleviate the significant thermal expansion behavior. Three types of ZrW 2O8 at different loading levels were selected to study their effect of physical (morphology, particle size, surface area, etc.) and thermal (thermal expansivity) properties on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy resin incorporated by Type-1 ZrW2O8 exhibited the overall excellent performance. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets were non-covalently encapsulated by a versatile and mussel-adhesive protein polydopamine through the strong pi-pi* interaction. The high-temperature thermoset bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) reinforced with homogenously dispersed h-BN at different volume fractions and functionalities were processed to investigate their effect on thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, dielectric properties and thermal conductivity. Different theoretical and empirical models were also successfully applied for the prediction of CTE, thermal conductivity and dielectric constant of h-BN/BECy nanocomposites. On the basis of the improvement in dimensional stability, the enhancement in storage modulus in both glassy and rubbery regions, associated with the increment in thermal conductivity without deterioration of thermal stability, glassy transition temperature and dielectric properties, pristine h-BN/BECy nanocomposites exhibited the prospective application in microelectronic packaging industry. Polydopamine functionalized h-BN significantly increased the dielectric constant of cyanate ester at lower frequency region. Asphaltene, a

  9. Incorporation of nano-sized mesoporous MCM-41 material used as fillers in natural rubber composite

    Research highlights: → Mesoporous MCM-41 as reinforcing filler to polymers was used in our previous study. → Few paper has mentioned this kind of filler in rubber. → Modification of MCM-41 as reinforcing filler in natural rubber was studied. → The reinforcing effect was remarkable. - Abstract: The nano-sized mesoporous MCM-41 (without template), and the modification of MCM-41 (without template) were used to prepare natural rubber (NR) composites. The effects of coupling agents γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550), γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (KH-570), bis-(γ-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetrasulfide (Si-69), isopropyl tri-(dioctylpyrophosphate)titanate (NDZ-201) on the mechanical properties of the composites were also investigated. The results showed that the tensile properties of Natural rubber/mesoporous MCM-41 nanocomposite were improved as compared with those of NR compound. KH-570 had good effect on enhancing the overall properties of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that the modified nano-sized MCM-41 material was well dispersed in the polymer matrix and the enhancement of the interface between the matrix and fillers was obtained.

  10. Investigation of Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Boron Waste as Mineral Filler

    Cahit GÜRER

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacture of compounds in the boron mining industry a large quantity of waste boron is produced which has detrimental effects on the environment. Large areas have to be allocated for the disposal of this waste. Today with an increase in infrastructure construction, more efficient use of the existing sources of raw materials has become an obligation and this involves the recycling of various waste materials. Road construction requires a significant amount of raw materials and it is possible that substantial amounts of boron-containing waste materials can be recycled in these applications. This study investigates the usability of boron wastes as filler in asphalt concrete. For this purpose, asphalt concrete samples were produced using mineral fillers containing 4%, 5%, 6%, 7% and 8% boron waste as well as a 6% limestone filler (6%L as the control sample. The Marshall Design, mechanical immersion and Marshall Stability test after a freeze-thaw cycle and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test were performed for each of the series. The results of this experimental study showed that boron waste can be used in medium and low trafficked asphalt concrete pavements wearing courses as filler.

  11. Statements on the Safety of Permanent Soft Tissue Fillers in Europe

    van Dam, Daphne; van der Lei, Berend; Cromheecke, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Increasing reported complications associated with permanent soft tissue fillers have led the national medical societies and governmental institutes in Europe to send out warnings regarding their use. Regulation and legislation for the introduction of new products and the use of existing products are

  12. Tensile behaviour of isotactic polypropylene modified by specific nucleation and active fillers

    Kotek, Jiří; Kelnar, Ivan; Baldrian, Josef; Raab, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2004), s. 679-684. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP106/02/P027 Keywords : polypropylene * .beta.--phase * CaCO3 filler Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.419, year: 2004

  13. Influence of filler existence on microleakage of a self-etch adhesive system

    H. Mirmohammadi; K. Khosravi; K. Kashani; C.J. Kleverlaan; A.J. Feilzer

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of filler existence in self-etch adhesive resin on the marginal leakage of a class V restoration. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared and restored with a resin composite on the buccal surfaces of 48 premolars lined with unfilled or filled adhesi

  14. Dependence of plasmon excitation energy on filler material in interaction of charged particle with filled nanotubes

    Bahari, A., E-mail: bahari.a@lu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohamadi, A. [Department of Physics, Shiraz Payaem Noor University, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The interaction of charged particles with filled single-walled metallic nanotubes (SWMNT) has been investigated. Numerical results for the plasmon energy as a function of the wave vector are presented when the charged particle is outside the nanotube. Dependence of the plasmon energy on ratio of plasma frequency of the filler and SWMNT has been shown.

  15. Mechanical stress in silicon nanosized architectures: Defects of SOD processed silica filler

    Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, s.p. n 8 Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Casula, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, s.p. n 8 Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Gulleri, Gianluca; Fumagalli, Francesco [Micron Semiconductor Italia, s.r.l. via Camillo Olivetti, 2 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, s.p. n 8 Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Structural and optical properties of silica filled STI architectures. • The silica filler induces a compressive stress. • PL spectra show a large distribution of emitting defects in the UV–blue. • The defects were identified and located at the silica–liner interface. - Abstract: The mechanical stress in nanosized silicon architectures is studied in shallow trench isolation systems with different liners and spin on dielectrics processed silica filler by means of Raman spectroscopy. The nanopatterning of silicon wafers causes a tensile stress of the system whereas the presence of the filler induces a compressive stress which depends on the interaction between silica filler and liner: by changing the liner from silicon dioxide to silicon nitride one can induce a larger compressive stress. The analysis of the ultraviolet excited emission properties in the visible range (nanosecond lasting bands at 2.5, 3.0 and 3.3 eV) allowed us to individuate and locate silica related defects and to correlate their presence to the induced compressive stress.

  16. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures. PMID:17408942

  17. Investigation of Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Boron Waste as Mineral Filler

    Cahit GÜRER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacture of compounds in the boron mining industry a large quantity of waste boron is produced which has detrimental effects on the environment. Large areas have to be allocated for the disposal of this waste. Today with an increase in infrastructure construction, more efficient use of the existing sources of raw materials has become an obligation and this involves the recycling of various waste materials. Road construction requires a significant amount of raw materials and it is possible that substantial amounts of boron-containing waste materials can be recycled in these applications. This study investigates the usability of boron wastes as filler in asphalt concrete. For this purpose, asphalt concrete samples were produced using mineral fillers containing 4%, 5%, 6%, 7% and 8% boron waste as well as a 6% limestone filler (6%L as the control sample. The Marshall design, mechanical immersion and Marshall stability test after a freeze-thaw cycle and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test were performed for each of the series. The results of this experimental study showed that boron waste can be used in medium and low trafficked asphalt concrete pavements wearing courses as filler.

  18. Mechanical stress in silicon nanosized architectures: Defects of SOD processed silica filler

    Highlights: • Structural and optical properties of silica filled STI architectures. • The silica filler induces a compressive stress. • PL spectra show a large distribution of emitting defects in the UV–blue. • The defects were identified and located at the silica–liner interface. - Abstract: The mechanical stress in nanosized silicon architectures is studied in shallow trench isolation systems with different liners and spin on dielectrics processed silica filler by means of Raman spectroscopy. The nanopatterning of silicon wafers causes a tensile stress of the system whereas the presence of the filler induces a compressive stress which depends on the interaction between silica filler and liner: by changing the liner from silicon dioxide to silicon nitride one can induce a larger compressive stress. The analysis of the ultraviolet excited emission properties in the visible range (nanosecond lasting bands at 2.5, 3.0 and 3.3 eV) allowed us to individuate and locate silica related defects and to correlate their presence to the induced compressive stress

  19. Using Raman spectroscopic imaging for non-destructive analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled polypropylene

    Boros, Evelin; Porse, Peter Bak; Nielsen, Inga;

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples with...

  20. Influence of heat conductivity on the performance of RTV SIR coatings with different fillers

    Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SIR) coatings are employed in order to improve the pollution performance of high voltage ceramic insulators by imparting surface hydrophobicity. In this paper, the performance of three RTV SIR coatings containing different fillers is investigated in a salt-fog test. Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are the fillers included in the formulation, aiming to increase the material endurance to the energy supplied by the surface electrical activity during periods of hydrophobicity loss. The primary action of these fillers is to increase the material heat conductivity, i.e. the amount of energy conducted to the substrate. In addition, in the case of ATH relief is also achieved due to particle decomposition. The results indicate that for the compositions commercially available, where low amounts of fillers are used, and under the conditions of the test, ATH filled coatings performed better than the silica filled ones. This is attributed to ATH decomposition which further relieves the material structure and therefore decelerates material aging

  1. Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Novel CaO-Added Mg Alloy Filler Wire

    Minjung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel “ECO Mg” alloys, i.e., CaO-added Mg alloys, which exhibit oxidation resistance during melting and casting processes, even without the use of beryllium or toxic protection gases such as SF6, have recently been introduced. Research on ECO Mg alloys is still continuing, and their application as welding filler metals was investigated in this study. Mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the weldments were analysed after welding, and welding behaviours such as fume generation and droplet transfer were observed during welding. The tensile strength of welds was slightly increased by adding CaO to the filler metal, which resulted from the decreased grain size in the weld metal. When welding Mg alloys, fumes have been unavoidable so far because of the low boiling temperature of Mg. Fume reduction was successfully demonstrated with a wire composed of the novel ECO Mg filler. In addition, stable droplet transfer was observed and spatter suppression could be expected by using CaO-added Mg filler wire.

  2. Sulfate Attack of Cement-Based Material with Limestone Filler Exposed to Different Environments

    Gao, Xiaojian; Ma, Baoguo; Yang, Yingzi; Su, Anshuang

    2008-08-01

    Mortar prisms made with OPC cement plus 30% mass of limestone filler were stored in various sulfate solutions at different temperatures for periods of up to 1 year, the visual appearance was inspected at intervals, and the flexural and compressive strength development with immersion time was measured according to the Chinese standard GB/T17671-1999. Samples were selected from the surface of prisms after 1 year immersion and examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), laser-raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that MgSO4 solution is more aggressive than Na2SO4 solution, and Mg2+ ions reinforce the thaumasite sulfate attack on the limestone filler cement mortars. The increase of solution temperature accelerates both magnesium attack and sulfate attack on the limestone filler cement mortar, and leads to more deleterious products including gypsum, ettringite and brucite formed on the surface of mortars after 1 year storage in sulfate solutions. Thaumasite forms in the mortars containing limestone filler after exposure to sulfate solutions at both 5 °C and 20 °C. It reveals that the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not limited to low-temperature conditions.

  3. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao;

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  4. Composite biomaterials with chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite filler particles and PEG/PBT copolymer matrix

    Liu, Qing; Wijn, de Joost R.; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to make composites from hydroxyapatite and a PEG/PBT copolymer (PolyactiveTM 70/30), chemical linkages were introduced between the filler particles and polymer matrix using hexamethylene diisocyanate as a coupling agent. Infrared spectra (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) confi

  5. Sine-Cosine-Taylor-Like Method for Hole-Filler ICNN Simulation

    Sukumar Senthilkumar; Abd Rahni Mt Piah

    2011-01-01

    Sine-Cosine-Taylor-Like method is employed to improve the performance of image or handwritten character recognition under improved cellular non-linear network environment. The ultimate aim of this paper is focused on developing an efficient design strategy for simulating hole filler under ICNN arrays with a set of inequalities satisfying its output characteristics by considering the parameter range.

  6. A High-Fe Aluminum Matrix Welding Filler Metal for Hardfacing Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

    2003-01-01

    A high-Fe containing aluminum matrix filler metal for hardfacing aluminum-silicon alloys has been developed by using iron,nickel,and silicon as the major strengthening elements,and by measuring mechanical properties,room temperature and high temperature wear tests,and microstructural analysis.The filler metal,which contains 3.0%-5.0% Fe and 11.0%-13.0% Si,exhibits an excellent weldability.The as-cast and as-welded microstructures for the filler metal are of uniformly distribution and its dispersed network of hard phase is enriched with Al-Si-Fe-Ni.The filler metal shows high mechanical properties and wear resistance at both room temperature and high temperatures.The deposited metal has a better resistance to impact wear at 220℃ than that of substrate Al-Si-Mg-Cu piston alloy;at room temperature,the deposited metal has an equivalent resistance to slide wear with lubrication as that of a hyper-eutectic aluminum-silicon alloy with 27% Si and 1% Ni.

  7. Influence of filler alignment in the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    In this work, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites prepared with aligned and randomly oriented nanotubes as filler. The samples are disks of 30 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. To obtain the carbon nanotubes alignment, an external electric field (250 VAC; 50 Hz) was applied through the thickness of the sample during all the cure process. The AC electrical current was measured, during the cure, as a strategy to determine the optimum time in which the alignment reaches the maximum value. DC conductivity measured after the cure shows a percolation threshold in the filler content one order of magnitude smaller for composites with aligned nanotubes than for composites with randomly oriented filler (from 0.06 to 0.5 wt%). In the percolation threshold, the achieved conductivity was 1.4×10-5 Sm-1. In both cases, aligned and randomly distributed carbon nanotube composites, the wear resistance increases with the addition of the filler while the Rockwell hardness decreases independently of the nanotubes alignment.

  8. Application of waste bulk moulded composite (BMC) as a filler for isotactic polypropylene composites

    Barczewski, Mateusz; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Andrzejewski, Jacek; Skórczewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce isotactic polypropylene based composites filled with waste thermosetting bulk moulded composite (BMC). The influence of BMC waste addition (5, 10, 20 wt%) on composites structure and properties was investigated. Moreover, additional studies of chemical treatment of the filler were prepared. Modification of BMC waste by calcium stearate (CaSt) powder allows to assess the possibility of the production of composites with better dispersion of the filler and more uniform properties. The mechanical, processing, and thermal properties, as well as structural investigations were examined by means of static tensile test, Dynstat impact strength test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), melt flow index (MFI) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Developed composites with different amounts of non-reactive filler exhibited satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, application of the low cost modifier (CaSt) allows to obtain composites with better dispersion of the filler and improved processability. PMID:27222742

  9. Treatment of wet blue with fillers produced from quebracho-modified gelatin

    Gelatin modified with quebracho to produce high molecular weight, high viscosity products was investigated as a filler in leather processing. The uptake of quebracho/gelatin product by the wet blue was on the average about 55% of the 10% gelatin/quebracho product offered; the reaction appeared to be...

  10. Aluminosilicate inorganic polymers: the effects of polypropylene fillers on mechanical behavior

    Benešová, Lenka; Kotek, Jiří

    Belgrade: Materials Research Society of Serbia , 2011 - (Uskoković, D.). s. 21 [Annual Conference /13./ YUCOMAT 2011. 05.09.2011-09.09.2011, Herceg Novi] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1980 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : geopolymers * mechanical behaviour * polypropylene fillers Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  11. Coconut shell powder as cost effective filler in copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene rubber.

    Keerthika, B; Umayavalli, M; Jeyalalitha, T; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-08-01

    Filler is one of the major additives in rubber compounds to enhance the physical properties. Even though numerous benefits obtained from agricultural by products like coconut shell, rice husk etc., still they constitute a large source of environmental pollution. In this investigation, one of the agricultural bye product coconut shell powder (CSP) is used as filler in the compounding KNB rubber. It shows the positive and satisfied result was achieved only by the use of filler Fast Extrusion Furnace (FEF) and coconut shell powder (CSP) which was used 50% in each. The effect of these fillers on the mechanical properties of a rubber material at various loading raging from 0 to 60PHP was studied. Mercaptodibanzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) was used as an accelerator. The result shows that presence of 25% and 50% of the composites has better mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile strength, Elongation at break and Specific gravity when compared with other two combinations. Even though both 25% and 50% of composites shows good mechanical properties, 50% of CSP have more efficient than 25% of CSP. PMID:27060197

  12. Effect of filler surface properties on stress relaxation behavior of carbon nanofiber/polyurethane nanocomposites

    Sedat Gunes, I.; Jimenez, Guillermo; Jana, Sadhan

    2009-03-01

    The effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) surface properties on tensile stress relaxation behavior of CNF/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites was analyzed. PU was synthesized from methylene diisocyanate, polypropylene glycol (PPG diol), and butanediol. CNF, oxidized CNF (ox-CNF), and PPG diol grafted CNF (ol-CNF) were selected as fillers. ol-CNF was obtained by grafting PPG diol onto ox-CNF by reacting it with the carboxyl groups present on ox-CNF surface. The atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon present on the filler surfaces were 0.13 and 0.18 on ox-CNF and on ol-CNF as compared to 0.015 on CNF, mostly due to the presence oxygen containing polar groups on the surfaces of the former. The composites were prepared by in-situ polymerization and melt mixing in a chaotic mixer. The stress relaxation behavior of composites was determined at room temperature after inducing a tensile strain of 100%. The presence of fillers augmented the rate of stress relaxation in composites which was highest in the presence of CNF. The results suggested that relatively weak polymer-filler interactions in composites of CNF promoted higher stress relaxation.

  13. Surface Modified Characteristics of the Tetracalcium Phosphate as Light-Cured Composite Resin Fillers

    Wen-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to characterize the properties of light-cured composite resins that are reinforced with whisker surface-modified particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP and to investigate the influence of thermal cycling on the reinforced composites properties. The characteristics of ultimate diametral tensile strength (DTS, moduli, pH values, and fracture surfaces of the samples with different amounts of surface-modified TTCP (30%–60% were determined before and after thermal cycling between 5°C and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. The trends of all groups were ductile prior to thermal cycling and the moduli of all groups increased after thermal cycling. The ductile property of the control group without filler was not significantly affected. Larger amounts of fillers caused the particles to aggregate, subsequently decreasing the resin’s ability to disperse external forces and leading to brittleness after thermal cycling. Therefore, the trend of composite resins with larger amounts of filler would become more brittle and exhibited higher moduli after thermal cycling. This developed composite resin with surface modified-TTCP fillers has the potential to be successful dental restorative materials.

  14. Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Clay: Unique Nanostructured Filler for High-Performance Polymer Nanocomposites

    Zhang, Wei-De; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi

    2006-01-01

    High-performance composites are produced using nanostructured clay-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrids as a reinforcing filler. The intercalation of iron particles between the clay platelets serves as the catalyst for the growth of CNTs, while the platelets are exfoliated by the CNTs, forming the unique 3

  15. Micro-nano filler metal foil on vacuum brazing of SiCp/Al composites

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Zeng; Niu, Jitai

    2016-06-01

    Using micro-nano (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)- xTi (wt%, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) foils as filler metal, the research obtained high-performance joints of aluminum matrix composites with high SiC particle content (60 vol%, SiCp/Al-MMCs). The effect of brazing process and Ti content on joint properties was investigated, respectively. The experimental results indicate that void free dense interface between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam with C-Al-Si-Ti product was readily obtained, and the joint shear strength enhanced with increasing brazing temperature from 560 to 580 °C or prolonging soaking time from 10 to 90 min. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 112.5 MPa was achieved at 580 °C for soaking time of 90 min with (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)-2Ti filler, where Ti(AlSi)3 intermetallic is in situ strengthening phase dispersed in the joint and fracture occured in the filler metal layer. In this research, the beneficial effect of Ti addition into filler metal on improving wettability between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam was demonstrated, and capable welding parameters were broadened for SiCp/Al-MMCs with high SiC particle content.

  16. Influence of filler alignment in the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    Felisberto, M. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Arias-Duran, A. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Ramos, J.A.; Mondragon, I. [Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente. Esc. Politecnica. UPV/EHU, Pza. Europa 1, Donostia-San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Candal, R. [INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia-UNSAM, San Martin, Prov. De Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Rubiolo, G.H., E-mail: rubiolo@cnea.gov.ar [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Dep. Materiales, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA-CAC), Avda Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites prepared with aligned and randomly oriented nanotubes as filler. The samples are disks of 30 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. To obtain the carbon nanotubes alignment, an external electric field (250 VAC; 50 Hz) was applied through the thickness of the sample during all the cure process. The AC electrical current was measured, during the cure, as a strategy to determine the optimum time in which the alignment reaches the maximum value. DC conductivity measured after the cure shows a percolation threshold in the filler content one order of magnitude smaller for composites with aligned nanotubes than for composites with randomly oriented filler (from 0.06 to 0.5 wt%). In the percolation threshold, the achieved conductivity was 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Sm{sup -1}. In both cases, aligned and randomly distributed carbon nanotube composites, the wear resistance increases with the addition of the filler while the Rockwell hardness decreases independently of the nanotubes alignment.

  17. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin

    Hannah E John, Richard D Price

    2009-01-01

    Hannah E John, Richard D PriceDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, UKAbstract: Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the ...

  18. Perspectives in the selection of hyaluronic acid fillers for facial wrinkles and aging skin

    John, Hannah E; Price, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic surgery is, in the USA at least, no longer a taboo subject. Outside North America, public acceptance continues to grow as more procedures are performed each year. While there appears, anecdotally, to be a decrease in patients undergoing cosmetic treatments because of the global financial crisis, the overall trend remains upward. Although popular television programs espouse the benefits of surgery, it is nonsurgical procedures that account, numerically, for the majority of procedures...

  19. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    Yasini E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6 and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress® (Ivoclar- Vivadent ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA. Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s. Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120ºC, 5 hours. Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19% < Tetric Ceram (22% < glass composite (28%. leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion

  20. Development of (fe–b–c-based filler for wear-resistant composite coatings

    О. V. Sukhovа

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of multi-alloyed filler for abrasive wear-resistant composites. Methodology. The methods of microstructural, X-ray and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were used to achieve research purpose. Micro-mechanical properties of structural constituents and abrasive wear-resistance of composites were determined. Findings. The complete dissolution of chromium and vanadium in the borides of Fe2В and FeВ that are initial structural constituents of Fe–В–С peritectic alloys has been established. These elements primarily dissolve in iron monoboride. Dissolution of molybdenum and niobium is not practically observed. As a result the phases of Мо2В, Мо2(В,С or NbВ2 can be seen in the structure. Alloying with chromium and vanadium increases compression strength and crack resistance coefficient, but that with molybdenum and niobium enhances total microhardness and hardness of the alloys. Structure formation of the interfaces between the filler and the binder of the composites based on МNМts 20-20 binder is governed by dissolution and diffusion processes when multi-alloyed (Fe–В–С alloy is applied as filler of the composites. The phase and the structural composition of contact interaction zones can be explained by re-crystallization of the filler surface layers after dissolution caused by contact with the molten binder. Consequently the macroheterogeneous structure of the composites is free of defects and strong adhesion between the filler and the binder is assured. Contact interaction intensity can be controlled by the choice of temperature- and-time infiltration regimes. Originality. The peculiarities in the formation of structure and properties of Fe2В- and FeВ-based solid solutions observed in the structure of the Fe–В–С peritectic alloys were investigated that allowed us to recommend composition of multicomponent alloy to be applied as filler of (Cu–Ni–Mn-matrix macroheterogeneous composites. Practical

  1. Effect of filler particles on surface roughness of experimental composite series

    Hanadi Yousif Marghalani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different filler sizes and shapes on the surface roughness of experimental resin-composite series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three disc-shaped specimens of the series (Spherical-RZD 102, 105, 106, 107, 114 and Irregular-RZD 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112 were prepared in a split Teflon mold and irradiated with an halogen light-curing unit (450 mW/cm² for 40 s at both top and bottom surfaces. The specimens were stored for 3 months in distilled water. The surface roughness values in form of surface finish-vertical parameter (Ra, maximum roughness depth (Rmax and horizontal roughness parameter (Sm were recorded using a contact profilometer. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Scheffé post-hoc test (a=0.05. RESULTS: The lowest surface roughness (Ra was observed in S-100 (0.079±0.013, while the roughest surface was noted in I-450/700/1000 (0.125±0.011 and I-450/1000 (0.124±0.004. The spherical-shape series showed the smoothest surface finish compared to the irregular-shape ones with higher significant difference (p>0.05. The vertical surface roughness parameter (Ra values increased as the filler size increased yielding a linear relation (r²=0.82. On the contrary, the horizontal parameter (Sm was not significantly affected by the filler size (r²=0.24 as well as the filler shape. CONCLUSIONS: Filler particle's size and shape have a great effect on the surface roughness parameters of these composite series.

  2. Role of Silicon Dioxide Filler on Mechanical and Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Glass-Epoxy Composites

    Naveed Anjum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and dry sliding wear behaviour of glass fabric reinforced epoxy (G-E composite with varying weight percentage of silicon dioxide (SiO2 filler have been studied in the present work. The influence of sliding distance, velocity, and applied normal load on dry sliding wear behaviour has been considered using Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. Addition of SiO2 increased the density, hardness, flexural, and impact strengths of G-E composite. Results of dry sliding wear tests showed increasing wear volume with increase in sliding distance, load, and sliding velocity for G-E and SiO2 filled G-E composites. Taguchi's results indicate that the sliding distance played a significant role followed by applied load, sliding velocity, and SiO2 loading. Scanning electron micrographs of the worn surfaces of composite samples at different test parameters show smooth surface, microploughing, and fine grooves under low load and velocity. However, severe damage of matrix with debonding and fiber breakage was seen at high load and velocity especially in unfilled G-E composite.

  3. Volume Entropy

    Astuti, Valerio; Christodoulou, Marios; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MICROCRYSTALLINE TAPIOCA STARCH AS A FILLER-BINDER FOR DIRECT COMPRESSION

    A.O. Shittu*, A.R. Oyi , A.B. Isah , S.O. Kareem and M.A. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca starch (NTS was modified physically at molecular level by annealing and subsequently subjected to enzyme hydrolysis to obtain a more functional filler-binder “microcrystalline tapioca starch (MCTS”. NTS was extracted from cassava tuber (Mannihot esculenta cranzt using a standard method. The powder suspensions were prepared in concentration of 40 %w/w in five separate conical flasks. The starch granules were annealed for 1 h and subsequently hydrolyzed with α-amylase at 58o and pH 7 for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h in a water bath. The reaction was terminated and neutralized with 0.1 N HCL and 0.1 N NaOH respectively. The MCTS was washed, recovered by sedimentation and air dried at room temperature for 72 h. Following characterization, the granules that were modified for 3 h, sieved fraction >75-250 µm was selected and compacted at a range of compression load 2.5 to 12.5 KN. The average granule size of NTS, annealed tapioca starch (ATS, and MCTS were 10 µm, 11.5 µm, and 13 µm respectively. Average flow rate, angle of repose and compressibility index were 2 g/s, 43o, 50% for NTS respectively, and 2.5 g/s, 35o, 37.5 % for MCTS. The crushing strength for NTS, ATS and MCTS are: 30 N, 90 N and 100 N after 3 h of annealing and hydrolysis respectively, compressed at 6 metric units. MCTS was compared with Starlac®, Cellactose® and MCC. The onset of plastic deformation Py (yield value were: Cellactose (24.2 MNm-2>MCC (25 MNm-2> MCTS (143 MNm-2 =Starlac (143 MNm-2. The degree of plastic deformation occurring during compression (Pk is in the following order: Starlac® (17 MNm-2>MCTS (17.7 MNm-2>MCC (18.6 MNm-2>Cellactose® (19.1 MNm-2. MCTS is more superior in functionality than Cellactose and MCC. The dilution potential obtained for MCTS, compacted with paracetamol (PCM and ascorbic acid (AA as active drug (API were: 20 %w/w PCM and 40 %w/w AA with MCTS. The hardness of MCTS containing 40 % AA was found to be 58 N; MCTS can be used to formulate

  5. Effect of filler wire on the joint properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys using CO2 laser welding

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding with filler wire of AZ31 magnesium alloys is investigated using a CO2 laser experimental system. The effect of three different filler wires on the joint properties is researched. The results show that the weld appearance can be effectively improved when using laser welding with filler wire. The microhardness and tensile strength of joints are almost the same as those of the base metal when ER AZ31 or ER AZ61 wire is adopted. However, when the filler wire of ER 5356 aluminum alloy is used, the mechanical properties of joints become worse. For ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 filler wires, the microstructure of weld zone shows small dendrite grains. In comparison, for ER 5356 filler wire, the weld shows a structure of snowy dendrites and many intermetallic compounds and eutectic phases distribute in the dendrites. These intermetallic constituents with low melting point increase the tendency of hot crack and result in fragile joint properties. Therefore, ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 wire are more suitable filler material than ER 5356 for CO2 laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys.

  6. Influence of Calcium Carbonate Fillers on the Properties of Recycled Poly(e-caprolactone) Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane

    Vitalija BETINGYTĖ; Žukienė, Kristina; Virginija JANKAUSKAITĖ; Milašienė, Daiva; Kazys Vytautas MICKUS; Ada GULBINIENĖ

    2012-01-01

    In this work the effects of different crystallographic modifications of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) filler on the melt flow, mechanical properties, hydrolytic degradation, and shape memory behaviour of recycled low-temperature poly(e-caprolactone)-based polyurethane (rTPU) were evaluated. Composites were prepared by two-roll milling varying filler content from 2 wt % to 6 wt %. It was found that at temperature range from 20 °C to 50 °C CaCO3 fillers do not change Young’s modulus, they decrease ...

  7. License application design selection feature report: Additive and fillers design feature 19

    The estimated additional total system life-cycle cost for each of the filler options in 1999 dollars is as follows: $923.4 million for the iron oxide option, $42.4 million to $966.4 million (depending on the extent of surface facility involvement required) for the partial iron shot fill option, $1,012 million for the complete iron shot fill option, and $134.7 million for the integral filler option (Appendix A). All of the filler options evaluated showed improvements in some aspects of pre- and post-closure waste package and repository performance. However, all of the options, except for the integral filler option, negatively impacted other areas of performance, required modification to surface facility design and operations, and invoked additional uncertainty. The iron oxide filler option will require further testing to measure thermal conductivity to ensure that peak cladding temperatures will not exceed the 350 C limit. The complete iron shot fill option may require structural improvements to the waste package design (use of partial shot fill may eliminate this concern). Both the iron shot and iron oxide options will also require further testing to confirm that the conceptual loading strategy will efficiently load a waste package in a timely manner. In addition, both shot and oxide options will require further testing to develop models for their potential to provide resistance to water flow, and, in the case of iron shot, act as an oxygen getter. Finally, uncertainty also exists as to whether the iron shot option will damage the cladding if sufficient corrosion of the shot occurs. Based on the results presented in this evaluation, the integral filler option appears to be the simplest and most cost efficient method for achieving modest improvements in pre- and post-closure performance. Since unqualified inputs were used in the development of this evaluation, they should be considered TBV (to be verified). This document will not directly support any construction

  8. Effect of Chemistry Variations in Plate and Weld Filler Metal on the Corrosion Performance of Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys

    Fix, D V; Rebak, R B

    2006-02-05

    The ASTM standard B 575 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloys such as Alloy 22 (N06022) and Alloy 686 (N06686). The compositions of each element are given in a range. For example, the content of Mo is specified from 12.5 to 14.5 weight percent for Alloy 22 and from 15.0 to 17.0 weight percent for Alloy 686. It was important to determine how the corrosion rate of welded plates of Alloy 22 using Alloy 686 weld filler metal would change if heats of these alloys were prepared using several variations in the composition of the elements even though still in the range specified in B 575. All the material used in this report were especially prepared at Allegheny Ludlum Co. Seven heats of plate were welded with seven heats of wire. Immersion corrosion tests were conducted in a boiling solution of sulfuric acid plus ferric sulfate (ASTM G 28 A) using both as-welded (ASW) coupons and solution heat-treated (SHT) coupons. Results show that the corrosion rate was not affected by the chemistry of the materials in the range of the standards.

  9. Desire for penile girth enhancement and the effects of the self-injection of hyaluronic acid gel

    Enis Rauf Coskuner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

  10. Mechanical properties of dental composite materials reinforced with micro and nano-size Al2O3 filler particles

    Composite specimens were prepared by dispersion of various amounts of nano-sized Al2O3 fillers in a monomer system containing 60percentBis-GMA and 40percentTEGDMA. For comparative purposes, composite samples containing micrometer size Al2O3 fillers were also prepared following the same procedure. The mechanical properties of the light- cured samples were assessed by three-point flexural strength, diametral tensile strength, and microhardness tests. The results indicated a more than hundred percent increase in the flexural strength and nearly an eighty percent increase in the diametral tensile strength values in the samples containing nano-size Al2O3 filler particles. It is interesting to note that, this improvement was observed at a much lower nano-size filler content. Fracture surfaces analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, indicated a brittle type of fracture in both sets of specimens.

  11. Bismuth subcarbonate as filler particle for an Epoxy-based root canal sealer

    Eduardo Schwartzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of bismuth subcarbonate with different concentrations regarding the rheological properties of an experimental epoxy-based root canal sealer. Materials and Methods: Endodontic sealers were prepared with epoxy resin-based sealer with bismuth subcarbonate additions of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, and 120%. Flow, film thickness, working time, setting time, dimensional change, sorption, solubility, and cytotoxicity were studied according to the ISO standards. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparisons were used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The flow, working time, water sorption, and solubility significantly decreased and the film thickness and dimensional change increased with higher filler particle addition. There were no statistically significant differences for setting time and cytotoxicity between the filler particle proportions. Conclusion: Experimental resin-based sealer with bismuth subcarbonate addition up to 40% can be an alternative for root canal sealer.

  12. Identifying appropriate conditions for producing spindle-like causticizing precipitated calcium carbonate for paper filler applications

    Jin Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Causticizing precipitated calcium carbonate (CPCC as a by-product of the green liquor causticizing process can be used as paper filler to save resources and reduce costs. In this study, CPCC was prepared with green liquor and quicklime, which were obtained from an alkali recovery line of a paper mill. The factors influencing crystal morphology of CPCC, such as slaking temperature, slaking time, and causticizing time were investigated. The morphology of CPCC was observed and analyzed for optimizing reaction conditions. The following were compared: properties of CPCC obtained in this study, conventional CPCC (white mud from a paper mill, and commercial PCC as fillers. The results showed that slaking time and causticizing time were important for morphology control. Spindle-like and rod-like CPCC obtained in this study had better drainability and retention, higher paper bulk, opacity, and physical strength compared to conventional CPCC, and had nearly the same performances as commercial PCC.

  13. Techniques for hot embossing microstructures on liquid silicone rubbers with fillers

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    Embossing is an established process for the thermoplastic elastomers but not yet for the thermosetting elastomers. It has already been shown that hot embossing is a viable technology for imprinting microstructures in addition to curing thin silicone films at their gel point. It is one of the...... simplest, most cost-effective, and time-saving methods for replicating microstructures. In the present study, films made fromliquid silicone rubber (LSR) formulations containing fillers are hot embossed under modified operating conditions. The use of such relatively hard silicone elastomers shows the...... versatility of this method that has been established for softer silicone elastomers. Also, as a proof of concept, a microstructured metal (nickel (Ni)) plate is used as an embosser for the films successfully. The ideal condition for hot embossing the LSR formulation (XLR 630 with titanium dioxide fillers...

  14. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

    Bliss, Mary

    2007-09-12

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.

  15. Influence of Filler Metals in Welding Wires on the Phase and Chemical Composition of Weld Metal

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Osetkovskiy, I. V.; Kozyreva, O. A.; Zernin, E. A.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of filler metals used in welding wires on the phase and chemical composition of the metal, which is surfaced to mining equipment exposed to abrasive wear, has been investigated. Under a laboratory environment, samples of Mo-V-B and Cr-Mn-Mo-V wires were made. The performed experiments have revealed that fillers of the Cr-Mn-Mo-V system used in powder wire show better wear resistance of the weld metal than that of the Mn-Mo-V-B system; the absence of boron, which promotes grain refinement in the Mn-Mo-V-B system, significantly reduces wear resistance; the Mn-Mo-V-B weld metal has a finer structure than the Cr-Mn-Mo-V weld metal.

  16. Interfacial structure and joint strengthening in arc brazed galvanized steels with copper based filler

    LI Rui-feng; YU Zhi-shui; QI Kai

    2006-01-01

    Galvanized steel sheets were joined by tungsten inert gas(TIG) and metal inert gas(MIG) brazing process using copper based filler. The results show that the joint zone hardness is higher than that of the base material or copper filler from the microhardness tests of TIG brazing specimens, and the fracture spot is at the base materials zone from the tensile tests of MIG brazing specimens. Examination using energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals the presence of intermetallic compound Fe5Si3(Cu) in the joint. The dispersal of fine Fe5Si3(Cu) particles is the main strengthening factor for the joint. The Fe5Si3(Cu) particles are determined to arise from three sources, namely, spot micro-melt, whisker-like fragmentation and dissolve-separation actions.

  17. Structure and performance of polymer-derived bulk ceramics determined by method of filler incorporation

    The effect of four distinct methods of incorporating fillers into a preceramic polymer matrix was investigated with respect to the structural and mechanical properties of the resulting materials. Investigations were conducted with a polysiloxane/Al2O3/ZrO2 model system used as a precursor for mullite/ZrO2 composites. A quantitative evaluation of the uniformity of filler distribution was obtained by employing a novel image analysis. While solvent-free mixing led to a heterogeneous distribution of constituents resulting in limited mechanical property values, a strong improvement of material homogeneity and properties was obtained by using solvent-assisted methods. The results demonstrate the importance of the processing route on final characteristics of polymer-derived ceramics

  18. Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide establishes the essential and desirable elements of data required for the identification in computerized material property databases of fibers, fillers, and core materials used in composite materials. A recommended format for entry of these fields into a computerized database is provided. Examples of the application of this guide are also included. 1.2 The recommended format described in this guide is suggested for use in recording data in a database, which is different from contractural reporting of actual test results. The latter type of information is described in materials specifications shown in business transactions and is subject to agreement between vendor and purchaser. 1.3 The materials covered by this guide include fibers, both continuous and discontinuous, and fillers of various geometries which are used as reinforcements in composite materials, as well as core materials used in sandwich composites. Cores may be foam, honeycomb, or naturally occurring materials such as balsa wood....

  19. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    E. Surojo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.

  20. Hybrid 2D-3D modelling of GTA welding with filler wire addition

    Traidia, Abderrazak

    2012-07-01

    A hybrid 2D-3D model for the numerical simulation of Gas Tungsten Arc welding is proposed in this paper. It offers the possibility to predict the temperature field as well as the shape of the solidified weld joint for different operating parameters, with relatively good accuracy and reasonable computational cost. Also, an original approach to simulate the effect of immersing a cold filler wire in the weld pool is presented. The simulation results reveal two important observations. First, the weld pool depth is locally decreased in the presence of filler metal, which is due to the energy absorption by the cold feeding wire from the hot molten pool. In addition, the weld shape, maximum temperature and thermal cycles in the workpiece are relatively well predicted even when a 2D model for the arc plasma region is used. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualification of new filler metal made of high chromium content nickel base alloy

    A study has been carried out by EDF and FRAMATOME in the context of the French Association for design and manufacturing rules of nuclear power boiler's equipment, to research then qualify filler metals dedicated to the welding of the new nickel base including 30 % chromium alloy components of PWR. The aim is to assess their weldability and their stress corrosion behaviour in the conditions prevailing in the primary cooling system of PWR and to compare with products generally used. Moreover, numerous qualification tests have been carried out to verify that such metals meet the criteria accepted in the RCC-M code. Results allowed to qualify some filler metals made of nickel base alloy of qualify equivalent to the one of NC30Fe including 30 % chromium base metals. These metals are at present time used in manufacturing. (authors). 5 figs

  2. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites

  3. Structure and performance of polymer-derived bulk ceramics determined by method of filler incorporation

    Konegger, T.; Schneider, P.; Bauer, V.; Amsüss, A.; Liersch, A.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of four distinct methods of incorporating fillers into a preceramic polymer matrix was investigated with respect to the structural and mechanical properties of the resulting materials. Investigations were conducted with a polysiloxane/Al2O3/ZrO2 model system used as a precursor for mullite/ZrO2 composites. A quantitative evaluation of the uniformity of filler distribution was obtained by employing a novel image analysis. While solvent-free mixing led to a heterogeneous distribution of constituents resulting in limited mechanical property values, a strong improvement of material homogeneity and properties was obtained by using solvent-assisted methods. The results demonstrate the importance of the processing route on final characteristics of polymer-derived ceramics.

  4. Friction and wear of HNBR with different fillers under dry rolling and sliding conditions

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxide cured hydrogenated acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (HNBR compounds with 20 parts per hundred rubber (phr active fillers, such as carbon black (CB, multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT and silica were produced and their friction and wear properties under unlubricated rolling and sliding conditions were evaluated. The network-related properties of the HNBR compounds were deduced from dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The coefficient of friction (COF and the specific wear rate (Ws were determined in different home-made test rigs. The CB and MWCNT containing HNBR compounds exhibited the best resistance to rolling and sliding wear, respectively, among the HNBR systems studied. The worn surfaces were inspected in scanning electron microscope (SEM and the wear mechanisms were analyzed and discussed in respect to the types of wear and fillers.

  5. The effects of fillers on polyurethane resin-based electrical insulators

    Altafim Ruy Alberto Corrêa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly widespread use of polymeric insulators in vehicle distributors and transmission systems has led to an ongoing quest for quality and low costs. This quest has, in turn, resulted in improved performance and cost benefits, brought about by the use of new polymeric and composite resins. Occasionally, however, while some properties are improved, others may show a loss of optimal performance. Therefore, to understand the behavior of fillers, such as carbon black, silica and mica added to castor oil-derived polyurethane resins, several thermal, mechanical and electrical tests were conducted on samples and insulators produced specifically for this purpose, using these new materials. The results of these tests clearly demonstrated that this type of resin and its composites can be used to manufacture indoor electrical insulators and that the fillers analyzed in this study improve or maintain the characteristics of the pure resins.

  6. Teaching Fillers, Discourse Markers and Adjacency Pairs to College Stu-dents

    王蓓

    2015-01-01

    Speaking has long been underestimated in College English education, compared with reading , writing and listening. Even In universities where spoken courses are provided, verbal filler and discourse markers which vastly exist in native speaker ’s corpora are rarely found in these prescribed spoken course books. For the teaching of adjacency pairs, which are always one of the focuses in teaching conversation skills in College English spoken program ,students are required to make up a new one based on the given scenario after they have memorized model dialogues. Unfortunately, students always experience pragmatic difficulty when they interact with people in the real world if they are guided by this approach. This article suggests a triangle which is com⁃posed of exposure, instruction and practice to teach verbal filler, discourse markers and adjacency pairs. This triangle combines both direct approach and indirect approach. Furthermore, in spoken program , English teachers can adapt spoken course books to integrate features of authentic conversations.

  7. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  8. Effect of fillers Granulated slag on the durability of HPC in marine environment

    Tebbal Nadia; El abidine Rahmouni Zine; Djendi Zoubir

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of fillers of silica fume and blast furnace slag on the durability of high performance concretes was studied .The storage media are: seawater and tap water as reference. This work focuses on the effect of the incorporation of different amounts of milk more silica fume on the mechanical strength of concretes with limestone cements and its influence on sustainability with respect to marine. The results show that the addition of quantity 10%slag and 5% silica fume offers the ...

  9. Rubber Composites Based on Polar Elastomers with Incorporated Modified and Unmodified Magnetic Filler

    Kruželák, Ján; Sýkora, Richard; Dosoudil, Rastislav; Hudec, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Rubber magnetic composites were prepared by incorporation of unmodified and surface modified strontium ferrite into rubber matrices based on NBR and NBR/PVC. Strontium ferrite was dosed to the rubber matrices in concentration scale ranging from 0 to 100 phr. The main goal was to investigate the influence of the type of ferrite on the curing process, physical-mechanical and magnetic properties of composites. The mutual interactions between the filler and rubber matrices were investigated by de...

  10. Encapsulated high temperature PCM as active filler material in a thermocline-based thermal storage system

    Muñoz-Sánchez, B.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Madina, Virginia; Izagirre, Usoa; Unzurrunzaga-Iturbe, A.; García-Romero, A.

    2015-01-01

    A great concern in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is to boost energy harvesting systems, by finding materials with enhanced thermal performance. Phase Change Materials (PCM) have emerged as a promising option, due to their high thermal storage density compared to sensible storage materials currently used in CSP. A thermal storage system for solar power plants is proposed, a thermocline tank with PCM capsules together with filler materials, based on multi-layered solid-PCM (MLSPCM) thermocline...

  11. Delayed Gel Indurations as an Adverse Effect of Polyacrylamide Filler and Its Easy Treatment

    Hossein Kavoussi; Ali Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Background. The more increasing use of permanent soft tissue fillers such as polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) for aesthetic purposes, the more adverse events resulting from them are reported. Occasionally, nonserious complications and misdiagnosis result in unnecessary surgeries and sequels. Objective. To introduce delayed gel indurations (DGIs) as a late onset complication of PAAG and its easy treatment. Patient and Methods. Twenty patients (17 females and 3 males) referred to us with subcutan...

  12. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Carrasco, M. F.; Bonavetti, V. L.; Irassar, E. F.

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying...

  13. Impact of kaolin filler on physical and mechanical paper properties formed by ECF pulp

    Ivan Rodrigues dos Santos; Gustavo Ventorim; José Cláudio Caraschi; Jaqueline Silveira Comelato Favaro

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry is the main global consumer of kaolin. It is mostly used as paper filler, due to its lower cost as compared to pulp cost. Color removal process from pulp - chemical bleaching - determines final pulp's characteristics. Effort has been made to make possible to obtain less toxic bleaching processes. This study aims to evaluate the influence of three bleaching sequences, on kaolin retention and paper properties. Industrial eucalyptus kraft pulp, oxygen pre-delignified, was blea...

  14. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    Funt D; Pavicic T

    2013-01-01

    David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential ...

  15. Nano-perlite as an alternative reinforcing filler to silica in PDMS composites

    Ülkümen, Erim; Ulkumen, Erim

    2013-01-01

    Perlite is a highly potential national resource, and its use in silicone elastomer compounds as an alternative reinforcing filler to commercial grade fumed silica is targeted in this thesis work. Thus, comparative results are projected to be acquired. Expanded and raw perlite are characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), BET Surface Area Analyzer, Pycnometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Attrition mill is used to reduce particle size of expanded perlite. Dynamic Light Scattering ...

  16. Magneto-rheological response of elastomer composites with hybrid-magnetic fillers

    Aloui, Sahbi; Klüppel, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    We study the magneto-rheological response of hybrid-magnetic elastomer composites consisting of two different magnetic filler particles at fixed overall concentration. Thereby, we focus on an optimization of mechanical and magnetic properties by combining highly reinforcing magnetic nano-particles (MagSilica) with micro-sized carbonyl-iron particles (CIP), which exhibit high switch ability in a magnetic field. We observe a symbiotic interaction of both filler types, especially in the case when an orientation of the magnetic filler particles is achieved due to curing in an external magnetic field. The orientation effect is significant only for the micro-sized CIP particles with high saturation magnetization, indicating that the induced magnetic moment for the nano-sized particles is too small for delivering sufficient attraction between the particles in an external magnetic field. A pronounced switching behavior is observed for the non-cross-linked melts with 15 and 20 vol.% CIP, whereby the small strain modulus increases by more than 50%. For the sample without the coupling agent silane, one even observes a relative modulus increase of about 140%, which can be related to the combined effect of a higher mobility of the particles without a silane layer and the ability of the particles to come in close contact when they are arranged in strings along the field lines. For the cross-linked samples, a maximum switching effect of about 30% is achieved for the system with pure CIP. This magneto-sensitivity decreases successively if CIP is replaced by MagSilica, while the tensile strength of the systems increases significantly. The use of silane reduces the switching effect, but it is necessary for a good mechanical performance by delivering strong chemical bonding of the magnetic filler particles to the polymer matrix.

  17. Basic principles of creating a new generation of high- temperature brazing filler alloys

    Kalin, B. A.; Suchkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new materials is based on the formation of a structural-phase state providing the desired properties by selecting the base and the complex of alloying elements. The development of amorphous filler alloys for a high-temperature brazing has its own features that are due to the limited life cycle and the production method of brazing filler alloys. The work presents a cycle of analytical and experimental materials science investigations including justification of the composition of a new amorphous filler alloy for brazing the products from zirconium alloys at the temperature of no more than 800 °C and at the unbrazing temperature of permanent joints of more than 1200 °C. The experimental alloys have been used for manufacture of amorphous ribbons by rapid quenching, of which the certification has been made by X-ray investigations and a differential-thermal analysis. These ribbons were used to obtain permanent joints from the spacer grid cells (made from the alloy Zr-1% Nb) of fuel assemblies of the thermal nuclear reactor VVER-440. The brazed samples in the form of a pair of cells have been exposed to corrosion tests in autoclaves in superheated water at a temperature of 350 °C, a pressure of 160 MPa and duration of up to 6,000 h. They have been also exposed to destructive tests using a tensile machine. The experimental results obtained have made it possible to propose and patent a brazing filler alloy of the following composition: Zr-5.5Fe-(2.5-3.5)Be-1Nb-(5-8)Cu-2Sn-0.4Cr-(0.5-1.0)Ge. Its melting point is 780 °C and the recommended brazing temperature is 800°C.

  18. Interactive effects between carbon allotrope fillers on the mechanical reinforcement of polyisoprene based nanocomposites

    Galimberti, M; Agnelli, S.; V. Cipolletti; S. Musto; M. Coombs; L. Conzatti; S. Pandini; T. Ricco

    2014-01-01

    Interactive effects of carbon allotropes on the mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites were investigated. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-graphite with high shape anisotropy (nanoG) were melt blended with poly(1,4-cis-isoprene), as the only fillers or in combination with carbon black (CB), measuring the shear modulus at low strain amplitudes for peroxide crosslinked composites. The nanofiller was found to increase the low amplitude storage modulus of the matrix, with or without CB...

  19. Silver Nanoparticle-Deposited Boron Nitride Nanosheets as Fillers for Polymeric Composites with High Thermal Conductivity

    Fangfang Wang; Xiaoliang Zeng; Yimin Yao; Rong Sun; Jianbin Xu; Ching-Ping Wong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have recently attracted much attention, along with the rapid development of the electronic devices toward higher speed and performance. However, a common method to enhance polymer thermal conductivity through an addition of high thermally conductive fillers usually cannot provide an expected value, especially for composites requiring electrical insulation. Here, we show that polymeric composites with silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride...

  20. Solvent-free fabrication of thermally conductive insulating epoxy composites with boron nitride nanoplatelets as fillers

    Wang, Zifeng; Fu, Yuqiao; Meng, Wenjun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2014-01-01

    A solvent-free method for the fabrication of thermally conductive epoxy-boron nitride (BN) nanoplatelet composite material is developed in this study. By this method, polymer composites with nearly any filler fractions can be easily fabricated. The maximum thermal conductivity reaches 5.24 W/mK, which is 1,600% improvement in comparison with that of pristine epoxy material. In addition, the as-fabricated samples exhibit excellent overall performances with great mechanical property and thermal...

  1. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan δ, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan δ values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan δ curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (Tgelatinization) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  2. Tailoring Cell Behavior on Polymers by the Incorporation of Titanium Doped Phosphate Glass Filler

    W. Chrzanowski; Abou Neel, E. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Bismarck, A.; Young, A. M.; Hart, A. D.; Dalby, M. J.; Knowles, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding tissue response to materials, to enable modulation and guided tissue regeneration is one of the main challenges in biomaterials science. Nowadays polymers, glasses, and metals dominate as biomaterials. Often native properties of those materials are not sufficient and there is a need to combine them, so as to modify and adjust their properties to the application. The primary aim of this study was to improve cell response to polymer (PLDL) using phosphate glass as filler (titanium...

  3. Tissue Engineering of Injectable Soft tissue Filler: Using Adipose Stem Cells and Micronized Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Yoo, Gyeol; Lim, Jin Soo

    2009-01-01

    In this study of a developed soft tissue filler, adipose tissue equivalents were constructed using adipose stem cells (ASCs) and micronized acellular dermal matrix (Alloderm). After labeling cultured human ASCs with fluorescent green protein and attaching them to micronized Alloderm (5×105 cells/1 mg), ASC-Alloderm complexes were cultured in adipogenic differentiation media for 14 days and then injected into the dorsal cranial region of nude male mice. The viabilities of ASCs in micronized Al...

  4. The Surgical Lips Deformity Corrected with Hyaluronic Fillers: A Case Report

    Dragan Stolic; Maja Jankovic; Marija Draskovic; Slobodan Georgiev; Marina Stolic

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic filler is a sterile, biodegradable, viscoelastic, isotonic, transparent injectable gel implant which was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1996. It is used for face reconstruction and modelling.   CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Serbian woman who presented after surgery of cleft lip, primary and secondary palate. We performed a biphasic therapy; in the first stage in the zone semimucosis lips is initially carried incision scar tis...

  5. A Novel Hypothesis of Visual Loss Secondary to Cosmetic Facial Filler Injection.

    Li, Xin; Du, Le; Lu, Jian-Jian

    2015-09-01

    With the current tendency of increasing minimally invasive cosmetic surgeries, some rare but disastrous complications of facial filler injections come into sight, such as visual loss. The study aims to investigate the possible route that the injected droplet accesses the ophthalmic artery to explain and prevent such devastating complications. We searched the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database for cases of visual loss secondary to cosmetic facial filler injection, and reviewed relevant case reports/surveys, as well as accompanying references. Data obtained were analyzed, with special interest in injected sites and filler material, and clinical features of visual loss. Based on the anatomy of facial vessels, we inferred the possible route of injected droplet migrating from injection sites to ophthalmic artery. Most physicians propose a retrograde embolic mechanism, but the culprit artery when injecting different sites is not determined. We consider accidentally breaking into supraorbital artery or supratrochlear artery may cause occlusion of ophthalmic artery when injecting into glabella or forehead region. Speaking of the nasolabial fold and nasal dorsum region, any injections in the anastomosis of the dorsal nasal artery, angular artery, and lateral nasal artery can lead to retrograde embolism. Similarly, in the temporal region, we believe there is abnormal anastomosis between frontal branch of superficial temporal artery from external carotid artery and supraorbital artery from ophthalmic artery. In our hypothesis, we can explain the accompanying brain infarction after iatrogenic visual loss. If the injecting pressure is forceful enough, it may push the embolic materials into middle cerebral artery. Although iatrogenic ophthalmic artery occlusion is a rare complication after the facial filler injection surgery, it is usually devastating. Both the patient and the surgeon should be aware of the risk of irreversible blindness. Ideally, the injection sites

  6. Functionalizable hydrogel microparticles of tunable size and stiffness for soft-tissue filler applications

    Chan, Ka Man Carmen; Li, Randolph H.; Chapman, Joseph W.; Trac, Eric M.; Kobler, James B.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert; Karajanagi, Sandeep S

    2014-01-01

    Particle size, stiffness and surface functionality are important in determining the injection site, safety and efficacy of injectable soft-tissue fillers. Methods to produce soft injectable biomaterials with controlled particle characteristics are therefore desirable. Here we report a method based on suspension photopolymerization and semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) to synthesize soft, functionalizable, spherical hydrogel microparticles (MP) of independently tunable size and stiffnes...

  7. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Fama, Lucia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bittante, Ana Monica B.Q.; Sobral, Paulo J.A. [Food Engineering Department, FZEA, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga (SP) (Brazil); Goyanes, Silvia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerschenson, Lia N., E-mail: lia@di.fcen.uba.ar [Industry Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-20

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan {delta}, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan {delta} values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan {delta} curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (T{sub gelatinization}) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  8. Behavior of limestone filler cement mortars exposed to magnesium sulfate attack

    Senhadji Y.; Mouli M.; Escadeillas G.; Khelafi A.; Bennosman A. S.; Chihaoui R.

    2014-01-01

    In the cement production industry, looking for a less expensive binder using industrial waste and natural resources has become a major concern for the deficit level in the manufacture of Portland cement. However, despite the technical, economic and environmental benefits brought by the use of blended cements, they are associated with disadvantages. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of the incorporation of limestone fillers on the mechanical properties and durability of morta...

  9. Technical assistance for development of thermally conductive nitride filler for epoxy molding compounds

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Song, Kee Chan; Jung, In Ha

    2005-07-15

    Technical assistance was carried out to develop nitride filler for thermally conductive epoxy molding compounds. Carbothermal reduction method was used to fabricate silicon nitride powder from mixtures of silica and graphite powders. Microstructure and crystal structure were observed by using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. Thermal properties of epoxy molding compounds containing silicon nitride were measured by using laser flash method. Fabrication process of silicon nitride nanowire was developed and was applied to a patent.

  10. Polyamide/silver antimicrobials: Effect of filler types on the silver ion release

    Kumar, Radhesh; Howdle, Steve; Münstedt, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: The efficiency of various silver-based antimicrobial fillers (elementary silver and silver substituted materials) in polyamide (PA) toward their silver ion (Ag�) release characteristics in an aqueous medium was investigated and discussed. Anode stripping voltammetry (ASV) was used for the quantitative estimation of Ag� release from these composites. The biocidal (Ag�) release from the composites was found to be dependent on the time of soaking in water and the nature ...

  11. Brazing of SiC Ceramics Using Ag-Cu-In-Ti Filler Metal

    LIU Yan,HUANG Zheng-Ren,LIU Xue-Jian,YUAN Ming

    2009-01-01

    Sintered silicon carbide was jointed with itself using Ag-Cu-In-Ti filler metal successfully. Interfacial microstructure was investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Joining strength of SiC/SiC joints was measured by four-point flexural strength. The experimental results indicate that joining strength has a peak value with the joining temperature increasing, and the max flexural strength reaches 234MPa, however joining strength decreases ...

  12. The properties of compositions containing pre-irradiated graphite as a filler

    Examined are the structure and the physical properties of the compositions containing as a filler, graphite preliminary exposed to neutrons up to an exposure dose of about 1.3x1022 neutrons/cm2. Incorporation of radiation-induced defects into the graphite structure results in an increase in the degree of adhesion of a polymeric binder and in a considerable strengthening of the compositions thus prepared

  13. Functionalization of fillers for the elaboration of new polymers based composites with enhanced fire retardant properties

    Courtat, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In order to protect our environment, toxic compounds have to be replaced to meet the new regulations as well as industrial standards. Therefore, to be environmental friendly, some solutions have to be found in terms of fire safety, since halogenated compounds are still used in fire retardant systems. The way studied to solve this problem was to add silica fillers modified by phosphorous or nitrogen agents into two polymer matrices (polypropylene and polybutylene terephthalate). Two different ...

  14. Towards Early Age Characterisation of Eco-Concrete Containing Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone Filler

    Carette, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that concrete represents 5% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mainly originating from the production of cement, the most essential component of concrete. The recent awareness to the environmental challenges facing our civilization has led the cement industry to consider substituting cement by mineral additions, by-products of existing industries. In this work, a combination of limestone filler and blast furnace slag is used to design an “eco-concrete”, defined as a concrete ...

  15. Characterization of a novolac resin substituting phenol by ammonium lignosulfonate as filler or extender

    Pérez, J.M.; Echeverría, J. M.; Oliet, M.; Alonso, M. V.; Rodríguez, F. (Francisco)

    2007-01-01

    In this work two types of lignin-novolac resins have been formulated, partially substituting phenol by softwood ammonium lignosulfonate as filler or extender (methylolated) to study the viability of that substitution when resins will be employed as adhesives in textile felts. A commercial novolac resin was used as reference. Free phenol, free formaldehyde, water content, softening point, and flow distance values were determined in all cases to verify whether the material fulfills specificatio...

  16. Filler model based word level confidence measures for spoken dialogue systems

    Akyol, Aydın; Akyol, Aydin

    2003-01-01

    In conversational dialogue applications it is critical to understand the requests accurately. However, the performance of current speech recognition systems are far from perfect. In order to function effectively with imperfect speech recognition, an accurate confidence scoring mechanism should be employed. To determine a confidence score for a hypothesis, certain confidence features are combined. In this thesis, the performance of filler-model based confidence features have been investigated....

  17. What Are Your Patients Reading Online About Soft-tissue Fillers? An Analysis of Internet Information

    Al Youha, Sarah A.; Bull, Courtney E.; Butler, Michael B.; Williams, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue fillers are increasingly being used for noninvasive facial rejuvenation. They generally offer minimal downtime and reliable results. However, significant complications are reported and patients need to be aware of these as part of informed consent. The Internet serves as a vital resource to inform patients of the risks and benefits of this procedure. Methods: Three independent reviewers performed a structured analysis of 65 Websites providing information on soft-tissue fillers. Validated instruments were used to analyze each site across multiple domains, including readability, accessibility, reliability, usability, quality, and accuracy. Associations between the endpoints and Website characteristics were assessed using linear regression and proportional odds modeling. Results: The majority of Websites were physician private practice sites (36.9%) and authored by board-certified plastic surgeons or dermatologists (35.4%) or nonphysicians (27.7%). Sites had a mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 11.9 ± 2.6, which is well above the recommended average of 6 to 7 grade level. Physician private practice sites had the lowest scores across all domains with a notable lack of information on complications. Conversely, Websites of professional societies focused in plastic surgery and dermatology, as well as academic centers scored highest overall. Conclusions: As the use of soft-tissue fillers is rising, patients should be guided toward appropriate sources of information such as Websites sponsored by professional societies. Medical professionals should be aware that patients may be accessing poor information online and strive to improve the overall quality of information available on soft-tissue fillers.

  18. Development of mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds using functionalized silica nano-fillers for the control of cellular functions

    Griffin, M.; Nayyer, L.; Butler, P. E.; R.G. Palgrave; Seifalian, A. M.; Kalaskar, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficient method to produce mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds which can alter cellular functions using two different functionalized (OH and NH2) silica nano-fillers. Fumed silica-hydroxyl and fumed silica-amine nano-fillers were mixed with a biocompatible polymer (POSS-PCU) at various wt% to produce scaffolds. XPS and mechanical testing demonstrate that bulk mechanical properties are modified without changing the scaffold's surface chemistry. Mechanical testing showed s...

  19. The increase of the light collection from scintillation strip with hole for WLS fiber using various types of fillers

    Simonenko, A; Baranov, V; Budagov, J; Chokheli, D; Davydov, Yu; Glagolev, V; Kharzheev, Yu; Kolomoetz, V; Shalyugin, A; Tereschenko, V

    2016-01-01

    The light collection of the extruded scintillator strip samples with WLS fibers placed in the longitudinal hole in the plates was measured. The holes were filled with various liquid fillers. Measurements were carried out under irradiation by cosmic muons. The method of pumping liquid filler with viscosity more than 10 Pa*s in the strip hole with WLS fiber inside was designed and successfully tested.

  20. The Effect of Incobotulinumtoxin A and Dermal Filler Treatment on Perception of Age, Health, and Attractiveness of Female Faces

    Fink, Bernhard; Prager, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Facial age, health, and attractiveness assessments play a major role in human social interaction and affect the way we perceive and think about others. Modern cosmetic dermatology provides a bewildering array of facial treatment procedures with botulinum toxin type A and dermal filler application being the most requested. The authors sought to determine the effect of facial rejuvenation procedures, such as application of incobotulinumtoxin A and dermal filler injections, on people...

  1. Effect of polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan resinate tablets

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Priprem, Aroonsri; Chitropas, Padungkwan; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan (DMP) tablets. DMP resinates were formed by a complexation of DMP and strong cation exchange resins, Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69. The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct compression fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), and spray-dried...

  2. Roller Compaction, Granulation and Capsule Product Dissolution of Drug Formulations Containing a Lactose or Mannitol Filler, Starch, and Talc

    Chang, Chialu Kevin; Alvarez–Nunez, Fernando A.; Rinella Jr., Joseph V.; Magnusson, Lars-Erik; Sueda, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of excipient composition to the roller compaction and granulation characteristics of pharmaceutical formulations that were comprised of a spray-dried filler (lactose monohydrate or mannitol), pregelatinized starch, talc, magnesium stearate (1% w/w) and a ductile active pharmaceutical ingredient (25% w/w) using a mixed-level factorial design. The main and interaction effects of formulation variables (i.e., filler type, starch content, and talc content) to ...

  3. Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of A Nanosized Sulfated TiO2 Filler and of Nanocomposite Nafion Membranes

    Valentina Allodi; Sergio Brutti; Marco Giarola; Mirko Sgambetterra; Maria Assunta Navarra; Stefania Panero; Gino Mariotto

    2016-01-01

    A large number of nano-sized oxides have been studied in the literature as fillers for polymeric membranes, such as Nafion®. Superacidic sulfated oxides have been proposed and characterized. Once incorporated into polymer matrices, their beneficial effect on peculiar membrane properties has been demonstrated. The alteration of physical-chemical properties of composite membranes has roots in the intermolecular interaction between the inorganic filler surface groups and the polymer chains. In t...

  4. PRE-FLOCCULATION OF PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLER BY CATIONIC STARCH FOR HIGHLY FILLED MECHANICAL GRADE PAPER

    Yizhou Sang,; Michael McQuaid; Peter Englezos

    2011-01-01

    Three commercial starches were evaluated in conjunction with colloidal silica and flocculant to retain precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler. A unique feature of this study was the fact that the filler was pre-flocculated by a portion of starch (2kg starch/t PCC) and the rest of the starch was added after the flocculant but before the silica. The pulp used was peroxide bleached thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). A statistical design methodology was employed and empirical process models were ...

  5. Fabrication and anti-microbial evaluation of drug loaded polylactide space filler intended for ridge preservation following tooth extraction

    Nebu George Thomas; Sanil, George P.; Gopimohan Rajmohan; Prabhakaran, Jayachandran V.; Amulya K Panda

    2011-01-01

    Background: The preservation or reduction of alveolar ridge resorption following tooth extraction is important in patients especially for those intended for implants at a later stage. One way to achieve this is by using membranes, graft materials, and biodegradable space fillers to prevent alveolar bone resorption and promote regeneration. A major attraction for using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers as space fillers for ridge preservation is their safety profile in comparison to xeno...

  6. Effect of vertebroplasty filler materials on viability and gene expression of human nucleus pulposus cells.

    Lazáry, Aron; Speer, Gábor; Varga, Péter Pál; Balla, Bernadett; Bácsi, Krisztián; Kósa, János P; Nagy, Zsolt; Takács, István; Lakatos, Péter

    2008-05-01

    Consequences of intradiscal cement leakage--often occurring after vertebral cement augmentation for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures--are still unknown. In this study, we have investigated the influences of vertebroplasty filler materials (polymethylmethacrylate-, calcium phosphate- and calcium sulfate-based bone cement) on isolated nucleus pulposus cells. Cell viability of cultured human nucleus pulposus cells were measured after treatment with vertebroplasty filler materials. Gene expression profile of selected genes was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. The widely used polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate cement significantly decreased cell number in a dose- and time-dependent manner while calcium sulfate cement affected cell viability less. Expression of genes involved in matrix metabolism of nucleus pulposus--aggrecan, collagens, small proteoglycans--as well as important transcription factors have also significantly changed due to treatment (e.g., 2.5-fold decrease in aggrecan expression was determined in cultures due to polymethylmethacrylate treatment). Our results suggest that vertebroplasty filler materials--depending on the type of applied material--can accelerate the degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells resulting in a less flexible disc in case of intradiscal cement leakage. This process may increase the risk of a subsequent new vertebral fracture, the main complication of vertebral augmentation. PMID:18176942

  7. Fundamental study on separation and recovery technique of uranium from chemical trap fillers

    Various kinds of chemical traps are used for the removal of gaseous radionuclides, fluorine, etc in the process-off gas of uranium conversion facility or similar facilities. The spent fillers such as sodium fluoride (NaF), magnesium fluoride (CaF2), or activated alumina (Al2O3) from the chemical traps should be reused as useful materials, or converted into general industrial wastes so as to reduce the amount of radioactive waste, wherever possible. Molten salt technique can be considered as a feasible technique to be applied for the removal of radionuclides from the spent fillers. The mixed salt, NaF with sodium chloride (NaCl) was used in this experiment. The uranium concentration in the molten salt, pre-treatment condition, electrolytic temperature, current density, etc was used as parameters. Several fundamental experiments were carried out, and the obtained results were analyzed and evaluated. They indicate that the application of the molten salt technique is one of the potential methods for the removal of uranium from spent fillers. (author)

  8. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites tailored for multifunctionality by filler incorporation

    Han, Seungjin

    This dissertation provides multifunctional carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites for vibration damping, thermal conduction and thermoelectricity. Specifically, (i) it has strengthened and stiffened carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites by the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes, carbon nanotubes and silicon carbide whiskers, (ii) it has improved mechanical energy dissipation using carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites with filler incorporation, (iii) it has increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composite by curing pressure increase and filler incorporation, and (iv) it has enhanced the thermoelectric behavior of carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites. Low-cost natural halloysite nanotubes (0.1 microm diameter) were effective for strengthening and stiffening continuous fiber polymer-matrix composites, as shown for crossply carbon fiber (5 microm diameter, ˜59 vol.%) epoxy-matrix composites under flexure, giving 17% increase in strength, 11% increase in modulus and 21% decrease in ductility. They were less effective than expensive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (0.02 microm diameter), which gave 25% increase in strength, 11% increase in modulus and 14% decrease in ductility. However, they were more effective than expensive silicon carbide whiskers (1 microm diameter), which gave 15% increase in strength, 9% increase in modulus and 20% decrease in ductility. Each filler, at ˜2 vol.%, was incorporated in the composite at every interlaminar interface by fiber prepreg surface modification. The flexural strength increase due to halloysite nanotubes incorporation related to the interlaminar shear strength increase. The measured values of the composite modulus agreed roughly with the calculated values based on the Rule of Mixtures. Continuous carbon fiber composites with enhanced vibration damping under flexure are provided by incorporation of fillers between the laminae

  9. Bio-filler from Mussel Shell: Preparation and Its Effects on Polypropylene Composites Properties

    LI Hai-Yan, TAN Ye-Qiang, ZHANG Lu, CHEN Tao, SONG Yi-Hu, YE Ying, XIA Mei-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste mussel shell stacking with a significant odor and toxicity which are hazardous to human constitutes a serious environmental hazard. For utilization of waste mussel shell resource, granule of mussel shell (YBCC was prepared from waste mussel shell by removing cuticle, crushing, grinding and shearing emulsification and was introduced as a filler to reinforce polypropylene (PP. The characterization results of YBCC show that the mainly composition of YBCC is aragonite (CaCO3 platelets and the particle size distribution range of YBCC powder is from 40 nm to 500 nm, the proportion of organic components of YBCC is about 2.04wt% and YBCC has a good thermal stability. The mechanical behavior of PP/YBCC composite shows a higher yield strain, yield strength, tensile strength and elongation at break than traditional commercial calcium carbonate (CMCC filled PP. Yield strength of PP/YBCC composite with 3wt% YBCC is improved by about 11.1%. A small content (about 1wt% of YBCC can promote the heterogeneous nucleation for PP crystallization and the formation β-crystalline PP. Using mussel shell for producing bio-filler is valuable for industrial production and practical application as fillers for reinforcing polymers.

  10. High Density Polyethylene Composites Reinforced with Hybrid Inorganic Fillers: Morphology, Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance

    Birm-June Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite systems. It was shown that the use of silane-modified GFs had a much larger effect in improving mechanical properties and in reducing linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE values of filled composites, compared with the use of un-modified talc particles due to enhanced bonding to the matrix, larger aspect ratio, and fiber alignment for GFs. Mechanical properties and LCTE values of composites with combined talc and GF fillers varied with talc and GF ratio at a given total filler loading level. The use of a larger portion of GFs in the mix can lead to better composite performance, while the use of talc can help lower the composite costs and increase its recyclability. The use of 30 wt % combined filler seems necessary to control LCTE values of filled HDPE in the data value range generally reported for commercial wood plastic composites. Tensile modulus for talc-filled composite can be predicted with rule of mixture, while a PPA-based model can be used to predict the modulus and strength of GF-filled composites.

  11. Effect of Gum arabic on distribution behavior of nanocellulose fillers in starch film

    Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam; Ammayappan, L.; Huang, Qingrong

    2011-09-01

    Uniform distribution of nanofillers in polymer matrix is posing a major challenge in exploiting the full potential of nanomaterials. Various fillers are being evaluated to improve the performance of biopolymer films like starch. In this work, nanocellulose is used as fillers to increase the performance characteristics of starch film. Due to high surface energy and hydrophilic nature of nanocellulose, they tend to aggregate during the film forming process. To circumvent this problem, Gum arabic (GA) was added to distribute the nanocellulose uniformly. GA helps in reduction of surface energy (as analyzed by contact angle) and thus facilitates the uniform distribution of nanocellulose (as demonstrated through polarized light microscopy). Nanocellulose as filler improved the tensile strength of starch film by 2.5 times while that of uniformly distributed nanocellulose by 3.5 times. Moreover, while nanocellulose as such could reduce the water vapor permeability of starch film by 1.4 times, uniformly distributed nanocellulose reduced it by 2 times proving the importance of GA. Starch film filled with nanocellulose and GA will be a 100% biopolymer-based system having potential demand in eco-friendly applications.

  12. PVDF-Based Micro Inorganic Fillers-Containing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    BAI Ying; WU Feng; WU Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes based on poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDFHFP) with and without different types of micro inorganic fillers were prepared by phase-inversion process.Morphologies, porosities and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared membranes were investigated by means of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), PC (propylene carbonate) uptake and alternating current(AC) impedance technique. Compared with other membranes, the membrane with micro SiO2 filler shows a dense morphology so that its PC uptake is the highest, namely, 339%. The membrane filled with micro TiO2exhibits good electrochemical performances: the ion conductivity is as high as 1.1 × 10-3 S/cm at 18 ℃,which can meet the demand of lithium ion batteries. Moreover, its initial charge-discharge efficiency exceeds89 %. The composite membranes with micro SiO2, TiO2 and A12O3 are more suitable for the utilization in lithium ion batteries due to better cycleability, whereas the battery assembled with the blank membrane containing no inorganic fillers encounters a short circuit after the 5th cycle.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Effect of Aluminum Filler Material on Thermal Properties of Palmyra Fiber Reinforced Composite

    J. Pavanu Sai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber composites are renewable, cheap, completely or partially recyclable, carbon neutral and biodegradable. Their easy availability, lower density, higher specific properties, lower cost, satisfactory mechanical and thermal properties, non-corrosive nature, lesser abrasion to processing equipment, makes them an attractive ecological alternative to glass, carbon or other man-made synthetic fibers. Natural fiber composites are generally very good thermal insulators and thus cannot be used where thermal conduction is desirable. Increase in thermal conduction may be done by adding metal filler powders to the matrix. In this work, the effect of aluminum filler material on thermal properties of chemically treated palmyra fiber reinforced composites is investigated. Thermal properties studied include thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal degradation and stability. Five different samples with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% aluminum powder are considered. With the addition of aluminum filler powder, thermal conductivity increases, specific heat capacity decreases, thermal diffusivity increases and thermal stability improves with maximum at 50% aluminum powder.

  14. Influence of using nanoobjects as filler on functionality-based energy use of nanocomposites

    The goal of our study was to investigate the potential benefits of reinforcing polymer matrices with nanoobjects for structural applications by looking at both the mechanical properties and environmental impacts. For determining the mechanical properties, we applied the material indices defined by Ashby for stiffness and strength. For the calculation of environmental impacts, we applied the life cycle assessment methodology, focusing on non-renewable energy use (NREU). NREU has shown to be a good indicator also for other environmental impacts. We then divided the NREU by the appropriate Ashby index to obtain the 'functionality-based NREU'. We studied 23 different nanocomposites, based on thermoplastic and thermosetting polymer matrices and organophilic montmorillonite, silica, carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multiwalled) and calcium carbonate as filler. For 17 of these, we saw a decrease of the functionality-based NREU with increasing filler content. We draw the conclusion that the use of nanoobjects as filler can have benefits from both an environmental point of view and with respect to mechanical properties.

  15. Volume-to-volume registration

    Harg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of automated volume-to-volume registration applications for three separate registration steps desired in enhancing neurosurgical navigation is considered. Prototype implementations for MRI-to-MRI registration, MRI-to-US registration and US-to-US registration have been made using registration methods available in the Insight Toolkit, with variants of the Mutual Information similarity metric. The obtained results indicate that automatic volume-to-volume registration using Normali...

  16. Characterization of carbon silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires by the STEM–EDX method

    Al-Hartomy, Omar A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al Said, Said A. Farha [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491 (Saudi Arabia); Dishovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: dishov@uctm.edu [Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Ward, Michael B. [LEMAS, Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mihaylov, Mihail; Ivanov, Milcho [Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-03-15

    Dual phase carbon–silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis-cum-water vapor of waste green tires have been characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope, silicate analysis, weight analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. The results achieved have shown that the location and distribution of the phases in the carbon silica hybrid fillers as well as their most essential characteristics are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions. The carbon phase of the filler thus obtained is located predominantly in the space among silica aggregates which have already been existing while it has been formed by elastomer destruction in the course of pyrolysis. The presence of ZnS also has been found in the hybrid fillers investigated. - Highlights: • Dual phase fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires have been characterized. • The STEM–EDX method was used for characterization. • The phase distributions in the fillers are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions.

  17. APPLICATION OF FILLERS IN CELLULOSIC PAPER BY SURFACE FILLING: AN INTERESTING ALTERNATIVE OR SUPPLEMENT TO WET-END ADDITION

    Jing Shen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of fillers at the surface of cellulosic paper is an interesting and industrially-commercialized but not very well-known concept, in which the filler particles are essentially added to the voids of the fibrous matrixes. This so-called “surface filling” can be achieved by the use of fillers together with a polymer solution via film press or size press, an approach that is distinct from both wet-end filling and conventional coating of paper. As an easily practicable process, surface filling has some advantages over direct wet-end addition of fillers, such as minimizing the adverse effects of filler addition on paper strength. Efficient surface filling is somewhat dependent on the specific characteristics of both fillers and fibrous matrixes. Surface filling may provide interesting possibilities for the papermaking discipline; for example, it would open the door to maximizing the cost-effectiveness of paper mills, and efficiently adding new functionalities to cellulosic paper. From both practical and fundamental points of view, systematic exploration and understanding of surface filling of cellulosic paper would be of great significance to the papermaking industry.

  18. Characterization of carbon silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires by the STEM–EDX method

    Dual phase carbon–silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis-cum-water vapor of waste green tires have been characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope, silicate analysis, weight analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. The results achieved have shown that the location and distribution of the phases in the carbon silica hybrid fillers as well as their most essential characteristics are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions. The carbon phase of the filler thus obtained is located predominantly in the space among silica aggregates which have already been existing while it has been formed by elastomer destruction in the course of pyrolysis. The presence of ZnS also has been found in the hybrid fillers investigated. - Highlights: • Dual phase fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires have been characterized. • The STEM–EDX method was used for characterization. • The phase distributions in the fillers are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions

  19. Effect of nano-fillers on the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites with micro-Al2O3 particles

    Highlights: • Nano-fillers were synthesized by a simple urea process. • Ternary filler system with synthesized nano-hybrid fillers was investigated. • Using of nano-hybrid filler for prevent nanofiller aggregation was presented. - Abstract: Nano-AlN particles, AlN/graphene nano-hybrids (AlN/GE) and AlN/carbon nanotubes nano-hybrids (AlN/CNTs) were prepared. The structures, morphologies of synthesized nano-materials were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the morphologies of the synthesized nano-materials were obviously different. In addition, the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites could be effectively improved by adding the produced nano-fillers. Especially, the epoxy composite with AlN/GE nano-hybrids had the highest enhancement in thermal conductivity comparison to the pure epoxy. Moreover, the density of epoxy composites with the synthesized nano-fillers was decreased and the corresponding thermal stability was enhanced

  20. Utilization of rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 and ionizing radiation effect studies on this composite

    In order to improve the dimensional stability, as well as, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, new filler to this purpose has been developed. The mos applied filler to propitiate the features previously mentioned are the glass and carbon fibers, the mineral filler as the calcium carbonate, the talc and the micro glass sphere. The main aim of this work was to study the rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 and ionizing radiation effect studies on this composite, irradiated by electron beam at different doses, since it is constituted of at least 90% of silicon dioxide, and compared with the talc which is the most applied mineral filler. This comparison was made from a compound made through the refined rice husk ash and the polyamide 6 (PA 6), which is one of the main engineering plastic with applications in several productive areas. The samples were injected and irradiated in a electron accelerator. Afterwards, their mechanical and thermal properties were measured. It was also inject automotive parts to verify the processing of the PA 6 with CCA. The results showed that the use of the rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 composite is technically and economically viable. The irradiation of the studied composite (PA 6 with 30% of rice husk ash) did not provide any improvement for the mechanical and thermal properties previously appraised. (author)

  1. Optimization of the crystallinity of polypropylene/submicronic-talc composites: The role of filler ratio and cooling rate

    A. Makhlouf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Micronic and submicronic mineral fillers recently appeared as efficient reinforcing agents for polyolefins in addition to the benefit of bypassing the exfoliation/dispersion problem encountered in the case of incorporation of nanoscopic fillers such as clay. Submicronic-talc, designated as μ-talc, belongs to this kind of new fillers. This work was aimed at searching to optimize the crystallinity ratio of isotactic polypropylene in the presence of μ-talc in relation to the filler ratio of the composites and the cooling rate from the melt. In order to highlight the efficiency of the μ-talc on the crystallization of polypropylene comparison has been made with PP composites containing conventional talc particles. The study has been carried out on samples having μ-talc weight fractions covering the range 3–30%. In the context of optimizing the crystallinity ratio of the polypropylene matrix in the composites, calorimetric experiments have been planned using a full factorial design. The results were statistically processed by analysis of the variance via mathematical models for predicting the crystallinity ratio in relation to the cooling rate and the filler ratio. Contour graphs have been plotted to determine the effect of each parameter on crystallinity. The cooling rate proved to have a significantly stronger influence on crystallinity than the type and content of filler.

  2. Measuring and mitigating inhibition during real-time, quantitative PCR analysis of viral nucleic acid extracts from large-volume environmental water samples

    Naturally-occurring inhibitory compounds are a major concern during qPCR and RT-qPCR analysis of environmental samples, particularly large volume water samples. Here, a standardized method for measuring and mitigating sample inhibition in environmental water concentrates is described. Specifically, ...

  3. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  4. Protolichesterinic acid, isolated from the lichen Cetraria islandica, reduces LRRC8A expression and volume-sensitive release of organic osmolytes in human lung epithelial cancer cells

    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    cancer cells (A549) to PA (20 μg/mL, 24 h) reduces LRRC8A protein expression by 25% and taurine release following osmotic cell swelling (320 → 200 mOsm) by 60%. C75 (20 μg/mL, 24 h), a γ-lactone with a C8 carbon fatty acid chain, reduces VSOAC activity by 30%, i.e. less than PA. Stearic acid (20 μg......We have tested the effect of protolichesterinic acid (PA) on the activity of the volume-sensitive release pathway for the organic osmolyte taurine (VSOAC) and the expression of the leucine-rich-repeat-channel 8A (LRRC8A) protein, which constitutes an essential VSOAC component. Exposing human lung....../mL, 24 h) has no effect on VSOAC. Hence, length of PA's fatty acid chain adds to γ-lactone's inhibitory action. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) activity is essential for swelling-induced activation of VSOAC. PA has no effect on cellular concentration of leukotrienes (5-HETE/LTB4) under hypotonic conditions...

  5. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Carrasco, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

    Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de

  6. Rapid quantification of conjugated and unconjugated bile acids and C27 precursors in dried blood spots and small volumes of serum[S

    Janzen, N; Sander, S.; Terhardt, M.; Das, A.M; Sass, J.O.; Kraetzner, R.; Rosewich, H.; Peter, M.; Sander, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for fast and reliable diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases and to facilitate differential diagnosis of cholestatic hepatopathy. For the quantification of bile acids and their conjugates as well as C27 precursors di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid (DHCA, THCA), in small pediatric blood samples we combined HPLC separation on a reverse-phase C18 column with ESI-MS/MS analysis in the negative ion mode. Analysis was done with good precision (CV 3,7%–11.1%...

  7. Hyaluronic acid in calves defects correction

    Lorenzo Rosset; Mario Goisis

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Since the advent of fillers, new techniques are continuously developed for different uses. In this study, we evaluated the use of hyaluronic acid for calf augmentation. Methods: A total of 42 patients were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent augmentation procedure in our centers under local anesthesia, the operations were completed within 1 h with a prompt correction of the defects. Results: Thirty-nine patients were satisfied with the treatment (93%), while three had complicat...

  8. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 2: Mine drainage -- SP 06B-94

    Volume 2 of these proceedings is divided into six sessions: Mine drainage--Case studies (5 papers); Control of mine drainage--General (6); Control of mine drainage--Dry covers (6); Mine hydrology (6); a Poster session of miscellaneous papers (24); and a section of 59 abstracts. 78 papers dealing with or applicable to coal or uranium mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Ajout de phosphogypse à des mortiers à base de cendres volantes et filler calcaire Addition of phosphogypsum to blended mortars based on fly ash and limestone filler

    Alami Talbi M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier la possibilité de la valorisation du phosphogypse dans les matériaux de construction vue sa grande disponibilité comme sous-produit de l’industrie des phosphates. Nous étudions l’effet de l’ajout du phosphogypse sur un mélange de clinker, cendres volantes et filler calcaire. Les échantillons sont préparés par l’ajout de 10% de phosphogypse et de 30% de cendres volantes aux mélanges constitués du clinker et du filler calcaire. Les mélanges sont hydratés et caractérisés par diffraction des rayons X et spectroscopie infrarouge. Des phases cristallines se développent dès le 3ème jour, et on remarque que les phases les plus fréquentes sont : la Portlandite Ca(OH2, la Calcite CaCO3, l’ettringite Ca6Al2(SO43(OH12 26H2O, Ca5(SiO42(OH2 et le gypse CaSO4, 2H2O mais leur pourcentages varient selon les mélanges. La mesure de la durée de prise des mortiers montre que le début et la fin de la prise sont généralement retardés proportionnellement à l’ajout des cendres volantes et du phosphogypse. La microstructure des matériaux a également été étudiée par la mesure de la perméabilité apparente, les résultats montrent que l’ajout du phosphogypse a contribué à une diminution de la perméabilité des échantillons par contre les cendres volantes ont un effet contraire. La résistance à la compression des mortiers montre des résultats concordants, les résistances augmentent avec la diminution de la perméabilité. The objective of this paper is to study the possibility of valorization of phosphogypsum in building materials because his large availability as a by-product of the phosphate industry. We study the effect of adding phosphogypsum on a mixture of clinker, fly ash and limestone filler. The samples were prepared by adding 10% of phosphogypsum and 30% of fly ash to mixtures consisting of clinker and limestone filler. The mixtures are hydrated and characterized by X

  10. Antibacterial performance of ZnO-based fillers with mesoscale structured morphology in model medical PVC composites

    Machovsky, Michal; Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net; Bazant, Pavel; Vesela, Daniela; Saha, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Three different ZnO-based antibacterial fillers having different morphologies in microscale region were prepared by the use of the microwave assisted synthesis protocol created in our laboratory with additional annealing in one case. Further, PVC composites containing 0.5–5 wt.% of ZnO based antibacterial fillers were prepared by melt mixing and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mechanical testing showed no adverse effect on the working of polymer composites due to either of the fillers used or the applied processing conditions in comparison with the neat medical grade PVC. The surface antibacterial activity of the compounded PVC composites was assessed against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P according to ISO 22196: 2007 (E). All materials at almost all filler loading levels were efficient against both species of bacteria. The material with the most expanding morphology assuring the largest contact between filler and matrix achieved an excellent level of more than 99.9999% reduction of viable cells of E. coli in comparison to untreated PVC and performed very well against S. aureus, too. A correlation between the morphology and efficacy of the filler was observed and, as a result, a general rule was formulated which links the proneness of the microparticles to perform well against bacteria to their shape and morphology. - Highlights: • ZnO-based nanostructured microparticles were prepared by microwave synthesis. • Prepared ZnO imparts excellent antibacterial activity to PVC composites. • The microparticulate character of filler makes it processable as common powders. • The inevitable disadvantages of nanoparticles are circumvented. • General rule of proneness of microparticles for antibacterial composites.

  11. 293.15 K到333.15 K温度下一些氨基酸及其相应基团水溶液中的偏摩尔体积研究%Studies on Partial Molar Volumes of Some Amino Acids and Their Groups in Aqueous Solutions from 293.15 K to 333.15 K

    赵长伟; 马沛生; 夏淑倩

    2004-01-01

    Densities of aqueous solutions of eight amino acids, glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-serine,L-threonine, L-arginine and L-phenylalanine, are measured as a function of amino acid concentration from 293.15 K to 333.15K. These data are used to calculate the apparent molar volume V and infinite dilution apparent molar volume V0 (partial molar volume). Data of five amino acids are used to correlate partial molar volume V0 using group contribution method to estimate the contributions of the zwitterionic end groups (NH3+,COO-) and CH2group, OH group, CNHNHNH2 group and C6H5(phenyl) group of amino acids. The results show that V0 values for all kinds of groups of amino acids studied increase with increase of temperature except those for CH2 group,which are almost constant within the studied temperature range. Data of other amino acids, L-valine, L-isoleucine and L-threonine, are chosen for comparison with the predicted partial molar volume V0 using the group additivity parameters obtained. The results confirm that this group additivity method has excellent predictive utility.

  12. Effect of soil fulvic and humic acid on binding of Pb to goethite–water interface: Linear additivity and volume fractions of HS in the Stern layer

    Xiong, J.; Koopal, L.K.; Weng, L.; Wang, J.; Tan, W.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil fulvic (JGFA) and humic acid (JGHA) on Pb binding to goethite were investigated with batch experiments and modeling. The CD-MUSIC and NICA-Donnan model could describe the Pb binding to, respectively, the binary Pb–goethite and Pb–HS systems. The adsorption of humic substances (HS

  13. The effect of different crystal conditions of filler metal on vacuum brazing of TiAl alloy and 42CrMo

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Mo; Wang Guojian; Li Wenyi; Kang Hui; Qu Ping

    2007-01-01

    Ti-based filler metals made by transient solidification and normal crystallization were selected for the vacuum brazing of the TiAl alloy and 42CrMo under different processing parameters. The results show that the tensile strength of the joint of transient solidified filler metal is higher than that of normal crystallized filler metal under the same processing parameters. By the analysis of scanning electron microscope(SEM) and X-ray diffracting (XRD) , it is found that the higher strength maybe caused by the generating of TiAl , TiNi and TiCu at the interface of joint made by transient solidified filler metal.

  14. Mesoporous Silica Gel-Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4-30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores.

  15. Influence of filler existence on microleakage of a self-etch adhesive system

    H Mirmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study evaluated the effect of filler existence in self-etch adhesive resin on the marginal leakage of a class V restoration. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared and restored with a resin composite on the buccal surfaces of 48 premolars lined with unfilled or filled adhesives (n = 24. After thermo cycling, teeth in each group were divided to two subgroups (n = 12, specimens of the first subgroup were incubated for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and for the second group three months in the same condition. Specimens were placed in 50% silver nitrate for 24 h at 37°C, and then were cut buccolingually 1 mm thick. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicroscope and scaled from 0 to 5 in a blind method. SEM images were made to evaluate the dentin-adhesive interfaces. Collected data were analyzed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference between microleakage of filled and unfilled adhesive at 24 h and 3 months (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in cervical microleakage between 24 h and 3 months, which was independ on filler load of the adhesive (P<0.001. In contrast, there was no significant difference in occlusal microleakage between 24 h and 3 months and the cervical microleakage was significantly higher than occlusal microleakage after 3 months. SEM images reveald that unfilled adhesive infiltrate slightly better than filled adhesive. Conclusion: The application of filler particles in a self etch adhesive system had no influence on marginal leakage at both the enamel and dentin margins. While the unfilled adhesive infiltrate better than the filled adhesive, its long term performance is not promising.

  16. Study on development of filler metal for Ni-Cr-W superalloy (joint research)

    Development of filler metal is the important item to be solved in study on development of Ni-Cr-W superalloy for high temperature gas-cooled reactors with coolant outlet temperatures around 1000degC. Effects of minor alloying elements on weldability were studied for the alloy with basic composition of Ni-18.5Cr-21W proposed as an optimum chemical composition for the base metal. On this basis filler metal for the Ni-Cr-W superalloy was developed. The main results obtained were as follows: (1) Minor alloying elements and condition of heat-treatment had large effects on susceptibility to cracking in the weldments of Ni-Cr-W alloy. For this reason, good weldability could not be obtained constantly using alloys within optimum range of chemical composition for the base metal. (2) Improvement effect to reduce susceptibility to cracking in the weldments was little obtained by means of increase in contents of elements which had deoxidizing or desulfurizing effect. Addition of optimum contents of Ti or Mg reduced the susceptibility to cracking in the weldments slightly. (3) It was found that elements such as Zr, Y and B, which were added to the base metal of Ni-Cr-W alloy to maintain high temperature properties, made susceptibility to cracking high significantly when accumulating basic data on weldability of this alloy. Contents of these minor alloying elements were adjusted in the lower ranges than those of the base metal. Filler metal with good weldability for Ni-Cr-W alloy was developed through the investigation of effect on weldability. (author)

  17. Failure mechanisms in cobalt welded with a silver–copper filler

    Criss, Everett M., E-mail: ecriss@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Smith, Richard J. [Electrical Systems and Optics Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire (United Kingdom); Meyers, Marc A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Cobalt silver–copper (Co–AgCu) weldments approximate the stresses and failure mechanisms of beryllium aluminum–silicon (Be–AlSi) welds, which have strategic importance but are hazardous to study. Failure tests of these surrogate Co–AgCu welds, examined in tension and four-point bending, show that residual stresses and post-welding heat treatment have little or no effect on strength, whereas weld quality and geometry are extremely important. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal abundant defects in poor welds, which usually fail through propagation of preexisting cracks. Fracture surfaces show a variety of morphologies, ranging from dimples in the AgCu filler, to cleavage steps in the CoCu peritectic, and suspected intergranular fracture in the cobalt base. Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy reveals significant changes in microstructure near the base–filler interface, whereas wavelength dispersive analysis shows high Cu concentrations in this area.. Contrary to finite element predictions, these welds were found to be stronger during face bending than root bending, likely resulting from the increased number of cracks and imperfections in the Co base. These computations correctly predict that weld strength depends on geometry and that welds fail either in the cobalt base, or along the base–filler interface. Crack compliance measurements show that the largest residual stresses are located along this interface. However, these stresses are unlikely to influence failure due to their direction, whereas stresses in the weld root are too small to have observable effects on failure. The strength of Co–AgCu welds depends strongly on geometry, penetration, and weld quality, but little on residual stresses, and this conclusion is tentatively extended to Be–AlSi welds.

  18. Filled elastomers: A theory of filler reinforcement based on hydrodynamic and interphasial effects

    Goudarzi, Taha; Spring, Daniel W.; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    2015-07-01

    Experimental evidence has by now established that (i) the hydrodynamic effect and (ii) the presence of stiff interphases (commonly referred to as bound rubber) "bonding" the underlying elastomer to the fillers are the dominant microscopic mechanisms typically responsible for the enhanced macroscopic stiffness of filled elastomers. Yet, because of the technical difficulties of dealing with these fine-scale effects within the realm of finite deformations, the theoretical reproduction of the macroscopic mechanical response of filled elastomers has remained an open problem. The object of this paper is to put forward a microscopic field theory with the capability to describe, explain, and predict the macroscopic response of filled elastomers under arbitrarily large nonlinear elastic deformations directly in terms of: (i) the nonlinear elastic properties of the elastomeric matrix, (ii) the concentration of filler particles, and (iii) the thickness and stiffness of the surrounding interphases. Attention is restricted to the prominent case of isotropic incompressible elastomers filled with a random and isotropic distribution of comparatively rigid fillers. The central idea of the theory rests on the construction of a homogenization solution for the fundamental problem of a Gaussian elastomer filled with a dilute concentration of rigid spherical particles bonded through Gaussian interphases of constant thickness, and on the extension of this solution to non-Gaussian elastomers filled with finite concentrations of particles and interphases by means of a combination of iterative and variational techniques. For demonstration purposes, the theory is compared with full 3D finite-element simulations of the large-deformation response of Gaussian and non-Gaussian elastomers reinforced by isotropic distributions of rigid spherical particles bonded through interphases of various finite sizes and stiffnesses, as well as with experimental data available from the literature. Good

  19. Failure mechanisms in cobalt welded with a silver–copper filler

    Cobalt silver–copper (Co–AgCu) weldments approximate the stresses and failure mechanisms of beryllium aluminum–silicon (Be–AlSi) welds, which have strategic importance but are hazardous to study. Failure tests of these surrogate Co–AgCu welds, examined in tension and four-point bending, show that residual stresses and post-welding heat treatment have little or no effect on strength, whereas weld quality and geometry are extremely important. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal abundant defects in poor welds, which usually fail through propagation of preexisting cracks. Fracture surfaces show a variety of morphologies, ranging from dimples in the AgCu filler, to cleavage steps in the CoCu peritectic, and suspected intergranular fracture in the cobalt base. Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy reveals significant changes in microstructure near the base–filler interface, whereas wavelength dispersive analysis shows high Cu concentrations in this area.. Contrary to finite element predictions, these welds were found to be stronger during face bending than root bending, likely resulting from the increased number of cracks and imperfections in the Co base. These computations correctly predict that weld strength depends on geometry and that welds fail either in the cobalt base, or along the base–filler interface. Crack compliance measurements show that the largest residual stresses are located along this interface. However, these stresses are unlikely to influence failure due to their direction, whereas stresses in the weld root are too small to have observable effects on failure. The strength of Co–AgCu welds depends strongly on geometry, penetration, and weld quality, but little on residual stresses, and this conclusion is tentatively extended to Be–AlSi welds

  20. Influence of hydrogels initial state on their ?lectrochemical and volume-gravimetric properties ?n intergel system polyacrylic acid hydrogel ?nd poly-4-vinylpyridine hydrogel

    Jumadilov, T.; Abilov, Zh.; Kondaurov, R.; Himersen, H.; Yeskalieva, G.; Akylbekova, M.; Akimov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of intergel system polyacrylic acid (gPAA) and poly-4-vinylpyridine hydrogels (gP4VP) and conformational properties of initial hydrogels were studied depending on hydrogels initial state. Maximum activation area is: for dry hydrogels ? gPAA:gP4VP ratios 5:1 and 1:5, for swollen ? ratios 5:1, 2:4 and 1:5. ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? (????) ? ???? ????-4-????????????? (??4??) ?? ????????????? ???????...