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Sample records for acid utilization final

  1. Utilization of acid tars

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  2. Detection and Assessment Using Positron Emission Tomography of Genetically Determined Defects in Myocardial Fatty Acid Utilization. Final report, 8/1/93-6/30/97

    Bergmann, Steven R.

    2000-04-09

    An approach using positron emission tomography (PET) was developed, validated and used to measure myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with inherited forms of heart failure. Abnormalities were correlated with the severity of the clinical illness. The approach developed was also shown to identify abnormalities in myocardial fatty acid metabolism in some patients with acquired forms of heart failure. The PET technique thus permits identification of abnormal fatty acid metabolism and provides an approach to evaluate the efficacy of interventional strategies.

  3. Utilization of used oil. Final report

    Mascetti, G.J.; White, H.M.

    1978-08-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of re-refining used automotive and industrial lubricating oils on the national petroleum consumption. The technical base for this assessment is derived from a comprehensive review of the processes utilized in re-refining used oil and those processes used to produce lube oil from crude. Both existing and recently proposed processes are considered. Additionally, an extensive review of processes described in the patent literature is provided. Re-refining processes are surveyed and evaluated. Process descriptions are provided; hardware is identified; and process energy and economic requirements are calculated. Factors affecting the profitability of a re-refining operation are discussed. Economic projections of the demand for lube oil and the ability to satisfy this demand from crude oil are made and the value of lube oil as a vital resource and the need for conservation are addressed. Other factors related to re-refining are discussed, including lube oil characteristics, degradation, lube oil quality and engine sequence testing, and legislative and institutional barriers. Finally, an energy assessment of used oil utilization is made. Two options are considered in this assessment: (1) all used oil is re-refined and recycled back to lube oil; (2) all used oil is burned to recover its heat content.

  4. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches

  5. Acid rain and electric utilities 2

    This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO2, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NOx control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances

  6. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  7. Utility views of acid rain legislation

    The electric utilities consume almost 85% of the coal that is used in the US. The utilities as well as other industries will be seriously affected by revisions currently being considered to the Clean Air Act. We endorse the 10-year scientific National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) which concludes the acid rain is not an environmental crisis but a long-term problem that needs to be addressed. The extreme views expressed by environmentalists and echoed by the media have been rendered unlikely to be correct assording to the NAPAP director. For example, the report found that the majority of North American forests are healthy. In addition, SO2 emissions are down while coal use has doubled since the 70's. However, Congress, by considering any of the proposed Clean Air bills, is ignoring the NAPAP results. Experts from all areas are touting the need for the development of a National Energy Policy which would decrease our reliance on foreign oil and capitalize on the resources in abundance here in the United States -- like coal. The President has urged lawmakers to enact measures that would do just that. Yet the Joint Committee of Congress is marching on with revisions to a Clean Air Act that is already working. This will increase the cost of energy across all areas of industry and call a halt to the industrial recovery in this country

  8. Synthetic fuel utilization. Final report. Task 330

    Singer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of large coal resources in this country provided the spur for consideration of liquids derived from hydrogenation of coal in the search for alternate liquid fuels to replace petroleum. Previous developments particularly in German industry beginning in 1910 and reaching a capacity of approximately four million tons of products a year by 1944 and more recently a series of plants in South Africa have shown the practicability of coal liquefaction. A few more advanced processes have been developed variously to bench, pilot or commercial scale from among the thirty or more which were subject to study. Limitation in the amount of hydrogen used in these for reasons of economy and processing facility results in products containing major amounts of aromatics as well as significant portions of the sulfur and nitrogen of the coal feed. Combustion of the largely aromatic liquids can present problems in commercial burners designed for petroleum fuels, and combustion staging used to reduce NO/sub x/ emissions with the latter may encounter difficulties from sooting in the coal-derived fuels, which occurs readily with aromatics. This report presents a review of such problems in utilization of synthetic fuels from coal, emphasizing basic engineering and scientific studies which have been made. A research program involving a number of universities, industrial laboratories, and non-profit research institutions was carried out under the direction of the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This program is also reviewed. The major subjects covered are those of liquefaction product composition and properties, fuel spray and droplet processes, synfuel pyrolysis, combustion mechanics, soot formation, and pollutant emission. Recommendations concerning needs for investigation are made from an evaluation of the current status of the field and the results obtained in the program. 15 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  9. Utilities availability report for seven candidate salt sites: Final draft

    Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SC) conducted a study of availability and accessibility of electric power and natural gas supplies for each of the seven candidate sites in salt for a nuclear waste repository. The objective of this study is to indicate the existing or potential availability of adequate electric power and natural gas supplies, together with representative routing of reasonable access corridors for utility lines, for the candidate sites at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher and Deaf Smith Counties in Texas, and Davis and Lavender Canyons in Utah. The report describes the major characteristics of each supply and the representative routes by which each supply could be connected to the assumed respective repository site. Included are a brief narrative, maps showing representative utilities access routes, and a summary tabulation of relevant data. The supply routes used in this study are not necessarily the recommended, preferred, or selected routes. No decision affecting the final location of the preferred route has been made, therefore the routes used in this study are not to be construed as an implied decision. The routes and supply sources used in this study are for comparative purposes only, as no final selections will be made prior to site characterization

  10. Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology

    This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  12. Utility guidelines for reactor noise analysis: Final report

    Noise analysis techniques have been extensively utilized to monitor the health and performance of nuclear power plant systems. However, few utilities have adequate programs to effectively utilize these techniques. These programs usually provide low-quality data, which can lead to misinterpretation and false alarms. The objective of this work is to provide utilities and noise analysts with guidelines for data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation of noise analysis results for surveillance and diagnosis of reactor systems

  13. Acid rain conference held as Congress gives final approval to bill

    This article is a report on the New Acid Rain Legislation conference held in Washington, D.C. as the final changes were being made to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The topics covered include a brief synopsis of the amendments, representative Jim Cooper's critique of the electric utility industry, EPA implementation of the amendments, emissions trading, and the preliminary results of a survey of 45 electric utilities' plans for implementing the changes

  14. Least-cost utility planning consumer participation manual. [Final report

    Mitchell, C.; Wellinghoff, J.; Goldberg, F.

    1989-12-31

    This manual is designed to provide guidance to state consumer advocates and other state consumer groups interested in either initiating and/or participating in an Least-Cost Utility Planning (LCUP) process in their state. Least cost utility planning examined primarily as a regulatory framework to be implemented by an appropriate state authority -- usually the public utility commission -- for the benefit of the state`s citizens and electric utility customers. LCUP is also a planning process to be used by investor owned and public utilities to select, support and justify future expenditures in resource additions. This manual is designed as a ``How-To`` manual for implementing and participating in a statewide LCUP process. Its goal is to guide the reader through the LCUP maze so that meaningful, forward-looking, and cost minimizing electric utility planning can be initiated and sustained in your state.

  15. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  16. Utilization of fats and fatty acids by turkey poults.

    Leeson, S; Atteh, J O

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with young, Large White male turkey poults maintained in either floor pens or metabolism cages. In Experiment 1, poults were fed isoenergetic diets containing either no supplemental fat, or 5% of either tallow, corn oil, soybean oil, animal-vegetable blend fat, or canola oil. Poults generally ate less of the fat-supplemented diets and showed improved feed utilization, although weight gain was little affected. There was improved fat retention when vegetable oils were used (P .05). Poults fed tallow or animal-vegetable blend fat also excreted most fat. Diet had no effect (P > .05) on apparent retention of calcium or phosphorus, although retention of magnesium was less with more saturated fats. In Experiment 2, poults were fed diets containing palmitic acid, oleic acid, or a 50:50 (wt/wt) mixture of these fatty acids. There was a reduction (P mineral retention was not reflected in any change in levels of bone ash, calcium, or phosphorus. Feeding palmitic acid did result in the most dramatic reduction of bone magnesium content (P minerals through increased soap formation. However, there is no direct evidence that such soap formation causes a major change in bone calcium or phosphorus content or in gross bone development or poult well-being. PMID:8825591

  17. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  18. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  19. A flexible micro biofuel cell utilizing hydrogel containing ascorbic acid

    This paper reports on a biofuel cell with a dimension of 13×24 mm2 fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate. I its porous carbon-coated platinum (Pt) electrodes of 3 mm in width and 10 mm in length were fabricated using photolithography and screen printing techniques. Porous carbon was deposited by screen printing of carbon black ink on the Pt electrode surfaces in order to increase the effective electrode surface area and to absorb more enzymes on the electrode surfaces. It utilizes a solidified ascorbic acid (AA) aqueous solution in an agarose hydrogel to increase the portability. The maximum power and power density for the biofuel cell with the fuel unit containing 100 mM AA were 0.063 μW and 0.21 μW/cm2 at 0.019 V, respectively

  20. Coal-water slurry as utility boiler fuel. Final report

    Scheffee, R.S.; Boyd, T.J.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; McHale, E.T.; Henderson, C.B.; Glenn, R.D.

    1982-03-01

    Coal-water slurries are a potential replacement for heavy fuel oil in utility boilers. Slurries have the major advantages of low cost, ease of handling, and early availability. A program was conducted to characterize the formulation, processing, handling, combustion, and storage of coal-water slurries made from cleaned coals. Acceptable slurries containing between 67 and 70% coal (by weight) were made from two different coals. A selected slurry was burned with good results in the Atlantic Research Corporation's one-million Btu/h experimental furnace. Approximately five tons (4,500 kg) of slurry were prepared on a pilot line for testing in the four-million Btu/h Babcock and Wilcox Basic Combustion Test Unit. A plant flowsheet was developed for a slurry plant designed to process five-million tons (4.5 x 10/sup 9/ kg) of coal a year. Total plant investment is estimated at $104-million (1980). Assuming a delivered coal cost of $50/ton (800 kg), the production costs are estimated to be $58/ton of coal or $2.14/million Btu. This cost compares favorably to a cost of $4.76/million Btu for heavy fuel oil at $30/barrel. These costs exclude certain ancillary costs such as marketing, fees and permits, insurance, interest on capital, profit, local taxes, and corporate income tax.

  1. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  2. Levulinic Acid Biorefineries: New Challenges for Efficient Utilization of Biomass.

    Pileidis, Filoklis D; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2016-03-21

    Levulinic acid is a sustainable platform molecule that can be upgraded to valuable chemicals and fuel additives. This article focuses on the catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid into various chemicals such as levulinate esters, δ-aminolevulinic acid, succinic acid, diphenolic acid, γ-valerolactone, and γ-valerolactone derivatives such valeric esters, 5-nonanone, α-methylene-γ valerolactone, and other various molecular-weight alkanes (C9 and C18 -C27 olefins). PMID:26847212

  3. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    Nordhaus, R.R. [Van Ness, Feldman, and Curtis, P.C., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  4. The Utilization of Pseudomonas taetrolens to Produce Lactobionic Acid

    Goderska, Kamila; Szwengiel, Artur; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Lactobionic acid is a relatively new product derived from lactose oxidation, with high potential applications as a bioactive compound. Conducted experiments confirmed that both the time and temperature influenced the production of lactobionic acid during bioconversion of lactose using the Pseudomonas taetrolens bacteria. The study also investigated the effect of inoculum concentration on the production of lactobionic acid as a result of oxidation of whey-derived lactose. The highest concentra...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of the rhizosphere soil microbiome with respect to phytic acid utilization.

    Unno, Yusuke; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    While phytic acid is a major form of organic phosphate in many soils, plant utilization of phytic acid is normally limited; however, culture trials of Lotus japonicus using experimental field soil that had been managed without phosphate fertilizer for over 90 years showed significant usage of phytic acid applied to soil for growth and flowering and differences in the degree of growth, even in the same culture pot. To understand the key metabolic processes involved in soil phytic acid utilization, we analyzed rhizosphere soil microbial communities using molecular ecological approaches. Although molecular fingerprint analysis revealed changes in the rhizosphere soil microbial communities from bulk soil microbial community, no clear relationship between the microbiome composition and flowering status that might be related to phytic acid utilization of L. japonicus could be determined. However, metagenomic analysis revealed changes in the relative abundance of the classes Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, Chlorobi, Dehalococcoidetes and Methanobacteria, which include strains that potentially promote plant growth and phytic acid utilization, and some gene clusters relating to phytic acid utilization, such as alkaline phosphatase and citrate synthase, with the phytic acid utilization status of the plant. This study highlights phylogenetic and metabolic features of the microbial community of the L. japonicus rhizosphere and provides a basic understanding of how rhizosphere microbial communities affect the phytic acid status in soil. PMID:23257911

  6. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

    2008-10-31

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

  7. The utilization of Pseudomonas taetrolens to produce lactobionic acid.

    Goderska, Kamila; Szwengiel, Artur; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2014-08-01

    Lactobionic acid is a relatively new product derived from lactose oxidation, with high potential applications as a bioactive compound. Conducted experiments confirmed that both the time and temperature influenced the production of lactobionic acid during bioconversion of lactose using the Pseudomonas taetrolens bacteria. The study also investigated the effect of inoculum concentration on the production of lactobionic acid as a result of oxidation of whey-derived lactose. The highest concentration of lactobionic acid during oxidation of whey-derived lactose at a temperature of 30 °C by microorganisms. P. taetrolens was obtained during 50-h oxidation of the medium, which contained 25 % addition of the inoculum, in which the count of live cells was 2.85 × 10(9) CFU/ml. PMID:24980748

  8. The Michigan regulatory incentives study for electric utilities. Phase 1, Final report

    Reid, M.W.; Weaver, E.M. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-06-17

    This is the final report of Phase I of the Michigan Regulatory Incentives Study for Electric Utilities, a three-phase review of Michigan`s regulatory system and its effects on resource selection by electric utilities. The goal of Phase I is to identify and analyze financial incentive mechanisms that encourage selection of resources in accord with the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) or least-cost planning (LCP). Subsequent study phases will involve further analysis of options and possibly a collaborative formal effort to propose regulatory changes. The Phase I analysis proceeded in three steps: (1) identification and review of existing regulatory practices that affect utilities; selection of resources, particularly DSM; (2) preliminary analysis of ten financial mechanisms, and selection of three for further study; (3) detailed analysis of the three mechanisms, including consideration of how they could be implemented in Michigan and financial modeling of their likely impacts on utilities and ratepayers.

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of the Rhizosphere Soil Microbiome with Respect to Phytic Acid Utilization

    Unno, Yusuke; Shinano, Takuro

    2012-01-01

    While phytic acid is a major form of organic phosphate in many soils, plant utilization of phytic acid is normally limited; however, culture trials of Lotus japonicus using experimental field soil that had been managed without phosphate fertilizer for over 90 years showed significant usage of phytic acid applied to soil for growth and flowering and differences in the degree of growth, even in the same culture pot. To understand the key metabolic processes involved in soil phytic acid utilizat...

  10. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H2O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H2O with buffer containing 1.2 mM 14C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. 14CO2 production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by 14CO2 production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 μmoles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 μmoles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O2 consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 μmoles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine

  11. Skinny on Fat Metabolism: Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Utilization

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E.; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-01-01

    Lipolysis for the provision of fatty acids (FA) for other organs during times of energy demand occurs uniquely in white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent findings have identified a bona fide TAG hydrolase as well as the major adipose phospholipase A2, AdPLA. By controlling PGE2 levels, AdPLA dominantly regulates lipolysis in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Moreover, recent findings demonstrate that, surprisingly, increasing lipolysis in adipose tissue does not necessarily increase serum FA levels, ...

  12. Effectiveness and utility of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis

    Migliore, Alberto; Procopio, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and progressive functional limitation. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid is a treatment option in knee OA that is included in the professional guidelines for treatment of this joint disease, but potentially should apply to all synovial joints in order to reduce pain and improve joint lubrication. Exogenous HA can enhance chondrocyte HA synthesis, prevent the degradation of cartilage and p...

  13. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  14. Acid rain: What the final bill looks like

    This article examines the possible financial impacts of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Topics include an overview of the bill, impact on utility companies, and implications for utility investors. The author feels the bill has important implications for investors who own utility stocks, particularly the stocks of coal-burning utilities in the Midwest and Appalachia

  15. UTILIZATION OF AMINO ACIDS OF BROKEN RICE IN GROWING PIGS

    Matej Brestenský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The six cannulated gilts (initial body weight 35.8 ± 0.5 kg fitted with a T-cannula in terminal ileum, were used to determine the apparent (AID and standardized (SID ileal digestibility of nitrogen (N and amino acids (AA in broken rice. Animals were fed twice daily in a two equal doses at a daily rate of 80 g.kg - 0.75. Water was offered ad libitum. The tested feed was the sole source of protein in the diet. The N-free diet was used to determine the ileal endogenous flow of AA and N. Chromium oxide (Cr2O3 was added to the diets as an indigestible marker in an amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. After a 14 d postoperative period a 6 d adaptation period followed during which the animals were fed with an experimental diet. On d 7 ileal digesta was collected continuously for 24 h. The AID and SID of AA and N were calculated using analytically determined values of N, Cr2O3 and AA. The SID of AA was in a range from 81.6 % (tyrosine to 112.6 % (proline (P 0.05, respectively. There were no differences between standardized ileal digestibility of essential amino acids (94.3 % and nonessential amino acids (95.3 %. Regarding the ileal digestibility of AA, broken rice, a by-product from the food industry, is an appropriate source of digestible AA for growing pigs.

  16. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9% million tons of cement kiln dust is produced annually in Egypt and that cause significant environmental problems. Approach: This study aims to investigate removal of some acid dyes from aqueous solution using cement kiln dust and monitoring the dye in colored cement kiln dust. Solution with 0.4 g L-1 concentration was treated with cement kiln dust until the color of dye disappears. The colored cement kiln residue was separate by filtration and dried. The concentration of dye was measured before and after treatment by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as after washing of colored residue. Also, the colored residue was investigated with, XRD, IR and DSC techniques as well as the loss on ignition at 450°C. Results: The results found that the cement kiln dust has the power to remove all existing acid dyes and the residue has the same color of dye. When colored residue was washed with water, there was no back diffusion of dye in to water. This may be mainly due to chemical reaction that took place between cement kiln dust and dye. Thus analysis such as IR, XRD and DSC are in agreement with these results. Conclusion: CKD is efficient in the processes of dye removal from aqueous solutions. The interaction between acid dye and CKD is fast (just minutes. So, we suggest using spent CKD for dye removal of waste water.

  17. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate.

    Andrea Dueregger

    Full Text Available Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs and long chain triglycerides (LCTs under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1 have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3 as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Utilization of alimentary protein and amino acids in satisfying the nitrogen requirements of monogastric mammals

    The nitrogenous matter in the food of monogastric animals consists mainly of proteins, which are rapidly hydrolized in the intestinal tract when they have left the gastric reservoir. The digestive tube has several roles: it provides for hydrolysis of the food proteins and for a supply of endogenous nitrogen; it enables a certain digestive function to be performed by the intestinal flora and permits the transport of amino acids into the blood, selecting those which are needed for protein synthesis. The digestion products appear mainly in the form of free amino acids in the portal blood. A large proportion of these amino acids is taken up by the liver, so that intense protein synthesis takes place in the latter, coupled with a decrease in catabolism leading to a rhythmic increase in the liver content of proteins and RNA. The labile proteins retained are mainly enzymes, which catabolize the amino acids, and the liver is the site of the catabolism of most of the excess amino acids except those with chain branching. Alimentary deficiencies do not markedly reduce protein synthesis in this organ, since the rate of re-utilization of the amino acids is increased and the liver thus plays a regulatory role. The utilization of amino acids in muscle also follows a certain rhythm, partly connected with feeding, and under hormonal control. The muscle is the seat of catabolism of a large part of the branched chain amino acids, and like the liver it contributes to the energy utilization of amino acids. The rate of utilization of certain essential amino acids can be measured by metabolic criteria, including determination of blood and muscle concentrations and excretion of 14CO2 labels in the exhaled air or of 35S labels in urine. (author)

  19. Utility of lab-on-a-chip technology for high-throughput nucleic acid and protein analysis

    Hawtin, Paul; Hardern, Ian; Wittig, Rainer;

    2005-01-01

    On-chip electrophoresis can provide size separations of nucleic acids and proteins similar to more traditional slab gel electrophoresis. Lab-on-a-chip (LoaC) systems utilize on-chip electrophoresis in conjunction with sizing calibration, sensitive detection schemes, and sophisticated data analysis...... to achieve rapid analysis times (<120 s). This work describes the utility of LoaC systems to enable and augment systems biology investigations. RNA quality, as assessed by an RNA integrity number score, is compared to existing quality control (QC) measurements. High-throughput DNA analysis of...... multiplex PCR samples is used to stratify gene sets for disease discovery. Finally, the applicability of a high-throughput LoaC system for assessing protein purification is demonstrated. The improvements in workflow processes, speed of analysis, data accuracy and reproducibility, and automated data analysis...

  20. Engineering of a Glycerol Utilization Pathway for Amino Acid Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2008-01-01

    The amino acid-producing organism Corynebacterium glutamicum cannot utilize glycerol, a stoichiometric by-product of biodiesel production. By heterologous expression of Escherichia coli glycerol utilization genes, C. glutamicum was engineered to grow on glycerol. While expression of the E. coli genes for glycerol kinase (glpK) and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD) was sufficient for growth on glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source, additional expression of the aquaglyceroporin ...

  1. Effect of citric acid on the utilization of olive cake diets for laying hens

    Al-Harthi, Mohammed A.; Youssef A. Attia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at improving the utilization of olive cake (OC) containing-diets for laying hens by citric acid supplementation at 0.1 and 0.2%. Olive cake was collected and dried by sunny warm air at an average temperature of 45°C with continuous stirring until completely dried. Then, the OC was included in isonutritive diets at 0, 10 and 20%. Additionally, citric acid was added at 0, 0.1 and 0.2%. This resulted in 3(OC levels)×3(citric acid concentrations), producing 9 different treatments. ...

  2. Consequences of different strategies of free amino acid supplementation to dietary proteins for physiological utillization

    Gas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of using free amino acids (AAs) as dietary constituent is sometimes lower than that of AAs derived from intact protein. The aim of the project was to evaluate dietary management conditions, which can determine the efficiency of utilization of crystalline AAs in animal diets or in clin

  3. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  4. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E; Chwalibog, André

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...

  5. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O' Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained

  6. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  7. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  8. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2011-03-10

    Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher

  9. Modern Techniques for Studying the Metabolism and Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds, Especially Amino Acids

    Several techniques have been developed in recent years which make it possible to gain considerable insight into the manner in which compounds are utilized by animals, and to elucidate the role-of various substances in the synthetic processes that animals carry out. By utilizing these techniques it has become possible to determine the over-all metabolic fate of specific compounds in the animal; to establish how rapidly individual compounds are metabolized; and to identify various factors that influence the rate and extent of utilization of compounds by animals. Knowledge of this type is of great interest and is very important for better understanding metabolic processes and their regulation in animals. It seems likely that this type of information will provide the basis for influencing the metabolic fate of compounds in the animal and for ensuring more efficient utilization of substances for the desirable biosynthetic processes that animals carry out. Various techniques are discussed here that are being used to assess die metabolism and utilization of compounds in the intact animal and will give special attention to the role of the amino acids in lactating ruminants. Analysis of the respiratory patterns provides one method for evaluating the specific rate and extent of oxidation of 14C-labelled compounds after these are administered to animals. The rate of appearance of 14C in respired CO2, the time of maximum specific activity, and the subsequent decrease in specific activity, with time, reflect the role of individual compounds as sources of metabolic energy for the animal. The rate of disappearance of 14C-labelled compounds from the blood, with time, can be used to calculate turnover rates, pool sizes, and fluxes of metabolites through these pools. These parameters reflect the magnitude of the metabolic processes associated with utilization of specific compounds and they provide a basis for calculating the quantitative significance of the compound in the animal

  10. Consequences of different strategies of free amino acid supplementation to dietary proteins for physiological utillization

    Gas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of using free amino acids (AAs) as dietary constituent is sometimes lower than that of AAs derived from intact protein. The aim of the project was to evaluate dietary management conditions, which can determine the efficiency of utilization of crystalline AAs in animal diets or in clinical nutrition. The studies in this thesis were focused mainly on differences in short-term catabolism between protein bound and free AAs during the post prandial phase of a meal. The stable isotop...

  11. Conceptual design of a 100-MW fuel cell power plant for urban utility applications: Final report

    Handley, L.M.; Healy, H.C.; Clausi, J.V.; Hall, E.W.; May, G.W.; Oesterich, L.C.

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of EPRI Research Project RP1777-1, Amendment 13. The objective of this work was to define the performance, cost, and configuration of conceptual 100-megawatt fuel cell stations for in-city generation. The study assumed an IFC-developed scenario for introduction of multi-megawatt phosphoric acid fuel cells for electric utility applications. The technology basis of the designs is the IFC 11-megawatt PC23 fuel cell power plant. The PC23 design was extended to produce a 25-megawatt module from the PC23 frame. Two 100-megawatt stations made up of four 25-megawatt modules each were chosen as examples of urban installations. One is intended for unconstrained sites on open land; the other is suitable for constrained sites such as existing buildings. The study concluded that large fuel cell plants can be derived from current technology and that they would have attractive characteristics. There is the potential for hundreds of megawatts of fuel cell capacity in the New York metropolitan area on Con Edison property. The installed cost is less than $1000 per kilowatt (1987 dollars) at reasonably low production rates. The O and M cost is in the range of 7--8 mills per kilowatt-hour. An advanced PAFC system design was defined which could evolve from the baseline 100-megawatt plant. Performance and cost characteristics of that system appear even more attractive and provide a strong incentive for continued R and D and investment in PAFC technology. 32 figs., 37 tabs.

  12. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Simulation of a Wet Sulfuric Acid Process (WSA for Utilization of Acid Gas Separated from Omani Natural Gas

    Ahmed Jawad Ali Al-Dallal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a proposed process for the utilization of hydrogen sulphide separated with other gases from omani natural gas for the production of sulphuric acid by wet sulphuric acid process (WSA was studied. The processwas simulated at an acid gas feed flow of 5000 m3/hr using Aspen ONE- V7.1-HYSYS software. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the operation of plant. This included primarily the threepacked bed reactors connected in series for the production of sulphur trioxidewhich represented the bottleneck of the process. The optimum feed temperature and catalyst bed volume for each reactor were estimated and then used in the simulation of the whole process for two cases namely 4 and 6 mole% SO2 stream fed to the first catalytic reactor. The 4mole% SO2 gaves the highest conversion (98% compared with 6 mole% SO2 (94.7%. A valuable quantity of heat was generated from the process. This excess heat could also be transformed into power in a turbine or used as a heating media in neighbouring process units.

  14. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    Brick, S. [MSB Energy Associates, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Utilization of Molasses Sugar for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii Mutant Uc-3 in Batch Fermentation▿

    Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

    2007-01-01

    Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity...

  16. Distribution of carbon flux within fatty acid utilization during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion

    Twenty-nine intact, working pig hearts were extracorporeally perfused and divided into two study groups (16 Aerobic and 13 Ischemic/Reflow hearts). Step function, equilibrium labeling with [14C]palmitate was used to develop uptake and washout curves of radioactive fatty acid products contained in coronary effluent during either aerobic perfusion or reperfusion after ischemia (60% reduction in left anterior descending coronary flow for 30 minutes). Left anterior descending control flows were slightly overperfused in Aerobic hearts (18% higher than in Ischemic/Reflow hearts); otherwise, circumflex and right coronary flows, left ventricular pressure, and serum fatty acids and blood sugar levels were comparable between groups. As expected in Ischemic/Reflow hearts, recovery of regional systolic shortening and myocardial oxygen consumption in reperfusion was only modestly impaired (-20% and -19%, respectively, not significant and p less than 0.011 compared with preischemic values, not significant from Aerobic hearts). The only significant metabolized product to be released from labeled fatty acid utilization in either group was 14CO2. A smaller fatty acid pool also was measured and accounted for by that contained in the coronary intravascular volume. The authors could determine no significant back diffusion of fatty acids from myocardium in either perfusion condition. Uptake time constants of the early phase of 14CO2 production also were virtually identical in both groups (19.9 ± 3.2 versus 16.7 ± 3.2 minutes in Aerobic and Ischemic/Reflow hearts, respectively) and strongly correlated with hemodynamics as described by heart rate. In washout studies, tissue radioactivity in the aqueous soluble and fatty acid pools declined in both study groups, and counts in complex lipids and cholesterol/cholesteryl esters remained steady, whereas those in triacylglycerols varied

  17. Distribution of carbon flux within fatty acid utilization during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion

    Nellis, S.H.; Liedtke, A.J.; Renstrom, B. (Cardiovascular Research, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison (USA))

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-nine intact, working pig hearts were extracorporeally perfused and divided into two study groups (16 Aerobic and 13 Ischemic/Reflow hearts). Step function, equilibrium labeling with (14C)palmitate was used to develop uptake and washout curves of radioactive fatty acid products contained in coronary effluent during either aerobic perfusion or reperfusion after ischemia (60% reduction in left anterior descending coronary flow for 30 minutes). Left anterior descending control flows were slightly overperfused in Aerobic hearts (18% higher than in Ischemic/Reflow hearts); otherwise, circumflex and right coronary flows, left ventricular pressure, and serum fatty acids and blood sugar levels were comparable between groups. As expected in Ischemic/Reflow hearts, recovery of regional systolic shortening and myocardial oxygen consumption in reperfusion was only modestly impaired (-20% and -19%, respectively, not significant and p less than 0.011 compared with preischemic values, not significant from Aerobic hearts). The only significant metabolized product to be released from labeled fatty acid utilization in either group was 14CO2. A smaller fatty acid pool also was measured and accounted for by that contained in the coronary intravascular volume. The authors could determine no significant back diffusion of fatty acids from myocardium in either perfusion condition. Uptake time constants of the early phase of 14CO2 production also were virtually identical in both groups (19.9 {plus minus} 3.2 versus 16.7 {plus minus} 3.2 minutes in Aerobic and Ischemic/Reflow hearts, respectively) and strongly correlated with hemodynamics as described by heart rate. In washout studies, tissue radioactivity in the aqueous soluble and fatty acid pools declined in both study groups, and counts in complex lipids and cholesterol/cholesteryl esters remained steady, whereas those in triacylglycerols varied.

  18. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  19. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. [Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA (United States)]|[Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  20. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume I of III: Model overview and description. Final report

    1981-10-29

    The National Utility Financial Statement (NUFS) model which takes the output for the electric utility sector from the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) model and forecasts electric utility financial statements is described. NUFS forecasts separately for public and investor owned utilities, the following tables for each region on an annual basis: income statement; balance sheet; sources and uses of funds; development of revenue requirement on an annual basis; reconciliation of tax expenses, current taxes and income taxes at a 46% statutory rate; interest coverage; external financing as a percent of total uses of funds; AFUDC as a percentage of total uses of funds; book value and market to book rate; dividends per share; and actual return on equity. In addition, NUFS has been designed to supply inputs to the MEFS iterative solution process. The first such input is the fixed charge rates for each plant type. This quantity is used to form the objective function for the MEFS electric utility model. The second set of inputs are for the existing MEFS electricity price forecasting module. These inputs are referred to as pricing coefficients and old money revenue requirements.

  1. Descriptive statistics of occupational employment in nuclear power utilities. Final working paper

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations conducted a survey of its 58 member utilities during the Spring of 1982. This was the second such survey performed to identify employment trends and to project needs for trained personnel in the industry to 1991. The first was performed in 1981. The 1982 employment survey consisted of four questionnaires, asking for information on: (1) on-site employment; (2) on-site turnover; (3) off-site employment; and (4) off-site turnover. The survey instruments were designed to reflect approaches used by the utilities to meet the labor requirements for operation of nuclear power plants through off-site support personnel, contractors, and holding company personnel, as well as utility employees working at the plant site. On-site information was received from all 83 plants at the 58 utilities. However, employment information from Surry of VEPCO arrived too late to be included in the analysis. Therefore, their numbers are reflected in the adjusted totals. Responses to requests for off-site employment information were received from 55 of the 58 utilities

  2. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  3. Amino acid production from rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates by recombinant pentose-utilizing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Gopinath, Vipin; Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production. PMID:21796382

  4. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume III of III: software description. Final report

    1981-10-29

    This volume contains a description of the software comprising the National Utility Financial Statement Model (NUFS). This is the third of three volumes describing NUFS provided by ICF Incorporated under contract DEAC-01-79EI-10579. The three volumes are entitled: model overview and description, user's guide, and software guide.

  5. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    To advance the state and nation toward clean energy, Hawaii is pursuing an aggressive Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), 40% renewable generation and 30% energy efficiency and transportation initiatives by 2030. Additionally, with support from federal, state and industry leadership, the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is focused on reducing Hawaii's carbon footprint and global warming impacts. To keep pace with the policy momentum and changing industry technologies, the Hawaiian Electric Companies are proactively pursuing a number of potential system upgrade initiatives to better manage variable resources like wind, solar and demand-side and distributed generation alternatives (i.e. DSM, DG). As variable technologies will continue to play a significant role in powering the future grid, practical strategies for utility integration are needed. Hawaiian utilities are already contending with some of the highest penetrations of renewables in the nation in both large-scale and distributed technologies. With island grids supporting a diverse renewable generation portfolio at penetration levels surpassing 40%, the Hawaiian utilities experiences can offer unique perspective on practical integration strategies. Efforts pursued in this industry and federal collaborative project tackled challenging issues facing the electric power industry around the world. Based on interactions with a number of western utilities and building on decades of national and international renewable integration experiences, three priority initiatives were targeted by Hawaiian utilities to accelerate integration and management of variable renewables for the islands. The three initiatives included: Initiative 1: Enabling reliable, real-time wind forecasting for operations by improving short-term wind forecasting and ramp event modeling capabilities with local site, field monitoring; Initiative 2: Improving operators situational awareness to variable resources via real-time grid condition

  6. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs. PMID:24007993

  7. Phenomenological model of the clavulanic acid production process utilizing Streptomyces clavuligerus

    A. Baptista-Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of clavulanic acid production process by Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 was studied. Experiments were carried out in a 4 liters bioreactor, utilizing 2 complex media containing glycerol as the carbon and energy source, and peptone or Samprosoy 90NB (soybean protein as nitrogen source. Temperature was kept at 28°C and the dissolved oxygen was controlled automatically at 40 % saturation value. Samples were withdrawn for determination of cell mass (only peptone medium, glycerol and product concentrations. Gas analyzers allowed on line determination of CO2 and O2 contents in the exit gas. With Samprosoy, cell mass was evaluated by determining glycerol consumption and considering the cell yield, Y X/S, as being the same for both cases. Oxygen uptake and CO2 production rates were strongly related to growth and substrate consumption, allowing determination of stoichiometric constants in relation to growth, substrate, oxygen, product and carbon dioxide.

  8. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    NONE

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  9. Alternatives for electric utility gas supply risk management. Final report, May 1991-March 1992

    There are a number of potential barriers to using natural gas in the electric utility industry. These include price risk, regulatory barriers and load management problems. Sharing techniques for mitigating these risks will aid strategic planning and the successful commercialization of new technologies. Long-term, 15-year, gas supply contracts have been used extensively to mitigate price risk for project-financed combined cycle facilities. Most electric utilities have preferred price risk to paying the premium necessary to reduce this risk. Price risk is less important for dual fired gas and residual fuel oil and gas cofiring in coal plants because of the alternate fuel capability of these facilities and lower incremental capital cost of conversions compared to the cost of a new combined cycle facility. A number of methods for dealing with gas load management problems caused by combustion turbines were identified. Regulators need to be educated concerning the cost and value of risk mitigation

  10. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  11. Leishmania donovani Utilize Sialic Acids for Binding and Phagocytosis in the Macrophages through Selective Utilization of Siglecs and Impair the Innate Immune Arm

    Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania donovani, belonging to a unicellular protozoan parasite, display the differential level of linkage-specific sialic acids on their surface. Sialic acids binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) are a class of membrane-bound receptors present in the haematopoetic cell lineages interact with the linkage-specific sialic acids. Here we aimed to explore the utilization of sialic acids by Leishmania donovani for siglec-mediated binding, phagocytosis, modulation of innate immune response and signaling pathways for establishment of successful infection in the host. Methodology/Principle Findings We have found enhanced binding of high sialic acids containing virulent strains (AG83+Sias) with siglec-1 and siglec-5 present on macrophages compared to sialidase treated AG83+Sias (AG83-Sias) and low sialic acids-containing avirulent strain (UR6) by flow cytometry. This specific receptor-ligand interaction between sialic acids and siglecs were further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Sialic acids-siglec-1-mediated interaction of AG83+Sias with macrophages induced enhanced phagocytosis. Additionally, sialic acids-siglec-5 interaction demonstrated reduced ROS, NO generation and Th2 dominant cytokine response upon infection with AG83+Sias in contrast to AG83-Sias and UR6. Sialic acids-siglecs binding also facilitated multiplication of intracellular amastigotes. Moreover, AG83+Sias induced sialic acids-siglec-5-mediated upregulation of host phosphatase SHP-1. Such sialic acids-siglec interaction was responsible for further downregulation of MAPKs (p38, ERK and JNK) and PI3K/Akt pathways followed by the reduced translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κβ to the nucleus from cytosol in the downstream signaling pathways. This sequence of events was reversed in AG83-Sias and UR6-infected macrophages. Besides, siglec-knockdown macrophages also showed the reversal of AG83+Sias infection-induced effector functions and downstream signaling events. Conclusions

  12. AMPKα is critical for enhancing skeletal muscle fatty acid utilization during in vivo exercise in mice

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Birk, Jesper B.; Jordy, Andreas B.; Jeppesen, Jacob; Thorsen, Kasper; Schjerling, Peter; Kiens, Bente; Jessen, Niels; Viollet, Benoit; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-01-01

    The importance of AMPK in regulation of fatty acid (FA) oxidation in skeletal muscle with contraction/exercise is unresolved. Using a mouse model lacking both AMPKα1 and -α2 in skeletal muscle specifically (mdKO), we hypothesized that FA utilization would be impaired in skeletal muscle. AMPKα md......KO mice displayed normal respiratory exchange ratio (RER) when fed chow or a high-fat diet, or with prolonged fasting. However, in vivo treadmill exercise at the same relative intensity induced a higher RER in AMPKα mdKO mice compared to wild-type (WT = 0.81 ± 0.01 (sem); mdKO = 0.87 ± 0.02 (sem); P < 0.......01), indicating a decreased utilization of FA. Further, ex vivo contraction-induced FA oxidation was impaired in AMPKα mdKO muscle, suggesting that the increased RER during exercise originated from decreased skeletal muscle FA oxidation. A decreased muscle protein expression of CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36...

  13. Utilization of applied zinc by rice crop in wetland acidic soils

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of rice plant to zinc fertilizer under submerged condition using 65Zn-labelled ZnSO4 in 13 wetland acidic soils of Meghalaya. Application of Zn significantly increased the dry matter yield. Dry matter yield, total Zn content and per cent Zndff of rice plant at 2.5 and 5 mg Zn kg-1 increased significantly from 7.05 to 8.47 g/pot, 66 g/pot to 78 mg/pot and 7.56 to 8.73 per cent, respectively. Per cent Zn utilization declined significantly from 0.188 to 0.131 on enhancing the levels of Zn from 2.5 to 5 mg kg-1. On an average, per cent utilization of added Zn by rice plant was only a fraction of total quantity of applied Zn. Most of the soil characteristics analysed play important role in regulating the availability of added Zn in these soils. (author)

  14. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  15. Study on the Spectrophotometric Detection of Free Fatty Acids in Palm Oil Utilizing Enzymatic Reactions

    Nur Hidayah Azeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453.

  16. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid base neutralization reactions

    Chen, Huabing; Wan, Jiangling; Wang, Yirui; Mou, Dongsheng; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2008-09-01

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  17. Utility of bilirubins and bile acids as endogenous biomarkers for the inhibition of hepatic transporters.

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Miyake, Manami; Shimizu, Toshinobu; Kamezawa, Miho; Masutomi, Naoya; Shimura, Takesada; Ohashi, Rikiya

    2015-04-01

    It is useful to identify endogenous substrates for the evaluation of drug-drug interactions via transporters. In this study, we investigated the utility of bilirubins, substrates of OATPs and MRP2, and bile acids and substrates of NTCP and BSEP, as biomarkers for the inhibition of transporters. In rats administered 20 and 80 mg/kg rifampicin, the plasma levels of bilirubin glucuronides were elevated, gradually decreased, and almost returned to the baseline level at 24 hours after administration without an elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). This result indicates the transient inhibition of rOatps and/or rMrp2. Although the correlation between free plasma concentrations and IC50 values of rOatps depended on the substrates used in the in vitro studies, the inhibition of rOatps by rifampicin was confirmed in the in vivo study using valsartan as a substrate of rOatps. In rats administered 10 and 30 mg/kg cyclosporin A, the plasma levels of bile acids were elevated and persisted for up to 24 hours after administration without an elevation of ALT and AST. This result indicates the continuous inhibition of rNtcp and/or rBsep, although there were differences between the free plasma or liver concentrations and IC50 values of rNtcp or rBsep, respectively. This study suggests that the monitoring of bilirubins and bile acids in plasma is useful in evaluating the inhibitory potential of their corresponding transporters. PMID:25581390

  18. Historical survey of nuclear fuel utilization in the US LWR power plants. Final report

    The present study was performed for the US Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC-01-79ER10020, for the purpose of describing and assessing US experience in fuel burnup and resource utilization over the past 16 years of light water reactor (LWR) power plant operation. The assessment is based on actual spent-fuel-unloading historical data for 55 plants from 1962 through the end of 1978. In assessing these data, some particular data points were eliminated in order that the results might be more representative of zirconium clad UO2 fuel assemblies typical of modern LWR technology

  19. Final Technical Report Laramie County Community College: Utility-Scale Wind Energy Technology

    Douglas P. Cook

    2012-05-22

    The Utility-Scale Wind Energy Technology U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant EE0000538, provided a way ahead for Laramie County Community College (LCCC) to increase educational and training opportunities for students seeking an Associate of Applied Science (AAS) or Associate of Science (AS) degree in Wind Energy Technology. The DOE grant enabled LCCC to program, schedule, and successfully operate multiple wind energy technology cohorts of up to 20-14 students per cohort simultaneously. As of this report, LCCC currently runs four cohorts. In addition, the DOE grant allowed LCCC to procure specialized LABVOLT electronic equipment that directly supports is wind energy technology curriculum.

  20. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  1. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume I of III: methodology. Final report

    1981-10-29

    This report develops and demonstrates the methodology for the National Utility Regulatory (NUREG) Model developed under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. It is accompanied by two supporting volumes. Volume II is a user's guide for operation of the NUREG software. This includes description of the flow of software and data, as well as the formats of all user data files. Finally, Volume III is a software description guide. It briefly describes, and gives a listing of, each program used in NUREG.

  2. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Day–Night Changes of Energy-rich Compounds in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Species Utilizing Hexose and Starch

    Chen, Li-Song; NOSE, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-d...

  4. Plutonium utilization from the viewpoint of non-proliferation, with special emphasis on final waste repository

    Fuel cycle studies have been performed for several strategies in order to identify the characteristic features, problems and limits of multiple recycling of plutonium and minor actinides (MA) in thermal and fast reactors. To this end the code RECYCLE has been developed. An important feature of this code is that it determines iteratively the requisite enrichment of PWR fuel depending on the plutonium composition and MA portion in the fresh fuel. The enrichment is determined such that a reactivity criterion is met after burnup. Three strategies have been investigated for a constant nuclear capacity of 100 GWe over a time period of 100 years: The Once-through-strategy for PWRs, a strategy with complete recycling of all accrued plutonium in PWRs (MOX) and a mixed strategy with PWRs operated with UOX fuel and an appropriate build-up of fast burners being capable of taking up all the plutonium and MAs produced in the PWRs. Special attention has been paid to the piling up of fissile materials in the final waste repository (FWR) which potentially could be abused for nuclear explosives. An assessment of these materials indicates that not only plutonium but also MAs need, to some extent, careful attention from the view point of non-proliferation. The analyses show that the proliferation risk evaluated here mainly with regard to the inventories in the final waste repository can significantly be reduced by closing the fuel cycle, subsequent installation of fast burners and transition to breeding systems at a later period. Every effort along this route is helpful to meet the future energy requirements and to reduce the proliferation risk of the FWR. (author) 11 figs., 13 refs

  5. Utilization of molasses sugar for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation.

    Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

    2008-01-01

    Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity of 4.15 g/liter/h. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale. PMID:17981933

  6. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  7. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL

  8. Final review of analog field campaigns for In Situ Resource Utilization technology and capability maturation

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of enabling an affordable and sustainable program of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is the ability to locate, extract, and harness the resources found in space to reduce what needs to be launched from Earth's deep gravity well and to minimize the risk of dependence on Earth for survival. Known as In Situ Resource Utilization or ISRU, the ability to convert space resources into useful and mission critical products has been shown in numerous studies to be mission and architecture enhancing or enabling. However at the time of the release of the US Vision for Space Exploration in 2004, only concept feasibility hardware for ISRU technologies and capabilities had been built and tested in the laboratory; no ISRU hardware had ever flown in a mission to the Moon or Mars. As a result, an ISRU development project was established with phased development of multiple generations of hardware and systems. To bridge the gap between past ISRU feasibility hardware and future hardware needed for space missions, and to increase confidence in mission and architecture planners that ISRU capabilities would meet exploration needs, the ISRU development project incorporated extensive ground and analog site testing to mature hardware, operations, and interconnectivity with other exploration systems linked to ISRU products. This report documents the series of analog test activities performed from 2008 to 2012, the stepwise progress achieved, and the end-to-end system and mission demonstrations accomplished in this test program.

  9. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  10. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  11. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  12. Utilization of logging waste from mechanical spruce dominated final cuttings; Koneellisen puunkorjuun hakkuutaehteiden hyoedyntaeminen biopolttoaineena

    Ebeling, J [Jaakko Poeyry Consulting Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project has been to improve the economy of collecting logging waste from spruce dominated mechanised final felling. This section of the biomass is regarded as the most promising alternative biofuel source. The project compared different systems of collecting this raw material and concluded, that the most economical way to do this was (1) to integrate the transport of logging waste from the forest to the road side with the transport of logs using the equipment already at the site. The use of a separate tractor proved uneconomical compared to the integrated system. (2) Chip the logging waste at the road side with an integrated chipping and transport lorry (truck) equipped with three 20 feet standard or modified containers. The total cargo space in the lorry is thus around 100 m{sup 3} loose volume. The economical transport distance of this equipment is around under 100 km one way distance. The report contains also detailed drawings of the technical solution arrived at. The main idea is to use a module structure, where the chipper - the Bruks 803CT - is located together with most of the hydraulics, crane and the control equipment. The only outside connections needed are the hydraulic pressure from the pump and the operational unit with the necessary electrical panel. Thus the assembly and installation of the module on the lorry is rapid and the quality of the work can be maintained high. The operation is designed on the basis of one man operation and in such away that the need to for the driver-operator to step down from the controls is minimised. In normal situation the operation can be fully accomplished from the drivers cab - even when changing the containers

  13. Synthesis and utilization of chitin humic acid hybrid as sorbent for Cr(III)

    Santosa, Sri Juari; Siswanta, Dwi; Sudiono, Sri; Sehol, Muhamad

    2007-11-01

    New types of hybrid material have been synthesized by using four different methods of immobilization of humic acid (HA) on chitin. The most stable hybrid material toward the change of medium acidity was then utilized as sorbent for Cr(III). The HA was extracted from peat soil of Gambut District, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, using the recommended procedure of International Humic Substances Society (IHSS), while the chitin was isolated from crab shell waste through deproteination using 3.5% (w/v) NaOH and followed by removal of inorganic impurities using 1 M HCl. The four methods of immobilization of HA on chitin were (i) Method A: chitin powder (4 g) was gently poured into the stirred solution of 0.4 g HA in 40 mL of 0.01 M NaOH. After overnight stirring, the solid was separated, washed with water, and dried in oven at 70 °C. (ii) Method B: gelatinous chitin (40 g) in 250 mL of 0.5 M HCl was reacted with HA (4 g) in 500 mL of 0.5 M NaOH and aged for 24 h. The product was washed with water and dried. (iii) Method C: HA powder (0.5 g) was mixed with the stirred gel of chitin (2.5 g) in 60 mL of CaCl 2 saturated methanol and the mixture was then washed with the mixed solution of 25 mL of 2 M sodium citrate and ethylene glycol 1:1. The solid was separated, washed with water, and dried. (iv) Method D: the solution of HA (0.056 g) in 10 mL of 0.01 M NaOH was reacted with the gel of chitin (0.2 g) in 10 mL of CaCl 2 saturated methanol. After 24 h stirring, the solid was separated from the reaction medium, washed with the mixed solution of 2 M sodium citrate and ethylene glycol 1:1, and followed by washing with water and drying. Parameters investigated in this study consisted of the stability test of the immobilized HA, as well as the rate constant ( k1), capacity ( b), and energy ( E) of sorption as well as the rate constant of desorption ( k-1). The k1 and k-1 were determined according to a kinetic model of first order sorption reaching equilibrium, while the b and E

  14. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  15. The utility of uric acid assay in dogs as an indicator of functional hepatic mass

    J. M. Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid was used as a test for liver disease before the advent of enzymology. Three old studies criticised uric acid as a test of liver function. Uric acid, as an end-product of purine metabolism in the liver, deserved re-evaluation as a liver function test. Serumtotal bile acids are widely accepted as the most reliable liver function test. This study compared the ability of serumuric acid concentration to assess liver function with that of serumpre-prandial bile acids in dogs. In addition, due to the renal excretion of uric acid the 2 assays were also compared in a renal disease group. Using a control group of healthy dogs, a group of dogs with congenital vascular liver disease, a group of dogs with non-vascular parenchymal liver diseases and a renal disease group, the ability of uric acid and pre-prandial bile acids was compared to detect reduced functional hepatic mass overall and in the vascular or parenchymal liver disease groups separately. Sensitivities, specificities and predictive value parameters were calculated for each test. The medians of uric acid concentration did not differ significantly between any of the groups, whereas pre-prandial bile acids medians were significantly higher in the liver disease groups compared with the normal and renal disease group of dogs. The sensitivity of uric acid in detecting liver disease overall was 65% while the specificity of uric acid in detecting liver disease overall was 59 %. The sensitivity and specificity of uric acid in detecting congenital vascular liver disease was 68%and 59 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of uric acid in detecting parenchymal liver disease was 63%and 60 %, respectively. The overall positive and negative predictive values for uric acid in detecting liver disease were poor and the data in this study indicated uric acid to be an unreliable test of liver function. In dogs suffering from renal compromise serum uric acid concentrations may increase into the

  16. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  17. A detailed mechanistic investigation into the reaction of 3-methylpentanoic acid with Meldrum's acid utilizing online NMR spectroscopy.

    Dunn, Anna L; Codina, Anna; Foley, David A; Marquez, Brian L; Zell, Mark T

    2016-06-01

    A thorough investigation into the mechanism of the reaction of 3-methylpentanoic acid and Meldrum's acid using online NMR spectroscopy is reported. This study is an expansion of a previous analysis of this chemical transformation in the synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient imagabalin. The 3-methylpentanoic acid analogue reveals similar behavior under the reaction conditions. Online NMR spectroscopy and offline characterization experiments reveal new information about the mechanism, providing conclusive spectroscopic evidence for the previously hypothesized dimer anhydride intermediate species 3-methylpentanoic anhydride as a productive intermediate. The presence of an acyl chloride intermediate species, 3-methylpentanoyl chloride, is also revealed for the first time in this synthesis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26332370

  18. SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE UTILIZATION FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION USING Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid and solid  pineapple wastes contain mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for fermentation to produce organic acid. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were  carried out in batch fermentation using  the  liquid and solid pineapple wastes to produce lactic acid. The anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid were performed at 40 oC, pH 6, 5% inocolum and  50 rpm. Initially  results show that the liquid pineapple waste by  using Lactobacillus delbrueckii can be used as carbon source  for lactic acid fermentation. The production of lactic acid  are found to be 79 % yield, while only  56% yield was produced by using solid waste. 

  19. SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE UTILIZATION FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION USING Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The liquid and solid  pineapple wastes contain mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for fermentation to produce organic acid. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were  carried out in batch fermentation using  the  liquid and solid pineapple wastes to produce lactic acid. The anaerobic fermentation of ...

  20. The Micro-Changes of Fly Ash in the Utilization of “Dip in One Acid Twice/Unite Two Kinds of Alkalis”

    DENG, Yinsheng; Xu, Sujuan; Xu, Jiangtao; Liu, Shaohui

    2010-01-01

    Determined the new technology of element leaching in fly ash’s utilization---- “dip in one acid twice/unite two kinds of alkalis” through comparison tests, the technique consist of four phases: acid leaching、alkali dissolution, calcination and second acid leaching, the maximum fine utilization rates of silicon, aluminum, iron are respectively 97.07%, 86.67%, 96.54%, the total utilization rate is 100%. Analyzed the micro-changes of fly ash in the utilization process by X-ray diffraction and sc...

  1. Effect of Wheat Middlings, Microbial Phytase, and Citric Acid on Phytate-Phosphorus, Calcium, and Protein Utilization of Broilers

    GONG Yi-feng; LIAO He-rong; WANG Jin-fu; LI Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    A corn-soybean meal diet (CSB) (or Diet 1) containing 23% crude protein (CP) was used as the positive control, and another corn-soybean meal diet containing 21% CP and 15% wheat middlings (WM) (or Diet 2) was used as the basal diet, which was treated with four different treatments. Digestibility experiment was employed to discuss the collective effect of citric acid, and intrinsic and microbial phytase. By comparing and analyzing effects of them in the low-nutrient broiler diets, the results showed five treatments had similar effects on Tibia ash (%) (mg) (P > 0.05). Under the supplementation of bacterial phytase or citric acid, the daily body weight gain (ADG), gain:feed (G:F) ratio, and calcium (Ca) utilization were similar to that of standard-nutrient CSB diet (Diet 1) (P > 0.05). And, fecal phosphorus (P) and CP utilization were lower than (P < 0.05) that of Diet 1. But P utilization was significantly higher than (P < 0.01) that of Diet 1.However, the ADG, G:F, and CP utilization produced by supplementation of intrinsic phytase were lower than those of Diet 1, but other aspects were similar to those produced by Diet 1 (P > 0.05). In Diet 5, citric acid, intrinsic and bacterial phytase were added to the diet, which produced a 1.4% decrease on fecal P, a 7.2% increase on Ca utilization, which was significantly higher than (P < 0.01) those of the other four Diets, a 3.9% increase on G:F, which was similar to that of Diet 1, and a 2.3% increase on CP utilization, which was higher than (P < 0.05) that of the other three diets. In summary, the results of this study indicated that citric acid, intrinsic and bacterial phytase might have some additive or synergistic effects, and low-nutrient CSB diets with 15% wheat middlings, 750 U kg-1 phytase, and 3% citric acid might substitute completely for standard CSB in broilers.

  2. Remedial action at the Acid/Pueblo Canyon site, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    The Acid/Pueblo Canyon site (TA-45) was designated in 1976 for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During the period 1943 to 1964 untreated and treated liquid wastes generated by nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were discharged into the two canyons. A survey of the site conducted by LASL in 1976 to 1977 identified two areas where radiological contamination exceeded criteria levels. The selected remedial action was based on extensive radiological characterization and comprehensive engineering assessments and comprised the excavation and disposal of 390 yd3 of contaminated soil and rock. This document describes the background to the remedial action, the parties involved in administering and executing it, the chronology of the work, verification of the adequacy of the remedial action, and the cost incurred. 14 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  4. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references

  5. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  6. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.; Sanders, J.F.

    1993-09-30

    The main body of the report consists of four parts: 1. additives to change process chemistry for SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry; 2. recycle tests and hydration of fly ash with Ca(OH){sub 2} to increase reactivity; 3. limestone as an alternative sorbent and additive effects; 4. physical and chemical model developments for some of the additive effects and spray dryer mathematical model application. As the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the flue gases increases, the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency will go down. Additives such as delinquent salts (NaOH, NaCl, and NaHCO{sub 3}) have been shown to improve SO{sub 2} uptake, and these additive tests have indicated that SO{sub 2} uptake may be increased by as much as 60% over baseline conditions. Other additives such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sugar, and some organic acids which can change the chemical reaction processes are suggested and tested, and some promising results have been obtained. Recycle has been shown to increase sorbent utilization by allowing partially reacted sorbent to react further with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Two types of Ohio coal fly ashes have been extensively studied, and improvement of utilization in spray dryer flue gas desulfurization has been demonstrated. Limestone represents an area where significant cost savings can be realized. The spray dryer tests were designed to provide some results for understanding the magnitude of the limestone performance in the spray dryer system and the additive effects. The additive effects on increasing SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry were investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of these tested additives were studied. Some models have been formed to explain the additive phenomena.

  7. Control of amphibious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea by utilizing it for the extraction of volatile fatty acids as energy precursors

    M. Rafiq Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs, comprising mainly of acetic acid and lesser quantities of propionic and butyric acids, are generated when zoomass or phytomass is acted upon by acidogenic and acetogenic microorganisms. VFAs can be utilized by methanogens under anaerobic conditions to generate flammable methane–carbon dioxide mixtures known as ‘biogas’. Acting on the premise that this manner of VFA utilization for generating relatively clean energy can be easily accomplished in a controlled fashion in conventional biogas plants as well as higher-rate anaerobic digesters, we have carried out studies aimed to generate VFAs from the pernicious weed ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea. The VFA extraction was accomplished by a simple yet effective technology, appropriate for use even by laypersons. For this acid-phase reactors were set, to which measured quantities of ipomoea leaves were charged along with water inoculated with cow dung. The reactors were stirred intermittently. It was found that VFA production started within hours of the mixing of the reactants and peaked by the 10th or 11th day in all the reactors, effecting a conversion of over 10% of the biomass into VFAs. The reactor performance had good reproducibility and the process appeared easily controllable, frugal and robust.

  8. Utilization of gamma rays in the selection of Aspergillus niger for acid production

    Selection of Aspergillus niger for acid production was studied by the method of Foster and Davis with the use of gamma rays. Three selection cycles were carried out, and the acid production character of each population was analyzed quantitatively by the unitage acid factor. Isolates with high unitage values in relation to the paternal strain were assayed in a liquid fermentation medium. No correlation was found that would indicate unlimited use of Foster and Davis' method in the selection of more productive strains. (Author)

  9. Use of electric utility wastes for control of acid mine drainage

    Placement of fly ash in abandoned, reclaimed or active surface coal mines is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced. Water quality changes have been monitored at three surface mines where fly ash grout was injected after reclamation. Also, a laboratory column leaching study exposed samples of fly ash to AMS surrogates for 30 to 180 days. Changes in acidity and potential release of heavy metals were primary areas of interest. Both field and laboratory studies indicate that fly ash may be an economical reagent for ameliorating acid mine drainage without adverse environmental effects. 13 refs

  10. Determination of true digestible amino acids of feedstuffs utilizing cecectomized roosters

    Eliane Aparecida da Silva; Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Rodolfo Alves Vieira; Valdir Ribeiro Junior; Anastácia Maria de Araújo Campos; João Paulo Leles Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the true digestibility coefficients of amino acids and digestible amino acid values of some poultry feedstuffs. The feedstuffs were: babassu meal, sunflower meal, corn gluten meal, babassu starchy meal, meat and bone meal, common beans, pearl millet and residues of cookies, pasta and bread. The precise feeding method of Sibbald was used with adult cecectomized Leghorn roosters distributed in a completely randomized design, consisting of ten treatmen...

  11. Heat stress and diet utilization in male turkeys : the role of dietary energy and amino acids

    Veldkamp, T.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: turkeys, heat stress, energy, amino acids.The commercial turkey industry has changed during the last two or three decades from one that marketed predominantly fresh whole dressed turkeys to one that now markets a large variety of mostly further processed products. Turkey breast meat is the

  12. Metals Recovery from Acid Mine Drainage and Possibilities for their Utilization

    Michalková, E.; Schwarz, M.; Pulišová, Petra; Máša, B.; Sudovský, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2013), s. 1111-1118. ISSN 1230-1485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12SK155 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : acid mine drainage * ferric pigments * adsorbent Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2013

  13. Determination of true digestible amino acids of feedstuffs utilizing cecectomized roosters

    Eliane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the true digestibility coefficients of amino acids and digestible amino acid values of some poultry feedstuffs. The feedstuffs were: babassu meal, sunflower meal, corn gluten meal, babassu starchy meal, meat and bone meal, common beans, pearl millet and residues of cookies, pasta and bread. The precise feeding method of Sibbald was used with adult cecectomized Leghorn roosters distributed in a completely randomized design, consisting of ten treatments and six replications with a rooster in each. The treatments were represented by the feedstuffs evaluated. The roosters were kept in a period of fasting for 36 hours and then fed 30 grams of feed. Samples were collected during 56 hours. Simultaneously, six roosters were kept fasting to make corrections to the metabolic and endogenous losses of amino acids. At the end of collections, the excreta obtained were weighed, freeze-dried and subsequently processed, so laboratory analyses were carried out and the coefficients of true digestibility of amino acids were determined. The mean values of the coefficients of true digestibility of essential and non-essential amino acids in percentage were respectively: 0.702 and 0.652 for the babassu meal; 0.852 and 0.786 for the sunflower meal; 0.928 and 0.887 for the corn gluten meal; 0.797 and 0.720 for the meat and bone meal; 0.364 and 0.339 for ground raw beans; 0.924 and 0.837 for ground pearl millet; 0.839 and 0.810 for cookie residue; 0.929 and 0.914 for pasta residue; and 0.904 and 0.899 for bread residue.

  14. Final technical report: Commercialization of the Biofine technology for levulinic acid production from paper sludge

    Fitzpatrick, Stephen W.

    2002-04-23

    This project involved a three-year program managed by BioMetics, Inc. (Waltham, MA) to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of Biofine thermochemical process technology for conversion of cellulose-containing wastes or renewable materials into levulinic acid, a versatile platform chemical. The program, commencing in October 1995, involved the design, procurement, construction and operation of a plant utilizing the Biofine process to convert 1 dry ton per day of paper sludge waste. The plant was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned in 1997. It was operated for a period of one year on paper sludge from a variety of source paper mills to collect data to verify the design for a commercial scale plant. Operational results were obtained for four different feedstock varieties. Stable, continuous operation was achieved for two of the feedstocks. Continuous operation of the plant at demonstration scale provided the opportunity for process optimization, development of operational protocols, operator training and identification of suitable materials of construction for scale up to commercial operation . Separated fiber from municipal waster was also successfully processed. The project team consisted of BioMetics Inc., Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (West Lafayette, IN), and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY).

  15. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    J. Francfort (INEEL); J. Argueta; M. Wehrey (Southern California Edison); D. Karner; L. Tyree (Electric Transportation Applications)

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  16. Impact of a new glucose utilization pathway in amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Lindner, Steffen N; Seibold, Gerd M; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F

    2011-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum imports and phosphorylates glucose, fructose and sucrose by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase carbohydrate uptake system (PTS). Recently, we have discovered how glucose can be utilized by C. glutamicum in a PTS-independent manner. PTS-independent glucose uptake is mediated by one of two inositol permeases (IolT1 or IolT2) and the second function of PTS, substrate phosphorylation, is catalyzed by one of two glucokinases (Glk or PpgK). PTS-deficient C. glutamicum strains exclusively utilizing glucose via this system grew comparably well on glucose minimal media as the parental strain. Furthermore, PTS-deficient L-lysine producing C. glutamicum strains overexpressing genes for inositol permease and glucokinase showed increased L-lysine production and reduced formation of by-products derived from pyruvate. Here, we discuss the impact of our findings on engineering strategies of C. glutamicum strains used in various biotechnological production processes. PMID:22008639

  17. Bacterial utilization of L-sugars and D-amino acids

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Klyce, Brig; Davies, Paul C. W.; Davies, Pauline

    2006-08-01

    The fact that organotrophic organisms on Earth use L-amino acids and D-sugars as an energy source is recognized as one of the universal features of life. The chirality of organic molecules with asymmetric location of group-radicals was described a relatively long time ago. Louis Pasteur observed that abiotic (chemical) processes produced mixtures with equal numbers (racemic) of the two forms but that living organisms possessed a molecular asymmetry that included only one of the enantiomers (homochirality). He speculated that the origin of the asymmetry of chiral biomolecules might hold the key to the nature of life. All of the amino acids in proteins (except for Glycine which is symmetrical) exhibit the same absolute steric configuration as L-glyceraldehyde. D-amino acids are never found in proteins, although they do exist in nature and are often found in polypeptide antibiotics. Constitutional sugars of cells, opposite to the amino acids, are the D-enantiomers, and the appearance of L-sugars in Nature is extremely rare. Notwithstanding this fact, the metabolism of some bacteria does have the capability to use amino acids and sugars with alternative chirality. This property may be caused by the function of specific enzymes belonging to the class of isomerases (racemases, epimerases, isomerases, tautomerases). In our laboratory, we have investigated several anaerobic bacterial strains, and have found that some of these bacteria are capable of using D-amino acids and L-sugars. Strain BK1 is capable of growth on D-arginine, but its growth characteristics on L-arginine are approximately twice as high. Another alkaliphilic strain SCA T (= ATCC BAA-1084 T = JCM 12857 T = DSM 17722 T = CIP 107910 T) was found to be capable of growth on L-ribose and L-arabinose. It is interesting that this strain was incapable of growth on D-arabinose, which suggests the involvement of some alternative mechanism of enzyme activity. In this paper, we describe the preliminary results of

  18. Planning of an Integrated Acidification Study and Survey on Acid Rain Impacts in China. Final Report

    Lydersen, Espen; Angell, Valter; Eilertsen, Odd; Muniz, Ivar P. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway); Larssen, Thorbjoern; Seip, Hans Martin; Aagaard, Per; Vogt, Rolf D. [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Mulder, Jan

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report from the PIAC project, which was a multidisciplinary survey on acid rain in China. One goal was to document effects of airborne acidifying compounds on vegetation, soil, soil- and surface-water and aquatic biota. Other goals were to exchange knowledge between Chinese and Norwegian scientists, and to visit research sites in highly polluted areas in China and evaluate their need of support in a future collaborative monitoring and research programme. Samples have been collected from over 20 sites in three areas. Negative effects of air pollution are found on all ecosystem levels investigated. The concentration of sulfur in the air in urban and near-urban areas is very high. The concentration of volatile organic compounds is generally high, which means that increased NOx emissions in coming years may increase the ozone problems. Reduced photosynthesis activities were found in some plants and acidification observed in soil and surface water. Aquatic biota also reflect the acidification status of the surface waters investigated. However, it is difficult to assess the degree of damage in these regions because the survey includes too few sites. Surface water acidification is currently not a major environmental problem in China and is unlikely to be one during the next decades. The report includes a status report on acidification in China and a proposed framework for a monitoring programme based on Norwegian experiences. 139 refs., 16 figs., 45 tabs.

  19. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass rich in eicosapentaenoic acid utilizing wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Mitra, Madhusree; Shah, Freny; Bharadwaj, S V Vamsi; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-10-01

    The eicosapentaenoic acid rich marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis oceanica was grown in wastewaters sampled from four different industries (i.e. pesticides industry, pharmaceutical industry, activated sludge treatment plant of municipality sewage and petroleum (oil) industry). Under the wastewater based growth conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 21.78±0.87 to 27.78±0.22mgL(-1)d(-1) in relation to freeze dried biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 5.59±0.02 and 6.81±0.04mgL(-1)d(-1). Although comparatively higher biomass, lipid and EPA productivity was observed in Conway medium, the %EPA content was similarly observed in pesticides industry and municipal effluents. The results highlight the possibility of selectively using wastewater as a growth medium, demonstrating the elevated eicosapentaenoic acid content and biodiesel properties, that complies with the European standards for biodiesel. PMID:27472494

  20. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  1. Thermally cured coil-coatings utilizing novel resins and fatty acid methyl esters as reactive diluents

    Johansson, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coating resins contain large amounts of volatile organic solvents in order to obtain suitable flow for film application. This work describes how the expensive and environmental hazardous volatile organic solvent content of a solvent-borne thermally cured polyester/melamine coil-coating system can be reduced by introduction of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as reactive diluents and modification of the polyester binder resin. The evaluated reactive diluents,...

  2. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Research highlights: → POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. → Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. → Δpor1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the Δpor1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  3. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ohta, Akinori, E-mail: aaohta@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  4. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  5. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs

  6. Commercialization strategy for lead/acid batteries in utility load leveling applications

    1980-06-01

    The plan is in part, based on an assessment of market demand made by MITRE/METREK. The specific financial requirements of both the battery manufacturers and the electric utilities were analyzed and accounted for when developing the approach. Since the success of the programs and the costs depend critically on how the prices of different fuels change with time, and these prices could be affected by political decisions, it is left to the judgement of the officials responsible for program priorities to decide whether the benefits that would result from this plan warrant the likely risks or costs to the government.

  7. Engineering the Xylan Utilization System in Bacillus subtilis for Production of Acidic Xylooligosaccharides

    Rhee, Mun Su; Wei, Lusha; Sawhney, Neha; Rice, John D.; St John, Franz J.; Hurlbert, Jason C.; Preston, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Xylans are the predominant polysaccharides in hemicelluloses and an important potential source of biofuels and chemicals. The ability of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168 to utilize xylans has been ascribed to secreted glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) and GH30 endoxylanases, encoded by the xynA and xynC genes, respectively. Both of these enzymes have been defined with respect to structure and function. In this study, the effects of deletion of the xynA and xynC genes, individua...

  8. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 4. The regional acid deposition model and engineering model. Final report

    The report describes the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM), a constantly evolving system of computational models that describe the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition on a regional scale. RADM was developed by the Acid Deposition Modeling Project (ADMP), established at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in 1983 to design, develop, and implement a comprehensive modeling system suitable for assessment studies to be conducted as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The project was based at NCAR until 1987, when it moved to the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany as the focus of its work moved into model testing and application. The ADMP team developed the RADM system, performed preliminary evaluation, transferred the system to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and participated in NAPAP studies designed to test RADM and develop applications for the model

  9. Aminomonas paucivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a mesophilic, anaerobic, amino-acid-utilizing bacterium

    Baena, S.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard; Labat, Marc; Thomas, P; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Patel, B.K.C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel, asaccharolytic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium, designated strain GLU-3T, was isolated from an anaerobic lagoon of a dairy wastewater treatment plant. Strain GLU-3T stained Gram-negative and was an obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacterium (0.3 x 4.0-6.0 micrometers) which existed singly or in pairs. The DNA G+C content was 43 mol%. Optimum growth occurred at 35°C and pH 7.5 on arginine, histidine, threonine and glycine. Acetate was the end-produc...

  10. JNK deficiency enhances fatty acid utilization and diverts glucose from oxidation to glycogen storage in cultured myotubes.

    Vijayvargia, Ravi; Mann, Kara; Weiss, Harvey R; Pownall, Henry J; Ruan, Hong

    2010-09-01

    Although germ-line deletion of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) improves overall insulin sensitivity in mice, those studies could not reveal the underlying molecular mechanism and the tissue site(s) in which reduced JNK activity elicits the observed phenotype. Given its importance in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose utilization, we hypothesized that the insulin-sensitive phenotype associated with Jnk deletion originates from loss of JNK function in skeletal muscle. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing was used to identify the functions of JNK subtypes in regulating energy metabolism and metabolic responses to elevated concentrations of NEFA in C2C12 myotubes, a cellular model of skeletal muscle. We show for the first time that cellular JNK2- and JNK1/JNK2-deficiency divert glucose from oxidation to glycogenesis due to increased glycogen synthase (GS) activity and induction of Pdk4. We further show that JNK2- and JNK1/JNK2-deficiency profoundly increase cellular NEFA oxidation, and their conversion to phospholipids and triglyceride. The increased NEFA utilization was coupled to increased expressions of selective NEFA handling genes including Cd36, Acsl4, and Chka, and enhanced palmitic acid (PA)-dependent suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc). In JNK-intact cells, PA inhibited insulin signaling and glycogenesis. Although silencing Jnk1 and/or Jnk2 prevented PA-induced inhibition of insulin signaling, it did not completely block decreased insulin-mediated glycogenesis, thus indicating JNK-independent pathways in the suppression of glycogenesis by PA. Muscle-specific inhibition of JNK2 (or total JNK) improves the capacity of NEFA utilization and glycogenesis, and is a potential therapeutic target for improving systemic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:20094041

  11. Serial assessment of myocardial thallium perfusion and fatty acid utilization in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    To evaluate the advantage of free fatty acid imaging on the detection of hypertrophied myocardium, we compared sequentially myocardial thallium and BMIPP (15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methyl pentadecanoic acid) distribution in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) using dual tracer autoradiography and in vivo pin-hole imaging. Autoradiography and pin-hole imaging showed uniform myocardial distribution of BMIPP and thallium within less than 27 weeks age SHR. In 40 weeks age SHR, thallium myocardial distribution showed uniform, however, BMIPP had focal decrease. Quantitative analysis of pin-hole images showed that myocardial BMIPP and thallium uptake ratio decreased according to the ages of SHR. Our data suggest that hypertension is associated with uniform myocardial perfusion and focal alternation in the substrate used for the performance of myocardial work. Based on the above autoradiographic and in vivo pin-hole imagings, I-123 BMIPP imaging may have a potential for early detection on hypertrophic myocardium compared to thallium perfusion in clinically hypertensive patients. (author)

  12. Superresolution intrinsic fluorescence imaging of chromatin utilizing native, unmodified nucleic acids for contrast.

    Dong, Biqin; Almassalha, Luay M; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Urban, Ben E; Chandler, John E; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F; Backman, Vadim

    2016-08-30

    Visualizing the nanoscale intracellular structures formed by nucleic acids, such as chromatin, in nonperturbed, structurally and dynamically complex cellular systems, will help expand our understanding of biological processes and open the next frontier for biological discovery. Traditional superresolution techniques to visualize subdiffractional macromolecular structures formed by nucleic acids require exogenous labels that may perturb cell function and change the very molecular processes they intend to study, especially at the extremely high label densities required for superresolution. However, despite tremendous interest and demonstrated need, label-free optical superresolution imaging of nucleotide topology under native nonperturbing conditions has never been possible. Here we investigate a photoswitching process of native nucleotides and present the demonstration of subdiffraction-resolution imaging of cellular structures using intrinsic contrast from unmodified DNA based on the principle of single-molecule photon localization microscopy (PLM). Using DNA-PLM, we achieved nanoscopic imaging of interphase nuclei and mitotic chromosomes, allowing a quantitative analysis of the DNA occupancy level and a subdiffractional analysis of the chromosomal organization. This study may pave a new way for label-free superresolution nanoscopic imaging of macromolecular structures with nucleotide topologies and could contribute to the development of new DNA-based contrast agents for superresolution imaging. PMID:27535934

  13. Campylobacter concisus utilizes blood but not short chain fatty acids despite showing associations with Firmicutes taxa.

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Thomas, Donald S; Ruzayqat, Mahmoud M; Lynch, David; Leach, Steven T; Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter concisus is a member of the oral microbiota that has been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the role of the bacterium in disease aetiology remains poorly understood. Here, we examine optimal conditions for the growth of C. concisus, and the pathogenic potential of this bacterium in human gastrointestinal cells from the upper tract. Further, the presence of C. concisus in the lower tract of Crohn's disease (CD) patients undergoing therapy is observed, and the associations of C. concisus with the abundance of other microbial taxa and compounds they produce are evaluated. C. concisus strains had the ability to tolerate moderate levels of acidity, adhere to and invade esophageal and gastric cells; however, these properties did not correlate with their pathogenic potential in intestinal cells. The presence of the bacterium in the lower gut of CD patients was associated with an increased relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis. Short chain fatty acids that can be produced by these microbial species did not appear to be responsible for this association. However, we identified genetic similarity between C. concisus and Firmicutes, specifically within aspartate and glutamate racemases. The potential pathogenesis of C. concisus in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the responsiveness of the bacterium to therapy in a subset of CD patients warrant further investigation into whether this bacterium has a causal role in disease or its presence is incidental. PMID:27339421

  14. Hierarchical amino acid utilization and its influence on fermentation dynamics: rifamycin B fermentation using Amycolatopsis mediterranei S699, a case study

    Bapat, Prashant Madhusudhan; Das, D.; Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Wangikar, Pramod

    2006-01-01

    Background: Industrial fermentation typically uses complex nitrogen substrates which consist of mixture of amino acids. The uptake of amino acids is known to be mediated by several amino acid transporters with certain preferences. However, models to predict this preferential uptake are not...... predicted simultaneous uptake of amino acids at low cas concentrations and sequential uptake at high cas concentrations. The simulated profile of the key enzymes implies the presence of specific transporters for small groups of amino acids. Conclusion: The work demonstrates utility of the cybernetic model...

  15. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. PMID:26616144

  16. Analysis of dibutylphosphoric acid (DBP) in degraded solvent by utilizing gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry

    In JAEA, a washing process of tributylphosphate (TBP) in the Purex reprocessing have been investigated by means of n-butylamine oxalate as a washing reagent, which is decomposable by incineration or electrolysis. The concentration of the dibutylphosphoric acid (DBP) in organic and aqueous phase has been determined by an ion-chromatography. In this analytical method, however; we found out that the quantitative analysis for DBP exhibited poor reproducibility because of low sensitivity for DBP. Here we report a new analytical method for DBP by means of a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). From our investigation, silylation of DBP was efficient to improve the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the quantitative analysis for DBP. Moreover, we found out that the silylation was effective for the analysis of monobutylphosphoric (MBP). (author)

  17. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-01

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  18. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  19. 77 FR 75992 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at...

    2012-12-26

    ... financial ratios based on data from Thailand, which was selected as the surrogate country for the final..., Thailand provides a complete set of SVs (with only minor exceptions), including financial ratios from a... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 77 FR 46034 (August 2,...

  20. Free amino acid formula: nitrogen utilization and metabolic effects in normal subjects.

    Heller, P A; Shronts, E; Akrabawi, S; Heymsfield, S B

    1987-01-01

    A previous study indicated increased urea production and low nitrogen (N) retention on a free amino acid elemental formula (FAA; Vivonex-HN). The limitations of this earlier study were: irregular nitrogen absorption in the malabsorption patients, high nitrogen intake, and failure to match FAA to control formula (hydrolyzed casein; CAS; Criticare-HN) with respect to kcal/nitrogen. A more critical test of FAA quality was sought in the current study. Four healthy males received the minimal daily nitrogen requirements (0.6 g protein/kg) from either FAA or CAS in a 10-day balance study; a second balance on the alternate formula followed. Maintenance energy, minerals, and vitamins were supplied in each period. The results indicated a higher apparent nitrogen absorption (p less than 0.05) from FAA relative to CAS in the first 5 days of the balance, although these differences were no longer present in the remaining 5 days of the period. Urinary total nitrogen increased on FAA, most of which could be accounted for by urea nitrogen; urinary creatinine nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and uric acid nitrogen were nearly identical between formulas. The unmeasured fraction of urinary nitrogen was markedly diminished on FAA while the urea nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio was significantly increased (p less than 0.05) compared to CAS. During the initial 5 days of study nitrogen balance was lower on FAA than on CAS and this difference became significant during the last 5 days of the period (mean +/- SD for FAA = -0.42 +/- 0.59 g/D vs CAS = 0.98 +/- 0.30 g/day, p less than 0.001). Hyperglycinemia was consistently present during FAA infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3430685

  1. Overexpression of OsPAP10a, A Root-Associated Acid Phosphatase, Increased Extracellular Organic Phosphorus Utilization in Rice

    Jingluan Tian; Chuang Wang; Qian Zhang; Xiaowei He; James Whelan; Huixia Shou

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major limitation for plant growth and development.Among the wide set of responses to cope with low soil P,plants increase their level of intracellular and secreted acid phosphatases (APases),which helps to catalyze inorganic phosphate (Pi) hydrolysis from organophosphates.In this study we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) purple acid phosphatase 10a (OsPAP10a).OsPAP10a belongs to group la of purple acid phosphatases (PAPs),and clusters with the principal secreted PAPs in a variety of plant species including Arabidopsis.The transcript abundance of OsPAP10a is specifically induced by Pi deficiency and is controlled by OsPHR2,the central transcription factor controlling Pi homeostasis.In gel activity assays of root and shoot protein extracts,it was revealed that OsPAP10a is a major acid phosphatase isoform induced by Pi starvation.Constitutive overexpression of OsPAP10a results in a significant increase of phosphatase activity in both shoot and root protein extracts.In vivo root 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate (BCIP) assays and activity measurements on external media showed that OsPAP10a is a root-associated APase.Furthermore,overexpression of OsPAP10a significantly improved ATP hydrolysis and utilization compared with wild type plants.These results indicate that OsPAP10a can potentially be used for crop breeding to improve the efficiency of P use.

  2. A New Process Study on Comprehensive Utilization of NOx from Nitric Acid Plant

    Zhou Hou-zhen; Liang Hua

    2003-01-01

    Based on studies of controlling NOx from nitric acid exhaust gas domestic and abroad, this paper has developed a new technique on removal of NOx and production of a by-product with high added value-- MnO2. Experiment shows, pyrolusite, whose valid composition is MnO2, of absorbing NOx has the following characteristics: quick, low cost, no secondary pollutant. Moreover, exhaust gas can attain the required standards. If the temperature of the pyrolusite serum is 30℃, pH=4, containing 90 g/L MnO2, the absorptivity for 3 000 mg/m3 NOx is 89.2%. Furthermore,few of the impurities in pyrolusite dissolve in the absorption mother solution. The purification cost of product is very low.The purity of end product MnO2 is more than 99. 995% after purifying. Therefore, it is workable for the new technique on economy and technology. There are also obvious environmental benefits and marked economic returns.

  3. Synthesis of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated inulin and utility for cellular uptake of liposomes

    The synthesis, binding of radioactive cations, liposomal encapsulation, and biodistribution of the oxidized-inulin reaction product with ethylenediamine and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4) are described. The four-step synthesis of the inulin derivative proceeded in a good overall yield of 72%. The complex of the inulin derivative with either 67Ga3+ or 111In3+ was stable in vivo and did not readily distribute into tissues, being excreted primarily in urine after intravenous administration to mice. The liposome-entrapped inulin derivative can be loaded with radioactive heavy metal cations by mobile ionophores in high radiochemical yields of 80-91%. Following the intravenous administration of the liposomal encapsulation of the indium-111-labeled inulin derivative, the entrapped compound had a biodistribution characteristic of liposomes and allowed an estimation of the extent of the intracellular uptake of liposomes. The ability of the inulin derivative to chelate many different types of metals will allow the use of this probe for studying subtle differences in tissue distribution resulting from different drug targeting or delivery protocols in the same animal by multiple labeling techniques. Moreover, the chelate-conjugated inulin permits studies of the applications of drug delivery systems in primates or human subjects by noninvasive techniques such as gamma-scintigraphic or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging methods

  4. Utilization of multiple waste streams for acid gas sequestration and multi-pollutant control

    Soong, Y.; Dilmore, R.M.; Hedges, S.W.; Howard, B.H.; Romanov, V. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A novel CO{sub 2} sequestration concept is reported that combines SO{sub 2} removal and CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, using a bauxite-processing residue which is a waste product and with waste brine water from oil/gas production. The bauxite residue/brine mixture of 46/54 v/v exhibited a CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of > 0.078 mol L{sup -1} when exposed to pure CO{sub 2} at 20 C and 2.73 MPa. At a higher temperature of 140 C, a bauxite residue/brine mixture of 80/20 v/v indicated a CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of > 0.094 mol L{sup -1} when exposed to pure CO{sub 2} at 3.85 MPa. Under the same reaction conditions, an identical ratio of reaction mixture exposed to simulated flue gas at a similar initial pressure was capable of sequestering 0.16 mol of CO{sub 2} and > 99.9 % of the applied SO{sub 2}. Calcite formation was verified as a product of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. The caustic bauxite residues (pH 12.5-13.5) and acidic wastewater brine (pH 3-5) are also effectively neutralized after participating as reactive reagents in the conceptual process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Glucuronoyl Esterase Screening and Characterization Assays Utilizing Commercially Available Benzyl Glucuronic Acid Ester

    Hampus Sunner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on glucuronoyl esterases (GEs has been hampered by the lack of enzyme assays based on easily obtainable substrates. While benzyl d-glucuronic acid ester (BnGlcA is a commercially available substrate that can be used for GE assays, several considerations regarding substrate instability, limited solubility and low apparent affinities should be made. In this work we discuss the factors that are important when using BnGlcA for assaying GE activity and show how these can be applied when designing BnGlcA-based GE assays for different applications: a thin-layer chromatography assay for qualitative activity detection, a coupled-enzyme spectrophotometric assay that can be used for high-throughput screening or general activity determinations and a HPLC-based detection method allowing kinetic determinations. The three-level experimental procedure not merely facilitates routine, fast and simple biochemical characterizations but it can also give rise to the discovery of different GEs through an extensive screening of heterologous Genomic and Metagenomic expression libraries.

  6. A New Process Study on Comprehensive Utilization of NOx from Nitric Acid Plant

    ZhouHou-zhen; LiangHua

    2003-01-01

    Based on studies of controlling NOx from nitric acid exhaust gas domestic and abroad, this paper has developed a new technique on removal of NOx and production of a by-product with high added value MnO2. Experiment shows, pyrolusite, whose valid composition is MnO2, of absorbing NOx has the following characteristics: quick, low cost, no secondary pollutant. Moreover, exhaust gas can attain the required standards. If the temperature of the pyrolusite serum is 30℃, pH=4, containing 90 g/L MnO2, the absorptivity for 3 000 mg/m3 NOx is 89.2%. Furthermore,few of the impurities in pyrolusite dissolve in the absorption mother solution. The purification cost of product is very low.The purity of end product MnO2 is more than 99. 995% after purifying. Therefore, it is workable for the new technique on economy and technology. There are also obvious environmental benefits and marked economic returns.

  7. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

  8. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    1987-08-01

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures.

  9. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  10. Technical procedures for utilities and solid waste: Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Final draft

    The evaluation of environmental issues and concerns and the addressing of statutory requirements are fundamental parts in the characterization of the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Utilities and Solid Waste considerations. This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Utilities and Solid Waste Site Study Plan. The purpose and scope of the Utilities and Solid Waste Technical Procedure is to develop and implement a data collection procedure to fulfill the data base needs of the Utilities and Solid Waste SSP. The procedure describes a method of obtaining, assessing and verifying the capabilities of the regional service utilities and disposal contractors. This data base can be used to identify a preferred service source for the engineering contractor. The technical procedure was produced under the guidelines established in Technical Administrative Procedure No. 1.0, Preparation, Review and Approval of Technical Procedures

  11. Fractionation of fish oil fatty acid methyl esters by means of argentation and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its utility in total fatty acid analysis

    Özcimder, M.; Hammers, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The utility of reversed-phase and argentation high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as pre-fractionation methods in fatty acid analysis is discussed. Both HPLC modes were applied to cod liver oil fatty acid methyl esters. Apart from positional isomers, the fractions obtained by reversed-phas

  12. Mechanisms of Radionuclide-Hyroxycarboxylic Acid Interactions for Decontamination of Metallic Surfaces; FINAL

    Is this EMSP program we investigated the key fundamental issues involved in the use of simple and safe methods for the removal of radioactive contamination from equipment and facilities using hydroxycarboxylic acids. Specifically, we investigate (i) the association of uranium with various iron oxides commonly formed on corroding plain carbon steel surfaces, (ii) the association of uranium with corroding metal coupons under a variety of conditions, and (iii) the decontamination of the uranium contaminated metal coupons by citric acid or citric acid formulations containing oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide

  13. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  14. Involvement of acyl-CoA synthetase genes in n-alkane assimilation and fatty acid utilization in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Tenagy; Park, Jun Seok; Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2015-06-01

    Here, we investigated the roles of YAL1 (FAA1) and FAT1 encoding acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) and three additional orthologs of ACS genes FAT2-FAT4 of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in the assimilation or utilization of n-alkanes and fatty acids. ACS deletion mutants were generated to characterize their function. The FAT1 deletion mutant exhibited decreased growth on n-alkanes of 10-18 carbons, whereas the FAA1 mutant showed growth reduction on n-alkane of 16 carbons. However, FAT2-FAT4 deletion mutants did not show any growth defects, suggesting that FAT1 and FAA1 are involved in the activation of fatty acids produced during the metabolism of n-alkanes. In contrast, deletions of FAA1 and FAT1-FAT4 conferred no defect in growth on fatty acids. The wild-type strain grew in the presence of cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, by utilizing exogenously added fatty acid or fatty acid derived from n-alkane when oleic acid or n-alkane of 18 carbons was supplemented. However, the FAA1 deletion mutant did not grow, indicating a critical role for FAA1 in the utilization of fatty acids. Fluorescent microscopic observation and biochemical analyses suggested that Fat1p is present in the peroxisome and Faa1p is localized in the cytosol and to membranes. PMID:26019148

  15. Effect of different doses of coated butyric acid on growth performance and energy utilization in broilers.

    Kaczmarek, S A; Barri, A; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-04-01

    We recently applied four dietary treatments in experiments I and II to determine the effect of protected calcium butyrate (BP) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. A group of one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (total 960, 480 per trial) were used in the study. In experiment I, the basal diets were fed with protected BP inclusion (0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 g/kg of finished feed) (BP) or without (C). In experiment II, 4 different diets were tested: 1) basal diet with no supplementation (C), 2) basal diet supplemented with protected BP (0.3 g/kg) (BP), 3) basal diet supplemented with avilamycin (6 mg/kg, active substance) a common antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) (Av), and 4) basal diet supplemented with the combination of both avilaymicin and BP. In experiment I, considering the entire study period, the use of BP improved feed conversion ratio (Penergy corrected for nitrogen (AMEN) were improved after BP supplementation (P<0.05). In experiment II, A or AB diets improved (P<0.05) body weight gain compared to the control treatment. The diets Av, BP, and AvB improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment. Birds from the treatment diet were characterized by having the thickest mucosa (P<0.05). On days 14, 35, and 42, the use of AB diets improved AMENcontent compared to the control treatment (P<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acid data showed that Av or AvB treated birds were characterized by higher Asp, Glu, Cys, Gly, and Ala ileal digestibility than the control animals (P<0.05). The use of Av, BP, or AvB increased ileal digestibility of Thr, Ser, and Pro (P<0.05). There is an indication that BP, alone or in combination with avilamycin, improve the digestion and absorptive processes and consequently birds performance results. PMID:26740137

  16. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  17. Exploring plant factors for increasing phosphorus utilization from rock phosphates and native soil phosphates in acidic soils

    Six plant species with contrasting capacity in utilizing rock phosphates were compared with regard to their responses to phosphorus starvation in hydroponic cultures. Radish, buckwheat and oil rapeseed are known to have strong ability to use rock phosphates while ryegrass, wheat and sesbania are less efficient. Whereas other plants acidified their culture solution under P starvation (-P), radish plants make alkaline the solution. When neutralizing the pH of the solutions cultured with plants under either -P or + P conditions, solutions with P starved buckwheat, rapeseed, and radish had a higher ability to solubilize Al and Fe phosphates than did those cultured with sesbania, ryegrass and wheat. Characterization of organic ligands in the solutions identified that citrate and malate were the major organic anions exuded by rapeseed and radish. Besides citrate and malate, buckwheat exuded a large amount of tartrate under P starvation. In contrast, ryegrass, wheat and sesbania secreted only a limited amount of oxalic acid, regardless of P status. Changes in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, acid phosphatase, and nitrate reductase in these plants were also compared under P- sufficient or -deficient conditions. The results indicated that plant ability to use rock phosphates or soil phosphates is closely related to their responses toward P starvation. The diversity of P starvation responses was discussed in the context of co-evolution between plants and their environment. Approaches to use plant factors to enhance the effectiveness of rock phosphates were also discussed. (author)

  18. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid-base neutralization reactions

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries

  19. A facile nanoaggregation strategy for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs by utilizing acid-base neutralization reactions

    Chen Huabing; Wan Jiangling; Wang Yirui; Mou Dongsheng; Liu Hongbin; Xu Huibi; Yang Xiangliang [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-09-17

    Nanonization strategies have been used to enhance the oral availability of numerous drugs that are poorly soluble in water. Exploring a facile nanonization strategy with highly practical potential is an attractive focus. Here, we report a novel facile nanoaggregation strategy for constructing drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility by utilizing acid-base neutralization in aqueous solution, thus facilitating the exploration of nanonization in oral delivery for general applicability. We demonstrate that hydrophobic itraconazole dissolved in acid solution formed a growing core and aggregated into nanoparticles in the presence of stabilizers. The nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 279.3 nm and polydispersity index of 0.116, showed a higher dissolution rate when compared with the marketed formulation; the average dissolution was about 91.3%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the nanoparticles had a rapid absorption and enhanced oral availability. The diet state also showed insignificant impact on the absorption of itraconazole from nanoparticles. This nanoaggregation strategy is a promising nanonization method with a facile process and avoidance of toxic organic solvents for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs with pH-dependent solubility and reveals a highly practical potential in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy for methane production for J. A. Albertson Land and Cattle Company. Final report

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of an integrated system to utilize a geothermal resource for a bioconversion plant. This integrated facility would use the manure from approximately 30,000 head of feedlot cattle as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion plant. The findings on engineering design, geological assessment, environmental, economic, and institutional requirements of the proposed project are summarized. (MHR)

  1. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

  2. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  3. Provision of utility support services to the US Department of Energy San Francisco Operations Office. Final technical report

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this project was to provide to DOE/SAN continuing, follow-up support to realize savings from a number of alternate supply arrangements that had already been and/or were expected to be identified under the original project. This expected continuation of these efforts is demonstrated by certain of the tasks that are spelled out in the Statement of Work. For example: Evaluate and propose alternative options and methods for improving efficiency, reducing cost, and making effective use of the energy supplies and facilities under various conditions of use; Provide engineering and economic analysis and recommendations for utility-related facilities and service issues, such as high voltage discounts, ownership of facilities, etc.; Assist in developing strategy and documentation in support of negotiating utility contracts and modifications thereto. In addition, the follow-on contract provided for monitoring and intervening in rate cases that had particular relevance to the DOE/SAN laboratories.

  4. National Utility Financial Statement model (NUFS). Volume II of III: user's guide. Final report

    1981-10-29

    This volume is a User's Guide for the National Utility Financial Statement Model (NUFS). This is the second of three volumes describing NUFS provided by ICF Incorporated under contract DEAC01-79EI10579. The three volumes are entitled: Model Overview and Description; User's Guide; and Software Description. This volume describes each necessary input file, discusses user options, and describes the job stream necessary to run the model.

  5. Financial constraints in capacity planning: a national utility regulatory model (NUREG). Volume III of III: software description. Final report

    None

    1981-10-29

    This volume is the software description for the National Utility Regulatory Model (NUREG). This is the third of three volumes provided by ICF under contract number DEAC-01-79EI-10579. These three volumes are: a manual describing the NUREG methodology; a users guide; and a description of the software. This manual describes the software which has been developed for NUREG. This includes a listing of the source modules. All computer code has been written in FORTRAN.

  6. Laboratory study of acid stimulation of drilling-mud-damaged geothermal-reservoir materials. Final report

    1983-05-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory testing performed to provide site specific information in support of geothermal reservoir acidizing programs. The testing program included laboratory tests performed to determine the effectiveness of acid treatments in restoring permeability of geologic materials infiltrated with hydrothermally altered sepiolite drilling mud. Additionally, autoclave tests were performed to determine the degree of hydrothermal alteration and effects of acid digestion on drilling muds and drill cuttings from two KGRA's. Four laboratory scale permeability/acidizing tests were conducted on specimens prepared from drill cuttings taken from two geothermal formations. Two tests were performed on material from the East Mesa KGRA Well No. 78-30, from a depth of approximately 5500 feet, and two tests were performed on material from the Roosevelt KGRA Well No. 52-21, from depths of approximately 7000 to 7500 feet. Tests were performed at simulated in situ geothermal conditions of temperature and pressure.

  7. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with the ability to utilize high concentrations of levulinic acid, a platform chemical from inedible biomass.

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen levulinic acid (LA)-utilizing bacteria were isolated from environmental samples. Following examination of the use of 80 g/L LA by some isolated strains, Brevibacterium epidermidis LA39-2 consumed 62.6 g/L LA following 8 days incubation. The strain also utilized both 90 and 100 g/L LA, with consumption ratio of 84.3 and 53.3%, respectively, after 10 days incubation. PMID:25851167

  8. THE EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID AND GIBBERELLIN ON SEED RESERVE UTILIZATION, GERMINATION AND ENZYME ACTIVITY OF SORGHUM ( SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) SEEDS UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou; Saeede Rahimzadeh; Omid Ansari; Mohammad Sedghi

    2014-01-01

    Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin) and the second f...

  9. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  10. The U.S. clean air act amendments of 1990: final contours of the acid rain program

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, enacted on November 15, 1990, created a revolutionary new approach to the control of acidic deposition, more commonly called acid rain. With the electric power industry responsible for 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), the precursor element of acid rain, the initial program is directed toward controlling SO2 emissions from electric powerplants. Gone is the old command and control regime that relied upon governmentally mandated control techniques, often on a case-by-case basis. Instead, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) rely upon a market-based emission trading system that introduces flexibility and low cost solutions for powerplant compliance strategies. The implementation process by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving forward rapidly. One rule already has been finalized, dealing with auctions and sales. The core rules, four rules that deal with the central elements of the program, have been issued for comment and will be finalized in May or June of 1992. Other rules are still in the development stage; however, they deal with less central elements of the program and will not slow down the introduction of the emission trading system in time to meet the CAAA's statutory deadlines. 4 refs

  11. Distribution of aquatic animals relative to naturally acidic waters in the Sierra Nevada. Final report

    Bradford, D.F.; Cooper, S.D.; Brown, A.D.; Mahood, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes in the Bench Lake/Mount Pinchot area of Kings Canyon National Park were surveyed in summer 1992 and found to range in pH from 5.0 to 9.3. Ten lakes were acidic (pH < 6.0). Thirty three lakes were chosen for detailed analyses of their chemical and biological characteristics, including eight acidic lakes. Unlike typical Ca-Na-HCO3-dominated Sierra lakes, SO4 concentrations are high enough to classify 19 of these lakes with SO4 as the dominant anion. The source of acidity and SO4 is sulfuric acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite found in metamorphic and granitic rocks in the area. Faunal surveys revealed that yellow-legged frog tadpoles (Rana muscosa), limnephilid caddis larvae (Hesperophylax), and large microcrustaceans (Daphnia, Diaptomus) were rare or absent in acidic lakes and common in lakes with a pH > 6.0. Four species of trout were collected, and their presence appeared to be related to historical stocking patterns. Trout appeared to have large effects on the distributions and abundances of larval amphibians and large, mobile invertebrate taxa that were rare or absent in trout lakes, but common in lakes lacking trout.

  12. A fermentative approach towards optimizing directed biosynthesis of fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae 1526 utilizing apple industry waste biomass.

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2015-12-01

    The present research account deals with the bioproduction of fumaric acid (FA) from apple pomace ultrafiltration sludge (APUS) and apple pomace (AP) through fermentation. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae 1526 was used as a biocatalyst and its morphological impact on FA production was analysed in detail. For submerged fermentation, 40 g L(-1) of total solids concentration of APUS, pH 6.0, 30 °C, 200 rpm flask shaking speed and 72 h of incubation were found to be optimum for FA production (25.2 ± 1.0 g L(-1), 0.350 g (L(-1) h(-1))). Broth viscosity (cP), residual reducing sugar (g L(-1)) and ethanol (g L(-1)) produced as by-product, were also analysed. Plastic trays were used for solid state fermentation and at optimized level of moisture and incubation period, 52 ± 2.67 g FA per kg dry weight of AP was obtained. Changes in the total phenolic content (mg g(-1) dry weight of AP) were monitored at regular intervals. Utilization of APUS and AP for the directed synthesis of the high-value platform chemical FA by the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 was an excellent display of fungal physiological and morphological control over a fermentative product. PMID:26615750

  13. Matriconditioning Improves Thermotolerance in Pepper Seeds through Increased in 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthesis and Utilization

    SATRIYAS ILYAS

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Matriconditioning using a solid carrier, Micro-Cel E, was applied on pepper seeds and its effects on the improvement of thermotolerance through the ethylene biosynthesis were studied. Untreated and matriconditioned seeds were soaked in 5 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC for various time at 25 oC to studies the time course of ACC-derived ethylene production. To study the performance of the seeds at high temperature, they were planted at temperature regime of 35 oC, 12h light/27 oC, 12h dark. The ACC-oxidase activity of the seeds after incubated in ACC at 35 oC was also determined. The ACC contents in untreated and matriconditioned seeds during the 24h imbibition period at 35 oC were monitored. No ethylene was detected during soaking of pepper seeds in the absence of ACC. In 5 mM ACC detectable levels of ethylene were produced; the matriconditioned seeds producing 10-fold larger amounts than the untreated seeds at the time of germination. It is postulated that matriconditioning greatly increases the ACC-oxidase activity at the time of germination. Matriconditioned seeds imbibed at 35 oC produced larger amounts of ACC and greater ACC-oxidase activity than the untreated seeds. Thus, the basis for the thermotolerance by matriconditioned seeds may be increasing ability to synthesize ACC and to utilize it for ethylene production and stress alleviation.

  14. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  15. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  16. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  17. Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report

    Ligon, C.; Kirby, G.; Jordan, D.; Lawrence, J.H.; Wiesner, W.; Kosovec, A.; Swanson, R.K.; Smith, R.T.; Johnson, C.C.; Hodson, H.O.

    1976-04-01

    Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly distributed winds of relatively high velocity, with average wind power density of 0.53 kW/m/sup 2/ at 30 m height at Amarillo, Texas, a representative location. The annual period of calm is extremely low. Three separate compressed air storage systems with good potential were analyzed in detail, and two potential pumped-hydro facilities were identified and given preliminary consideration. Aquifer storage of compressed air is a promising possibility in the region.

  18. Pseudomonas lini Strain ZBG1 Revealed Carboxylic Acid Utilization and Copper Resistance Features Required for Adaptation to Vineyard Soil Environment: A Draft Genome Analysis

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Teik-Min; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Kher, Heng Leong; Grandclément, Catherine; Faure, Denis; Yin, Wai-Fong; Dessaux, Yves; Hong, Kar-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lini strain ZBG1 was isolated from the soil of vineyard in Zellenberg, France and the draft genome was reported in this study. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome revealed presence of genes encoding tartaric and malic acid utilization as well as copper resistance that correspond to the adaptation this strain in vineyard soil environment. PMID:27512520

  19. Role of Burkholderia pseudomallei Sigma N2 in Amino Acids Utilization and in Regulation of Catalase E Expression at the Transcriptional Level

    Duong Thi Hong Diep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. The complete genome sequences of this pathogen have been revealed, which explain some pathogenic mechanisms. In various hostile conditions, for example, during nitrogen and amino acid starvation, bacteria can utilize alternative sigma factors such as RpoS and RpoN to modulate genes expression for their adaptation and survival. In this study, we demonstrate that mutagenesis of rpoN2, which lies on chromosome 2 of B. pseudomallei and encodes a homologue of the sigma factor RpoN, did not alter nitrogen and amino acid utilization of the bacterium. However, introduction of B. pseudomallei rpoN2 into E. coli strain deficient for rpoN restored the ability to utilize amino acids. Moreover, comparative partial proteomic analysis of the B. pseudomallei wild type and its rpoN2 isogenic mutant was performed to elucidate its amino acids utilization property which was comparable to its function found in the complementation assay. By contrast, the rpoN2 mutant exhibited decreased katE expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Our finding indicates that B. pseudomallei RpoN2 is involved in a specific function in the regulation of catalase E expression.

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of pentasodium pentetate and pentetic acid as used in cosmetics.

    Benes, Dina M; Burnett, Christina L

    2008-01-01

    Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid function as chelating agents in cosmetics. Pentasodium Pentetate is readily soluble in water, but the corresponding free acid is not. Pentasodium Pentetate is used in almost 400 cosmetic products over a wide range of product categories, although it is mostly used in hair dyes and colors at use concentrations of 0.1% to 1.0%. Pentetic Acid is used in 150 cosmetic products, mostly in hair dyes and colors. Chelating agents are used in cosmetics to remove calcium and magnesium cations, which impede foaming and cleansing performance and which can cause a haze in clear liquids. The acute oral LD(50) of Pentasodium Pentetate in rats was > 5 g/kg. The acute dermal LD(50) of Pentapotassium Pentetate using rats was reported to be > 2 g/kg. The intraperitonal LD(50) of Pentetic Acid was reported to be 585 mg/kg. Short-term studies of the calcium and sodium salts of Pentetic Acid in male mice demonstrated no dose-related toxicity over the dose range of 10, 100, and 250 mg/kg. In a 4-week dermal toxicity study, daily topical application of 0.05% Pentasodium Pentetate to shaved and abraded rabbit skin produced moderate erythema after the first week and throughout the study, but no systemic toxicity. Pentasodium Pentetate or Pentapotassium Pentetate applied to intact albino rabbit skin were not irritating. A 40% solution of Pentapotassium Pentetate was not sensitizing in a guinea pig maximization test. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for rats given 40% Pentapotassium Pentetate by oral gavage was reported to be 83 mg/kg day(-1). Subchronic inhalation evaluation of a bath freshener containing 0.05% or 0.09% Pentasodium Pentetate using albino rats determined that there was no cumulative systemic toxicity attributable to the ingredient at either concentration. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for maternal toxicity in pregnant rats was 400 mg/kg body weight and for fetal toxicity was 100 mg/kg body weight. Another reproductive

  1. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  2. Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report

    A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water

  3. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza. PMID:27101640

  4. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  5. Specialized software utilities for gamma ray spectrometry. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1996-2000

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Software Utilities for Gamma Ray Spectrometry was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1996 for a three year period. In the CRP several basic applications of nuclear data handling were assayed which also dealt with the development of PC computer codes for various spectrometric purposes. The CRP produced several software packages: for the analysis of low level NaI spectra; user controlled analysis of gamma ray spectra from HPGe detectors; a set of routines for the definition of the detector resolution function and for the unfolding of experimental annihilation spectra; a program for the generation of gamma ray libraries for specific applications; a program to calculate true coincidence corrections; a program to calculate full-energy peak efficiency calibration curve for homogenous cylindrical sample geometries including self-attenuation correction; and a program for the library driven analysis of gamma ray spectra and for the quantification of radionuclide content in samples. In addition, the CRP addressed problems of the analysis of naturally occurring radioactive soil material gamma ray spectra, questions of quality assurance and quality control in gamma ray spectrometry, and verification of the expert system SHAMAN for the analysis of air filter spectra obtained within the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This TECDOC contains 10 presentations delivered at the meeting with the description of the software developed. Each of the papers has been indexed separately

  6. City of El Centro geothermal energy utility core field experiment. Final report, February 16, 1979-November 30, 1984

    Province, S.G.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1984-11-01

    The City of El Centro was awarded a contract in late 1978 to cost share the development of a low to moderate temperature geothermal resource in the City. The resource would be utilized to heat, cool and provide hot water to the nearby Community Center. In December 1981, Thermal 1 (injector) was drilled to 3970 feet. In January 1982, Thermal 2 (producer) was drilled to 8510 feet. Before testing began, fill migrated into both wells. Both wells were cleaned out. A pump was installed in the producer, but migration of fill again into the injector precluded injection of produced fluid. A short term production test was undertaken and results analyzed. Based upon the analysis, DOE decided that the well was not useful for commercial production due to a low flow rate, the potential problems of continued sanding and gasing, and the requirement to lower the pump setting depth and the associated costs of pumping. There was no commercial user found to take over the wells. Therefore, the wells were plugged and abandoned. The site was restored to its original condition.

  7. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. Final report, 1 January 1979-31 December 1979

    Reiter, E.R.; Burns, C.C.; Cochrane, H.; Johnson, G.R.; Leong, H.; McKean, J.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Starr, A.M.; Webber, J.

    1980-04-01

    An interdisciplinary approach towards a detailed assessment of energy consumption in urban space-heating and cooling is presented in terms of measurement and modeling results. Modeling efforts concentrated on the city of Minneapolis, MN, using data from the winter seasons 1977/78 and 1978/79. Further developments of a reference model also fall back on data from Cheyenne, WY, and Greeley, CO. Mean absolute daily errors of gas consumption estimated by the physical model applied to Minneapolis are 6.26% when compared to actual energy usage for the period 12/1/77 to 2/28/78. The mean daily absolute errors for the statistical reference model for the same time period were 5.54%. Modeling of the energy consumption required detailed input of meteorological parameters from a special network of stations. As a spin-off an assessment was obtained of the effects of anthropogenic heat on urban heat-island generation under various synoptic conditions. A detailed building census, comprised of 105.722 heated structures, was obtained. A field survey in Greeley indicated that investment returns from insulating houses might not be as high as hoped for; possibly a considerable amount of insulating material is applied wastefully. Misinformation seems to be the primary cause of misguided energy conservation. Progress in conservation could be achieved if utility costs were considered in mortgage-loan applications, together with principal, interests, taxes, and insurance. Detailed energy-consumption modeling would be a premise for such fiscal-management approaches. Another extensive field survey yielded data for a local input-output model applied to the city of Greeley. Economic multipliers for dollars of output, space heating, energy use, and employment were developed and used for growth projections to the year 2003 under varying scenarios.

  8. Weak acid hydrolysis of wood CTH. Final report; Svagsyrahydrolys av trae CTH. Slutrapport

    Linner, J.; Lundquist, K.; Ohlsson, Brita; Simonson, R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    1998-08-01

    Spruce wood meal was extracted with dichloromethane and used for production of holocellulose by standard delignification with sodium chlorite. The holocellulose as well as wood meal were used as substrate on hydrolysis with 0.1 or 0.5 M sulfuric acid at a substrate concentration of 5%. The hydrolysis trials were carried out in teflon containers that were rapidly heated to the reaction temperature (100 - 170 deg C) by means of microwaves. Reaction times of up to 4 hrs were used. The results showed that 80% of the polysaccharides in spruce wood meal and spruce holocellulose can be hydrolyzed to soluble products within 30 min under relatively mild conditions (160-170 deg C, 0.5 M sulfuric acid). The hydrolysates contained relatively small amounts of hydroximethylfurfural and its degradation product levulinic acid. Formed xylose was rapidly converted to furfural which in its turn was rapidly further reacted to condensation products. A maximum yield of hexose amounting to about 30 g/100 g substrate was obtained after about 15 min. This amount corresponds to about one third of the available hexoses in the holocellulose. Compared to the hemicellulose, the cellulose and especially the crystalline part is difficult to hydrolyze and the hemicellulose originating monosaccharides formed at an early stage seem to be destroyed to a large extent on prolonged hydrolysis. A two-step reaction at mild conditions should therefore be examined. Residues from the wood hydrolysis experiments were examined by IR spectroscopy. The spectra clearly showed that lignin accumulated in the residues. Several of the hydrolysis residues were dark-coloured (almost black). The strongly coloured constituents originate primarily from the carbohydrates. Dark-coloured precipitates were also obtained in hydrolysis experiments with carbohydrates. The IR spectra of these precipitates exhibited strong bands in the carbonyl region. Chloroform extracts of wood hydrolysates consisted mainly of conversion

  9. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. Final report

    In support of the Yucca Mountain subsurface microbial characterization project phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses for viable microbial biomass, community composition and nutritional status were performed. Results showed a positive correlation between a decrease in viable biomass and increase in depth with the lowest biomass values being obtained from the Topopah Spring geologic horizon. A plot of the ratio of non-viable (diglyceride fatty acids) to viable (PLFA) cells also showed the lowest values to derive from the Topopah Spring horizon. Estimations of microbial community composition, made from the patterns of PLFA recovered from the sediment samples, revealed similarities between samples collected within the same geologic horizons: Tiva Canyon, Pre-Pah Canyon and Topopah Spring. Results indicated the presence of mixed communities composed of gram positive, gram negative, actinomycete and obligate anaerobic bacteria. Culturable organisms, recovered from similar sediments, were representative of the same bacterial classifications although gram positive bacterial isolates typically outnumbered gram negative isolates. Within the gram negative bacterial community, corroborative indicators of physiological stress were apparent in the Topopah Spring horizon

  10. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  11. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    significant failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic [TRU] content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

  12. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. PMID:23455221

  13. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  14. Ecological balancing of used oil utilization methods. Final report; Oekologische Bilanzierung von Altoel-Verwertungswegen. Oekologischer Vergleich von vier wichtigen Altoelverwertungsverfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Kolshorn, K.U. [ARCADIS Trischler und Partner GmbH (AT und P), Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbach, H. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    In Germany, about 480.000 tons of used oil that are collected each year have to be disposed of and utilized. Four used oil utilization processes (re-processing to base oils; re-processing for fuels; thermal utilization in cement works; pressure gasification for the production of synthesis gas or methanol) were evaluated using an eco-balance. The balance boundary comprises on the one hand the utilization processes and their system-related side-processes (provision of energy, production of auxiliaries, waste disposal, transport) and on the other the processes that are substituted by the products recovered from the utilization processes. The impact assessment covers the indicator list of DIN/NAGUS. Furthermore, the accumulation of pollutants in the products is discussed. On the impact assessment level, no clear ranking of options can be derived since each option has its advantages resp. disadvantages in relation to the other. The reduced impacts of the substituted processes are decisive for the ranking of the option. The final ranking of the options is carried out by the Umweltbundesamt (UBA) based on the interpretation logic of the UBA evaluation method for eco-balances. The present study concludes with the processing and preparation of the balance results for such an interpretation (especially the standardization of the results of the impact assessment based on the total impact assessment based on the total impact in Germany). (orig.) [German] In Deutschland sind jaehrlich ca. 480.000 t Altoel, die im Rahmen der gesetzlich geregelten Altoelsammlung anfallen, zu entsorgen und zu verwerten. Vier Verwertungsverfahren fuer Altoel (Aufarbeitung zu Grundoelen; Aufarbeitung zu Brennstoffen; thermische Nutzung in Zementwerken; Druckvergasung zur Herstellung von Synthesegas bzw. Methanol) wurden anhand einer Oekobilanz bewertet. Der Bilanzraum umfasst einerseits die jeweiligen Verwertungsprozesse incl. der systembedingten Nebenprozesse (Energiebereitstellung

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium That Utilizes Xylose and Produces High Levels of l-Lactic Acid

    Kato, Hiroaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Machii, Miki; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Hattori, Masahira; Sonomoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1 (= JCM7638). It is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, produces nisin Z, ferments xylose, and produces predominantly l-lactic acid at high xylose concentrations. From ortholog analysis with other five L. lactis strains, IO-1 was identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis.

  16. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  17. The use of formaldehyde protected palm kernel meal and its effects on animal performance, nitrogen utilization and unsaturated fatty acid composition in Priangan sheep

    K.G Wiryawan; A. Parakkasi; R. Priyanto; I.P Nanda

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of formaldehyde-treated Palm Kernel Cake (BIS) in male Priangan sheep diet and its effect on animal performance, N utilization, and unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal. The experiment was designed based on completly randomized design with four treatments and nine replications. The treatments consisted of four levels of formaldehyde treated BIS: R1 (0%), R2 (15%), R3 (30%) and R4 (45%). Results indicated that f...

  18. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Richter, E A;

    2001-01-01

    % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected.......E.M.) than in those consuming the carbohydrate-rich diet (0.93 +/- 0.02). The leg fatty acid (FA) uptake (183 +/- 37 vs. 105 +/- 28 micromol min(-1)) and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TG) uptake (132 +/- 26 vs. 16 +/- 21 micromol min(-1)) were both higher (each P <0.05) in the subjects...... consuming the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1...

  19. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth.

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution. PMID:22101049

  20. l-Lactic acid production by combined utilization of agricultural bioresources as renewable and economical substrates through batch and repeated-batch fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1.

    Reddy, Lebaka Veeranjaneya; Kim, Young-Min; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Wee, Young-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 was used to produce l-lactic acid from hydrol, soybean curd residues (SCR), and malt. Hydrol was efficiently metabolized to l-lactic acid with optical purity of >97.5%, though hydrol contained mixed sugars such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltodextrin. Combined utilization of hydrol, SCR, and malt was enough to sustain lactic acid fermentation by E. faecalis RKY1. In order to reduce the amount of nitrogen sources and product inhibition, cell-recycle repeated-batch fermentation was employed, where a high cell mass (26.3g/L) was obtained. Lactic acid productivity was improved by removal of lactic acid from fermentation broth by membrane filtration and by linearly increased cell density. When the total of 10 repeated-batch fermentations were carried out using 100g/L hydrol, 150g/L SCR hydrolyzate, and 20g/L malt hydrolyzate as the main nutrients, lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 3.20g/L/h to 6.37g/L/h. PMID:26970921

  1. A novel automated device for rapid nucleic acid extraction utilizing a zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads.

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-02-01

    We report a novel automated device for nucleic acid extraction, which consists of a mechanical control system and a disposable cassette. The cassette is composed of a bottle, a capillary tube, and a chamber. After sample injection in the bottle, the sample is lysed, and nucleic acids are adsorbed on the surface of magnetic silica beads. These magnetic beads are transported and are vibrated through the washing reagents in the capillary tube under the control of the mechanical control system, and thus, the nucleic acid is purified without centrifugation. The purified nucleic acid is automatically extracted in 3 min for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleic acid extraction is dependent on the transport speed and the vibration frequency of the magnetic beads, and optimizing these two parameters provided better PCR efficiency than the conventional manual procedure. There was no difference between the detection limits of our novel device and that of the conventional manual procedure. We have already developed the droplet-PCR machine, which can amplify and detect specific nucleic acids rapidly and automatically. Connecting the droplet-PCR machine to our novel automated extraction device enables PCR analysis within 15 min, and this system can be made available as a point-of-care testing in clinics as well as general hospitals. PMID:26772121

  2. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program:  Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns.  DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk.  DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships

  3. Obeticholic acid for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis in adult patients: clinical utility and patient selection

    Bowlus CL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Bowlus Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC, previously known as primary biliary “cirrhosis”, is a rare autoimmune liver disease characterized by the hallmark autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens and immune-mediated destruction of small bile duct epithelial cells leading to cholestasis and cirrhosis. Surprisingly, while immune modulators have not been effective in the treatment of PBC, supplementation with the hydrophilic bile acid (BA ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been demonstrated to slow the disease progression. However, a significant minority of PBC patients do not have a complete response to UDCA and remain at risk of continued disease progression. Although the mechanisms of action are not well understood, UDCA provided proof of concept for BA therapy in PBC. Obeticholic acid (OCA, a novel derivative of the human BA chenodeoxycholic acid, is a potent agonist of the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor, which regulates BA synthesis and transport. A series of clinical trials of OCA in PBC, primarily in combination with UDCA, have established that OCA leads to significant reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase that are predicted to lead to improved clinical outcomes, while dose-dependent pruritus has been the most common adverse effect. On the basis of these studies, OCA was given conditional approval by the US Food and Drug Administration with plans to establish the long-term clinical efficacy of OCA in patients with advanced PBC. Keywords: primary biliary cholangitis, nuclear receptors, farnesoid X receptor, bile acid, obeticholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid

  4. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants

    Özgür İlke ULUSOY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and maleic acid (MA on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 6: EDTA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 7: MA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Group 8: EDTA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Another ten roots were used as negative and positive controls. The microleakage of each sample was measured at 2-min intervals for 8 min using the fluid filtration method. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, and paired-samples t tests. The minimum microleakage values were obtained from the teeth obturated with AH Plus and EndoREZ selaers (p < 0.001. The samples with Hybrid Root SEAL showed the maximum leakage (p < 0.001. There were significant differences between the groups irrigated with MA or EDTA in terms of microleakage (p < 0.05. Use of MA resulted in higher microleakage values compared with those using EDTA. The type of final irrigation solution seems to influence the postobturation apical seal. Use of AH Plus and EndoREZ sealers showed better sealing ability compared with IRoot SP and Hybrid Root SEAL.

  5. The use of formaldehyde protected palm kernel meal and its effects on animal performance, nitrogen utilization and unsaturated fatty acid composition in Priangan sheep

    K.G Wiryawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of formaldehyde-treated Palm Kernel Cake (BIS in male Priangan sheep diet and its effect on animal performance, N utilization, and unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal. The experiment was designed based on completly randomized design with four treatments and nine replications. The treatments consisted of four levels of formaldehyde treated BIS: R1 (0%, R2 (15%, R3 (30% and R4 (45%. Results indicated that formaldehyde treated BIS up to 45% in diet did not negatively affect consumption, dry matter digestibility and daily live weight gain. Formaldehyde protection especially in R4 could significantly reduce ruminal N-NH3 concentration, increased protein digestibility and nitrogen retention, but did not influence allantoin urine concentration. Unsaturated fatty acid composition of musculus longisimus dorsal was not affected by formaldehyde treated BIS in diet. It is concluded that the inclusion of 45% formaldehyde treated BIS in diet did not negatively affect animal performance, and R4 is the most effective in improving nitrogen utilization in male Priangan sheep, but unable to alter the unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal.

  6. Effects of dietary methionine on feed utilization, plasma amino acid profiles and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Rolland, Marine

    acids (EAA) compared to dietary requirements. Supplementation with amino acids in crystalline from (CAA) is a common practice to balance the dietary amino acid profile to achieve high growth performances. However, complete substitution of fish meal using plant proteins and CAAs often results in poorer...... first study are presented in Paper I and show that the protein source itself (fish meal or plant based) does not affect the plasma EAA profiles, but rather that plasma EAA levels reflect the dietary level. Supplementation with histidine, lysine and threonine in crystalline form to a plant based diet was...... described as an apparent “accumulation” in the plasma, compared to fish fed similar dietary level but in protein bound form. The study further showed that the nitrogen excretion resulting from feeding an AA deficient diet was higher than for the fish meal control diet. Supplementation of the plant meal diet...

  7. Utilization of Low-Cost Ellagitannins for Ellagic Acid Production and Antimicrobial Phenolics Enhancing By Aspergillus awamorii and Aspergillus oryzae

    Three fungal strains, Aspergillus awamorii A9, Aspergillus awamorii A23 and Aspergillus oryzae O2, were selected out of ten fungal strains for their activeness in converting pomegranate peel ellagitannins into ellagic acid. When pomegranate peel was fermented by Aspergillus awamorii A9, the highest yields of ellagic acid (7.93±0.23 mg/g solid substrate) and total soluble phenolics (14.61±0.36 mg/g solid substrate) were produced at 5 and 10 days of incubation, respectively. Also, blue berry pomace, red grape pomace, strawberry pomace were evaluated as low cost ellagitannin sources for ellagic acid and soluble phenolics production. The antimicrobial activity of soluble phenolics extracted from fermented pomegranate peel and strawberry pomace was tested against two food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). This study also revealed that 3 kGy enhanced the activity of antimicrobial phenolics

  8. Utilizing Unnatural Amino Acids to Illustrate Protein Structure-Function Relationships: An Experiment Designed for an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Maza, Johnathan C.; Villa, Jordan K.; Landino, Lisa M.; Young, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    The site-specific introduction of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in protein engineering. Moreover, the incorporation of a UAA into a protein has become feasible with the increased commercial availability of UAAs and robust expression plasmids. In addition to the ease of incorporation, the concepts utilized…

  9. Volatile fatty acids production rate and nutrient utilization on supplementation of urea-molasses-mineral lick in adult crossbred cattle

    Twelve adult crossbred rumen fistulated animals were divided into three groups and fed with different diets containing various ingredients. Total volatile fatty acids were estimated in these diets using 14C acetate in single dose isotope dilution experiment. The nutrient uptake from different diets were assessed

  10. Characterization of prominent nitrate-reducing and amino acid-utilizing bacteria from nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  11. Pearl millet utilization in ccommercial laying hen diets formulated on a total or digestible amino acid basis

    RS Filardi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01 and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg or per dozen eggs (p<0.01 compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.

  12. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste. PMID:27376833

  13. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  14. Localization of Double Bonds in Fatty Acids Utilizing Acetonitrile-Related Adducts Generated in the APCI Source

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hoskovec, Michal; Cvačka, Josef

    Elsevier. Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2011), MP245-MP245. ISSN 1044-0305. [ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics. 05.06.2011-09.06.2011, Denver] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : fatty acids * lipids * HPLC/APCI-MS/MS * GC/MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report; Analyse der Nutzungsgeschichte und der Planungs- und Beteiligungsformen der Schachtanlage Asse II. Endbericht

    Ipsen, Detlev; Kost, Susanne; Weichler, Holger

    2010-03-08

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  17. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D;

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous long-chain fatty acids are activated to coenzyme A derivatives prior to metabolic utilization. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation of these compounds prior to metabolic utilization proceeds through the fatty acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p and Faa4p. Faa1p or Faa4p are esse...

  18. A novel Zn2 Cys6 transcription factor BcGaaR regulates D-galacturonic acid utilization in Botrytis cinerea.

    Zhang, Lisha; Lubbers, Ronnie J M; Simon, Adeline; Stassen, Joost H M; Vargas Ribera, Pablo R; Viaud, Muriel; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-04-01

    D-galacturonic acid (GalA) is the most abundant monosaccharide component of pectin. Previous transcriptome analysis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea identified eight GalA-inducible genes involved in pectin decomposition, GalA transport and utilization. Co-expression of these genes indicates that a specific regulatory mechanism occurs in B. cinerea. In this study, promoter regions of these genes were analysed and eight conserved sequence motifs identified. The Bclga1 promoter, containing all these motifs, was functionally analysed and the motif designated GalA Responsive Element (GARE) was identified as the crucial cis-regulatory element in regulation of GalA utilization in B. cinerea. Yeast one-hybrid screening with the GARE motif led to identification of a novel Zn2 Cys6 transcription factor (TF), designated BcGaaR. Targeted knockout analysis revealed that BcGaaR is required for induction of GalA-inducible genes and growth of B. cinerea on GalA. A BcGaaR-GFP fusion protein was predominantly localized in nuclei in mycelium grown in GalA. Fluorescence in nuclei was much stronger in mycelium grown in GalA, as compared to fructose and glucose. This study provides the first report of a GalA-specific TF in filamentous fungi. Orthologs of BcGaaR are present in other ascomycete fungi that are able to utilize GalA, including Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei and Neurospora crassa. PMID:26691528

  19. The PPARα/γ Agonist, Tesaglitazar, Improves Insulin Mediated Switching of Tissue Glucose and Free Fatty Acid Utilization In Vivo in the Obese Zucker Rat

    Kristina Wallenius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility was assessed in male Zucker rats: lean controls, obese controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 μmol/kg/day for 3 weeks. Whole body glucose disposal rate ( and hepatic glucose output (HGO were assessed under basal fasting and hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp conditions using [3,3H]glucose. Indices of tissue specific glucose utilization ( were measured at basal, physiological, and supraphysiological levels of insulinemia using 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-3H]glucose. Finally, whole body and tissue specific FFA and glucose utilization and metabolic fate were evaluated under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions using a combination of [U-13C]glucose, 2-deoxy-D-[U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]palmitate, and [9,10-3H]-(R-bromopalmitate. Tesaglitazar improved whole body insulin action by greater suppression of HGO and stimulation of compared to obese controls. This involved increased insulin stimulation of in fat and skeletal muscle as well as increased glycogen synthesis. Tesaglitazar dramatically improved insulin mediated suppression of plasma FFA level, whole body turnover (, and muscle, liver, and fat utilization. At basal insulin levels, tesaglitazar failed to lower HGO or compared to obese controls. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that tesaglitazar has a remarkable ability to improve insulin mediated control of glucose and FFA fluxes in obese Zucker rats.

  20. Phase equilibrium in systems with ionic liquids: An example for the downstream process of the Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) process. Part I: Experimental data

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibrium for a downstream process in sustainable chemical technology. ► Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL) Process. ► SLE, LLE, and SLLE of (NaCl + water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and its ternary subsystems. ► Experimental phase equilibrium data at temperatures between 298 K and 333 K. - Abstract: Experimental results are presented for the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria occurring in the downstream process of a typical example for the Biphasic Acid Scavenging Utilizing Ionic Liquids (BASIL)-processes. In a BASIL process an organic base is used to catalyze a chemical reaction and, at the same time, to scavenge an acid that is an undesired side product of that reaction. The particular example of a BASIL process treated here is the reaction of 1-butanol and acetylchloride to butylacetate and hydrochloric acid, where the acid is scavenged by the organic base 1-methyl imidazole (1-MIM) resulting in the ionic liquid 1-methyl imidazolium chloride. The reaction results in a two-phase system as butylacetate and the ionic liquid reveal a large liquid–liquid miscibility gap. The organic base has to be recovered. This is commonly achieved by treating the ionic liquid–rich liquid phase with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (i.e., converting the ionic liquid to the organic base) and extracting the organic base by an appropriate organic solvent (e.g., 1-propanol). The work presented here deals in experimental work with the (liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid) and (solid + liquid + liquid) phase equilibria that are encountered in such extraction processes. Experimental results are reported for temperatures between about 298 K and 333 K: for the solubility of NaCl in several solvents (1-propanol, 1-MIM), (water + 1-MIM), (1-propanol + 1-MIM), (water + 1-propanol), and (water + 1-propanol + 1-MIM) and for the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium as well as for the (solid + liquid

  1. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang;

    first part, oxygen consumption was recorded continuously, while water was sampled as detailed above and analyzed for ammonium and urea content. The second part of the experiment was designed to collect blood samples. After the feeding treatment fish were held in separate containers for the above......Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... treatment) were placed in individual chambers for 48h. Blood and water samples were collected at time 0 and then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 32 and 48 hours post feeding. The protocol was repeated until 8 replicates per treatment were obtained The results were obtained through 2 separate experiments. In the...

  2. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 10. Watershed and lake processes affecting surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    The acid-base chemistry of surface waters is governed by the amount and chemistry of deposition and by the biogeochemical reactions that generate acidity or acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) along the hydrologic pathways that water follows through watersheds to streams and lakes. The amount of precipitation and it chemical loading depend on the area's climate and physiography, on it proximity to natural or industrial gaseous or particulate sources, and on local or regional air movements. Vegetation interacts with the atmosphere to enhance both wet and dry deposition of chemicals to a greater or lesser extent, depending on vegetation type. Vegetation naturally acidifies the environment in humid regions through processes of excess base cation uptake and generation of organic acids associated with many biological processes. Natural acid production and atmospheric deposition of acidic materials drive the acidification process. The lake or stream NAC represents a balance between the acidity-and ANC-generating processes that occur along different flow paths in the watershed and the relative importance of each flow path

  3. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  4. Brighter eyes: combined upper cheek and tear trough augmentation: a systematic approach utilizing two complementary hyaluronic acid fillers.

    Tung, Rebecca; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Park, Kelly; Sato, Mauricio; Dubina, Meghan; Alam, Murad

    2012-09-01

    Non-surgical rejuvenation of the periorbital-cheek complex can be effectively and safely accomplished using a combination of two hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers with distinct viscosities. We present a series of 21 patients with mild to moderate tear trough deformities who were treated with concomitant injection of two dermal fillers (Restylane® and Perlane®). Procedural technique entailed micro-depot injections of the finer viscosity HA into the sub-muscular plane along the orbital rim followed by manual massage. Secondly, injections of the thicker, more firm HA were placed in the sub-muscular and/or deep dermal spaces in the upper malar and lateral zygomatic areas and in the medial aspect of the temporal fossa. On average 0.5 mL Restylane and 0.5 mL Perlane were used per side. Statistically significant improvement in modified Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale scores was seen at 20 weeks. Overall improvement in modified Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores occurred in 20 out of 21 patients. Mean patient satisfaction scores increased by 2 grades relative to baseline. Patients' self-reported overall mean improvement was 2.23, indicating moderate (26% to 50%) to good (51% to 75%) improvement. Side effects were limited to transient bruising and swelling. No patients required dissolution of injectant with hyaluronidase. Overall, this combination filler procedure was found to produce both statistically significant and clinically apparent improvement and was associated with an extremely high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:23135653

  5. Two-stage, acetic acid-aqueous ammonia, fractionation of empty fruit bunches for increased lignocellulosic biomass utilization.

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of EFB was conducted in two consecutive steps using a batch reaction system: hemicellulose hydrolysis using acetic acid (AA; 3.0-7.0 wt.%) at 170-190°C for 10-20 min in the first stage, and lignin solubilization using ammonium hydroxide (5-20 wt.%) at 140-220°C for 5-25 min in the second stage. The two-stage process effectively fractionated empty fruit bunches (EFB) in terms of hemicellulose hydrolysis (53.6%) and lignin removal (59.5%). After the two-stage treatment, the fractionated solid contained 65.3% glucan. Among three investigated process parameters, reaction temperature and ammonia concentration had greater impact on the delignification reaction in the second stage than reaction time. The two-stage fractionation processing improved the enzymatic digestibility to 72.9% with 15 FPU of cellulase/g of glucan supplemented with 70 pNPG of β-glycosidase (Novozyme 188)/g-glucan, which was significantly enhanced from the equivalent digestibility of 28.3% for untreated EFB and 45.7% for AAH-fractionated solid. PMID:26419963

  6. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  7. The Next Generation Non-competitive Active Polyester Nanosystems for Transferrin Receptor-mediated Peroral Transport Utilizing Gambogic Acid as a Ligand.

    Saini, P; Ganugula, R; Arora, M; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The current methods for targeted drug delivery utilize ligands that must out-compete endogenous ligands in order to bind to the active site facilitating the transport. To address this limitation, we present a non-competitive active transport strategy to overcome intestinal barriers in the form of tunable nanosystems (NS) for transferrin receptor (TfR) utilizing gambogic acid (GA), a xanthanoid, as its ligand. The NS made using GA conjugated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have shown non-competitive affinity to TfR evaluated in cell/cell-free systems. The fluorescent PLGA-GA NS exhibited significant intestinal transport and altered distribution profile compared to PLGA NS in vivo. The PLGA-GA NS loaded with cyclosporine A (CsA), a model peptide, upon peroral dosing to rodents led to maximum plasma concentration of CsA at 6 h as opposed to 24 h with PLGA-NS with at least 2-fold higher levels in brain at 72 h. The proposed approach offers new prospects for peroral drug delivery and beyond. PMID:27388994

  8. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO2 take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV

  9. Factors affecting the potential of direct load control for non-generating utilities. Final report. [Distribution and wholesale power supply interaction

    None

    1979-04-01

    Several alternatives are available for achieving load management, including direct or voluntary control of customer loads, customer or utility energy storage systems for diurnal load shifting, and expanded interconnection and operation of electric power systems. All of these alternatives are available to the fully integrated (generating, transmitting and distributing) electric utility and the analysis of their effects encompasses the power supply and delivery system. However, the costs and benefits of the alternatives to the fully integrated electric utility are perhaps not so obvious. Therefore, by considering a non-generating utility, this analysis focuses upon the distribution system and wholesale power supply interaction as a step toward an analysis including the power supply and delivery system. This report develops an analysis procedure and discusses some of the relevant factors to be consdered in the application of direct load control for a non-generating utility system. The analysis concentrates on the distribution system only to determine the effect of rates and payback as a result of direct load control. Thus, the study is responsive to the specific needs of the non-generating utility. This analysis of direct load control encompasses the determination of those loads amenable to control, the selection of a suitable one-way communications system to rend control and the estimation of expected benefits and costs. The complementary functions to the application of direct load control such as automatic meter reading via the addition of a bi-directional communications system and voltage control are not included in the analysis but are detailed for future consideration.

  10. Abatement of acid mine drainage by encapsulation of acid-producing geological material. Final research report, 1 August 1990-31 October 1992

    A novel coating technology was developed to prevent pyrite oxidation and acid production in coal waste. The mechanism underlying this technology involves leaching coal waste with a coating solution composed of H2O2, KH2PO4, and sodium acetate (NaAC). During the leaching process, H2O2 oxidizes pyrite and produces Fe3+ so that iron phosphate precipitates as a coating on pyrite surfaces. The purpose of NaAC in the coating solution is to eliminate the inhibitory effect of the protons, produced during pyrite oxidation, on the precipitation of iron phosphate. In the study, it was shown that iron phosphate coatings on pyrite surfaces could be established by consuming 5% to 10% of the available pyrite, under a wide range of conditions. It was also demonstrated in the study that iron phosphate coatings on pyrite surfaces could prevent pyrite oxidation and acid production in coal waste

  11. Sugar Utilization and Acid Production by Free and Entrapped Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in a Whey Permeate Medium

    Audet, Pascal; Paquin, Celine; Lacroix, Christophe

    1989-01-01

    Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis entrapped in k-carrageenan-locust bean gum gel performed similarly to free cells in the conversion of lactose to lactic acid. Bead diameter influenced the fermentation rate. Cells entrapped in smaller beads (0.5 to 1.0 mm) showed higher release rates, higher lactose, glucose, and formic acid utilization, higher galactose accumulation, and higher lactic acid production than did cells entrapped in larger beads (1.0 to 2.0 mm). Values for smaller beads were comparable with those for free cells. Immobilization affected the fermentation rate of lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Entrapped cells of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus demonstrated a lower lactic acid production than did free cells in batch fermentation. The kinetics of the production of formic and pyruvic acids by L. lactis subsp. lactis and S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus are presented. PMID:16347822

  12. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants

    Özgür İlke ULUSOY; Yelda NAYIR; Kezban ÇELIK; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and maleic acid (MA) on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/...

  13. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  14. Generic data base for security equipment and its utility in the safeguards inspection process. Final report 8151-79-FR-16

    This report contains material presented at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conference of regional inspectors in Atlanta, Georgia, on January 17, 1979. It describes the contents of the generic data base for security equipment, which was developed by SRI for NRC under a Sandia Laboratories' subcontract, and examines its potential utility in the process of inspection of NRC-licensed facilities

  15. The Ability of Color-Vision Defective and Color-Normal Early Elementary and Junior High Students to Utilize Color. Final Report.

    Cook, Ann C. N.; Hannaford, Alonzo E.

    The investigation was undertaken to obtain data on the number of kindergarten, second, and seventh grade Ss classified as having color vision defects by the American Optical-Hardy, Rand, Rittler Test (AO-HRR) and two tests by S. Ishihara. Also studied was the ability of color vision defective and color normal Ss to utilize color as measured by the…

  16. Investigation of carbon monoxide tolerance of platinum nanoparticles in the presence of optimum ratio of doped polyaniline with para toluene sulfonic acid and their utilization in a real passive direct methanol fuel cell

    Highlights: ► Onset potential of methanol oxidation on Pt/C-PANI-PTSA electrocatalysts is close to Pt–Ru catalyst. ► The methanol crossover in the presence of Pt/C-20%PANI-PTSA reduced by 59% compared with Pt/C (Electrochem). ► The energy efficiency of Pt/C-20%PANI-PTSA as anode is 2.18 times more than Pt/C. -- Abstract: Polyaniline fiber (PANI) was synthesized by chemical interfacial method and doped with para toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) through a sequential doping–dedoping–redoping process resulting in PANI-PTSA. The doped material was utilized to fabricate Vulcan-polyaniline composite of C-PANI-PTSA. Next, through reduction, Pt particles were deposited on to this composite to produce a Pt/C-PANI-PTSA electrocatalyst. To investigate the PANI-PTSA interaction with the carbon support as well as, to consider its effect upon the catalytic activity of Pt/C-PANI-PTSA, electrocatalysts with different ratios of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% were synthesized and their activity was compared with the Pt/C (Electrochem). Results revealed that, the peak current density in methanol electro-oxidation, electrochemical surface area, methanol diffusion coefficient, charge transfer resistance as well as; the stability of the Pt/C-20%PANI-PTSA electrocatalyst were all markedly improved for the synthesized material. Moreover, the Pt/C-20%PANI-PTSA was demonstrated to be more CO tolerant according to the CO stripping voltammetry test. Also powder XRD and TEM techniques were utilized to investigate the crystallite size and the surface morphologies of the catalysts. Finally, the performance of Pt/C-20%PANI-PTSA was compared with Pt/C (Electrochem) in a passive direct methanol fuel cell and the effect of PANI-PTSA on methanol crossover and fuel utilization was analyzed. Ultimately, the Pt/C-20%PANI-PTSA modified catalyst was shown to be more suitable for applying in the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) compared with the commercial Pt/C material

  17. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 2, Product development of magnesium hydroxide, Phase 1

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  18. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 3, Product development of gypsum, Phase 1

    Smith, Kevin [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beeghly, Joel H. [Dravo Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in Figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compunction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  19. Examination of the factors and issues for an environmental technology utilization partnership between the private sector and the Department of Energy. Final report

    Brouse, P.

    1997-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) held a meeting on November 12, 1992 to evaluate the DOE relations with industry and university partners concerning environmental technology utilization. The goal of this meeting was to receive feedback from DOE industry and university partners for the identification of opportunities to improve the DOE cooperative work processes with the private sector. The meeting was designed to collect information and to turn that information into action to improve private sector partnerships with DOE.

  20. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  1. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Final report, February 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    None

    1979-01-01

    This is a coordinated program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomasses and will focus on the use of anaerobic microorganisms which possess cellulolytic enzyme. The studies will attempt to increase the enzyme levels through genetics, mutation and strain selection. In addition, the direct conversion from cellulosic biomasses to liquid fuel (ethanol) and/or soluble sugars by the cellulolytic, anaerobic organism is also within the scope of this program. Process and engineering scale-up, along with economic analyses, will be performed throughout the course of the program. The second area of our major effort is devoted to the production of chemical feedstocks. In particular, three fermentations have been identified for exploration. These are: acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. The main efforts in these fermentations will address means for the reduction of the cost of manufacturing for these large volume chemicals.

  2. Potential radiological impacts of recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. Final report to the Environmental Protection Agency

    A study was made to determine the radiological impacts associated with recovery of uranium from wet-process (WP) phosphoric acid in central Florida. Removal of U and other radionuclides from phosphoric acid prevents their distribution on farm lands and urban gardens and grasses via fertilizers; this results in a positive impact (decreased dose commitment) on the associated populations. This study considers the potential negative impacts of current and project recovery processes in a site-specific manner using detailed state-of-the-art methodologies. Positive impacts are treated in a generic sense using U.S. average values for important variables such as average and maximum fertilizer application rates and quantities of radionuclides in fertilizer. Three model plants to recover U from WP phosphoric acid were selected and source terms for release of radionuclides are developed for all three and for two treatment methods for airborne particulates. Costs for radwaste treatment were developed. Field measurements were conducted at the only commercial uranium recovery plant in operation. Radiological doses to the population surrounding release points during plant operation were estimated

  3. Identification of leads through in silico approaches utilizing benzylthio-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl acetic acid derivatives: A potent CRTh2 antagonist

    Babu, Sathya; Kulkarni, Seema A.; Sohn, Honglae; Madhavan, Thirumurthy

    2015-12-01

    Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Herein, we describe the pharmacophore based virtual screening combined with molecular docking and 3D-QSAR methods to identify new potent CRTh2 inhibitors. Several pharmacophore models were generated and validated by Guner-Henry scoring method. The best models were utilized as 3D Pharmacophore query to screen against ZINC database and the retrieved hits were further validated by fitness score, Lipinski's rule of five, Surflex docking and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) process. The optimum CoMFA model was developed using known inhibitors and the predictive ability of model was examined by statistical parameters like q2 = 0.552 and r2pred = 0.636. The biological activities of the screened compounds were calculated using the generated CoMFA model. Finally nine compounds were found to have good potential and high inhibitory activities and they may act as novel lead compounds for CRTh2 inhibitor designing.

  4. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  5. Final Report: Theoretical Studies on Radiation-Induced Transformations in Nucleic Acid Bases, May 1, 1993 - April 30, 1996

    Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1996-04-30

    In the proposal we identified several elemental molecular properties related to the effects observed in genetic material exposed to ionizing irradiation, and we studied them by means of the ab-initio quantum chemistry. The chemistry of irradiation is complex and biological consequences are significant. This includes cell death, mutations, carcinogenic transformations, etc. In the proposal we theoretically modeled several elemental processes related to the radiolysis of components of the nucleic acids, i.e., the pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine, uracine and thymine. Based on the state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations, we obtained information on the structural and spectroscopic properties of transition intermediate reactants.

  6. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO2 by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L-1, iron 348 mg L-1) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s-1 for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO2 and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  7. Blocking phosphatidylcholine utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, via mutagenesis of fatty acid, glycerol and choline degradation pathways, confirms the importance of this nutrient source in vivo.

    Zhenxin Sun

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow to very high-cell-density (HCD during infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF lung. Phosphatidylcholine (PC, the major component of lung surfactant, has been hypothesized to support HCD growth of P. aeruginosa in vivo. The phosphorylcholine headgroup, a glycerol molecule, and two long-chain fatty acids (FAs are released by enzymatic cleavage of PC by bacterial phospholipase C and lipases. Three different bacterial pathways, the choline, glycerol, and fatty acid degradation pathways, are then involved in the degradation of these PC components. Here, we identified five potential FA degradation (Fad related fadBA-operons (fadBA1-5, each encoding 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA thiolase. Through mutagenesis and growth analyses, we showed that three (fadBA145 of the five fadBA-operons are dominant in medium-chain and long-chain Fad. The triple fadBA145 mutant also showed reduced ability to degrade PC in vitro. We have previously shown that by partially blocking Fad, via mutagenesis of fadBA5 and fadDs, we could significantly reduce the ability of P. aeruginosa to replicate on FA and PC in vitro, as well as in the mouse lung. However, no studies have assessed the ability of mutants, defective in choline and/or glycerol degradation in conjunction with Fad, to grow on PC or in vivo. Hence, we constructed additional mutants (ΔfadBA145ΔglpD, ΔfadBA145ΔbetAB, and ΔfadBA145ΔbetABΔglpD significantly defective in the ability to degrade FA, choline, and glycerol and, therefore, PC. The analysis of these mutants in the BALB/c mouse lung infection model showed significant inability to utilize PC in vitro, resulted in decreased replication fitness and competitiveness in vivo compared to the complement strain, although there was little to no variation in typical virulence factor production (e.g., hemolysin, lipase, and protease levels. This further supports the hypothesis that lung surfactant PC serves as an

  8. Acid rain and related air-pollution research. A directory of USDA and state projects in CRIS. Final report

    The directory is a listing of the ongoing and recently completed research projects from the Current Research Information System (CRIS) database of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which deal with acid rain and the related effects of air pollutants on crops and livestock. The projects were identified in March 1986, and include research active as of October 1982. The CRIS database contains projects conducted or sponsored by the USDA, State agricultural experiment stations and land-grant institutions, State forestry schools and other cooperating State institutions. CRIS is operated by the Cooperative State Research Service, USDA. Project abstracts appear in the main entry section, which is organized into chapters based upon plant, animal and natural resource categories used for classifying projects in the CRIS database. Projects assigned more than one category are repeated in each of the applicable chapters. Additional points of access are provided by a keyword/title index, investigator index, and performing institution index

  9. Tracing the interaction of acid mine drainage with coal utilization byproducts in a grouted mine: Strontium isotope study of the inactive Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia (USA)

    In order to ameliorate acidic discharge, the inactive Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia was partially filled by injection of a grout consisting of 98% coal utilization byproducts (CUB), including fluidized bed combustion ash and fly ash, and 2% Portland cement. In this study, discharge chemistry and Sr isotope ratios were determined to identify and quantify the extent of interaction between mine waters and the CUB-cement grout. Eight sampling sites were monitored around the downdip perimeter of the mine. The major and trace element chemistry of the discharges was generally not sufficient to distinguish between discharges that interacted with grout and those that did not. Elements that showed the most separation include K and As, which were elevated in some waters that interacted with CUB-cement grout. In contrast, the Sr isotope ratios clearly distinguished discharges from grouted and non-grouted areas. Discharges that bypassed the grouted portions had 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.71510 to 0.71594, while two discharges that interacted with grout had ratios in the range of 0.71401-0.71456. The Treatment Inlet, which includes both grouted and ungrouted discharges, yielded intermediate isotopic ratios. Leaching experiments on CUB-cement grout, coal and surrounding rocks are consistent with the isotopic trends observed in the discharges. Based on these results, waters that interacted with grout received 30-40% of their Sr from the CUB-cement grout material. These results suggest that the grout material is chemically eroding at a rate of approximately 0.04% per year. This novel application of the Sr isotope system illustrates its ability to sensitively track and quantify fluid interaction with coal and CUB-based grout.

  10. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.